Page 1

104

A NATURALIST'S BIOGRAPHY.

Iris,L., disporting itself among theflowersnear the " Wilderness " in the Lower Arboretum, towards the north end of Ipswich. My attention was attracted by the Butterfly's large size ; and now I am entirely satisfied respecting its identity, for I obtained a clear view of the wing-markings and at once compared them with examples in this Museum. I could detect no purple sheen on its wings.—H. E. P. SPENCER, The Museum, Ipswich ; 20 October 1933. [The specimen was surely a female on account of the lack of purple sheen, its lowflightand lateness of its occurrence, for July is the usual month of perfect existence. Eighty vears ago Purple Emperors were too " common in oak woods in various parts of the County " (Dr. Bree in Nat. 1857, p. 256) to be worth localising ; they grew rarer (Entom. iv, p. 120), and during July 1859 were localised in Bentley Woods (Fison in Ent. Wkly. Int. vi, p. 133). By 1890 the species was still considered not uncommon near Ipswich ; though the sole one or two of which we have exact data was seen by us on the 8th and netted on 24th July 1893 in Bentley Woods, where it continued to occur round the tops of tall oaks during a few succeeding summers, but has not been noticed anywhere in Suffolk of recent years.—Ed.]

Of how difficult it frequently is to be conscientiously positive of the identity of even the most conspicuous insects, when flitting about on the wing, I have had recent proof by experience. One day in June 1931, a peculiarly large and broad Butterfly was observed, that I instantly thought and still think must be Anosia (Danaus) plexippus, Linn., hovering about theflowersin Framlingham garden. To rush indoors for a net took no more than a moment, but I was unable to confirm the suspected determination by capturing the specimen for examination. However, our record of A. plexippus (Trans, i, p. 30), which I had forgotte at least partially removes my hesitancy in placing so inconclusive an Observation upon record, No less than twenty specimens (Entom. 1933, p. 241) have been noted in Britain during the present year.—C. H. S. VINTER.

THE FISHES OF SUFFOLK. BY DR. DUDLEY W. COLLINGS, M.B., M.R.C.S., F.Z.S.

sole county List of Pisces, that by J. T. C u n n i n g h a m printed in the 1911 Victoria History of Suffolk, enumerates 119 species but includes a good many to which we then had no better claim than the fact that they had occurred off southern Norfolk. The author was not a local man, and relied almost entirely upon the Norfolk Naturalists' Society for his records : adding, for the THE


105

THE FISHES OF SUFFOLK.

rest. those fish which he himself saw during a visit to Lowestoft in 1895. It is probable that he knew nothing of Laver's and Patterson's work, or of our inland fish ; few references are made by him to southern, and I believe none to western, Suffolk. We are largely indebted to both Essex and Norfolk for boundary records: they possessed Naturalists' societies, we did n o t ; nor has any individual accorded our Fishes the particular attention they merit. The fact that our Lowestoft fleet more often trawls beyond, than immediately off, the Suffolk seaboard, is one of the difficulties of such a compilation. Sir Thomas Browne, two centuries ago, noticed a few Suffolk kinds (see the 1835 edition of his " Works " ) ; Samuel Dale's 1732 edition of Silas Taylor's " History of Harwich " contains a fish-list; Charles and James Paget's 1834 " S k e t c h of Great Yarmouth and its Neighbourhood " brought forward many from our shire, of which a few yet remain unique, e.g. Squalus (Zygaena) malleus ; Robert Wake's 1839 " Southwold and its Vicinity" comprises a good List of over fifty of the larger s o r t ; W. H. Lindsey's 1851 " Season at Harwich " includes another L i s t ; Dr. N. F. Hele makes very sparse mention of Pisces in the 1870 Jottings about Aldeburgh ; Dr. J. F . Taylor's 1892 Tourists' Guide to Suffolk names some ; and A. E. Simpson's 1901 (and 1915) " M i l d e n h a l l " is one of the few, among many such topographical handbooks, that condescends to notice F i s h e s : in it no less than eight species are said to occur en masse in the River Lark. Patterson's 1905 " Nature in Fast Norfolk," elaborated at Zool. 1909 (as Rough Notes on Fish of East Suffolk), comprises 103 kinds of Pisces that may be Suffolcian. And Dr. Henry Laver's 1898 Fishes of Essex elucidates those of our southern boundary to no small extent. Laver shows Essex then to possess 113 known kinds, Norfolk 143 and Yorkshire 148, of which the first had eight still lacking from our own Catalogue.* The late Mr. Frank Norgate, with our own Members Mr. Doughty and Mr. Platten, Revd. R- B. Caton, Mr. Walter A. Brook and Mr. Andrews, have collaborated ; and the first volume of our Transactions adds seven kinds. T o our learned Secretary, Mr. Claude Morley, I owe a vast debt of gratitude for his great assistance, most especially as r e g a r d s o u r

fossil

fish.

Such

Standard

works

as those

of

Donovan in 1802-8, Yarrell in 1841, Day of 1880-4 and " The l ishes of the British Isles " of 1925 by Dr. J. Travis Jenkins, contribute little to our local knowledge ; the nomenclature of the last is here adopted for no better reason than its recent date.

. are :—Cotlus Greenlandicus, Cuv., not recognised as a good Cr T k _ J e n k i n s ; Centrolophus pompilus, Cuv. (niger, Gmel., of Jenkins) ; Soler " melot'us> Linn; Oadus macrocephalus, Tiles (not in Jenkins) ; l\n" i'l' B°naP- ; Nerophis Ophidion, Linn. ; Coregonus oxyrhynchus, n and ' > Leuciscus caeruleus, Swain., in a Walton-Naze stream.


106

T H E FISHES

OF

SUFFOLK.

The following hundred and fifty-one species out of the total 251 said to be now British, should soon be expanded.* PERCIDAE.

1. Perca fluviatilis, Linn. Freshwater Perch.—Common in most lakes and rivers throughout the County : in the Deben, Ore and Waveney (Brook); the Lark at Barton Mills (Simpson), &c. ; and in the north-east broads. Mr. Doughty is surprised at its absence from the River Fynn. [Fossils of this species are recorded from the Forest Bed at Kessingland (Vict. Hist.).—Ed.] 2. Acerina cernua, Linn. Pope, or Ruff.—Cambs., Essex ; and here less common than in Norfolk, though plentiful about Thetford (Tr. Norf. Nat. Soc. 1897, p. 325) and in Fritton Lake. 3. Morone librax, Linn. Bass.—Very rarely off Breydon (Pagets) ; Lowestoft; not uncommon at Southwold (Collings); rare at Walberswick, one of 12| lbs. in October 1913 (Doughty); of 12 lbs. at Aldeburgh in Ju!y 1912 (Anglers News) : now fished for trade in Alde-mouth and at Shingle-street. Cf. T r . Norf. Soc. ix, p. 815 and xi, p. 593. MULLIDAE.

4. Mullus surmuletus, Linn. Red Mullet.—Some seasons abundant, in others scarcely seen (Pagets); generally rather rare. Lowestoft; and large shoals in Ipswich dock during 1932 (Stiles). The piain form (barbatus) is not yet proved to occur. SPARIDAE.

5. Cantharus lineatus, Mont. Old Wife.—The first Suffolk example, 2 | inches in length, was washed ashore at Lowestoft on 10 February 1912, (Tr. Norf. Soc. ix, p. 815). 6. Pagrus auratus, Linn. Gilt-head.—Accidental : Taken once or twice (Pagets) ; one is recorded by R. Leathes from Pakefield in April 1829 (Lowe, Fishes of Norfolk). 7. Sparus centrodontus, Roch. Sea Bream.—Not uncommon on the English east coast (Yarrell) ; rather rare about Gorleston (Patterson 1905), Lowestoft (Dutt) and six at one haul off Southwold on 3 June 1916 (Collings). [Chrysophrys sp. Extinct Sea Bream.—Molar-like teeth, which " do not admit of specific determination," found in Gedgrave coralline-crag and both Woodbridge and Waldringfield red-crag, belong to this genus.—Ed.] *Glnbicephalus uncidens. T h e so-called Blackfish.—By an ignorant oversight, I omitted this MAMMAL, which is totally distinct from the true Blackfish (Centrolophus niger, Gmel.), from T r a n s , supra, p. 32. Both teeth and ear-bones in Suffolk red-crag nodule-bed have been described, at first erroneously as those of a Delphinus-species. Errare est h u m a n u n i ' —CLAUDE

MORLEY.


THE FISHES OF SUFFOLK.

107

SCORPAENIDAE.

8. Scorpaena dactyloptera, Roch. American Rose Perch.—An eight-inch example was taken off Lowestoft on 11 December 1895 (Norf. Trans, vi, p. 226); another at Lowestoft on 13 March 1909 (I.e. ix, p. 820). COTTIDAE.

9. Cottus gobio, Linn. Millers-thumb.—The English name was explained by John Constable, the painter of Fiatford in Suffolk, to Yarrell who says (Fishes 1859, vol. ii, p. 50) it is an inhabitant of alraost all the streams of this country that flow over sand or gravel. As common at Thetford and Beccles as it is in the Yare. I have seen it in the Lark and its tributaries (Andrews). 10. C. scorpius, Linn. Father Lasher.—Common all round the English coast: Essex, Norfolk, Breydon. Frequently caught at Southwold, and in the Yare at Gorleston. 11. C. bubalis, Euph. Long-spined Bull-head.—From Cornwall to Orkneys; Essex abundant. Sole specific Suffolk records: taken " by shrimpers between Yarmouth and C o r t o n " (Patterson, Zool. 1910). Have taken it in trawl at Southwold (Collings). 12. C. quadricornis, Linn. Four-horned Bull-head.—Three were caught near Lowestoft on 3 March 1907 (Zool. 1907, p. 461) and one later at Yarmouth pier (I.e. 1909 : Patterson). TRIGLIDAE.

