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THE STATUS OF S O M E AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES IN SUFFOLK Cladocera — water fieas Ephemeroptera — mayflies Hemiptera Heteroptera — water bugs Hirudinea — leeches A. K. CHALKLEY Since becoming recorder for aquatic invertebrates a little Over a year ago I have been trying to assess past records as well as to make new ones. Having looked through the past issues of the Transactions it was immediately apparent that these groups had not been dealt with in any depth for almost half a Century. As well as redressing the balance a little in their favour I hope that this article, and perhaps others in the future, will serve as a base line from which future survey work in the county may proceed. At this stage I am not trying to be definitive as too many of Suffolk's rivers and ponds remain unsurveyed. although it is to be hoped that one day enough data will be available for a more exact account to be published. Nor, with the limited number of records available for each group, am I yet attempting to publish distribution maps. Instead I will take certain groups where sufficient recording has been done and combine the archive records, from the museum record card system and from the Transactions, with records made mostly in the last five years, but occasionally up to ten years ago. This will serve as a preliminary list for the county which I am sure will be added to in the years to come. Many of the species named in the early editions of the Transactions have gone through revisions and name changes; I have therefore updated the early records to give the correct modern species names and groupings, though for one or two species in the Transactions I can still find no synonyms. These unlisted species are not included. In explanation of the lists I have made notes where applicable as to the proportion of species recorded thus far, added common names to the families where possible and made a few general comments. For the Hirudinea, which are I feel less well known, I have given a brief description of each family's characteristics. Some data has been coded to avoid repetition since many records share the same site and date details. After each species name is a list of numbers referring to Archive records e.g. (A. 23. 35) and another referring to Modern records e.g. (M. 5, 14d). The numbers refer the reader to the lists of sites at the end of this paper whilst letters a, b etc. refer to different dates for the same site.

CLADOCERA The Cladocera or water fleas are well known to many people and popularly are called Daphnia. However the Daphnia are only one family of these fascinating creatures which number approximately 103 species in Britain, including varieties and different forms, and may be found in most permanent water bodies. The term Cladocera is useful in describing crustaceans of similar appearance though in fact they have now been split into four distinct Orders, Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 30 (1994)



Anomopoda, Ctenopoda, Onychopoda and Haplopoda (Fryer, 1987). Only the first t w o Orders are r e p r e s e n t e d in t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y c o u n t y list.

Although some may reach a size of almost 4 mm, many Cladocera are less than 1 mm across and identification is only possible with a good microscope. DĂźring collecting expeditions I have frequently met pond owners who are amazed at the population density of Cladocerans when I pull out a net fĂźll for them to see, indeed during suitable conditions they can form almost a soup like consistency in the water and their importance in freshwater food chains more than justifies the time spent in recording. They are unfortunately an excellent source of food for aquarium fish and whilst some shops are supplied with purpose bred 'Daphnia' others do, I know, buy from suppliers who net them from natural ponds. It is therefore all the more important that we obtain some idea of the species in Suffolk and their distribution in case damage is being done to rare populations by these activities. We have records at present for 39 species, though many more are certain to be added in the next few years. There are 23 species represented by modern records and 16 that await a modern confirmation of the old ones.

Figure 1: Cladocera Bosmina longirostris specimen from site 24. Elvedell. (Size 0.4 min.)

Family B O S M I N I D A E Bosmina longirostris Muller Bosmina longirostris var. cornuta Jurine

(A. 23, 40) (M. 24b) (A. none) (M. 24c)

Family CHYDORIDAE Acroperus harpae Baird Alona affinis Leydig Alona guttata Sars Alona quadratigularis Muller Alona rectangula Sars Alona tenuicaudis Sars Alonella excisa Fischer Alonopsis ambigua Lilljeborg Chydorus sphaericus Muller

(A. (A. (A. (A. (A. (A. (A. (A. (A.

none) (M. 24c) none) (M. 15, 24c) 23b) (M. none) 23b) (M. none) 23b) (M. none) 26b) (M. none) none) (M. 24b) 26c) (M. none) 14, 23b, 35, 40) (M. 13, I4e, 17, 19a, 20,24c, 34)

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 30 (1994)


Suffolk Natural History, Vol. 30

Eurycercus lamellatus Muller Graptoleberis testudinaria Fischer Leydigia leydigi Schodler Pleuroxus aduncus Jurine Pleuroxus trigonellus Muller Rhynchotalona rostrata Koch

(A. (A. (A. (A. (A. (A.

