ON THE STONE CURLEW OR NORFOLK PLOVER.
T h e nest is merely a scrape, lined with rabbits' buttons. I have observed pairs during the courting period, when but little excitement or display is evinced : their habit being always reserved and stately, so that it is scarcely possible to teil the sex of either bird. They appeared to have already paired unnoticed, though watched from as early as the second week in March. During courting, scrapes for nests are formed some days before the eggs, which are laid upon alternate days, have been deposited : for this in 1929 the earliest date was 1 April. Incubation begins as soon as the second egg is laid, and extends to six-and-twenty days. Both parents take part in the process : one sits on the nest, the other acts as sentinel and occasionally moves quite close to the nest but never remains there long. Usually the latter stands in a convenient shelter at some distance away ; and, if any imminent danger be apprehended, it Utters the weird and mournful waii resembling that of a human being in great pain. That the eggs never touch has often been noted : I took the accompanying photograph to show the bird's habitual stance with one foot between the eggs and not, as is that of most brooding kinds, with both wide apart over them. It has been generally thought that only one brood is reared each year ; but I was able to definitely prove that at least occasionally two broods are reared on 13 September 1932, which is the latest known date for hatching (cf. Trans, ii, p. 93). T h e chicks are at first weakly on their legs, but soon leave the nest. This year a pair, hatched out in the evening, were seen several yards away early the next day ; their habit is to shuffle along with extended wings and legs, and the head held well forward. These chicks' first food is supplied, like that of domestic fowls, from the reserve in the egg; and the young bird begins to pick for other food as soon as it is strong enough to move about. Suffolk and Norfolk brecklands have often been regarded as the chief nesting sites in Britain ; and it would be interesting if a census were obtainable of the numbers breeding within a given area. But, owing to their exceedingly elusive habit of rarely placing even two nests in juxtaposition and never forming a colony, such a task is difficult if not impossible.
FOR the sake of convenience, all the British Hemiptera are divided here into (a) the Half-wing Bugs called Heteroptera, and (b) the Whole-wing Bugs called Homoptera, and the latter into their six main families:â€”Cicadidae, Psyllidae, Coccidae, Aphididae, Thripidae and Pediculidae. All the Heteroptera and that part of the Homoptera which treats of Cicadidae and Psyllidae were
THE HEMIPTERA OF SUFFOI.K.
published in Mr. Claude Morley's " Hemiptera of Suffolk " in 1905, as far as they were then known. In these Additions the nomenclature of that book is retained ; but we hope at some future date to print the complete Catalogue of those groups, with füll localities, etc., since noted, in up-to-date Classification. No less than 29, of the total 76 present additional species to the 1905 catalogue, were then forecasted as of probable occurrence, along with seventy other likely kinds that yet await discovery in Suffolk. Coccidae are closely related to Aphididae and have been most satisfactorily elucidated by Newstead in his 1900-2 two volumed Monograph of the Coccidae of British Isles, which describes 89 species, whereof no more than 37 are found outside hothouses into which the rest have been imported on exotic plants. It is regrettable that the Aleyrodinae are omitted from this Monograph upon so numerically small a group of insects. Further reference should be made to M r . E. E. Green's Review of Indigenous Coccidae in Entom. Record 1927, and many papers in the E.M.M. Aphididae are the misnomered plant-" lice," known to everyone. Buckton's Monograph upon the subject in the Ray Society's publications has been here followed as sufficiently satisfactory, though the latest Classification is Dr. Theobald's three volumes of 1926-9 on Aphididae of Great Britain. Thripidae are usually treated as a distinct Order of Insects, the Thysanura or Thysanoptera. Convenience places them here. The British List printed in 1911 (Journ. Econ. Biol. vi, p. 1) by Dr. Bagnall, who corrected it in MS. and has examined our specimens, is here adopted. Pediculidae are similarly regarded as a distinct Order, the Anoplura. No one seems capable of surmounting the puerile dislike for " Lice," so curiously little has appeared upon this subject since 1842, when Henry Denny's Monographia Anoplurorum Britannicum was issued ; its Classification is here retained. No Suffolk insects remain in greater need of investigation. The present totals work out thus :— Suffolk Britain S 309 species Heteroptera :— 462 Homoptera :— 177 Cicadidae 289 33 Psyllidae 57 10 Coccidae 42 87 Aphididae 186 11 Thripidae 97 19 Pediculidae 217 Total British Hemiptera 1350
646 (31 Dec. 1933).
THE HEMIPTERA OF SUFFOLK.
HETEROPTERA—Bugs. Odontoscelis dorsalis, Fab.—Introduced as British from H fleet by our Member, Mr. Bedwell, at Entom. Month. Mag. 1909, p. 253. The specimens of this genus recorded from Foxhall (and others from Brandon in August 1906) belong here. Sehirus morio, Linn.—Most probably taken in Suffolk by Wilia Kirby (cf. EMM. 1908, p. 113). Found in both Tuddenham and Mildenhall during 1921 (B. S. Harwood, in lit. 30 Dec. 1921). S. luctuosus, Muls.—A few in sand at roots of Senecio ja Brandon in August 1906, and one in May 1907 ; imagines and nymphs ascociating commonly on the chalk Breck at Elveden in late June 1921. Bedwellfindsit not uncommonly at Worlington in June to Sept. 1921-32. Gnathoconus picipes, Fall.—Taken around Mildenhall in 1 (Harwood, in lit. 30 Dec. 1921). [James Edwards found it at Yarmouth.] Neottiglossa pusilla, Gmel.—Very local ; a larva on Teu scorodonia in a Covehithe lane, September 1910 (Morley); swept abundantly in woods at Barton Mills during September 1915-28 (Elliott). Asopus punctatus, Linn.—Very rare: one on heath betwe Elveden and Brandon in 1903-4 (Harwood) ; one beaten from a solitary Rose-bush in Tuddenham Fen during August 1905 (Elliott). Not since seen. Psendophlaeus Waltli, Schaef.—The second British specim was found on sand under Erodium cicutarium at Calde Hall in Fritton on 19 May 1919 (EMM. 1902, p. 80 and 1920, p. 232); another in sand-pit at Parham on 14 April 1923 (I.e. 1923, p. 138); two more are in Cambridge Museum from Mildenhall, taken by Sharp or Perkins (teste E. A. Butler) : three near the same town, at Worlington, in September 1922 by Bedwell (I.e. 1923, p. 15) complete the British eight. Alydus calcaratus, Linn.—One in garden-outhouse of Thorndo rectory, about 1912 (teste Revd. H. A. Harris). Needs confirmation, especialy upon boulder-clay. Berytus clavipes, Fab.—Swept singly from herbage, on both at Eriswell and boulder clay in Monks Soham lanes. Plociomerus fracticollis, Schil.—Not uncommonly swept Brandon Marshes during May-June 1910-11 (Elliott). Drymus Ryei, Dougl.—Blythburgh Wood on 14 September 191 Certainly a distinet species.