13. Trigla hirundo, Day. Tub-fish.—Rather rare about Gorleston; common off Lowestoft in autumn ; Aldeburgh. 14. T. pini, Sehn. Red Gurnard.—Southwold (Wake); common on trawling grounds. 15. T. gurnardus, Linn. Grey Gurnard.—Taken up the East Coast (Yarrell); Essex. Common on the Gorleston and Lowestoft trawling grounds. Once caught by me on Southwold pier (Doughty), where it is sometimes common (Collings). 16. T. lineata, Walb. Streaked Gurnard.—Not seldom brought in by trawlers to Lowestoft, one of twelve inches landed there on 9 March 1896 was said to be a local catch (Tr. Norf. Soc. P- 293) ; another there on 31 January 1911 (I.e. ix, p. 455). ->ot recorded from Essex. 17. T. lyra, Linn. The Piper.—"This is caught near Harwich " (Dale, History of Hanvich 1732, 428). Not later noticed. AGONIDAE.

18. Agonus cataphr actus, Linn. Pogge.—Very plentiful e" ,h®st Coast (Yarrell) ; Essex, &c. Coast and Newcome ( Vlc *- Hist.); Smiths Knoll (Tr. Suff. Nat. Soc. i, p. lxxxiv);


108

THE FISHES OF SUFFOLK.

a most abundant species about Gorleston, and in Southwold shrimp-trawls. 19. Lophius piscatorius, Linn. Angler.—Yarmouth Deep <Tr. Suff., I.e.) ; about Yarmouth (Pagets) ; Southwold (Wake); netted numerously at Lowestoft in autumn of 1897 (Lowe's fourth list). TRACHINIDAE.

20. Trachinus Draco, Linn. Greater Weaver.—Frequent about Gorleston; extremely abundant on Lowestoft trawling grounds. Southwold rare : I have caught one 13J inches long off the pier (Collings). Stings venomously. 21. Trachinus vipera, Cuv. Lesser Weaver.—-Common on trawling and shrimping grounds. Not rarely in Breydon Water ; and common about Gorleston, where the beach was strewn along the water's edge with them, taken in draw-nets and thrown aside by beachmen who found them too numerous to kill, on 26 August 1909 (Tr. Norf. Soc. ix, p. 85). Southwold (Wake, Morley), much too commonly (Collings). The opercular spine has a venomous sting, and the first dorsal fin is as poisonous. SCOMBRIDAE.

22. Scomber scombrus, Linn. Mackerei.—The fishermen of Lowestoft gain their great harvest from the Mackerei in May and June (Yarrell); in enormous numbers on the Suffolk coast (Lindsey, Season at Harwich 1851, 83), Southwold (Wake); their habitat extends from the south coast to those of Suffolk and Norfolk (Day, Fishes of Brit. 1880, 90): a second season occurs in October, rarely lasting until 9 November as in 1875. It is believed that none are now caught for trade actually on the Suffolk shore ; but curiously enough, during some recent years they have been taken in large numbers for a short time in summer from Southwold pier by sea-anglers, using artificial white and coloured flies (Doughty). The " scribbled " form (var. scriptus) was brought into Lowestoft in 1894 (Tr. Norf. Soc. vi, p. 116). 23. Thymus thynnus, Linn. Tunny.—Not infrequent off Yarmouth (Pagets); one " taken at Lestoffe" (Sir Thomas Browne). One from Suffolk coast, near Southwold, in Norwich Museum is forty-two inches long (Gurney). Cf. Tr. Suff, ii, p. 60. [Thynnus Scaldisi, Storms. Extinct Tunny.—Vertebrae of this species, first described from the Antwerp crag, have occurred in coralline-crag at Orford (Ipswich Museum) and Aldeburgh. We have found vertebrae of such teleostean fishes in the same crag at Gedgrave ; on Brandon Heath in 1906 (named by British Museum); in the red-crag nodule-bed at Foxhall, in the mammalian-crag at Bulchamp and in Norfolk at Bramerton, and


THE FISHES OF SUFFOLK.

109

in the Chillesford-bed at Easton cliff, all during 1930-2. Others, broader than long, appeared to us in Sudbourn coralline-crag and Butley red-crag mid-pit in March and May 1932.—Ed.] 24. Auxis Rochei, Riss. Piain Bonito.—We can now discard the " off Yarmouth " records, upon which our doubtful claim to this species has hitherto rested : " An example was landed at Lowestoft in October 1927, sixteen inches in length and weighing four pounds " ( T r . Norf. Soc. 1929, p 719) Still not necessarily off the Suffolk littoral. CORYPHAENIDAE.

25. Brama Raii, Sehn. Ray's Bream.—Two speeimens are recorded from Yarmouth, of which one is in Norwich Museum (Lowe). Needs confirmation as Suffolcian. 26. Lampris luna, Gmel. T h e Opah.—Hunstanton in 1839 and Yarmouth in 1828 seem the southern limit of this fish on our coast; unknown in Essex. Needs confirmation in Suffolk. CARANGIDAE.

27. Caranx trachurus, Linn. Horse-mackerel or Scad.— Round nearly all the British coast: unrecorded from Essex. Aot rarely seen dead on Gorleston beach, and sometimes caught trom the pier there (Doughty); frequent off Lowestoft (J. H. Ourney) ; commonlv taken round Southwold pier and in Mackerei nets (Collings). [Platax Woodwardi, Agas. Extinct Horse-mackerel.—In Ipswich Museum. Clavicles and fin-supports of this species are common in the Forest-bed at Kessingland ; thev occur in the Chillesford-bed at Easton cliff, the red-crag at Felixstow, &c and (ut dicetur) in our Coralline-crag.—Ed.] 28. Naucrates duetor, Cuv. Pilot-fish.—Accidental : " Many years ago [i.e. before 1873] I saw a speeimen freshly caught on the Suffolk coast " (Gurney, sec. Lowe). 29. Capros aper, Lacep. Boar-fish..—Numbers caught at Hamich about May 1879 (Day, Fishes 1880, 137), in a shrimptrawl (Zool. 1879, p. 342). One in a shrimo-net at Corton Patch on 3 June 1913 (Tr. Norf. Soc. ix, p. 8 1 7 ) / Singly at Lowestoft and Yarmouth in 1881 and 1882. CYTTIDAE. 30

- Zeus faber, Linn. John Dory.—Several among T u r b o t o Knowl in summer 1834 (Pagets) ; Aideburgh (Whistler) ; »outhwold (Wake), and several stranded alive at the sea-edge Essex m r e ° e n t y e a r S ( C o l l m 8 s ) ; frequent about Gorleston.


110

THE FISHES OF SUFFOLK. XLPHIIDAE.

31. Xiphias gladius, Linn. Sword-fish.—Accidental: One was caught at Lowestoft about November 1882; a second, mne feet long, was brought into that port on 27 September 1896 (Tr. Norf. Soc. vi, p. 294) ; and another on 27 September 1897. SCIAENIDAE.

32 Sciaena aquila, Riss. Meagre.—" A remarkable fish came asbore at T h o r p e , August 30th, 1868 ; a monster Basse or Sea Perch as t h o u g h t t h e m a n w h o secured it, Maigra of YarreU ; it weighed eighty-four pounds, length rather over five f e e t " {Hele, Jot. Aldeburgh 1870, 182). Another, fifty-seven mches long and seventy-five pounds in weight, was taken near Yarmouth in 1875 ( T h e Times, 1 Nov., ann. cit.). GOBIIDAE.

33. Gobius niger, L i n n . all along our coast.

Black G o b y — F r e q u e n t s

estuarie s

34 G. paganellus, L i n n . Rock Goby.—Examples of " Gobius Parnelli " (Couch ii, pl. ci, fig.) were first recorded f r o m Norfolk as having been trawled in Breydon Water on 5 J u n e 1921 (Trans. Norf. Nat. Soc. xi, p. 595). 35. G. minutus, Linn. C o m m o n G o b y . — T a k e n in considerable n u m b e r s in shrimp-trawls : common on the Newcome Sand, in Breydon Water, &c. Southwold (Morley), where it abounds in shrimp-nets; is as frequent in brackish dykes as in the Blyth, and will live in fresh water (Collings). 36. G. Ruthensparri, E u p h . Spotted Goby.—Norfolk and Essex, so doubtless along all our coast among Laminana and Zostera. But no specific record exists south of Gorleston, where it appears u n c o m m o n . 37. G. pictus, M a l m . Painted Goby.—Patterson's " Gobius auratus " abounds t h r o u g h o u t the year about Gorleston. 38. Aphya pellucida, Nar. T r a n s p a r e n t Goby.—Somewhat rare about Gorleston (Patterson) ; a single specimen in a Southwold boat in J u n e 1906 (Zool. 1909). CALLIONYMIDAE.