23, 35) (M. 5, 14d) none) (M. 14d) 23b) (M. 14e) 23b, 40a) (M. none) 23c) (M. 20, 21) none) (M. 14d)

Family DAPHNIDAE Ceriodaphnia laticaudata Muller Ceriodaphnia megalops Sars Ceriodaphnia pulchella Sars Ceriodaphnia quadrangula Muller Ceriodaphnia reticulata Jurine Daphnia atkinsoni Baird Daphnia cucullata Sars Daphnia curvirostris Eylmann Daphnia hyalina Leydig Daphnia longispina Muller Daphnia magna Straus Daphnia ohtusa Kurz Daphnia pulex De Greer Moina rectirostris Leydig Scapholeberis aurita Fischer Scapholeberis mucronata Muller Scapholeberis mucronata forma cornuta Muller Simocephalus exspinosus Koch Simocephalus vetulus Muller

Figure 2: Cladocera Scapholehris mucronata hanginfÂť inverted from the surface film, where it feeds. (Size Imm.) Specimen from Utile Puddocks, site 15.

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 30 (1994)

(A. 23b) (M. none) (A. 23b) (M. 24b) (A. 23b, 40) (M. 24b) (A. 23b) (M. none) (A. 23b) (M. 19a) (A. 26a, 23b) (M. none) (A. 14, 23b) (M . none) (A. none) (M. 34) (A. 23b) (M. none) (A. 14,40a, 23b) (M. 13, 14d, 17, 22,24c) (A. 23b, 41 )(M. 17) ( A . none) (M. 14d, 17, 18, 20, 21, 29) (A. 14, 23b, 36bc, 40b) (M. 19a, 26ab, 27a, 34) (A. 26, 27) (M. none) (A. 26bc) (M. none) (A. 23b) (M. 15,24c) (A. none) (M. I4d, 24c) (A. 9, 46) (M, 13, 2 0 , 2 1 , 2 2 , 2 4 c ) (A. 23, 35, 40) (M. 13, 19b, 20, 21, 24c)



Family MACROTHRICIDAE Ilyocryptus sordidus Lieven Macrothrix laticomis Jurine

(A. 40a) (M. none) (A. 34b) (M. none)

Family SIDIDAE Diaphanosoma brachyurum Lieven

(A. 23b) (M. none)

EPHEMEROPTERA The Ephemeroptera or Mayflies are another order of aquatic invertebrate with which the general public has a passing acquaintance, at least in the sympathetic appreciation of the Short life of the adult. All the British species are herbivorous, feeding on detritus and algae. The latter food seems to be rather less nutritious to larvae as there is evidence (Elliott et. al„ 1988a) that they may complete that stage up to nine weeks later when only algae are available. When conditions are good however they can be present in very large numbers; in 1990 I did some survey work at a ford on the River Box at Boxford where Baetis rhodani was present at a density of approximately 1,000 individuals per Square metre. This underlines the importance of the mayfly as a food source for other aquatic creatures, indeed it can contribute up to 25% of the total zoobenthos production in some rivers and streams (Elliott et. al„ 1988b). Larval Ephemeroptera are also sensitive to various forms of pollution and this makes an accurate picture of the county's mayfly fauna a particularly useful goal. We have records so far for a total of 18 (or 19 — see below) species out of a total British list of 48. Of those species four have only been recorded since 1990, whilst eight others are modern records confirming those in the archives, seven species from the old records remain to be found again. It seems likely that two species, Cloeon dipterum in still waters and Baetis rhodani in rivers, are by far the most common Ephemeroptera found in the county. Family BAETIDAE Cloeon dipterum Linnaeus, 1761

(A. 1, 4, 23, 44a, 45, 47) (M. 4, 5, 12, 14d, 17, 18, 19a, 20,21,23b, 24c, 26b, 27, 40,41,42b)

Figure 3: Larva of Cloeon dipterum possibly our most common Mayfly. Specimen from Skating Pond, site 19.

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 30 (1994)


Suffolk Natural History, Vol. 30

Cloeon simile Eaton, 1870 Baetis fuscatus Linnaeus, 1761 Baelis muticus Linnaeus, 1758 Baetis rhodani Pictet, 1844

(A. (A. (A. (A.