THE HEMIPTERA OF SUFFOLK.
Scolopostethus Thomsoni, Edw.—Not rarely beaten from ash at Monks Soham and in Shrubland Park (teste Butler). Orthostira platychila, auct.—Found at the Diastictus-place on Brandon Heath in 1913 (Harwood). Dictyonota fuliginosa, Cost.—Extremely local : beaten from old Broom bushes near Brandon water-works on 18 August 1911 ; not rare on the same bushes in August 1913 et seqq. Gerris odontigastra, Zett.—Not rarely skimming the water of dykes around Oulton Broad in May 1924-31. G. argentata, Schm.—Doubtless ubiquitous : not uncommon at Barnby in September 1911 and Oulton Broads during April 1903 (Bedwell). Myrmedobia distinguenda, Reut.—A female on Pinus in Tuddenham Fen, August 1905 ; two on Cypress in Monks Soham garden, July 1917. Megaloceraea psammicolora, Reut.—Hitherto mixed : common on coast Marram-grass at least on Lowestoft denes in August 1908. Teratocoris Saundersi, Dougl.—Common on mud at roots of Reeds in coast salt-marshes at Covehithe and Easton Broads, the Buss-creek at Southwold during July, and so far inland as Blythburgh damp wood during September. Phytocoris Reuten, Saund.—Much overlooked : sparingly beaten from Poplar at Brandon late in August. Pilophorus perplexus, Scott.—At Mildenhall in early August 1915 (Bedwell, EMM. 1924, p. 39). Systellonotiis triguttatus, Linn.—Very local: both sexes and nymphs sparingly beneath Erodium cicutarium growing in sand at Brandon during August 1906 (Chitty, Elliott, &c.) ; Palmers Heath there, in June 1914 (Nurse); Icklingham, and a dozen nymphs on sandy bank of Mildenhall breck in June 1916 (Morley) ; one specimen at Cavenham Heath in 1920 (Harwood). Orthotylus Scotti, Reut.—Found in Spiders-web on Bramble in Monks Soham graden late in August. O. ochrotriclius, Dougl—Beaten from Birch bushes in Tuddenham Fen during September 1907 ; found beneath both Ash and Lime in Monks Soham Garden during July. Psallus Falleni, Reut.—Tuddenham Fen on Salix repens in August 1906 and 1913 (Elliott). Brachyarthrum limitatum, Fieb.—The first British specimen was swept from Digitalis purpurea in Cutlers Wood at Freston on 2 July 1904 (cf. Hemip. Suff, p.x) ; the second occurred outside Suffolk in 1915 (EMM. 1915, p. 290).
THE HEMIPTERA OF SUFFOLK.
Corixa venusta, Dougl.—Four specimens, previously overlooked, occurred in a swamp at Bixley decoy on 10 March 1897. Not noted later. C. fossamm, Lch.—Doubtless ubiquitous : taken sparingly in the moat of Monks Soham House during September 1907 (Elliott). HOMOPTERA.
CICADIDAE—Froghoppers. Cixius stigmaticus, Germ.—Not mixed with other species : on birch in Tuddenham Fen, a single pair in June 1910 and others in May 1911. Liburnia Boldi, Scott.—On coast Marram-grass at Southwold, Reydon and Thorp by Aldeburgh. L. quadrimaculatus, Sign.—Both sexes sparingly swept both at Brandon staunch and in Tuddenham Fen during September 1915. L. smaragdula, Stal.—Occasionally swept by the Little Ouse at Brandon staunch in June 1908-9. L. Fiebert, Scott.—Probably not uncommon : grubbed at roots of Reeds at Brandon staunch Osier-carr in August 1911 ; several on Rushes at Potters bridge, Southwold, September 1913. L. pullula, Boh.—The first localised British specimen was swept from Carices in the Brandon marshes on the afternoon of 21 May 1911. Not since noticed. L. lugubrina, Boh.—Found rarely upon Reeds in Barnby Broad on 12 August 1908. L. discreta, Edw.—Not uncommonly swept by the Lark River at Barton Mills, &c. ; in Gisleham sand-pit during 1931. L. forcipata, Boh.—Taken in very wet places during June: Reydon alder carr in 1905, and Tuddenham Fen in 1909. L. Anbei, Perr.—Quite common on Marram-grass of Lowestoft denes in August. L. mesomela, Boh.—This beautiful insect is certainly very rare : a single male was swept from dry heath-grasses close to Staverton Thicks on 25 June 1919. Stiroma nigrilineata, Scott.—Swept from dry herbage at a sandy part of Palmers Heath in Brandon on evening of 20 June 1914, with Col. Nurse. Idiocerus varius, Fab.—Certainly rare : beaten sparingly from Sallow at Brandon on 11 August 1906. Not seen since.
THE HEMIPTERA OF SUFFOLK.