39. Callionvmus lyra, L i n n . Dragonet.—Often f o u n d in stomachs of Cods (Lindsey, Season at Harwich 1851, 89). Several in Lowestoft trawls during autumn, 1895 and 19Uy , c o m m o n about G o r l e s t o n ; and several in shrimp-trawls ort Southwold.


THE FISHES OF SUFFOLK.

111

DISCOBOLI.

40. Cyclopterus lumpus, Linn. Lump-sucker.—Occasionally off the Suffolk coast: frequent about Gorleston ; not uncommon off Southwold, up to 7 i pounds (Collings). " An enormous specimen, apparently unable to keep itself submerged, was captured at Aldburgh, March 15th 1868 ; length 22\ and greatest breadth 13i inches, weighing over fifteen p o u n d s " (Hele, Jottings 1870, 182): up to 28 pounds (Patterson). 41. Cyclogaster liparis, Linn. Sea-snail.—Abundant along the east coast: Suffolk, Essex and Norfolk. Commonly trawled off Southwold (Morlev), and some kept in my aquarium there (Collings). 42. C. Montagui, Don. Montagu's Sea-snail.—Record of the last IS equally applicable to this species : hardly rarer at Southwold in September 1929 (Morley). One of five inches in length taken in draw-net on Gorleston beach in April 1925 (Ellis). BLENNIDAE.

43. Anarrhichas hpus, Linn. Wolf, or Cat-fish.—Yarmouth (Pagets); Walton-on-Naze (Essex Standard, 29 Aug. 1885), the sole record from Essex, where Laver considers our " sandy shallow shore not suiting its habits." Of recent years, once ?ono\ r ^ r s e v e r a l b e e n e x P o s e d i n L°westoft fish-market (Zool. 1 >09). [This species is pretty surely that found in Gedgrave coralhne-crag, smce a tooth thence is indistinguishable (in Mus. 1 ract. Geol.); and we found one in that Stratum at Sudbourne i ark in March 1932. Other teeth of Anarrhichas-species from our red-crag are in Ipswich Museum ; and similar ones occurred to us in that formation's nodule-bed at Foxhall, Ramsholt and Jiutley, during February and March 1932. Arius Egertoni, Dixon. Extinct Cat-fish.—A fragment of nn-spine, washed into the Foxhall red-crag, doubt'less came irom its normal Sussex mid-Eocene strata (E. T . Newton).—Ed.] 44. Blennius pholis, Linn. Shanny.—Small specimens are iair y common at Southwold, both close to the groynes and in poois by the south pier (Collings). Frequently noticed in pools on the shore side of Gorleston breakwater, e.g. on 10 October \ , U t u s u a l ' y o n e or two may be disturbed there any day. T> 6 t0 le lve t h e w »hX y , f a t e r periodically, lifting themselves on fins Suff J u s t a b o v e t h e surface only (Ellis ; cf. T r . fn™ j V P - . ? ™ ) . I n a q u a r i u m the Shanny "climbs in angle ormed by sides, often 3-4 inches above surface of water. f o l m S , Pholisi gunnellus, b coverlT P ° S y the P>er (Ellis) 026 ' C o m m o n

Linn. Butter-fish.—Most usuallv * i n E s s e x > ^equent on Zosteraabout Gorleston at breakwater by

tide


112

THE FISHES OF SUFFOLK.

46. Zoarces viviparus, Linn. Viviparous Blenny.—Commoner on our East than on the South coast; Essex. A large number, averaging eight inches in length, taken when drawing for Smelts in the River Blyth during 1931 (Collings) ; Martlesham Creek, and on 24 July 1929 as high up the Waveney as St. Olaves (Doughty); abundant at Orford (Morley), and in the inner harbour and near the beach at Lowestoft; in thousands every summer in Breydon Water. CEPOLIDAE.

47. Cepola rubescens, Linn. Red Band-fish.—Two specimens taken at Southwold in January 1930 (cf. Trans. Suff. Soc. ii, p. xxxi). Two at Gorleston : one from the Yare that came in at the river's mouth, and one about the same time from a local fisherman (Patterson, in lit. 12 Feb. 1933). ATHERINIDAE.

48. Atherina presbyter, Linn. Sand Smelt.—Lowestoft (Gurney) usually more commonlv than at Yarmouth, and very numerous in the former harbour, the entire walls of which in August were lined by anglers for it about 1880 ; next for some years it was absent; and no one fishes especially for it there now, though it has returned in some numbers. Great catches were made off Gorleston in 1891 ; several taken in Breydon Water about 9 July 1897 (Tr. Norf. Soc. vi, p. 407) ; I have several caught in trawls at Southwold (Collings). Essex. MUGILIDAE.

49. Mugil Chelo, Cuv. Thick-lipped Grev Mullet — Accidental: caught " close by Breydon " Water on 10 November 1890 (Patterson, 1905). 50. M. capito, Cuv. Thin-lipped Grey Mullet.—Essex and Yarmouth (Yarrell). At the mouth of the Orwell (Gurney); Southwold Bay (Wake), not uncommonly in May and June 1916 and 1930 (Collings); frequent in Breydon Water, etc. GASTEROSTEIDAE.

51. Gasterosteus aculeatus, Linn. Three-spined Stickleback—Common everywhere : Blackbourn River ; Slaughden ; Southtown; near Lowestoft, etc. Southwold in salt, brackish and fresh water ; kept in marine aquarium where thev nested, and I have watched a parent guarding its young in a brackish pool. 52 G. pungitius, Linn. Ten-spined Stickleback.—First recorded in 1931 (Tr. Suff. Nat. Soc. i, p. 163). C o m m o n everywhere in the Bury district (Andrews). Blackbourn River. Said to be common about Gorleston, in ditches of the Waveney and Oulton Broad, though Doughty has never noticed it in that


THE FISHES OF

SUFFOLK.

113

district. Quite common in dykes about Southwold, and almost as indifferent as the last species to salinity, though not seen in pure sea-water. 53. G. spinachia, Linn. Fifteen-spined Stickleback.— Confined to the s e a ; occurs all round our coast. Rare at Yarmouth according to the Pagets, and in the Aide ; but now not infrequently taken in the shrimpers' nets about Gorleston. LABRIDAE.

54. Labrus bergylta, Asc. Ballan Wrasse.—-Occurs along the eastern coast (Yarrell); only one off Essex, " our m u d d y and sandy shores do not suit the habits of this family," says Laver. Accidental in Suffolk : One of only about eight inches hooked in Lowestoft outer harbour during August 1852 (J. H. Gurney). But I think them commoner than is usually supposed, since fishermen ignore them as useless : Walberswick, one of 6-J ounces in March 1923, and Southwold, one of six ounces in April 1932 (Collings). [.Labrus sp. Wrasse.—A lower pharyngeal bone of this genus has been discovered in the red-crag of Suffolk (now in Brit. Museum).—Ed.] 55. Laims n.ixtus, Kr. Cuckoo Wrasse.—Lowestoft (Zool. Jan. 1911; T r . Norf. Nat. Soc. ix, p. 817). T w o examples from " the Suffolk coast in January 1925 : it has not [sie] been reported f r o m Suffolk " (I.e., xii, p. 719). 56. Ctenolabrus rupestris, tine Jago's Goldsinnies were 12 January 1910 (I.e., ix, p. was caught off Yarmouth on

Linn. Gold Sinny.—Two very taken by Lowestoft shrimpers on 193. T h e first Norfolk speeimen 5 June 1906 : I.e., viii, p. 464).

GADIDAE.

57. Gadus morrhua, Linn. Cod.—Much more abundant on our coast than before 1830; Harwich about 1712 (Yarrell; Laie, Hist. Harw. 427) ; Southwold before 1838 (Wake). Now common about Gorleston, and in limited numbers at Lowestoft. Long-lining was usual at Aldeburgh about 1900, and successfully revived at Southwold during 1914-8. Wake adds the brown > ariety (callarias, L.) as having been taken in Southwold Bay (Hist. Swold. 1839, 241). 58. G. aeglefinus, Linn. Haddock.—" T h e y are probably more abundant along our eastern coast, from Yarmouth to the ^yne, than elsewhere " in Britain (Yarrell). Formerly common about Gorleston; great numbers landed at Lowestoft, mainly come from deeper water northward. Southwold Bay (Wake). [G. pseudaeglißnus, Newton. Extinct Haddock.—Otoliths, i.e. tar-bones, of this new species have been described from the Oedgrave coralline-crag. M


114

THE FISHES OF SUFFOLK.