13a) (M. 24b) 13, 51) (M. none) 4, 13, 16) (M. none) 4, 5, 12, 19, 24, 52) (M. 5, 8, 9, 10b, 11, 16, 22)

X The MuvĂ&#x;y tairae Baelis rhodani River Box al The Wash. sile 9.

is common

Baetis scambus Eaton, 1870 Centroptilum luteolum Muller, 1776 Centroptilum pennulatum Eaton, 1870

in slreams

and rivers.



(A. none) (M. 7) (A. 2, 13, 17, 22, 51) (M. 10b) (A. none) (M. 10b)

Family CAENIDAE Brachycercus harrisella Curtis, 1834 Caenis horaria Linnaeus, 1758 Caenis macrura Stephens, 1835 Caenis luctuosa Burmeister, 1839

(A. (A. (A. (A.

13d) (M. none) 23de, 31c, 39b) (M . 14e) 44a) (M . 10b, 44) none) (M. 24c)

Family E P H E M E R I D A E Ephemera vulgata Linnaeus, 1758 Ephemera danica Muller, 1764

(A. 7, 11, 12a, 13.21,28, 3 0 , 3 2 , 3 7 , 38, 44ab, 53) (M. 3 5 . 4 1 , 4 4 ) (A. 12) (M. none)

Family E P H E M E R E L L I D A E Ephemerella ignita Poda, 1761

(A. 13bc) (M. 5, 6. 10b)

Family HEPTAGENIIDAE Ecdyonurus sp.

(A. See notes below.)

Family LEPTOPHLEBIIDAE Leptophlebia marginata Linnaeus, 1761 Paraleptophlebia submarginata Stephens, 1835 Habrophlebia fusca Curtis, 1834

(A. 29) (M. none) (A. 24) (M. none) (A. none) (M . 7)

The record of Ecdyonurus sp. is an interesting one since the majority of the family Heptageniidae are noted as inhabitants of fast fiowing rivers and streams

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 30 (1994)



with stony bottoms. This is not exactly the sort of habitat we get in Suffolk and I was particularly interested in this record as I have recorded these species myself only in mountain streams. Looking closer at the record it states: "Many specimens noted re-entering the water of the Stour, 2 miles above Bures 17/9/1903" (Morley, 1930). Now within this family are 11 species, but since Morley is obviously talking about adults we can remove those species where the flight period does not extend to September (Elliott & Humpesch, 1983). This narrows it down to seven species. Looking at habitat, most of the species occur in stony streams and rivers or specifically in fast flowing rivers, and compared with the habitats I have found them in the River Stour does not seem right at all. Removing those species leaves only one candidate. which is Heptagenia sulphurea. This is a species found chiefly in the lower reaches of rivers, so perhaps the Stour fits. Morley mentions these Mayflies as re-entering the river. In Britain only Baetis spp. lay their eggs whilst actually immersed, however H. sulphurea does fly down to the water surface, releases its eggs in batches and then the spent female usually falls onto the water surface. Can this last behaviour be described as re-entering the water? This 19th species must I think remain as conjecture unless further records can be made. HEMIPTERA HETEROPTERA The aquatic water bugs are quite an easy group to work on and it is surprising that more recording has not been done in Suffolk. There are many references to them in the early editions of the Transactions but almost nothing has been published in the last 40 years. The British list contains some 63 species of bugs living their lives in or on the water. To date in Suffolk 34 species have been recorded and these represent nine of the 10 families in Britain. There are five of our archive records still awaiting modern confirmation and 14 recent additions to the list. Some notes to qualify these comments are necessary however. Sigara striata, Linnaeus, 1758; was recorded from Suffolk (Morley, 1936). However it has been shown (Savage, 1989a) that British specimens described as S. striata, prior to 1955, are almost certainly the closely related species S. dorsalis. I have therefore omitted S. striata from the list below. Similarly Microvelia reticulata has been recorded from Elveden in 1992 and M. pygmaea in 1933 from North Cove. It is probable that both species do occur but, since M. pygmaea was used as a synonym for M. reticulata at the turn of the Century, it is also possible that both refer to M. reticulata (Savage, 1989b). I am certain that Microvelia is under recorded due to its small size of 2mm, but it apparently frequents floating masses of algae (Dr. P. Kirby, pers. comm.) and is, I hope, going to be found with greater frequency in the future when the correct sampling technique is applied. Hebrus ruĂ&#x;ceps was recorded in 1942 as 'The commonest insect at Thelnetham Fen,' (Morley, 1942). This is the 'Sphagnum bug' and it will be interesting to see if it still occurs in Suffolk, given the severe decline in this type of habitat. Finaliy, concerning llyocoris cimicoides, the saucer bug. This was reported as being rare inland but very common on the coast, (Morley, 1947), also in the

