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confused in early boyhood's memories that I cannot definitely State that I myself took the specimen ; more likely I saw it captured in 1877 by that boy who later so generously (and ingenuously!) passed it to me in sharing the day's spoil. On the other hand I retain no recollection of taking any such Fritillary elsewhere, except around Pembroke whence the specimens were always segregated. [This very beautiful Butterfly has as good a right to figure in the British List as many casual-immigrant Moths that rest upon Single examples. T h e locality, a wood of some 360 acres, has been little worked since Wratislaw's time, nigh sixty years ago ; its higher half lies on glacial gravel and is fairly light land, but the lower is boulder clay of the heaviest consistency, very marshy, fßll of alders and water-avens, at one of the River Gipping's sources. A. Niobe used to be considered British by Stewart, etc., and is described as such by Stephens in 1827. However, very few insects were labelled in those early days ; and his lack of definite data rendered the example taken by Dr. Abbot of Bedford about 1799 discredited as indigenous. Meyrick refers later records to mere forms of A. Adippe, L.—Ed.]





of Ipswich Museum.

THE purpose of this Article is to enumerate the extinct, unnoticed, new or increasing Plants of general associations occurfing in Suffolk. Several volumes of our Transactions could be occupied by a description of the limits of each species mentioned in the lists, but such would be the scope of a new Flora: so here only brief notes on its Vegetation can be attempted. Hind's ' Flora ' of the County, published six-and-forty years ago, included all localities instanced in the 1860 ' Catalogue' of HenslowSkepper and also gave additional and earlier records, new species, etc. But, by the time the Flora was compiled, many of the old habitats had long become ' tarne,' the combination of old with new records failed to plainly show both the extent of the remaining original flora of the County and the gradual waning of certain species. Moreover, several areas where rough uncultivated country always existed had not yet been explored, such as the Butley-Chillesford parishes.



T h e oldest Plants found in the County are those that have survived through all the changes from an arctic to a temperate climate. Species comprising this element are, as would be expected, all northern types that still persist rarely on wet heaths. Many kinds, now probably extinct, covered the Chalky Boulderclay before our climate became sufficiently warm for the growth of trees and invasion of southern Continental types. Down to early historic times dense woodland covered the Boulder-clay and London-clay areas ; but the heaths, brecks and some of the valley-slopes have always been open or park-like country : then the river-valleys and undrained forest-hollows were very swampy and, in the north-west, open fenland but slowly formed Over chalky and sandy estuaries. Many now local or rare Plants continued more or less commonly down to early in the nineteenth Century ; but new localities cannot prove any one of them to be increasing its ränge. In the following lists, species have been placed under their natural associations, regardless of forced or natural distribution elsewhere : e.g. a lingering woodland flora exists beside ditches and roads, hedges and in pastures, which indicates the extent of such former woods as Hitcham and Outwood in Bricet, now traceable only by association with irrigation dykes. Numjrals are employed to indicate flora of each association, t h u s : — i. Native or denizen, probably now extinct in the County. ii. Rare natives or denizens of which little or nothing has been seen of late, though possibly not extinct. iii. New unrecorded species or hybrids, many must have always existed here : also a few, refound after long lapse. iv. Species, subspecies and hybrids, which should be recognised in our County : a succinct guide to unexplored Suffolk Botany. v. Noteworthy increasing species. Inclusion of all casuals, aliens and naturalised escapes would unduly lengthen the list; it is desirable that the more important native or long-established kinds should be accorded first attention. Some, supposed by me to be extinct, possibly are still known to local observers to whom I should be grateful for information. Rank, as species or variety or hybrid, and its nomenclature are in accordance with my own views, based upon personal Observation, etc. ; but, in cases where it has been definitely agreed that early Floras employ incorrect generic, specific names or authorities, I have given way despite my dislike of change.— Any species, etc., not so named in old Floras can be traced in the London Catalogue of British Plants' latest edition, and G. C. Drucc's revision of Hayward's Botanist's Pocket-Book.