G. minutus, Müll. Poor Cod.—No recent Suffolk examples of this extinct species seem known. But a dozen otoliths of G. minutus, Koken, from Sutton are so named in Ipswich Museum ; and we have a score of them, apparently all co-specific though differing in detail and ranging in length from 4,V to nine mm., from the same crag at Sudbourn Park and Sutton Hoo. G. sp. Extinct Cod.—Otoliths from Sutton, labelled G. morrhua but apparently distinct from that speciss, are in Ipswich Museum ; they also occur in the coralline-crag " of Sudbourn, Broomhil, near Orford and elsewhere " (Vict. Hist.).—Ed.] 59. G. luscus, Linn. Bib.—Essex, Norfolk. I have upon occasion taken thirty or forty small specimens in an afternoon from Southwold pier in summer (Collings) ; one specimen per day is not uncommon there but, on the south coast of England, I once caught 144 in an evening (Doughty). In deep water off I.owestoft; and found commonly in Breydon. 60. G. virens, Linn. Coal-fish.*—Southwold Bay (Wake, Doughty); but uncommon there; taken off the pier on 20 November 1915 (Collings). Occasionally, usually singly, in the Yare at Gorleston where small specimens used to abound in a disused drv dock, nowfilledin (Doughty); Lowestoft. Not common about the Dogger Bank ; most Yarmouth landings come from further north. 61. G. merlangus, Linn. Whiting.—In great abundance almost all round our English coast; of several pounds' weight at the Dogger Bank. Off our coast in profusion, both inshore and on the trawling-grounds, arriving towards late September. Thousands were hooked by sea-anglers off the Lowestoft piers during the inrush abundance along the Suffolk shore in midOctober 1909 (Tr. Norf. Soc. ix, p. 86). Southwold Bay and Gorleston. [Otoliths of this species from our Red-crag have been described as pertaining to a new race, termed Suffolciensis. Ed.] 62. G. pollachius, Linn. Pollack.—All round Britain. Omitted in Vict. Hist., but " sometimes caught " (Dale, History of Harwich 1732, 428); Southwold Bay (Wake 1839, 242); and, during the spring of 1888, it was found to literally swarm at Lowestoft (Patterson). 63. Molva vulgaris, Flem. Ling—Yarmouth (Pagets); Southwold Bay (Wake); Aldeburgh (C-larke's Guide) ; once or twice from deep water off Lowestoft, and frequent about Gorleston.

*GadusEsmarcki, Nil., the Norway Pout, has just been added to Norfo fishes by the Discovery of one of three pounds stranded on the beach at Bacton on 10 February 1933 (A. H. Patterson, in lit. 12th inst.). It is among the rarest British species, and nearly as likely to occur south ot the Yare : Ocut.ei !


THE FISHES OF SUFFOLK.

115

64. Merluccius vulgaris, Flem. Hake.—-In north European and Mediterranean seas. Omitted in Vict. Hist., but " Hake is sometimes caught here ; when salted and dried, it is called Poor Jack " (Dale, Hist. Harwich 1732, 429); also recorded thence by Lindsev (Season at Harwich 1851, 73). Southwold (Wake); rather rare about Gorleston. It seems to dislike our shallow water; and is much less abundant than formerly on the English south and west coasts. 65. Lota vulgaris, Cuv. Burbot.—In rivers of Lincoln, Cambs., and Norfolk, but unknown to Dr. Laver in Essex. Little Ouse, Lark and its tributaries (Tr. Suff. Soc. i, p. 163); Southwold (Wake 1839, 242); and formerly in the Waveney, but (teste W. A. Brook, in lit. Jan. 1933) now extinct in this river. 66. Raniceps raninus, Linn. The Lesser Forkbeard.— A specimen nine inches in length was picked up on Gorleston beach on 18 April 1933. It may have been caught in a draw riet, but appearances were rather against this (Doughty). 67. Motella tricirrata, Bl. Three-bearded Rockling.— Omitted in Vict. Hist. Rather rare : Lowestoft on 19 January 1894, one of thirteen inches off Yarmouth in December 1900, and another in 1905 (Patterson). A Suffolk specimen weighing a pound and thirteen ounces was taken off Gorleston pier on 13 October 1932 (Doughty). 68. M. mustela, Linn. Five-bearded Rockling.—Near ^ armouth (Pagets") ; frequently taken by anglers in the Yare at Gorleston (Doughty) ; Southwold Bay (Wake, Doughty), where >t is common (Collings) ; frequent in Breydon, common off Lowestoft, etc. Uncommon in Essex. AMMODYTIDAE.

69. Ammodytes lanceolatus, Les. Greater Launce.—Suffolk (Day), overlooked bv Vict. Hist. Southwold Bay (Wake 1839) ; Lowestoft and about Gorleston (Patterson). Av°i' A ' t o b i a n u s > Linn. Lesser Launce.—Southwold Bay (W ake); common about Gorleston and Lowestoft. It is the tood (Tr. Norf. Soc. xii, p. 380) of Sturgeons. PLEURONECTIDAE.

71. Pleuronectes platessa, Linn. Piaice.—On all English coasts ; migrates southwards in winter and returns in summer. Abundant from Essex to Norfolk; common about Gorleston, elc - ; southwold (Wake, Morley). <, hin' 7 n microcePhala, Gorleston° W n R i d g C S '

Don. Lemon Sole.—Very scarce on the P l e n t i f u l o f f t h e d e e P e r coast; about

more


116

THE FISHES OF SUFFOLK.

73. P. limanda, Linn. D a b . — C o m m o n to all sandy parts of English coast. A b u n d a n t fron Essex to Norfolk ; Southwold, Gorleston, etc. 74. P. Flesus, Linn. F l o u n d e r . — O u l t o n Broad, and in the O r e at both L a n g h a m and Snape bridges (Brook). Attached to a soft, clayey or m u d d y b o t t o m all r o u n d the English coast, hence especially prevalent in estuaries of our rivers at Harwich, Southwold, Lowestoft, Breydon, etc. Spawns in open sea during spring. 75. Hippoglossus vulgaris, Flem. Halibut.—Southwold Bay (Wake 1839, 242) ; Lowestoft and about Gorleston (Patterson). Seems to come no f u r t h e r south, and was unknown to D r . Laver f r o m Essex. 76. Hippoglossoides platessoides, Fab. L o n g Rough Dab. T h i s H. limandoides, G t h r . , has been noticed in Suffolk by only Patterson in 1905, who regards it as " rather r a r e " about Gorleston. 77. Solea vulgaris, Q u e n . Sole.—Common in Breydm W a t e r and fairly plentiful on the N e w c o m e Sand opposite L o w e s t o f t ; Southwold, where it a b o u n d s while quite young (Morley, Collings), to Essex. I t keeps close to sandy bottoms all round the English coast, feeding on fry of other fishes and the " smaller testaceous animals " (Yarrell) ; at Southwold, Wake in 1839 describes t h e m as swallowed " shell and all, as Soles are unprovided with any instrument to draw the fish from ts habitation. Amongst the shells most usually f o u n d in the stomachs of our Soles might be chiefly remarked the Turbo nivosus (animal limaae), a Venus (animal tethys), a Solen (animal ascidia) "—certainly we progress ! 78. S. lutea, Bonap. Solenet.—" Quite a b u n d a n t off the coast of Suffolk " ( T r . N o r f . Nat. Soc. xi, p. 596). Common on the Brown Ridges. 79. Rhombus maximus, Linn. Turbot.—Common about G o r l e s t o n ; fairly plentiful on the Lowestoft t r a w l i n g - g r o u n d s , and of considerable size ; sometimes taken in the inner harbour there, close to M u t f o r d l o c k ; S o u t h w o l d * Occasionallv completely ambicolorate. * " I am afraid that I was rather ambiguous (at page 60, supra) about the effect of the Earthquake's upheaval : I meant that it might ha\ uncovered ground-food which was attracting fish, not d r i v i n g the away. I am nearly sure, however, that I am right in the alteration the Gulf Stream's set for I have just heard the Board of T r a d e s opim° that fishing off Southwold pier is of such small use because the curr . e . had altered and still was altering from Smiths Knowl, some score mii off Gorleston. Such an alteration fully accounts for the many sm and very few large Turbot being caught upon this coast lately : they a deep-sea

fish."—J.

C . HERRINGTON, i n l i t . 6 J a n .

1933.


THE FISHES OF SUFFOLK.

117

80. R. laevis, Rond. Brill.—Taken at Yarmouth and other places along our eastern coast (Yarrell) ; common about Gorleston; Southwold (Wake, Morley, Collings) ; Essex. Taken in about equal plenty with Turbot on trawling-grounds off Lowestoft, where a curiously marked example (Tr. Norf. Soc. ix, p. 83) was landed on 29 June 1909. 81. Arnoglossus laterna, Gthr. Scald-back.—Recorded as having been caught in Southwold Bay before 1839 (Wake, 242). Several young specimens trawled on the Brown Ridges off Lowestoft in 1895, but no mature males, i.e. lophotes. (First Norfolk example was taken at Yarmouth in 1906 : Tr. Norf. Soc. viii, p. 461). 82. Zeugopterus unimaculatus, Day. Bloch's Topknot.—One specimen was taken by a shrimper " just off the shore " at Yarmouth in August-September 1902 (I.e., vii, p. 569). Needs confirmation before being regarded as strictly Suffolcian. SYNGNATIIIDAE.

83. Siphonostoma typhle, Linn. Broad-nosed Pipe-fish.— 1 owestoft, and rather rare about Gorleston. Frequently brought bvfisbing-boatsinto Southwold (Morley); on Gorleston beach m 1928 (Ellis). Very common on the Zostera-covered Essex shores. 84. Syngnathus acus, Linn. Great Pipe-fish.—Common on al British shores, both in deep water and among sea-weed at low tide; most frequent of its family in Essex. Southwold (Morley); one trawled in Breydon Water, circa 1920 (in coli. Doughty); taken commonly in shrimpers' nets about Gorleston and Southwold. 85. Nerophis aequoreus, Linn. Snake Pipe-fish.—The first j-pecimen, now in Norwich Museum, recorded from the neighoourhood of Yarmouth was found on 12 April 1898, in drawnetters' refuse ; I have since seen several (Patterson). Draw netting iS practised far more from Gorleston than Yarmouth beach (Doughty). Brought by a shrimp-boat into Yarmouth on 11 May 1909 (Tr. Norf. Soc. ix, p. 81). Not very rare off the Essex coast. 86. N. lutnbrieiformis, Yarr. Worm Pipe-fish.—Southwold Bay, before 1839 (Wake, 242); rare about Gorleston, on the and m shrimp-nets (Patterson). 87. Hippocampus antiquorum, Leach. Sea Horse.—Of this nostVCry fascinating of all British Pisces we are enabled to claim met W ° ldmandthemere boundary records : It was " occasionally nei befo 'mi ghbourhood of Yarmouth by the Pagets Jre 1834 ; and a specimen lived for three weeks in confinement narwich before 1841. However, despite its long evasion of


118

THE FISHES OF SUFFOLK.