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 30 (1994)


Suffolk Natural


Vol. 30

s a m e r e f e r e n c e Morley gives s o m e evidence that the first record of it in the c o u n t y w a s f r o m the River Stour at Cläre — circa 1794. A very early record indeed! Today it has been recorded f r o m the coast but is n o rarer at inland sites. It seems to o c c u r in large n u m b e r s where habitats are suitable but is intriguingly irregulär, possibly this is due to rather exact habitat requirements, (Dr. P. Kirby, pers. comm.). I suspect that it will turn out to be quite w i d e s p r e a d in the county' N e w species are still being recorded every year and I a m sure that the list b e l o w will be extended in the future. Family C O R I X I D A E (Lesser Water B o a t r m e n ) subfamily Cymatiainae Cymatia bonsdorffi Sahiber 1819 Cymatia coleoptrala Fabricus, 1776 subfamily Corixinae Callicorixa praeusta Fieber, 1848 Corixa panzeri Fieber, 1848 Corixa punctata Iiiiger, 1807 Hesperocorixa Hesperocorixa

moesta Fieber, 1848 sathbergi Fieber, 1848

Sigara concinna Fieber, 1848 Sigara distincta Fieber, 1848 Sigara dorsalis Leach, 1817 Sigara falleni Fieber, 1848 Sigara fossarum Leach, 1817 Sigara limitata Fieber, 1848 Sigara nigrolineata Fieber, 1848 Sigara stagnalis Leach, 1817 Sigara venusta Douglas & Scott, 1869 subfamily Micronectinae Micronecta poweri Douglas & Scott, 1869 Micronecta scholtzi Fieber, 1847

(A. none) (M. 14c) (A. 31b) (M. 14d, 24c) (A. none) (M. 19a, 20, 24c) (A. none) (M. 23a, 24c, 27b) (A. 39a) (M . 4, 12, 14a, 17, 19a, 2 0 , 2 1 , 2 3 b , 24c, 40) (A. 40d) (M. none) (A. 23f) (M . 12, 14b, 18, 19a, 20, 23b, 24c, 26c, 27b) (A. none) (M. 24c) (A. none) (M. 20, 21, 24c) (A. 23f) (M. 10b, 14a, 16, 19a, 21, 23b, 24c, 25, 40, 4 ] , 44) fA. 54) ( M . 4 , 5, 10b, I4d, 2 1 , 2 4 c ) (A. 36a) (M . 14d) (A. none) (M. 20) (A. 40d) (M. 24c, 26c) (A. 43) (M. 33) (A. 6) (M. none) fA. none) (M. 10b, 30) (A. none) (M. 24c)

F a m i l y G E R R I D A E (Pond Skaters) subfamily Gerrinae Gerris argentatus Schummel, 1832 Gerris lacustris Linnaeus, 1758

Gerris odontogaster

Zetterstedt, 1828

(A. 3, 40a) (M. none) (A. none) (M. 4, 5, l()b, 13, 14c, 16, 19b, 21, 22, 23b, 24c, 25, 26b, 27b, 37, 38) (A. 20, 33a, 40b) (M. 19a, 23b)

Family H Y D R O M E T R I D A E (Water Measurers) Hydrometru


Linnaeus, 1758

(A. none) (M. 9, 10b, I4e, 23b, 24c, 26b, 43)

Family H E B R I D A E ( S p h a g n u m Bug) Hebrus ruficeps Thomson, 1871

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 30


(A. 49) (M. none)



Figure 5: The surface bug Mesovelia furcata. A new record for Suffolk. Specimen from Docwra 's Ditcli, site 23.