Aquatics : Fresh-water.—Many Plants that formerly existed in the fen pools or lakes have been driven to ditches on the habitat's drainage. Flora of farm and surface ponds on Boulder-clay is practically identical with that of old forest-basins. i. Pilularia globulifera, L. ; Chara contraria, Kütz. ; Tolypella intricata, Leonh.; T . glomerata, Leonh. ii. Limosella aquatica, L. ; Utricularia neglecta, Lehm. ; Littorella lacustris, L . ; Callitriche obtusangula, Le Gal. ; Actinocarpus Damasonium, Br. ; Potamogeton angustifolius, Presl. ; P. praelongus, Wulf. ; P. Friesii> R u p r . ; Scirpus fluitans, L. ; Nitella translucens, Agardh. ; N. opaca, Agardh. iii. Ranunculus Lenormandi, Schultz, which is rare: at Butley on alkaline mud of a shallow pool with R. hederaceus, L. and a possible hybrid R. Lenormandi x peltatus, NEW to the County. iv. Hybrid Water-crowfoots, Nasturtiums and Pondweeds, Azolla filiculoides, Lam. v. Elodea Canadensis, Mich, an alien. Marsh, Bog and Fen.—Our Fens, formerly extensive in the north-west, were drained early in the nineteenth Century. Certain Plants can exist only under particular conditions such as they obtain solely in Fens, never in marshes or swamps : such are constant moisture without Stagnation and very little competition. If the deposit of areas in which rarities occur be examined, it will prove precipitated chalk, sand, peat and iron oxide. Bee Orchids and other calcicoles are common on drained Fen that has stood idle. Every effort is necessary to protect certain small remaining Fen-lands from future drainage : their original flora is the botanist's paradise. i. (Enanthe silaifolia, Bieb.; CE. crocata, L . ; Senecio palustris, H o o k ; Oxycoccus 4-petala, G i l . ; Mentha rubra, Sm. ; Scutellaria minor, Huds. ; Teucrium Scordium, L. ; Rumex crispus X obtusifolius = acutus, L . ; Carex limosa, L. ; C. filiformis, L., of Hind = lasiocarpa, Ehrh. ; Alopecurus fulvus, Sm. ii. Barbarea stricta, Andr. ; Cicuta virosa, L. ; Senecio paludosus, L. ; Sonchus palustris, L. ; Myosotis repens, D o n . ; Mentha viridus, L. ; (hybrid) M. pubescens, Willd.; Rumex palustris, Sm.; Polygonum minus, Huds. ; Myrica Gale, L. ; Malaxis paludosa, Sw. ; Rhynchospora alba, Vahl. ; Eleocharis acicularis, B r . ; Eriophorum latifolium, H o p p e ; Carex paradoxa, Willd. iii. Drosera Anglica X rotundifolia (needs confirmation); several new hybrids of Willow-herbs, Thistles and Mints have been roughly determined, but await further security examination. Mimulus luteus, L., at Capel St. Andrew, etc. ; Mentha alopecuroides, Hall., still grows in Hind's sole locality between Bures and Sudbury ; (Orchis elodes, Gris., is common in heathy bogs, but not recognised as