Observation, it may well be found to occur now that we possess keener students of this group of animals ; the more especially since two occurred at Brittelsey in Essex twenty years later (The Field 1866, p. 420). Mr. Claude Morley possesses a specimen, possibly Suffolcian but without definite data. ORTHAGORISCIDAE.

88. Orthagoriscus mola, Linn. Sun-fish.—Southwold Bay, before 1839 (Wake, 2 4 3 ) ; occasionallv at Harwich (Lindsey, Season 1851, 1 0 2 ) : near the mouths of the Orwell and the Deber, (Taylor, Tourists' Guide. 1892); brought from Smiths Knowl into Lowestoft on 2 November 1929 (Tr. Suff. Soc. i, p. 73). 89. O. truncatus, Bich. Truncated Sun fish—Our sole record is shared with Essex : " Lindsey says, in his " Season at Harwich," pt. ii, p. 101, that the Oblong Sun-fish is rare" (Laver, Fishes of Essex 1898, 117), otherwise unknown in that county. SCOPELIDAE.

90. Scopelus Pennanti, Cuv. Pearlsides.—Gorleston beach in 1889 (Patterson). I picked up a specimen on Gorleston beach on 22 March 1916, that is now in Norwich Museum (Doughty in lit.) : a specimen of Maurolicus Pennantii, which is the smallest of the Salmonidae, was found 2.1 inches in length on Gorleston beach on 24 [sie] March 1916 by Mr. C. G. Doughty ( T r . Norf. Soc. xi, p. 597). SALMONIDAE.

91. Salmo salar, Linn. S a l m o n . — I n the upper waters of the Deben, and one of 11 lbs. 9 oz. near Wilford Bridge, during February 1924 ; one of seventeen pounds off Ipswich bathingplace on 6 June 1919 (Local Paper). Taken within recent years in both the Orwell and the Gipping at Ipswich (Platten, in lit.), and in Ipswich dock (Stiles, in lit.). But otherwise they are almost unknown in our rivers since Sir Thomas Browne found them in the Waveney. Southwold Bay (Wake), and one of about seven pounds recently taken within the groynes opposite that town. One of twentv-seven pounds was taken in draw-net in Dunwich Bight on 12 May 1933 (Collings); singly off Lowestoft, where one of twenty-five pounds was caught in a trawl during May 1879 (Land and Water, 10 May ann. cit.) ; rare about Gorleston, but has occurred in Breydon Water on 1 August 189b et seqq. [5. fontinalis, auet., has been introduced from America to our rivers by the Fish Acclimatization Society.] 92. S. fario, Linn. Trout—In most rivers and lakes of Britain. Unknown to occur in our rivers in 1911 (sec. Vict. Hist. 1 6 9 ) ; now found to be sufficiently abundant in the Waveney, Ore, Deben including Kirton Creek and Fynn and east Lars, Gipping, Stour including Brett and Glem, Kennett, and Lark ;


THE FISHES OF SUFFOLK.

119

also some brooks (Trans. Suff. Nat. Soc. 1931, p. lxx). Those of the Ore were put in hy Charles Darvill of Mariesford Hall about 1884 (Brook); and of the Fynn are definitely introduced, as also is some proportion of those throughout Suffolk and Norfolk (Doughty). 93. S. Trutta, Linn. Salmon-Trout.—Common at Gorleston ; and one recently caught above Oulton Dyke (Brook), but rarely netted in the Waveney (Patterson) ; Thetford (Tr. Norf. Soc. vii, 326 and viii, p. 393). One of ten pounds is stuffed at Ash Mill on the Deben, where it was netted in 1928 (Brook). By no means always common (I.e. 1920, p. 76) or in considerable numbers during October in mackerel-nets (Vict. Hist, 169) off Lowestoft, attaining a length of 14f inches. Southwold Bay (Wake) ; at times very commonly in draw-nets up tofivepounds, and sometimes seen lying beneath the pier and in harbour there in summer. 94. S. iridens, Gibb. Rainbow Trout.—First recorded from Suffolk at Cavenham Mill (Tr. Suff. Soc. 1931, p. lxxiii) : introduced. 95. Thymallus vulgaris, Nil. Grayling.—Introduced to the River Lark in 1931 (I.e., p. 235) : not more than two or three known to have been taken and those shortly after the river was stocked (Andrews). 96. Osmerus eperlanus, Linn. Smelt.—Nearly confined to estuaries on both west and east coasts of Britain ; but spawns up rivers in fresh-water. Found in the Breydon, Waveney, Blyth, Aide, Deben, Orwell and Stour ; in the sea about Gorleston, Lowestoft and regularly now (Collings) at Southwold (Wake). For life-history, cf. Dutt's Wild Life E. Anglia 1906, 151. SCOMBRESOCIDAE.

97. Ramphistoma betone, Linn. Gar-fish.—Often seen through clear water in summer, lying under Southwold pier (Collings) : taken regularly in small numbers in mackerel-nets off Lowestoft during October ; about Gorleston and Aldeburgh, nut unnoticed elsewhere. Essex. 98. Hemiramphus (Cuv. 1817) Europaeus, Yarr. Mag. Nat. «ist. 1837, p. 505. Half-beak.—Up to 1841 there were known °nly one speeimen, taken swimming actively in Polpero harbour m Cornwal July 1818 by Couch (Trans. Linn. Soc., an< l aduring If ^. s^oa' °f myriads that was found, in a small pool ett by the tide on the seashore " in the vicinity of Felixstow, isr! gC in Sllffolk between Harwich and Orford," on 7 August 1837 by Mr. Edward Clarke of Ipswich (Hist. Brit. Fish, i, 451), f rm given by Yarrell whofinallydecided " it is not " an immature ? Ramphistoma betone, which form was known. Despite "Iis decision, the Vict. Hist. 1911, p. 168, persists in regarding


120

THE FISHES OF SUFFOLK.

H. Europäern as " in all probability the young of this species," adding Lowe's discoverv of the Hemiramphus in the Ouse below Lynn during July 1868." Truly synonymy seems tardy ! 99. Scombresox saurus, Walb. Saury Pike—Included in the 1911 Suffolk List on no better authority than its occurrence " at Y a r m o u t h " (Vict. Hist. i, 168.) 100. Exocaetus volitans, Linn. Flving Fish—Southwold Bay, before 1839 (Wake, 241); Yarmouth, 1868 and 1906 (Patterson). SLLURIDAE.

101. Silurus Glanis, Linn. Sheat-fish.—Sir Joshua Rowley put some immature specimens from Central Europe into a lake at Nayland-Stoke, which communicates with the Stour, about 1865. Nothing further seems heard of them tili, in August 1894, gamekeepers who were fishing in the River Stour at Fiatford Mill [whence the record is claimed by Essex (Laver 1898, p. 107)] landed a mature specimen in perfect condition, fifty-one inches long and over thirty pounds in weight: apparently the sole example ever naturalised in Britain (Günther, I.e.). ESOCIDAE.

102. Fsox lucius, Linn. Pike.—Exceedingly common in most English rivers. Generally distributed throughout our County, from the Lark (Simpson) and Blackbourn River, where it is less plentiful than forty years ago and occurs up to 6J pounds, across to Oulton Broad, where in January 1918 they " w e r e giving remarkable sport and fifty Pike, up to twenty pounds in weight, were taken in one day " (Tr. Norf. Soc. 1919, p. 491). Frequent in High Suffolk ponds (Greaves); in Fritton Lake, but not in the Fynn (Doughtv) ; in the Ore from Mariesford to Langham bridge, the Deben from Easton to Ash decoy, the Waveney from Mendham to Beccles, the Butley and Oulton Broad (Brook).* CLUPEIDAE.

103. Clupea harengus, Linn. Herring.—They are caught on the coast of Essex and are very abundant off Yorkshire (Yarrell). Immense shoals arrive off Suffolk early in October, and are fished by hundreds of boats during the November spawning, after which they disappear ; a lesser influx takes place in the spring, possibly *Among the " Monies paid to divers persons for divers t h i n g s bouglvt for the funeral [in the vear 1281] of the lady Cecilia," widow of William Talmache of Hawstead in Suffolk, are " IXS. for Fish and Herrings , xxvi5. for Pikes and Eels (piks et anguillis).—This is a good mstance o the Pike in England 21 centuries before the reign of H e n r y via, when • is said to have heen first introduced. T h e author of Fleta, ™ wrote in this reign, also refers to Piscarias suas quisque discretus Brestm et Perchiis faciet instaurari ; sed non de lupis aquaticis, T e n c h n s v ^ Anguillis, qui effusionem Piscium nituntur devorare (Lib. 11, cap. !*)• Hist. Hawstead by Sir John Cullum, F.R.S., 1784, p. 11.