Family MESOVELJIDAE Mesovelia furcata Mulsant & Rey, 1852

(A. none) (M. 23b)

Family NAUCORIDAE (Saucer Bug) llyocoris cimicoides Linnaeus, 1758

(A. 18. 23c, 39a. 48. 50. 51.55) (M. 19ab. 23ab, 24c. 45)

Family NEPIDAE subfamily nepinae (Water Scorpion) Nepa cinerea Linnaeus, 1758

(A. 10, 15. 31a) (M. 3, 14e, 15. 19b, 21, 23b, 24c. 45)

subfamily Ranatrinae (Water Stick Insect) Ranatra linearis Linnaeus. 1758 (A. 48) (M. 3, 19b. 24c) Family N O T O N E C T I D A E (Backswimmers or Water Boatmen) NoUmecta glauca Linnaeus, 1758

(A. 8, 25, 23f, 31b, 39a) (M. 12, 14a, 17, 19b, 21,23b, 24c, 26b. 27b) NoUmecta maculata Fabricius, 1794 (A. none) (M. 4) Notonecta marmorea viridis Delcourt, 1909 (A. none) (M. 19a) Family PLEIDAE l'lca leachi McGregor & Kirkaldy, 1899

(A. 3 l a b , 39a) (M. 19b. 21,24c)

Family VELIIDAE (Water Crickets) subfamily Microveliinae Microvelia pygmaea Dufour, 1833 Microvelia reticulata Burmeister, 1835 subfamily Veliinae Veiia caprai Tamanin, 1947

(A. 39a) (M. none) (A. none) (M. 24c) (A. 42) (M. 8, I4e)

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc.



Suffolk Natural History, Vol. 30

Figure 6: The aquatic bug Plea leachi has distinctive surface sculpturing. Scale bar = I mm. Specimen from Skating Pond, Boxford, sile 19.

Figure 7: Microvelia reticulata. A tiny bug living on the surface film of lakes and ponds. Specimen from Elveden, site 24.

HIRUDINEA T h e r e are few published records on the L e e c h e s of S u f f o l k and indeed my own records tend to be made of individuals f o u n d whilst I am searching for other groups. A m o r e systematic study of the g r o u p is really needed, though in terms of species recorded rather than t h e i r c o u n t y distribution the position is still quite e n c o u r a g i n g . T h e Hirudinea or leeches are represented in Britain by three Orders; the R h y n c h o b d e l l a e , the Gnathobdellae and the Pharyngobdellae. T h e R h y n c h o b d e l l a e , which have no j a w s but use a proboscis that is eversible and can penetrate the h o s t ' s tissues, are represented in Britain by nine species in t w o families, six of which have been recorded in the county. T h e G n a t h o b d e l l a e have the toothed j a w s most people associate with leeches, although the only species recorded in S u f f o l k cannot penetrate the flesh and usually s w a l l o w s its prey whole or devours Carrion. In Britain as a w h o l e we have only o n e family which includes j u s t two species. Pharyngobdellid leeches have neither the eversible proboscis, the j a w s or the teeth of the other two Orders, they are all carnivorous but swallow their invertebrate prey w h o l e . T h e British list contains five species in o n e family of which S u f f o l k has three that have been recorded so far. Leeches are relatively easily transported from o n e water body to a n o t h e r by the m o v e m e n t of water plants, this often gives rise to anxiety on the part of pond o w n e r s with fish to care for. Unfortunately this fear is catered f o r by the pet industry which is all too keen to seil chemical controls. It is probable that only t w o of our S u f f o l k leeches, Piscicola geomelra & Hemiclepsis marginatu, can harm fish, though a third, Haemopsis sanguisuga, may attack small or w o u n d e d o n e s (Elliott & M a n n , 1979). So merely sighting a leech in a pond is not a cause for concern in itself since most will cause no harm at all. In the last reference I can find in the Transactions to the Hirudinea six species are listed (Morley, 1936), all of these, except for Trocheta sub viridis, have been recorded recently and f o u r new species have been added to the c o u n t y list. Unfortunately, many of these early records are rather vague and are lacking in

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 30 (1994)



detail compared to the other groups dealt with in this paper. However, out of 16 species on the British list Suffolk has ten species recorded to date. It is also entirely conceivable that some of the other species may turn up. Despite being described in the literature as rare or very rare, (Elliott & Mann , 1979; Elliott & Tullett, 1982) several of these six other species are widespread in Britain and have been recorded near to our county.