a distinct species in Hind's time).* These hybrids have been noticed in most localities where any one or other of the plants occurs : all are NEW records for Suffolk :—Orchis elodes, Gris. X (1) Fuchsii, (2) latifolia, (3) prsetermissa. O. incarnata, L. X (1) latifolia, (2) prsetermissa. O. latifolia, L. x praetermissa. O. Fuchsii, Druce X (1) incarnata, (2) latifolia, (3) praetermissa: many curious hybrids have also been noticed, but do not lend themselves to accurate determination. Typha latifolia x angustifolia : NEW record, Brantham, Trimley, etc. iv. Hybrid Willow-herbs, Mints, etc. v. Montia fontana, L. (spread to gardens). Heaths, Brecks and Natural Pastures.—The Brecks and their ancient maritime flora are well known. Many of the following kinds occur also on gravelly heaths of the coast. A chalk-flora of the former open scrub is preserved upon pastures that border the Breck-sands, and early earth-works as those of Newmarket, Icklingham, Cavenham, and, just in Norfolk, Garboldisham which have never been ploughed. Such chalk-flora may be also noted in small areas on valley-sides of the Gipping, Stour and Brett rivers, wherever cretaceous strata outcrop. i. Thalictrum majus, Crantz ; Viola lutea, Huds., probably incorrect in Hind and actually V. Lloydii Jord. frequent on heaths ; Genista pilosa, L . ; Pulicaria vulgaris, Gasrtn.; Filago Gallica, L . ; Gnaphalium luteo-album, L . ; Antennaria dioica, Gaert. ; Senecio campestris, D C . ; Hypochseris maculata, L. ; Crepis foetiaa, L. ; C. biennis, L. ; Gentiana Pneumonanthe, L. ; Orobanche caryophvllacea, S m . ; Thesium humifusum, D C . ; Ophrys arachnites, Lam. ; Herminium monorchis, Br.; Brachypodium pinnatum, Beauv.; Lycopodium clavatum, L. and L. inundatum, L . ; the past three years of drought must have certainly exterminated the ClubMosses. ii. Thalictrum minus, L. ; Anemone pulsatilla, L., which the recent transference of old earthworks at Newmarket to more racing tracks appears to have left to survive in Cambs ?; Dianthus deltoides, L. ; Geranium pratense, L., now extinct as native ?; Ulex Gallii, Planch. ; Potentilla verna, L . ; Herniaria glabra, L . ; Gnaphalium sylvaticum, L . ; Artemisia campestris, L . ; Campanula g'.omerata, L . ; C. latifolia, L . ; Gentiana campestris, L. ; Verbascum Lychnitis, L . ; V. pulverulentum, Vill.; Centunculus minimus, L . ; Orchis ustulata, L. ; Ophrys aranifera, Huds.; Anthoxanthum aristatum, Boiss., which is a denizen ; Phleum phleoides, Simonh. ; Bromus Madritensis, L. iii. Mcenchia erecta, Gaertn., for which Blaxhall Common is the *Orchis maculata of Linnasus was not recognised as two distinct species by botanists in Hind's time, r.amely Orchis elodes, Gris. ( = ericetorum, Linton), which is common on heathy bogs, and Orchis Fuchsii, Druce, common in woods and pastures on alkaline soils. Orchis prsetermissa, Druce, was not distinguishcd from O. iatifolia, and O. incarnata, Linn.