121 also a second spawning. A curious inshoring occurred at Lowestoft in mid-September 1909 (Trans. Norf. Soc. ix, p. 86), when the fish came so far into the breakers that many were actuallv thrown ashore. Many herring are caught by " drifting " by small open boats during the summer and autumn months each year off the Suffolk Coast, often not more than two or three hundred yards from the shore. During the final three weeks of last September, large numbers of small herring, from four to six inches in length, haunted Southwold pier, and many of these were caught on mackereifliesfishedwith a sinking and rising movement, catches offiftyor sixtv fishes being not uncommon. I opened some of these small herring and they were found to contain a number, varying from two tofive,of littlefish,1 to I4 inches in length : probably herring fry of this year (Collings). 104. C. Sprattus, Linn. Sprat.—The coasts of Kent, Essex and Suffolk are the most productive (Yarrell), from early November to mid-January. They spawn during early summer far out at sea ; eggsfloatin May and June, when the ensuing White-bait enter estuaries. Especialyfishedfrom Harwich, Aldeburgh, Southwold and Lowestoft. The fry of herrings and sprats, mixed occasionally with young Gobies, Sandeeis, Blennies, etc., constitute the commercial " White bait." This name is also applied locally to young common Gobies alone. 105. C. Pilcardus, Artedi. Sardine, or Pilchard.—Abundant about Yarmouth at end of eighteenth Century, but only a few specimens every year there thence to 1834 (Pagets) ; also now they continue rather rare about Gorleston. Southwold Bay (Wake & Patterson), where they are now not uncommon ; I have seen several, taken with Herring (Collings). Rare, but occasionally caught, at Harwich (Dale, Hist. Harwich, 432). 106. C. Alosa, Linn. Allis-shad.—On the eastern coast it is common in the Thames and on the Norfolk coast (Yarrell), where it occurs with Herrings about Yarmouth (Pagets); Southwold Bay (Wake). Now it seems quite rare, and is not in Patterson's earlier list at all. Aldeburgh ; Gurney records a pair at Lowestoft in May 1840, male of 3£ and female of \\ pounds. Has been taken since 1918 in Herring nets at Southwold, but rare. 107. C. Finta, Cuv. Thwait-shad.—Not uncommon about < armouth in the Pagets' time, but now become " rather rare " tnere: In ehavine asedraw en it net netted on Breydon Water (Patterson) ; (H \ ° " on Gorleston beach, 1 May 1917 One of over two pounds was hooked at Lowestoft ln ougnty). u e netJ "_ 1867. I have one taken with C. Pilcardus, in a herring Southwold, and is not uncommon there : unnoticed on °ur coast further south. Essex. THE FISHES OF SUFFOLK.


122

THE FISHES OF SUFFOLK.

[Halecopis insignis, Delvaux ( = H . laevis). Extinct Herring.— A score of Suffolk specimens are preserved in Ipswich Museum, 'inder these two names.—Ed.] 108. Engraulis encrasicholus, Linn. Anchovy—Essex and Yarmouth, "rare ; many in the Ouse at Lynn and abundant in the Zuyder Zee, whence in autumn they migrate through the English Channel. A few are taken annually, most usually during June, in herring-nets off Covehithe, e.g. during May 1925, whence one was just over seven inches in length (in Norw. Mus. : cf. EDPress) ; one of 6 | inches in longshore herring-net off Southwold on 9 May 1932 ; and one of 5J inches in a trawl there the next day. They are very delicate fish, the large scales rubbing off more easily than those of the Herring and, when thus bared, the flesh is quite transparent (Collings). [Lepidosleiis sp. Bony Pike.—Some scales, found in the Lower Eocene of Kingston in Woodbridge, have been assigned to this, now solely N. American genus of the Clupeidae by Smith Woodward, which fossils were given in 1854 by the Revd. J. Middleton to the British Museum.—Ed.] MURAENIDAE.

109. Anguilla vulgaris, Turt. Eel—Common in the sea at Southwold, etc. ; and exceedingly abundant in all Suffolk rivers (eg the Blackbourn : Tr. Suff. Soc. i, 164) and ponds (e.g. even those of High Suffolk at Monks' Soham, etc.). The sharpnosed males have" been found in the sea off Lowestoft. An Eel, weighing 3 ' pounds, has been shot at Breydon with a fully grown Water Vole in its gullet (Tr. Norf. Soc. ix, p. 194) ; and another, sixty-four inches in length, was exhibited at Lowestoft in February 1911 (I.e., p. 819). All Eels migrate, when mature, to the western Atlantic Ocean, south of Bermuda. Their eggs are here extruded and fertilised, and the parents die. The eggs float to the surface and the young (Leptocephali) move easterly and reach the coasts of Europe in about two years. A year later they become elveis and begin their ascent of our rivers. 110. Conger niger, Cuv. Conger Eel.—Frequently caught at rocky parts of our eastern coast (Yarrell). Uncommon about Gorleston (Doughty) ; sometimes in deep water off Lowestott (Patterson); Southwold (Wake); Aldeburgh (Clarke's Guide); Slaughden beach 1930 (Morley). One, of over eighty-iour pounds, was washed ashore dead at Felixstow on 6 January lv/U , such large specimens are females, for males never exceed 2\ feet in length. They spawn but once in a life-time, in the western Atlantic, and the ensuing young (olim Leptocephalus Monist, Penn.) make easterly for shallow water. CYRPINIDAE.

111 Cyprinus carpio, Linn. Carp.—Introduced as British in 1614. Ubiquitous: Barton Mills (Simpson), Euston,


THE FISHES OF SUFFOLK.

123

Bradfield Combust (Tr. Suff. Soc. i, 163); Uggeshall and about Southwold (Collings) ; Lound, Fritton and formerly in Oulton Broad and Breydon. In many ponds : Glenham Parva (Brook) ; Monks' Soham rectory, etc. The var. specularis is said to flourish in a pond near Lowestoft in August 1909 (I.e., p. 84). 112. Carassius vulgaris, Nil. Crucian Carp.—Near Southwold on 14 July 1909 (Tr. Norf. Soc. ix, p. 83); rather rare in the north-east, at Fritton Lake, etc. 113. C. auratus, Linn. Gold-fish.—Introduced as British in 1691. Ornamental ponds and moats : Flemings Hall in Bedingfield, Monks' Soham House, Haiesworth, etc. ; but rather rare in Lothingland. 114. C. Gibelio, Bloch. Prussian Carp.—Found at Lound in 1908 (I.e., p, 83). 115. Gobiofluviatilis,Cuv. Gudgeon.—Local through part of the County : Blackbourn River (Tr. Suff. Soc. 1931, p. 163); Waveney from Wortwell to Homersfield (Brook) ; common in rivers in the Bury district (Andrews); and in Fritton Lake. 116. Tinea vulgaris, Cuv. Tench.—Common: in the Deben from Ash decoy to Wickham and at Glevering, the Waveney from Wortwell to Earsham (Brook) ; in nearly all lakes in Bury district (Andrews) ; Redgrave park in 1932; Euston, Beccles, Fritton Lake, etc. 117. Phoxinus laevis, Agas. Minnow.—Generally distributed probably ; common in the Stour (Laver) and Blackbourn (Caton) ; Waveney at Homersfield (Brook). Unknown to me about Gorleston ; our rivers are too sluggish and muddy for it (Doughty). 118. Leuciscus cephalus, Linn. Chub.—Common in many English rivers, but local in Suffolk and Essex. One of over seven pounds at Lakenheath staunch in 1904 ; two of six pounds apiece at Brandon in 1897 and 1906 (Tr. Norf. Soc. vi, 326 and viii, 392) ; Barton Mills (Simpson) ; the Lark (Andrews); two of four pounds in the Blackbourn (Tr. Suff. Soc. i, p. 164) ; taken in the Waveney in April 1890, but apparently very rare there. 119. L. dobula,~Lnm. Dace.—Common in some of our rivers : Stour (Laver) to Blackbourn (Caton) ; Barton Mills (Simpson) ; Waveney from Mendham to Ellingham (Brook), but rare about St. Olaves, etc. (Doughty). 120. L. rutilus, Linn. Roach.—Abundant in rivers throughout temperate Europe. Barton Mills (Simpson) ; Sapiston and Fakenham, but rarer in the Blackbourn than twenty years ago (Tr. Suff. Soc. i, 163) ; Deben from Easton to Ash decoy, Ore trom Hacheston to Snape bridge, Blyth at Blythford, and Waveney from Mendham to Oulton Broad (Brook); Butley River (Morley); IJarsham ponds, and formerly common in Breydon Water.


124

THE FISHES OF SUFFOLK.