The fish leech. (25mm.) Specimen from the River Stour, site 42.

Rhvnchobdellae Family P I S C I C O L I D A E Piscicola geometra Linnaeus, 1758

(A. none) (M. 42a)

Family G L O S S I P H O N I I D A E Theromyzon tessulation Muller, 1774 Hemiclepsis marginata Muller, 1774 Glossiphonia heteroclita Linnaeus, 1761

(A. none) (M. 6, 24ab) (A. 56) (M. 14, 28) (A. none) (M. 14, 24ab, 31, 32, 36, 39)

Figure 9: Theromyzon tessulatum. 25 mm. Specimen from the River Brett, site 6.

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 30



Suffolk Natural History, Vol. 30

Glossiphonia complanata Linnaeus, 1758 Helobdella stagnalis Linnaeus, 1758

(A. see note.) (M. 24b, 31, 39, 42a) (A. see note.) (M. 10, 24ac)

Gnathobdellae Family HIRUDINIDAE Haemopsis sanguisuga Linnaeus, 1758

(A. 58) (M. 31)

Pharvngobdellae Family ERPOBDELLIDAE Erpobdella lestacea Savigny, 1820 Erpobdella octoculata Linnaeus, 1758 Trocheta subviridis Dutrochet, 1817

(A. none) (M. 32, 42a) (A. see note.) (M. 1,2,4, 6, 10,14, 24ab, 25, 28,31,39, 40) (A. 57) (M. none)

Note: Glossiphonia complanata and Erpobdella octoculata are mentioned in the Transactions (Vol ii pl 73) but the record is for Strumpshaw in Norfolk in March 1933, and they are surmised in that reference as Probably widespread here'. Helobdella stagnalis is also mentioned, (Vol ii p264) but no exact location nor a date is given. THE ARCHIVE SITES Site n a m e

M a p ref.


1. A s s i n g t o n T h i c k s


( N o Date)

2. Barhani



3. Barnby 4. Bentley W o o d s




( N o Date)

5. Belstead


(No Date)

6. Bixley



7. B l a k e n h a m


(No Date)

8. Blythburgh



9. Blundeston



10. Bradwell



11. Braisworth


(No Date)

12. B r a n d e s i o n


a M a y 1943. b 12/06/1943

13. B r a n d o n


a 06/1903. b 08/1905.

14. Breydon



15. B u n g a y


(No Date)

16. Butley


( N o Date)

17. C o r t o n



18. C l ä r e


( N o Date)

19. D o d n a s h


(No Date)

20. Easton Broad



2 1 . Eriswell



22. F r e c k e n h a m



23. Fritton Lake


a 1902. b 1093. c 1930. d 0 8 / 1 9 3 4 .

24. Foxhall



25. G o r l e s t o n



c 08/1906, 3 3 1 / 0 7 / 1 9 3 0

e 08/1935, f 20/30/36

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 30 (1994)


AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES IN SUFFOLK a 1901, b 1093-1904, c 27/09/1904

26. Herringfleet


27. Hopton



28. Ipswich


( N o Date)

29. Ipswich, R. Gipping


(No Date)

30. Ixworth


31. Kessingland


(No Date) a 04/05/1931, b 01/1935, c 07/1949

32. L a v e n h a m


(No Date)

33. Letheringham


a N o Date, b M a y - N o year

34. Lound


a N o Date, b 1903

35. Lowestoft


36. M o n k S o h a m


1907 a 09/1907, b 05/1929, c 11/1932

37. Nayland


(No Date)

38. N e e d h a m Market


(No Date)

39. North C o v e


a 1933, b 26/06/1947

40. Oulton


a 04/1903, b 05/1907, c 1924-1931. d 1933

41. P l o u g h m a n s Harn



42. Redgrave Fen



43. Shingle Street


44. S h i p m e a d o w


(No Date) a 08/1935, b 26/06/1942

45. Shrubland Park


( N o Date)

46. Somerleyton


(No Date)

47. Southwold


(No Date)

48. Sudbury, a backwater of the Stour


Spring 1946

49. Thelnetham



50. Tostock Ponds



51. T u d d e n h a m Fen



52. Washbrook


(No Date)

53. W i c k h a m Market


(No D a t e )

54. Yarmouth



55. Pond between Boxted (Borford?)

and 7


56. Knettishall



57. Dallinghoo Rectory



(58. Southtown


(No Date)

Newton Green

i Notes: Site 48 was possibly at Sudbury C o m m o n Lands, where the same Water Bugs are recorded today. Site 55 was possibly3 at Siam Hall, at 5 2 / 9 3 4 0

THE MODERN SITES Unless otherwise noted after the date all records are my own. Site n a m e & location

M a p ref.