only locality I know ; Anacamptis pyramidalis, Rieh., at Needham and Wattisham with white flowers, and Gymnadenia conopsea, Br., at Redgrave also white-flowered : Hind's distribution of the last is totally erroneous, for in Suffolk I find it restricted to the fen-heaths; Medicago sylvestris X sativa ?, at Sudborne, Felixstow, etc.: a hybrid that is NOT in the lates t London Catalogue. iv. Species and hybrid Violas; Potentilla erecta X both procumbens and reptans ; species, subspecies and hybrids of the Euphrasia genus, as modern floras now describe it. v. Teesdalia nudicaulis, Br.; Sagina eiliata, F r . ; Medicago sylvestris, Fr. and sativa, L., i.e. Lucerne; Himantoglossum hircinum, Sprgl. Woodlands.—The earliest Ordnance Survey maps of Suffolk, of 1838, well illustrate how rapidly all primasval Forest became converted into more profitable Arable or Pasture. Many Woods of the central Boulder-clay plateau are actually mere remnants of broad ancient Forests; and the primitive Wood-floor association of those in the west are exceedingly interesting, especially when compared with adjacent ones that are known to have been planted, and with others of varying growth springing up upon forgotten fields. Unfortunately for lovers of sylvan pageantry and past memory, the recent felling of every considerable tree in many primitive woods has allowed dense undergrowth to smother the weaker and more natural herbs of the floor : nor is any attempt being yet made to replant these splendid Oak-woods: such authorities as we possess are incapable of appreciating how small a time and outlay are needed to allow Oaks to grow during these wasted years of mere argument. i. Pyrola rotundifolia, L. ; Monotropa Hypopitys, L . ; Daphne megereum, L., now extinet as native; Asarum europseum, L . ; Melica nutans, L . ; Lastrea oreopteris, Presl.; L. aemulas, Brack, which was probably misidentified by Hind. ii. Aquilegia vulgaris, L. ; Lathyrus sylvestris, L . ; Sorbus torminalis, Crtz.; Viburnum Lantana, L., if ever it were native; Serratula tinetoria, L . ; Scrophularia alata, Gilib. ; Melampyrum sylvaticum, L. ; Scirpus sylvaticus, L . ; Equisetum sylvaticum, L. iii. Viola odorata X hirta, at Blakenham Parva, etc. ; Alchemilla vulgaris, L., still with no further localities and known only at Cockfield (Burn & Simpson, 1932); Hieracium vulgatum, Fr., at only Wherstead ; Primula vulgaris x veris, frequent but not properly mentioned by Hind ; P. elatior x veris, rare and a NEW hybrid ; innumerable forms of hybrids of P. elatior X vulgaris, and tertiary hybrids, etc., occur in every parish where both kinds of plants are found, not in Hind ; Carex contigua, Hoppe X (1) remota, (2) vulpina, (3) divulsa; and C. remota, L. X divulsa: all NEW records. Other hybrids probably will be identified. Additional sites are known for Carex strigosa, Huds., which is new to Vice-county 25. Carex



helodes, Link., is NEW to Suffolk : Rickinghall Inferior in April 1935 by Simpson and near Lowestoft in 1934 by E. R. Long. Goodyera repens, Br., NEW to Suffolk at Stuston recently. Galanthus nivalis, var. Sharlocki, a most interesting and quite wild variety, hitherto UNRECORDED from Britain, taken at Polstead in March 1934 by Simpson and Burn. Luzula sylvatica, Gaud., although doubted for Suffolk in Hind and the Victoria History, does grow wild in this county and was recognised at Shelland in April 1933. iv. Species and hybrids of Brambles, Roses and Willows. v. Epilobium angustifolium, L . ; Carex sylvatica, Huds.; Deschampsia casspitosa, Beauv. Maritime.—The past decade of coast-wise bungaloid growth promises yet fuller development, to all true Naturalists' terror; and, crowning act of atrocity, " bombing " monopolises Britain's broadest shingle-beach at Orford : English-folk may well term England ' home,' for it will soon be nothing broader. i. Raphanus maritimus, Sm. ; Trifolium squamosum, L . ; Diotis maritima, Cuss. ; Centaurea calcitrapa, L. ; Lactuca saligna, L . ; Centaurium pulchellum, Druce ; Chenopodium botryoides, S m . ; Polygonum Raii, Bab. ; Juncus acutus, L . ; Scirpus filiformis, Savi. ; S. rufus, Schrad.; Alopecurus bulbosus, Gouan. ii. Inula crithmoides, L. ; Corynephorus canescens, Beauv.; Glyceria Borreri, Bab.; Festuca uniglumis, Sol. iii. Limonium vulgare x humile at Orford, NEW to Suffolk 1935 ; Crambe maritima, L . ; at Hollesley and Bawdsey; Crithmum maritimum, L., at Hollesley and Felixstow. iv. New species of Salicornia in modern floras. v. Lepidium latifolium, L., which is probably a denizen, is increasing around Ipswich and Felixstow; Spartina alterniflora X stricta= S. Townsendii, Graves, is now found on mud of the Orwell estuary at Felixstow. Unnatural Associations.—Practically the entire County was formerly covered by the above associations, hence all others that exist today were introduced by man's disturbance. Many British natives, hitherto recorded from Suffolk, are really alien to our County; and innumerable foreigners have obtained a temporary or permanent footing in our suitable habitats ; while the casuals and aliens are too many and widely separated for inclusion below, nor are they yet sufficiently listed. It is quite likely that, in the course of several generations, our County flora will consist mainly of aliens and weeds, unless man take measures to rectify his own mechanical, architectural and agricultural methods, particularly in respect to campers and retired tradesfolk of purely urban mind. i. Papaver Lecoqii, Lam.; Fumaria densiflora, D C . ; F. Vaillantii, Lois. ; Alyssum mariti-