I. elegans, Flor.—As rare as the last species, on Sallow in Tuddenham Fen at the end of September 1907. Strongylocephalus agrestis, Fall.—September in marshes, apparently rare; Tuddenham Fen in 1907 and Oulton Broad in 1910. S. Megerlei, Scott.—One swept at Brandon staunch on 21 May 1911. Acocephalus aestuarinus, Edw.—Previously mixed (cf. E M M . 1908, p. 57). Abundant on brackish mud near the coast, at Walberswick in 1898, the Buss creek and elsewhere about Southwold. Platymetopius undatus, DeG.—A single specimen of this rare species occurred on Broom among Bracken below Pinus in sunshine at Brandon road Heath on the morning of 7 August 1913. I know no record further north than Piffard's from Herts. Paramesus phragtnitis, Boh.—Local, but common wherever it occurrs on Arundo phragtnitis : Judes bridge in Mildenhall. Athysanus variegatus, Kbm.—Swept from Erica tetralix in wood on Blythburgh heath during late August. Deltocephalns formosus, Boh.—The sole known British specimens are a dozen of the var. Steini, Fieb., that were taken on the fairly common crucifer, Cardamine amara, Linn., in the Brandon staunch Osier carr during 11-25 August 1906 (Chitty, Morley, Elliott: cf. E M M . 1908, p. 59). None found later. D. picturatus, Fieb.—Taken sparingly in Blythburgh Heath wood on 17 July 1912. D. socialis, Flor.—Doubtless sufficiently common in August: Tuddenham Fen, Brandon, &c. D. Theni, Edw.—Occurs in salt-marshes by the sea at Southwold in September (cf. E M M . 1915, p. 208). Allygus modestus, Fieb.—August, apparently quite rare : found singly in Tuddenham Fen during 1906, and Holywell Row in Mildenhall during 1928. Thamnotettix prasina, Fall.—Curiously Walberswick in 1928.
rarelv n o t e d :
Limotettix nigricornis, Sahl.—Common in damp meadows Sudbury during October 1915 (Harwood).
L. stactogala, Am.—Not uncommon, but of uncertain appearance, on Tamarisk in Southwold, 1905 et seqq. ; Bawdsey cliff in October 1931.
THE HEMIPTERA OF SUFFOLK.
Grypotes pinetella, Zett.—" Numerous examples near Mildenhall in August and October 1913. They appeared to be confined to patches of rough grass consisting of mixed Agrostis tenuis and Carex arenaria, common on E. Anglian heaths " (New to Britain. EMM. 1914, p. 9). Abundantly beaten, 'with nymphs and nymph-skins, from Spruce-firs at Barton Mills, and swept under Pinns sylvestris at Brandon, during September 1915 (Morley, Elliott). Barton Mills 1927, Eriswell 1928, Mildenhall 1931 (Trans, supra i, p. lxxx). Cicadula metria, Flor.—Very local: swept in Brandon staunch marshes, 1906-15. C. variata, Fall.—Beaten from bushes at Barton Mills on 20 June 1915 (Elliott). C. Fieberi, Edw.—Local and apparently rare : swept herbage, doubtless Crepis, in Foxhall marshes on 3 November 1897 ; Southwold salt-marshes on 17 September 1913 ; Staverton Thicks on 11 September 1920. Dicraneura similis, Edw.—A few taken at Tuddenham Fen late in August 1905. Kybos populi, Edw.—Found in the Mildenhall fens on Sallow at Kenny Hill during July 1920. Eupteryx Germari, Zett.—Several beaten from Spruce-firs at Walberswick on 16 September, 1910. Typhlocyba jucunda, Schsef.—Uncommon on Alder in Henstead marsh, September 1910. T. crataegi, Dougl.—Several beaten from Hawthorn at Brandon on 10 September 1915. Zygina alneti, Dahl.—Common on Alder at Monks Soham; Southwold, Foxhall and in the Reydon alder-carr during autumn. PSYLLIDAE—Plant-suckers. [Livia Crefeldensis, Mink, is the correct name (EMM. 1908, p. 85) of the species, at first mistaken by James Edwards for L. limbata, Wag., of which former the sole two British specimens were swept from Juncus in Tuddenham Fen on 19 August 1904 by Mr. Morley, when collecting there with M M . Donisthorpe and Verrall (Suff. Hemip., pp.x & 32).] Rhinocola ericae, Curt.—Found commonly under Heather on Walberswick Heath during September; doubtless local. R. Eucalypti, Mask.—First found in England, numerously on Blue-gumtree, Eucalyptus globulus, by a Felixstow nurseryman (EMM. 1922, p. 141).
THE HEMIPTERA OF SUFFOLK.
Aphalara picta, Zett.—Overlooked : common on Crepis virens, L., and taken in I Tandford meadows at I pswich on 19 June 1895. A. nebulosa, Zett.—Certainly rare here, and never seen tili several males were beaten from bushes in Raydon Wood on 19 May 1932. [We similarly beat several from Epilobium angustifolium in a wood at Market Rasen in Lines during June 1912.—Ed.] A. nervosa, Fst.—Swept from Ragwort in Monks Soham paddock in August 1907. Psylla crataegi, Sehr.—Not rare after Hibernation in Bentley Woods among Coniferae during April. P. Hartigi, Flor.—Occasionally beaten from bushes in Tuddenham Fen during June, 1909-15 (Elliott). P. hippophaes, Fst.—Very local on the coast: abundant on Hippophae rhamnoides at the denes of T h o r p by Aldeburgh in July 1914. P. phaeoptera, Low.—One-fifth of the Psyllae, occurring on the above Thorp buckthorn, pertain to this species (New to Britain at E M M . 1915, p. 286) ; considered a mere variety of the former var. Suffolciensis, Morley, at I.e. 1914; p. 206). P. betulae, Linn.—On birch in marshes : Tuddenham Fen and Blythburgh Bog, September. COCCIDAE—Scale Lice. (Füll List of British Feral Species.) DIASPINAE. Aspidiotus zonatus, Frfld. Species in unitalic print are not yet found in Suffolk. A. ostreiformis, Curt.—This is the Aspidiotus recorded from Monks Soham (Vict. Bist. 1911, p. 148). A. Britann icus, Newst. Aulacaspis rosae, Bouch. Chionaspis salicis, Linn.—On Black Poplar (cf. Newstead i, 184) in Southwold marshes, September 1933. Mytilaspis pomorum, Bouch. LECANIINAE. Lecanopsis brevicornis, Newst. L. formicarum, Newst. Friopeltis festucae, Fonsc. Signoretia Luzulae, Duf.
THE HF.MIPTERA OF SUFFOLK.