1. Beccles Marshes, Beccles



2. Black Bourn, Bardwell



3. Black Bourn, Euston Hall, Euston



4. R. Brett, Chelsworlh



5. R. Brett, Stone Street, nr. Hadleigh



6. R. Brett, Hadleigh bypass



7. R. Brett, Scripscross Bridge



8. R. Box, Boxford to Stoke Tye



9. R. Box, Boxford, T h e Wash



Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 30


Suffolk Natural History, Vol. 30


10. R. Box, Polstead, Homey Bridge U . R . Box, Thorington St. Mill 12. Boxford, Bower House Farm, pond 14. Boxford, Holbrook & Lake 15. Boxford, Little Paddocks, Cox Hill 16. Boxford, Peyton Hall 17. Boxford, Pondfields 18. Boxford, Pondfields West 19. Boxford, Skating Pond 20. Boxford, Stoney Down Grove, pond 1 21. Boxford, Stoney Down Grove, pond 2 22. Tiger Hill, Bures St. Mary 23. Docwra's Ditch, Dunwich Heath 24. Elveden, Center Parcs, various lakes 25. R. Giern, Glemsford 26. Groton Wood 27. Wolves Wood, Hadleigh 28. Holton Hall Park, pond. Haiesworth 29. Helmingham Park 30. R. Lark, West Stowe Country Park 31. Carlton Marshes, Lowestoft 32. Minsmere River 33. Shingle Street 34. Somerleyton, village pond 35. R. Stour, Nayland to Wormingford 36. R. Stour, Boxted Mill 37. R. Stour, Cläre 38. R. Stour, Dedham 40. R. Stour, Long Melford Weir 41. R. Slour, Nayland 42. R. Stour, Rodbridge Picnic Site 43. R. Stour, Stratford St Mary 44. R. Stour, Wormingford Bridge 45. Sudbury Common Land, ponds

a 11/6/89, b 31/5/92 21/3/93 30/8/93 a 24/7/89, b 8/7/90, c 23/2/91, d 7/8/92, e 14/5/93 3/9/93 52/977419 6/9/87 52/965387 52/992402 18/9/93 52/991402 18/9/93 52/982416 a 30/8/93, b 19/9/93 25/9/93 52/982413 4/8/93 52/982412 28/5/92 52/925358 a 20/8/91, b 5/9/93 62/477676 a 1/8/91 Paul Lee, b 26/8/92, c 24/10/93 52/8079 17/8/91 52/844468 a 21/4/90 Paul Lee, b 12/8/91, c 23/8/92 52/977430 a 21/4/90 Paul Lee, b 7/8/92 62/054438 11/10/92 Paul Lee 62/403781 21/4/90 62/1857 52/798712 6/8/93 29/5/92 Paul Lee 62/509922 13/8/93 62/436677 62/373437/363421 29/10/88 D. Lampard 18/10/93 62/480970 20/8/84 52/9633 21/3/93 62/013343 13/8/84 52/763443 21/3/93 62/05-3352/831464 9/8/84 2/8/89 52/960349 a 25/10/82, b 24/4/85 52/858432 20/8/84 62/042341 25/5/84 52/933329 1992/1993 Adrian Walters 52/868418

52/983378 62/011356 52/979415 52/971405

Acknowledgements I s h o u l d like t o t h a n k H o w a r d M e n d e l a n d Martin S a n f o r d f o r their a s s i s t a n c e in r e s e a r c h i n g past r e c o r d s at t h e m u s e u m . A l s o I m u s t thank Paul L e e f o r a d d i t i o n a l r e c o r d s of H i r u d i n e a and C l a d o c e r a w h i e h w e r e used in t h e a b o v e article.

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The status of some aquatic invertebrates in Suffolk  

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