15 mum, L. ; Isatis tinctoria, L. ; Dianthus plumarius, L. ; D. caryophyllus, L.; Eryngium campestre, L.; Cotyledon umbilicus, L.; Campanula Rapunculus, L. ; Polemonium caeruleum, L. ; Cuscuta Epilinum, Mutr. ; Asperugo procumbens, L. ; Verbascum Blattaria, L. ; Melampyrum arvense. L.; Galeopsis dubia, Leers ; Euphorbia platyphyllos, L. ; Urtica pilulifera, L. ; Leucojum ffistivum, L.; Allium oleraceum, L. ; Cystopteris fragilis, Bernh., the occurrence of which in Suffolk I greatly doubt, for e v e n the first fronds of young male ferns can easily be mistaken for it. ii. Anemone ranunculoides, L. ; Adonis autumnalis, L. ; Delphmium Ajacis, Gay; Aconitum Napellus, L. ; Corydalis bulbosa, DC. ; Dianthus Armeria, L. ; Silene nutans, " L.; Linum angustifolium, Huds. ; Lathyrus tuberosus, L. ; Carum Carui, L. ; Bupleurum rotundifolium, L. ; Caucalis daucoides, L.; C. latifolia, L. ; Galium anglicum, Huds. ; Lactuca scariola, L.; L. muralis, DC. ; Orobanche casrulea, Vill.; Verbascum virgatum, Stokes; V. Lychnites x Thapsus, and X nigrum; Mentha gentilis, L.; Leonurus Cardisia, L. ; Panicum sanguinale, L. and lineare, Krock. ; Ceterach officinarum, Willd. iii. Aliens are too numerous to detail : Potentilla Norvegica, L. and Hyoscyamus albus, L., are two recent discoveries at Ipswich ; several new onss at Landguard await determination. Hieracium maculatum, Sm., on a wall at Ballingdon in Sudbury (Burn and Simpson, 1933); Atropa belladonna, L., in several new localities ; Galeopsis speciosa, Mill., at Beck Row in 1931 ; Salvia pratensis, L., at Kesgrave in 1934 (Esam). iv. Papaver Rhaeas x dubium ; subspecies of Fumaria. v. Lepidium Draba, L.; Claytonia perfoliata, Donn, now found growing beside many breckland roads ; Fragaria ?Chilasnsis, Buch ; Crepis taraxacifolia, Thuil ; Matricaria suaveolens, Buch (discoidea, DC.), the Rayless or Shameless ' Camomile that has spread to every corner ; Senecio squalidus, L.; Linaria cymbalaria, Mill.; Veronica persica, Poir ; Salvia verticillata, L. ; Mercurialis annua, L. ; Cynosurus echinatus, L., at Landguard ; Gastridium lendigerum, Gaud, at Polstead and Landguard Common. In conclusion it should be noted that about 1285 species (as London Catalogue) are recorded from Suffolk, including aliens, and 2,362 are enumerated in the 1 Ith ed. of the London Catalogue! whereof some 54 per centum are Suffolcian. Fifty-two kinds are hsted as extinct in the natural associations, andfifty-nineare missing. Twenty-one and twenty-three are mentioned respectively for these two groups of the unnatural associations. buch give totals of 101 and 44, so the grand total of 155 shows that 12 per centum are extin:t or missing in our Suffolk Flora.

Missing, Doubtful, New or Otherwise Interesting Flora of the County  
Missing, Doubtful, New or Otherwise Interesting Flora of the County