One presumably local specimen of the hybrid, L. Buggenhagi, is exhibited at the Wherry Inn at Oulton Broad. 121. Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Linn. Rudd.—The Redeye occurs in Norfolk, Cambs. and Essex. And with us in " considerable numbers in the Suffolk Stour " river (Laver) at Long Melford (Ipsw. Mus.) ; in the Ore from Glemham null to Snape bridge, and in ponds at South Elmham, Glemham and Parham (Brook); commonly in the Lark (Simpson), Blackbourn (Caton) and in 1932 up to eight ounces in Redgrave park ; it is frequent in Frostenden and Dingle dykes, Oulton Broad and Fritton Lake. 122. Blicca Bioernka, Linn. White Bream.—Norfolk, Cambs., Essex. " Tt occurs in the Suffolk S t o u r " (Laver), as well as in Oulton Broad (Brook) and commonly since at latest 1881 in Fritton Lake at the other extremity of the County, throughout which it " probably occurs " (Vict. History). 123. Abramis brama, Linn. Yellow Bream.—Very abundant in the Brandon river (Tr. Suff. Soc. i, p. 164, nota); in considerable numbers in the Stour (Laver) ; in Parham Old Hall moat, the Deben from Wickham to Ash decoy, and the Waveney from Oulton dyke to Ellingham (Brook); abundant in Oulton Broad and Fritton Lake. 124. Alburnus lucidus, Heck. Bleak.—Fairly common in the Little Ouse about Thetford, at least up to 1897 (Clarke, Tr. Norf. Soc. vi, p. 327). COBITIDAE.

125. Nemachilus barbatulus, Linn. Stone Loach.—Not infrequent in all English rivers and brooks, but it lurks beneath stones and thus becomes difficult of Observation. Generally distributed over Essex ; " probably occurs " in Suffolk (Vict. Hist.). Confirmed by Mr. W. A. Dutt, who has found it near Bungay in an affluent of the Waveney; and by Brook, who took it in the Ore by the ford at Mariesford. Formerly in Linnet in Ickworth Park. 126. Cobitis taenia, Linn. Spined Loach.—Occurs in the lodes tributary to the Cam. Discovered in Little Ouse at Knettishall on 3 August 1933 by E. H. Kirkby. ACIPENSERIDAE.

127. Acipenser Sturio, Linn. S t u r g e o n . — O c c a s i o n a l l y taken on the east coast of England before 1841, and now apparently a good deal commoner. Not frequent inshore, rarely so far as Breydon Water and about 1836 even up the Aide to Rendham; but usuallv brought in to Lowestoft from the North Sea (Trans. Suff. Soc.'i, pp. 73, 145, 235). In the river at Thetford, in the Aprils of 1715 and 1735 (Martin's Hist. Thetf. 1779), before


THE FISHES OF

SUFFOLK.

125

erection of staunches. Recent specimens brought into Lowestoft are : of 8 | feet on 22 April 1921 ; 6 feet on 13 Oct. 1921 ; 11 feet and four inches on 21 Oct. 1925 ; two of seven-eight stone and less on 6 April 1929 ; two of 6J, feet and about five stone on 22 Dec. 1931 and 1 Jan. 1932 ; and one of 25 lbs. on 23 June 1932 Local Paper). Southwold, 24 June 1932* [We possess an interesting fossil vertebra, just 30 mm. in diameter by 13£ long, of some chondropterygid fish, considered by Dr. Vinter to be probably the present species. It was dug from the bed of the Waveney River at Stuston Common, doubtless there deposited in glacial gravel. Acipenser toliapticus, Agas. Extinct Sturgeon.—Spines of this genus have occurred in our Red-crag, quite possibly redeposited therein from some older formation (in York and Ipswich muss.). We found such a dorsal spine, of 2} by one inches, in the Red-crag nodule-bed at Bawdsey cliff on 27 December 1932 ; and possess another, of 3J inches broad by 2\ high, probably from Foxhall. Lepidotus maximus, Wagner. (=Sphaerodus gigas, Agas.) Gyrodus sp. f'isodus sp.

Pycnodus toliapticus, Agas. (=Periodus Kaenigi).

f The rounded or oval crushing teeth of these four pycnodont ganoid genera all occur in our Red-crag, derived in the last two cases probably from London Clav, and in the first two from earlier strata. Of the two last species, four ^ examples of each are in Ipswich Museum ; and the first one (cf. Trans, i, 113) is there represented from the Redcrag of Waldringfield : of it we found a rolled example in the Bawdsey nodule-bed during December 1932.—Ed.]

CARCKARIIDAE.

128. Carcharias glaucus, Linn. Blue Shark.—Southwold Bay (Wake); Aldeburgh (Hele, teste Vict. Hist.); an immature specimen of this species (not Laemargus borealis, the Greenland shark, as at first recorded in the local paper), 6 | feet long and Many of the above Sturgeons were taken on the High Seas ; but genuine Suffolk specimen, of forty-seven inches in length and fifteen pounds in weight, was trawled by a local longshore boat just off Southwold, said to be the first thence for forty years ; it was landed alive there early on 24 June 1932, exhibited in the town all day, and desptached by the Mayor to King George V. a


126

THE FISHES OF SUFFOLK.

21 in girth, was taken in the Ore estuary near Orford during November 1922 (Maynard ; now in Ipsw. Museum). Very rare, and noted about Yarmouth at only three or four long intervals. 129. Squalus* malleus, Shaw. Hammer-headed Shark.— " One taken Oct. 1829 ; head now in the Norwich M u i i u m " (Pagets' Sketch 1834, p. 17). This species here figures for no better reason than because it is in the previous Suffolk List of 1911, based merely upon " a specimen taken at Yarmouth in November [sie] 1829," recorded by the Pagets and too exactly referred to " the coast of Norfolk " by Yarrell (Fishes ii, 505). 130. Galeus vulgaris, Flem. Tope.—A female of twenty-five inches in length on the Brown Ridges off Lowestoft in 1895 (Vict. Hist.). Rather rare about Gorleston ; one of five feet, swimming near the surface of Breydon Water, was secured by a wherryman on 23 September 1903 (Tr. Norf. Soc. vii, p. 729). I have seen iteaught on Southwold pier, and by Southwold trawlers and long-liners during the last fifteen years (Doughty) ; one thus taken, four feet in length, on 10 October 1917 (Collings). [To a species closely allied to, if not identical with, the present have been relegated a couple of teeth found in the Red-crag in Beahngs Parva.—Ed.] 131. Mustelus vulgaris, Müll. Smooth Hound.—Somewhat common round the English coast. Trawled on the Brown Ridges in 1895, and taken in shrimp-trawl on the Newcome Sands off Lowestoft (Vict. Hist.). Rather rare about Gorleston, but occasionally caught during the Herring fishery (Patterson). Yarmouth Deep in August 1932 (Trans. Suff. Soc. I, p. lxxxv). LAMNIDAE.

132. Selache maxima, Cuv. Basking Shark—No direct record appears to exist since the Pagets observed it upon several occasions before 1834 in the neighbourhood of Yarmouth. Confirmation, however, seems contained in Palmer's record of a white Shark off Kessingland (Trans, supra. l, p. 73), with which Patterson agrees (Zool. 1909). In September 1920 Mr. Morley was told by fishermen at Walberswick ferry that a Shark of forty feet in length had been captured, in the Blyth River there, in or about 1870. 133 Alopias vulpes, Linn. Thresher.—Not infrequent when fishing for Mackerei, upon which it preys and in whose nets it becomes entangled. First described from matenal taken at Kirkley ; landed at Lowestoft in 1879, 1897 of twelve feet ( T r Norf Soc. vi, p. 408) and 1898 of fourteen feet four inches *I use the genus Squalus (Linn. 1748) because Zygaena (Cuv. 1817), that now in general adoption, is preoccupied by F a b n c i u s Lepidoptera, 1 7 7 5 . - D . W . C .


THE FISHES OF

SUFFOLK.

127

(I.e., p. 487). One, of 9 | feet by 3 in girth with a tail of 4 feet 11 in., taken off Sizewell on 3 October 1905 j near mouth of Deben and Orwell (Taylor, 1892). Southwold (Wake); one, of 11 feet and 290 lbs., taken close off that town on 12 October 1906; and a 6 feet speeimen taken in a net and brought into that town during 1928 (Collings). Rare about Gorleston (Patterson). 134. Lamna Cornubica, Linn. Porbeagle.—Commonly caught by the Herring drifters ; but both " Sharks and Porpoises, being utterly useless, are seldom brought to the wharf" (Tr. Norf. Soc. ix, p. 88). A nine-feet one was landed at Lowestoft on 24 September 1910 (I.e. p. 196); a seven-feet one taken in driftnets at Lowestoft in October 1900 (Vict. Hist.); one, of about 560 ibs., 8 feet long and 6 in girth, was taken in the Wold near Yarmouth on 11 May 1932 ; three of 5-6 feet landed at Lowestoft on 28 August 1922 ; and a " bottle-nose " speeimen, of 5 | feet long, taken at Aldeburgh on 23 October 1920. One of 9-10 feet was captured off Harwich, and exhibited at Ipswich (Essex Nat. vi, p. 154); at mouth of the Deben (Taylor, 1892). I have the jaws of one, weighing 14 lbs., taken off Southwold on 27 June 1916 (Collings). [Lamna Vincenti, Winkler. Extinct Porbeagle.—Teeth occur in the Lower Eocene pebble-bed of Bolton's Ipswich brickyard (Proc. Geol. Assoc. xxiii, 1912, p. 233). Lamna obliqua, Agas. Eocene Shark.—Teeth have been iound redeposited from London Clay in our Red Crag. They occur therein at Newbourn where Lyell, referring to Owen's fossil Leopard thence, remarks that it " resembles in colour that of many of the accompanying teeth of Fishes, most of which be ong to different species of the Shark family, with which the Palatal bones of Myliobates, a kind of Skate, are intermixed. It is deserving of remark that, in a great portion of the Shark's teeth, the softer or bony portion at the base has been worn away, more or less entirely, as if by attrition ; while the upper part, or that covered by enamel, has suffered but slightly" (Brit. *oss. Mamm. 1846, 170). Mr. Morley has some thirty of these teeth trom Martlesham (Doughty), Newbourn (Booth), Foxhall Ramsholt, Sutten and Tattingstone. maximus . Linn. Basking Shark.—Spines from ™e Woodbridge, etc., red-crag could not be differentiated by ower trom those arming the claspers of this gigantic recent SU h S p i n 6 S Museum ° ' f r ° m W a l d r i n S f i e l d > a r e i n Ipswich