Lichtensia viburni, Sign. Pulvinaria vitis, Linn.—This is the Currant Scale of the above Victoria History : Monks Soham. Lecanium hesperidum ; Linn. L. persicae, Geof. L. ciliatum, Dougl. L. bituberculatum, TT.—This is the Monks Soham Crataegi ol Vict. Hist. L. capreae, Linn.—Adult females not infrequent on Lime twigs and branches in Monks Soham garden during May. Physokermes abietis, Geof. HEMICOCCINAE. Kermes variegatus, Gmel. K. quercus, Linn. DACTYLOPIINAE. Asterolecanium thesii, Dougl. A. variolosum, Ratz. Dactylopius Walkeri, Newst. D. Hibernicus, Newst. D. pulverarius, Newst. Pseudococcus aceris, Sign. Ripersia Tomlini, Newst. R. subterranea, Newst. R. halophila, Sign. Eriococcus insignis, Newst. E. Greeni, Newst. E. Devoniensis, Green. Apterococcus fraxini, Newst. Cryptococcus fagi, Bar.—Abundantly covering the bark of a large Beech tree in my Monks Soham garden, 1904-33, where it is devoured by a small Beetle, Enicmus minutus, L. (Entom. 1909, p. 212); also observed at Brandon in May 1930 (Morley) and Blythburgh Wood, attracting plenty of Chilocorus bipustulatus, III., in September 1933 (Doughty). ORTHEZIINAE. Orthezia cataphracta, Shaw.—This fluffy Coccid has been taken in Bentley Wood by Mr. Brockton Tomlin ; it occurs at Monks Soham : probably very general. O. urticae, Linn.—One of the beautiful males (figured in Westwood's Introd., front., as Dorthesia characias, DeG.) was Aying in the noon sun on the ry-bank in Bentley Woods on 10 May 1930 (Morley); Butley (Burn). Unknown to Newstead. Newsteadia floccosa, DeG.
THE HEMIPTERA OF SUFFOLK.
(cf. Trans. New Zeal. Inst. 1895, art. 39).
Aleyrodes proletella, Linn. (EMM. 1894, p. 4 0 ; 1895, p. 68).— On leaves of Celandine, Chelidonium majus, at Coddenham on 7 November 1894 (W. H. Bonnewell, I.e.) ; Cutlers Wood in Freston on 17 July 1904. A. brassicae, Walk. (EMM. 1894, p. 40 ; 1895, p. 68).—On leaves, of Brassica oleracea et spp., in an Ipswich garden on 14 November 1894 (Bonnewell, I.e.) ; frequently abundant in Monks Soham House garden in autumn and sumraer, e.g. 3 June 1907. A. quercus, Sign. (EMM. 1892, p. 220). A. lonicerae, Walk. (I.e. 1896, p. 31). A. ribium, Dougl. (I.e. 1888, p. 265 ; 1889, p. 256). APHIDIDAE—Plant Lice. (Füll List of British Species : sec. Buckton ; cp. Theobald 1926-9). APHIDINAE. Siphonophora rosae, L.—Found in Monks Soham garden, like all following unless localised or in roman type. 5. scabiosae, Sehr.—Abundant on Dipsacus svlvestris at Chediston in June 1921. S. cyparissiae, Koch. S. granaria, Kirby.—Only too common on both wheat and barley. S. lutea, Bck. S. menthae, Bck.—On water Mint in marshy places, August. S. chelidonii, Kalt. S. polygoni, Bck. S. alliariae, Koch. S. fragariae, Koch. S. hieracii, Kalt.—Under flower-heads of Hieracium in August. S. millefolii, Fab.—On Chrysanthemum and Achillea ; also at Brandon and Reydon. S. circumflexa, Bck. S. dirhoda, Walk. 5. pisi, Kalt.—On peas ; also found at Ipswich on Bursa in 1903. ö. pelargonii, Kit. S- scrophulariae, Bck. S. lactucae, Kalt. rubi, Kalt.—Common on leaves of Rubus fruticosus in August. urt icae, Kalt.—Often rare, on Urtica dioica in August: Henham, Southwold. S. carnosa, Bck. S. longipennis, Bck.
TUE HEMIPTERA OF SUFFOLK.
S. convolvuli, Kalt. S. avellanae, Sehr.—Rarely seen on Corylus avellanae in June. S. rosarum, Walk. S. tanaceti, Linn.—Abundant on Dentdeleon during mid-August: on Tanacetum at Southwold, Pakefield cliff and Covehithe. S. jaceae, Linn. S. absinthii, Linn. S. artemisiae, Koch.—On Artemisia maritima in Buss-creek marshes, Southwold, 1910. S. solidaginis, Fab. S. muralis, Bck. S. tanaceticola, Kalt. S. tussilaginis, Walk.—Common on Tussilago farfara in August. S. sisymbrii, Bck.—Rarely seen on hedge Mustard in early June. S. sonchi, Linn.—In profusion on Centaurea nigra, etc. ; also at Brandon, Reydon and Barnby Broad. S. cichorii, Koch.—On Chicory at Dunwich and near Easton park. S. olivata, Bck.—On Cnicus palustris everywhere: Monks Soham 1916, Frostenden 1928, Ipswich, etc. Phorodon hiimuli, Sehr.—Covering underside of Humulus lupulus leaves, Easton park. P. galeopsidis, Kalt.—Rare beneath Lamium album leaves in August. Myzus cerasi, Fab.—Not rare on cultivated Cherry in June. M. gracilis, Bck. M. persicae, Sulz. M. ribis, Linn.—Rare on Ribes rubrum in early August. Drepanosiphum acerina, Walk.—Under maple, hazel and dog leaves, August. D. platanoides, Sehr. Amphorophora ampullata, Bck. Megoura viciae, Bck.—Common on Lathyrus pratensis at Easton park and Reydon. Rhopalosiphum ribis, Linn.—Barham (Kirby, Int. Ent., ed. vi 152) ; abundant on Ribes nigrum.* R. lactucae, Kalt. R. nymphaeae, Linn.—On Alisma plantago and white Water-lilie R. ligustri, Kalt.—Yery rarely noticed on Privet, in August. R. berberidis, Kalt. R. dianthi, Sehr. Melanoxanthus salicis, Linn. Siphocoryne xylostei, Sehr.—Gorleston (Ellis); a pest on Hon suekle over windows. *On 2 May 1907 numerous larvae of the Hoverer Fly, Syrphus ribesu, were found in Monks Soham garden preying upon this Aphis in th<J curled leaves of Black Currant ; these they continued to devour most beneficially, tili they pupated within the curl of the leaves on 8 June , perfect Fiies emerged early in the next month : which economy wa ciscovered by Linne himself ! —C.M.
THE HEMIPTERA OF SUFFOLK.
S. pastinaceae, Linn.—Frequent on wild Carrot; found also in Bedfield. S. foeniculi, Pass.—Rarely on Fennel at Dunwich in September. S. capreae, Fab.—On Willow leaves throughout summer ; also Blythburgh. Aphis brassicae, Linn.—On Cabbage flowers in June to August. A. crataegi, Kalt.—In myriads on Hawthorn ; also Framlingham. A. crataegaria, Walk. A. subterranea, Walk.—Just below ground on Carrot roots, August. A. edentula, Bck.—Common on Hawthorn shoots at Bedfield. A. pedicularis, Bck.—Very rarely seen on Mallow in paddock, early June. A. malvae, Walk.—Abundant on Yarrow ; none seen on Malva. A. abietina, Walk. A. mali, Fab.—On Apple leaves during June and July only. A. Urticaria, Kalt.—Not common enough on Nettle-stems, June. A. penicillata, Bck. A. saliceti, Kalt. A. pyraria, Pass. A. scabiosae, Kalt.—Once swept in VVherstead meadows on 29 October 1903. A. cucurbita, Bck. A. sorbi, Kalt. A. lentiginis, Bck. A. padi, Linn. A. tenacetina, Walk.—Many on Tansy in Bedfield school garden, July 1908. A. pruni, DeG.—Frequent in curled leaves of Prunus spinosa. A. hieracii, Kalt.—In profusion on Heracleum sphondylum, Hogweed ; also at Southwold. A. l'arfarae, Koch. A. petasitidis, Bck. A. epilobii, Kalt.—Rarely observed on Willow-herb in August. A. euonymi, Fab. A. lychnidis, Linn. A. hederae, Kalt.—Abundant everywhere on Ivy on buildings. A. aucupariae, Bck. A. viburni, Sehr.—Very common on Viburnum opulus. A. jacobaeae, Sehr.—Rarely seen on Ragwort in early August. A. acetosae, Bck. A. rumicis, Linn.—Omnivorous on Dock, Cnicus, Petasitis, etc. A. crithmi, Bck. A. laburni, Kalt. A. atriplicis, Linn.—Galls on Atriplex hastata, L., by Gorleston pier (Ellis) ; on Aster tripolium and sea Lavender, Southwold. A. sedi, Kalt. A. papaveris, Fab.—Uncommon on scarlet Poppy in late July. A - cardui, Linn.
THE HEMIPTERA OF SUFFOI-K.
A. instabilis, Bck. A. sambucaria, Pass. A. pyri, Fonsc.—Abundant in curled Pear leaves in early June. A. bellis, Bck.—'Three nymphs at root of Daisy in lawn, May 1911. A. sambuci, Linn.—Swarming on Eider shoots in September 1910. A. opima, Bck. A. myosotidis, Koch. A. amygdali, Fonsc. Hyalopterus pruni, Fab. H. arundinis, Fab.—In myriads on Reeds in Southwold marshes. H . dilineatus, Bck. H. trirhoda, Walk. H. melanocephalus, Bck.—" Brandon, near Norwich," sie (Buckton). H. eriophori, Hai. Chaitophorus aceris, Linn.—Common under Maple leaves from late May. C. salicivorus, Walk.—All over Sallow leaves ; also at Southwold. C. leucomelas, Koch.—In blisters on Aspen leaves ; also Debenham, Easton. C. capreae, Koch.—In numbers on a Willow at Beccles in September. C. populeus, Kalt. C. betulae, Bck. C. populi, Linn. Pterocomma pilosa, Bck. Cryptosiphum artemisiae, Bck.—Brandon (Buckton); Beiton in May 1932 (Rumbelow); Pakefield cliff, 1923. Brachycolus stellariae, Hardy.—Galls on Stellaria dilleniana, Moen., at Beiton Fen in August 1932 (Ellis). Callipterus betularius, Kalt.—On alder among Birch in Blythburgh bog, September 1910. C. betulicola, Kalt.—In clouds on Birch at T u d d e n h a m Fen and Mildenhall [also at Ramnor and Pondhead in New Forest, Langford Moor in Notts, Braemar and Cläre Island]. C. coryli, Goet.—On Hazel leaves in A u g u s t ; also at Easton. C. carpini, Koch. C. quercus, K a l t — O n Oak leaves from early J u n e ; also Easton. C. querceus, Kalt. C. castaneae, Bck.—On heath grasses, Barton Mills in i m Brandon, etc. LACHNINAE. Pterocallis alni, Fab.—On Alder near Easton park in mid-August. P. juglandicola, Kalt.—On Walnut at Sibton Abbev in S e p t e m b e r . P. tiliae, Linn.—Abundant on L i m e ; also at Ipswich and Kessingland.
THE HEMIPTERA OF SUFFOLK.
Phyllaphis fagi, Linn.—Common on Beech in June, soon disappearing. Ptychodes juglandis, Fris. Lachnus juniperi, Fab. L. cupressi, Bck.—A winged male bred from nymph at Ipswich in 1894. L. agilis, Kalt.—Once not rare on Scots Pine in August. L. macroceplialus, Bck.—Many beaten from Spruce at Foxhall, July- . L. ptni, Linn.—Common in Suffolk garden (Kirby, Int. Ent., ed. vii, 185). L. pinicolus, Kalt.—Ubiquitous on Pine : Easton broad, Brandon ; Tuddenham, etc. [Chippenham in Cambs. ; Caister, Norfolk ; Parkhurst, I.W. ; Wilverley, New Forest; and Braemar, N.B. (Elliott)]. L. viminalis, Fonsc.—Hibernating under Willow-bark, Ipswich, winter 1894 ; Wissett 1921. L. piceae, Walk. L. longipes, Duf. Stomaphis quercus, Linn. Paracletus cimiciformis, Heyd. Trama troglodytes, Heyd.—Kirby took Aphis radicum in nests of the Ant, Lasius flavus (Int. Ent., ed. vii, 336). Dryobius roboris, Linn.—Many swept at Brandon in June 1909. D. Croaticus, Koch.—Brandon in June 1908, apparently rare. D. cistatus, Bck. SCHIZONEURINAE. Schizoneura lanigera. Hausm.—Apple b a r k ; on one tree 190433 ; also Brandon. S. fodiens, Bck. S. fuliginosa, Bck.—On Scots Pine pinnules [also at Caister, Norfolk], S. ulmi, L i n n — O r f o r d in July (Ellis); Woolpit, June 1917 (Rasor) ; Monks Soham chyd, 1911 [Newport, I.W.]. S. languinosa, Htg. S. corni, Fab.—Omnivorous and ubiquitous: Wherstead, Staverton, Monks Soham, Southwold, Walberswick, Blythburgh wood in 1918, Henham pk., Pakefield, T u d d e n ham, Eriswell, Brandon [and Chippenham, Cambs.]. Cerataphis lataniae, Boisd. PEMPHIGINAE. Pemphigus fuscifrons, Koch. P- bursarius, Htg.
THE HEMIPTERA OF SUFFOLK. 148 P. spirothecae, Koch.—In galls on that row of splendid old Poplars, that has been hacked down in Peasenhall vilage, September 1910. P. lactucarius, Pass. P. pallidus, Hai. Pfilaginis,Fonsc.—On Gnaphalium uliginosum plants at Browston, 18 Sept. 1932 (Ellis). P. Bumeliae, Sehr. (EMM. 1898, p. 6). Tetraneura ulmi, Htg.—On elms, Elmus Psativa, Mill., at Blundeston and Mendlesham (Ellis). Thelaxes dryophila, Westw. T. betulina, Bck. Glyphina pilosa, Bck. G. betulae, Heyd. CHERMESINAE. Chermes corticalis, Kalt. C. abietis, Linn. C. taxi, Bck. . C. laricis, Htg.—On Larch, rarely seen ; Foxhall in May, Monks Soham in August. C. atrata, Bck. C. pini, Koch. Phylloxera punctata, Licht. P. quercus, Fonsc. P. vastatrix, Planch. RHIZOBIINAE. Forda formicaria, Heyd.—Near Brandon in nest of the Ant, Tetramorium caespitum, in early May (Chitty). F. viridana, Bck. Tychea trivialis, Pass. T. setulosa, Pass. T. setariae, Pass. T. eragrostidis, Bck. T. phaseoli, Pass. Endeis formicina, Bck. E. pellucida, Bck. E. carnosa, Bck. Rhizobius poae, Bck. THRIPID AE—Thunder-flies. ißOLOTHRIPINAE.
JEolothrips fasciatus, Linn.—Abundant inflowersand on h windows from mid-May to mid-August throughout tne County : Brandon, Sudbury, Creeting, Monks Soham (cf. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1906, p. 409) where the apterous maie form was taken on 7 Aug. 1907.
T H E HEMIPTERA OF SUFFOLK.
A. albocinctus, Hai. A. vittatus, Hai. A. melaleucus, Hai. Rhapidothrips gratiosa, Uz. R. brunneus, Wilk. Melanothrips fuscus, Sulz. M. ficalbii, Buff. THRIPINAE. Chirothrips manicatus, Hai. C. sirnilis, Bagn. C. hamatus, Tryb. Limothrips denticornis, Hai.—Doubtless fairly c o m m o n : many in hedgerow-moss at Bedfield during February 1921. [Also at Louth in Lines and Sherwood Forest in Notts.] L. cerealium, Hai.—In the utmost profusion everywhere about cornfields. Barham (Kirby & Spence, Introd.) ; N a c t o n ; swarms in Mav and late July at Monks Soham, where it hibernates in picture-frames and at Sproughton in tufts of the grass, Aira caespitosa. Serieothrips staphylinus, Hai. Frankliniella vulgatissimus, Hai. F. robustus, Uz. F. brevieeps, Bagn. F. tenuicornis, Uz. Odontothrips phaleratus, Hai. 0 . ulicis, Hai. Euthrips asperus, Hai. E. atratus, Hai.—Common in flowers of Convolvulus arvensis in Monks Soham garden during September 1906. F.. inconsequens, Uz. E. primulae, Hai. E. pyri, Dan. E. pallidipennis, Uz. E. ulmifoliorum, Hai. E. orchidii, Moult. E. latus, Bagn. Scirtothrips ulmi, Bagn. S. longipennis, Bagn. S. fraxini, Bagn. Oxythrips brevistylis, Tryb. 0 . ajugae, Uz. 0 . ericae, Hai. (parvieeps, Uz.=Amblythrips ericae, Bagn.) 0 . brevicollis, Bagn. Pachythrips subapterus, Hai. Anaphothrips obscurus, Müll. A. orchidaceus, Bagn. A. tarnicola, Bagn.
THE HEMIPTERA OF SUFFOLK.
Uzeliella Lubbocki, Bagn. Aptinothrips rufus, Gmel. A. nitidulus, Hai. Belothrips acuminatus, Hai. Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis, Bche. H. femoralis, Reut. Parthenothrips dracaenae, Heeg. Leucothrips nigripennis, Reut. Thrips physopus, Linn.—Barham (Kirby, Trans. Linn. Soc. iii, p. 247 and iv, p. 231), where it is abundant (Introd., ed. 7, p. 297); Monks Soham garden in flowers, Sept. 1906. T. palustris, Reut. T. paludosus, Bagn. T. tabaci, Lind. T. major, Uz. T. salicarius, Uz. T. validus, Uz. T. flavus, Sch. T. fuscipennis, Hai. T. juniperinus, Linn. T. minutissimus, Linn. T. albopilosus, Uz. Bagnallia discolor, Hai. B. Klapaleki, Uz. B. dilatatus, Uz. B. biformis, Bagn. Baliothrips dispar, Hai. (Bagnallia agnessae & Halidayi, Bagn.) Dendrothrips DeGeeri, Uz. Bolacothrips nigripennis, Bagn. Stenothrips graminum, Uz. Platythrips tunicatus, Hai. CERATOTHRIPINAE. Ceratothrips Britteni, Bagn. PHLAEOTHRIPINAE. Megathrips lativentris, Heeg M. nobilis, Bagn. Cryptothrips dentipes, Reut.—Swept in marshes during April: Foxhall, Southwold. C. latus, Uz. C. major, Bagn. Haplothrips statices, Hai. H. aculeatus, Fab. H. subtilissimus, Hai. H. distinguendus, Uz. H. juncorum, Bagn.
THE HEMIPTERA OF SUFFOLK.
H. obscuripennis, Bagn. H. cephalotes, Bagn. Cephalothrips monilicornis, Reut. Trichothrips pedicularius, Hai.—A half-dozen under birch bark at Barton Mills on 8 September 1915. T. longisetis, Bagn. T. propinquus, Bagn. T. semicaecus, Uz. T. ulmi, Fab.—April; under bark of dead oak-bough in Trimley marshes, and abundant with red nymphs in same Situation in Bentley Woods. T. pini, Hai. T. copiosus, Uz.—A half-dozen, with larvae, under willow-bark at Hogs Highland, Ipswich, on 13 Feb. 1894. Phlaeothrips coriaceus, Hai. P. corticis, Serv.—Under old aspen-bark in Ipswich, December; and several under willow-bark at Tattingstone, March. Acanthothrips nodicornis, Reut. Liothrips setinodis, Reut.—Suffolk. Material retained by Bagnall. Hoplandrothrips Ellisi, Bagn. H. Collinsi, Bagn. Hoodia Bagnalli, Kam. PEDICULIDAE—Bird Lice. PEDICULINAE. Phthirius inguinalis, Lch.—We have many specimens from London ; it occurs here, too. Pediculus capitis, Nitz.—Southwold ; and not rare on country children's heads (Morlev). P. vestimenti, Nitz.—This and both the above species occur in Southwold (Collings). P. tabescendus, Burm. Haematopinus acanthopus, Burm. Ectodermal parasite of the Field-mouse. H. spinulosus, Burm. Rat. H. spiniger, Burm. Water-rat. H. hyriocephalus, Burm. Hare. H. piliferus, Burm.—Found abundantly on Dogs at Monks Soham in May 1908. H. eurysternus, Nitz. Ox. H. ventricosus, Denny. Rabbit. H. vituli, Linn. Calf. H. asini, Linn. Ass. H. suis, Lch.—Many on Swine at Woodcroft Hall, Monks Soham, in March 1905.
THE HEMIPTERA OF SUFFOLK.
PHILOPTERINAE. Philopterini. Docophorus atratus, Nitz. Rook. D. ocellatus, Nitz. Crow. D. semisignatus, Burm. Raven. D. pici, Denn. Magpie. D. guttatus, Burm. Jackdaw. D. crassipes, Burm. Nutcracker. D. superciliosus, Burm. Woodpeckers. D communis, Nitz. Various birds ; on Pheasant shot in Earl's Soham, January 1933 (H. C. Murreil). D. variabilis, Denn. Dunlin. D. merguli, Denn. Rotehe. D. fulvus, Burm. Jay. D. leontodon, Nitz. Starling. D. ostralegi, Denn. Oystercatcher. D. ralli, Denn. Water-rail. D. turdi, Denn. Thrush. D. pastoralis, Denn. Pastor roseus. D. celidoxus, Burm. Razorbil. D. auratus, Denn. Woodcock. D. fringelli, Denn. Mountain sparrow. D. colymbinus, Denn. Diver. D. aquilinus, Denn. Eagle. D. cephalus, Denn. Skuas. D. pallidescens, Denn. Titmice. D. platygaster, Denn. Dotterel, etc. D. fusiformis, Denn. Stint. D. canuti, Denn. Knot. D. cincli, Denn. Ouzel. D. limosi, Denn. Godwit. D. megaeephalus, Denn. Guilemot. D. rostratus, Burm. Owl. D. pari, Denn. Titmouse. D. humeralis, Denn. Curlew. D. lari, Fab. Gull. D. conicus, Denn. Golden plover. D. serrilimbus, Burm. Wryneck. D. reguli, Denn. Regulus. D. upupi, Denn. Hoopoe. D. ceblebrachys, Nitz. Owl. D. platyrhynchus, Nitz. Goshawk. D. cygni, Denn. Swan. D. testudinarius, Denn. Curlew. D. latifrons, Nitz. " Cuckow." D. fuscicollis, Burm. Shrike. D. chrysophthalmi, Denn. Garrot.
THE HEMIPTERA OF SUFFOLK.
D. platalei, Denn. Spoonbill. D. meropis, Denn. Bee eater. D. Cursor, Burm. Owls. D. icterodes, Nitz. Duck. D. thalassidromi, Denn. St. Petrel. D. passerinus, Denn. Wagtail. D. tricolor, Burm. Black Stork. D. incompletus, Nitz. White Stork. D. meruli, Denn. Blackbird. D. modulari, Denn. Hedge accentor. D. rubeculi, Denn. Redbreast. D. platystomus, Burm. Buzzard. D. nisi, Denn. Sparrowhawk. D. bassani, Mull. Gannet. D. alcedini, Denn. Kingfisher. Nirmus cameratus, Nitz. Grouse. N. discicephalus, Nitz. Eagle. N. turmalis, Denn. Great Bustard. N. numidi, Denn. Pintado. N. olivaceus, Burm. Nutcracker. N. gracilis, Burm. House martin. N. uncinosus, Nitz. Hooded crow. N. marginalis, Burm. Fieldfare. N. fuscus, Denn. Kites. N. rufus, Burm. " Kestril." N. cuculi, Denn. " Cuckow." N. tessellatus, Denn. Bittern. N. limbatus, Burm. Crossbill. N. subcuspidatus, Burm. Roller. N. argulus, Nitz. Rook. N. viscivori, Denn. Misselthrush. N. fulici, Denn. Coot. N. decipiens, Nitz. Avocett. N. haematopi, Linn. Oyster catcher. N. sellatus, Burm. Tern. N. vanelli, Denn. Grey plover. N. merulensis, Denn. Blackbird. N. glandarii, Denn. Jay. N. cuspidatus, Scop. Water-rail. N. iliaci, Denn. Redwing. N. claviformis, Denn. Ringdove. N. annulatus, Burm. Thick-knee. N. nebulosus, Burm. Starling. N. apiastri, Denn. Bee eater. N. ochropi, Denn. Sandpiper. N. attenuatus, Nitz. Corncrake. N. strepsilaris, Denn. Turnstone. N. hiaticuli, Denn. Ringed plover.
THE HEMIPTERA OF SUFFOLK.
N. fuscomarginatus, Denn. Eared grebe. N. rallinus, Denn. Water rail. N. alci, Denn. Razorbill. Two found alive on dead Little Auk on Southwold Common, 16 December 1927 (Collings). N. oedicnemi, Denn. Thick-knee. N. stramineus, Denn. Woodpecker. N. phalaropi, Denn. Phalarope. N. elongatus, Denn. House martin. N. hypoleucus, Denn. Goatsucker. N. podicepi, Denn. Grebe. N. junceus, Scop. Lapwing. N. numenii, Denn. Curlew. N. phaeopi, Denn. Curlew. N. holophaeus, Burm. Ruff. N. cingulatus, Burm. Godwit. N. obscurus, Denn. Birds. N. fissus, Nitz. Ringed plover. N. tenuis, Burm. Sand martin. N. scolopaci, Denn. Snipe. N. cyclothorax, Burm. Mountain finch. Goniocotes compar, Burm. Quite common on tame Pigeons at Monks Soham in April and May 1933. G. hologastra, Burm.—Domestic fowl, whereupon many were found at Monks Soham in March 1905. G. rectangulata, Nitz. Peacock. G. microthorax, Nitz. Partridge. G. atrocephala, Nitz. Quail. Goniodes falcicornis, Nitz.—Numerous on a just-dead Peafowl, Pavo cristatus, L., at Monks Soham in May 1909. G. stylifera, Nitz. Turkey. G. colchici, Denn. Pheasant.—A dozen on this bird, shot in Earl's Soham, January 1933 (H. C. Murrell). G. ortygis, Denn. Virginian Colin. G. dispar, Nitz. Partridge. G. chelicornis, Nitz. Capercaillie. G. tetraonis, Denn. Grouse. G. dissimillis, Nitz.—On Domestic fowl at Monks Soham in October 1904. G. numidiana, Denn. Pintado. Lipeurus variabilis, Nitz. Dom. fowls. L. polytrapezius, Nitz. Turkey. L. gyricornis, Denn. Tern. L. quadripustulatus, Nitz. Eagles. L. sulcifrons, Denn. Eagles. L. tadorni, Denn. Sheldrake. L. versicolor, Nitz. White Stork. L. baculum, Nitz.—Two on a Pigeon at Monks Soham, April 1933. L. pelagicus, Denn. St. Petrel.
THE HEMIPTERA OF SUFFOLK.
L. leucopygus, Burm. Heron. L. temporalis, Nitz. Merganser. L. squalidus, Nitz. Duck. L. jejunus, Nitz. Goose. L. stellaris, Denn. Bittern. L. Ebraeus, Nitz. Crane. L. staphylinoides, Denn. Gannet. L. brevicornis, Denn. Shag. L. luridus, Nitz. Waterhen. L. bilineatus, Sreph. Fulmer. Ornithobius cygni, Linn. Swan. 0. gonioplurus, Denn. Canada swan. O. atrimarginatus, Denn. Canada swan. Trichodectini. Trichodectes crassa, Nitz. Badger. T. lata, Nitz. Dog. T. subrostrata, Nitz. Cat. T. vulpis, Denn. Fox. T. dubia, Nitz. Stoat.â€”This seems the species found in Squirrels' dreys in Bentley woods. T. scalaris, Nitz. Ox. T. equi, Linn. Horse. T. longicornis, Nitz. Fallow deer. T. sphaerocephala, Nitz. Sheep. T. similis, Denn. Red deer. LIOTHEINAE. Liotheini. Colpocephalum flavescens, Nitz. Falco C. fregili, Denn. Chough. C. turbinatum, Denn. Pigeon. C. Zebra, Nitz. White stork. C. ochraceum, Nitz. Terns, &c. C. piceum, Denn. Sandwich tern. U subaequale, Nitz. Rook. ^ eurysternum, Burm. Magpie. C importunum, Heron. u u u u i , iDenn. /cun. IICIOII. Jr; n yctaride, Denn. Night heron. White Stork. r - quadnpustulatum, Burm. V, haliaeeti, Denn. Osprey. 1 ienopon pallidum, Nitz.â€”Abundant upon Domestic at Monks Soham in the springs of 1905-7. tulvomaculatum, Denn. Quail. tuscicinctum, Denn. Shrike. M P1C1-' D e n n " G r e e n Woodpecker. a ' ^ ltri nellum, Denn. Pied Wagtail M - troglodyti, Denn. Wren.
THE HEMIPTERA OF SUFFOLK.
M. scopulicorne, Denn. Several on a just-dead and floating Water-rail at Kessingland Dam in April 1933. M. sinuatum, Burm. Titmouse, Parus major. M. mesoleucum, Nitz. Rook. M. nigripleurum, Denn. Razorbill. M. giganteum, Denn. Stock dove. M. perdicis, Denn. Partridge. M. transversum, Denn. Gulls. M. strepsilae, Denn. Turnstone. M. ridibundum, Denn.â€”Blackheaded gull, whereon were found many at Southwold in April 1924 (Collings). M. icterum, Burm. Woodcock. M. carduelis, Denn. Goldfinch. Nitzschia Burmeisterum, Denn. Swift. Trinoton conspurcatum, Nitz. Goose. T . luridum, Nitz. Duck. T . squalidum, Denn. Goose. T. lituratum, Nitz. Smew. Eureum cimicoidum, Nitz. Three, with an Aphid larva and Limosina-fly, on a swift at Southwold, 1927 (Collings). E. malleum, Nitz. Swallow. Laemobothrium laticolle, Denn.â€”Three were found on a Hobby, Falco subbuteo, L., just killed at Lowestoft, by a taxidermist there, on 15 October 1903 (Dutt); many on a " Hawk," taken by a fowler's net at Ipswich in November 1900. L. giganteum, Nitz. Buzzard. L. hasticeps, Nitz. Kestril. L. atrum, Nitz. Coot. Physostomum mystax, Burm. Fieldfare. P. bombycillae, Denn. Waxwing. P. irascens, Nitz. Chaffinch. P. nitidissimum, Nitz. Yellow bunting. Gyropini. Gyropus ovalis, Nitz. Guinea-pig. G. gracilis, Nitz. Guinea-pig.
THE PLEISTOCENE SITE OF IPSWICH. B Y JAMES REID M O I R ,
THE main east-and-west thoroughfare of Ipswich, from Barrackcorner to the Gaol, is one of the lateral terraces of the River Orwell. In fact, these streets are laid along the flattish surface of such a terrace, whence the ground slopes southerly to the present level of the river. To-day it may be difficult, when Walking along these busy streets that are flanked by shops anu