Duponti, Hasse. Basking Shark.—Two speeimens, red-crag, are thus named in Ipswich Museum. Carcharodon Rondeleti, Muller. Rondeleti's Shark.-Teeth, 8 e s t (forty feet long) extant and broadly-distributed s n r r "® o c c u r ln both the Orford coralline-crag and the Sutton buttolk


128

THE FISHES OF SUFFOLK.

etc., red-crag. M r . Morley has half-a-dozen from red-crag at Wal'dringfield (A. P. Waller), Martlesham (Doughty), Newbourn and Foxhall. Carcharodon megalodon, Agas. Extinct S h a r k . — T h e s e vet larger teeth of similar type to the last are found redeposited in the red-crag at Felixstow, Woodbridge and elsewhere in our county, from the later Tertiary strata wherein they are well-nigh cosmopolitan : their great size of five inches long by four broad indicates individual Sharks of sixty feet in length. M r . Morley has a couple of teeth, probably from the Foxhall red-crag. A series is in Southwold M u s e u m . Oxyrhina hastalis, Agas. Porbeagle S h a r k . — T e e t h in London Clay at Hintlesham (in Ipsw. Mus.) and in the red-crag nodulebed. M r . Morley has a dozen from Foxhall and ? Newbourn. Odontaspis macrota, Agas. ( = e l e g a n s , Agas.). Porbeagle S h a r k . — T e e t h occur in the Lower Eocene pebble-bed strata of Bolton's Ipswich brickfield, with vertebrae of teleostean fishes (Proc. Geol. Assoc. xxiii, 1912, p. 233). I n London Clay at Hintlesham (in Ipsw. Mus.) and thence numerously washed into the red-crag basal nodule-bed, with which the sharp examples are doubtless coeval but the rolled and blunted ones seem derived (in M u s . Pract. Geol.). M r . Morley has teeth from Sudbury, commonly (Jordan), Tattingstone, Bawdsey cliff, F o x h a l l ; as well as Newbourn (Booth), where Owen says that " similarlv coloured and triturated teeth of Fishes have heen procured in abundance from the same p i t " as a Bear's tooth (Brit. Foss. M a m m , 1846, 106 and 427). Odontaspis contortidens, Agas. Porbeagle Shark.—Common in the same strata, apparently but partly derived from London Clay. ?Foxhall and in the nodule-bed of Bawdsey cliff (Morley). Odontaspis cuspidata, Agas. Porbeagle S h a r k . — T e e t h have been found in the Lower Eocene of Kingston m Woodbridge <d. Cat. Fossil Fish in Brit. Mus. i, 369) and the same Stratum in Bolton's Ipswich brickyard (Proc. Geol. Ass. xxm, p. 233). PFoxhall (Morley). Scapanorhynchus sp. T o this genus Alfred Bell ascribes material in the Ipswich Museum, found in base of red-crag " from earlier strata." NOTIDANIDAE.

Notidanus gigas, Sismonda. Pliocene S h a r k . — T h e s e laterallydentate teeth are characteristic of our red-crag nodule-bed at Felixstow, Woodbridge, Butley, etc., as well as of Tuscany s Pliocene strata. Notidanus primigenius, Agas. Pliocene Shark.—Material so labelled, from Waldringfield, is in the Ipswich M u s e u m . — M J


THE FISHES OF SUFFOLK.

129

SCYLLIDAE.

135. Scyllium canicula, Linn. Lesser-spotted Dog-fish.— A common British species : Southwold Bay before 1839 (Wake); a fevv have been taken nearly every year from the pier there through the last decade (Doughty) ; Lowestoft (Gurney); frequently caught by trawlers, rarely by shrimpers and sea-anglers, about Gorleston. 136. S. catulus, Cuv. Nurse Hound.—Taken rather rarely by trawlers and seen upon the beach about Gorleston (Patterson's S. stellaris); at the Yarmouth Deep (Tr. Suff. Nat. Soc. i, p. lxxxv). Southwold (Wake) ; Aldeburgh, common at rare intervals by long-lining ; and one, of over 3J feet and 6J lbs., taken in a net off Felixstow on 14 August 1928 (Local Paper). I saw one, just caught, at Walberswick ferry on 25 September 1920 (Morley). SPINACIDAE.

137. Acanthias vulgaris, Riss. Pyked Dog-fish.—In numbers at most fishing-stations on the south-east coast of England ; a midwater swimmer. Abundant throughout the Suffolk shore (Doughty); common about Gorleston (Patterson) ; Brown Ridges, Newcome Sand, etc. At times very common at Southwold. Essex. 138. Laemargus microcephalus, Sehn.*. Greenland Shark.— Our sole example is a male of 1 2 | feet in length, that was caught off Kessingland during February 1875 (Southwell, Zoologist, ann. cit.) Cp. Carcharias, supra. RHINIDAE.

139. Rhina squatina, Linn. Angel.—Occasionally taken on the east coast about Yarmouth (Yarrell) ; but rather rare in the vicinity of Gorleston. Lowestoft in August 1874 (Southwell) and also later (Dutt) ; Southwold, before 1839 (Wake); I saw a speeimen, locally taken, at Shingle-street in Hollesley, one \\ hitsun (Doughty) ; near the mouths of the Deben and the Orwell (Taylor, 1892). " Frequents entire Essex coast " (Laver). [Squatina sp. A Monk-fish.—Three of the small teeth of this genus have occurred singly in our Pliocene nodule-bed Cin Brit. -uus.) in the Red-crag (York Mus.) and at Bealings Parva.—Ed.] TORPEDINIDAE.

140. Torpedo nobiliana, Bonap. Electric Ray.—Of merely accidental occurrence. A fine speeimen was trawled at Lowestoft on 1 December 1883 (Lowe's Suppl. List); one in 1895 and another later observed on the fish-wharf there (Patterson, 1905) also on 9 February 1907 (Zool. 1909). *So'mnorhinus is a better generic name for the British " Darkie Charlie," isn unknown in our Countv, than Scymnus of Cuvier 1817, which name preoccupied by Klug, 1794, in Coleoptera.—Ed.


130

THE FISHES OF SUFFOLK. [PRISTIDAE

Pristis sp. Saw Fish.—Fragments of teeth from Woodbridge indicate the presence of one of the Lower Eocene species belonging to this genus (Vict. Hist.).—Ed.] RAJIDAE.

141. Raja batis, Linn. Skate.—Found along the whole coast; by no means rarely, in our deeper water, as off Essex. Southwold (Wake), where it is fairlv common and has been occasionally takeil with a rod off the pier (Collings). Egg-capsules common all along the coast: Bawdsey, Easton, etc. (Morley). [A single tooth has occurred in the Coralline-crag at Gedgrave (Vict. Hist.) and three in Subourn Park during November 1932 (Morley).—Ed.] 142. R. alba, Lac. White Skate.—Caught off Harwich in 1851 (Lindsey, Season, 98) ; and off Yarmouth in October 1883 (E.D. Press* temp. cit.). An immature specimen of the synonymous R. marginata, Lac., was taken at Lowestoft on 9 May 1909 (Zool. 1909). 143. R. Fullonica, Linn. Shagreened Ray.—This is certainly (pace Patterson, I.e.) the " Long-nosed Skate," Raia chagrinea, Mont., that Wake brings forward from Southwold Bay in 1839. His County record yet remains unique. 144. R. clavata, Linn. Thorn-backed Ray.—A very common species: Southwold (Wake), abundantly (Collings); Brown Ridges, Gorleston, Aldeburgh, etc. Essex. [Numerous dermal plates in the Orford and Gedgrave coralline-crag, as well as in the red-crag nodule-bed, are analogous with recent ones.—Eü.] 145. R. maculata, Mont. Spotted Ray.—Common on south coast and off Norfolk; unrecorded by Laver from Essex. Southwold Bay (Wake); Lowestoft, and commonly caught in shrimp-nets about Gorleston. 146. R. radiata, Don. Starry Ray.—One, that was later set up, occurred at Lowestoft on 20 February 1907 (Patterson, Zool. 1909). [R. antigua, Agas. Extinct Ray—Many plates are in Ipswich Museum ; probably the same species as Raja sp. of Vict. Hist., of which dermal plates that were found in Gedgrave coralhne and Boyton red crags were considered perhaps generically distinct from existing species (Newton). Ptychodus latissimus, Agas. Extinct Ray.—Some of these wellknown crushing teeth from the Upper Chalk of Orford (Uit. Fossil Fish in Brit. Mus. i, 149), where no chalk is known to outcrop.


THE FISHES OF SUFFOI.K.

131

p, polygyrus, Agas. Extinct Eagle Ray.—Crushing teeth of this abundant Cretaceous species are represented by a few fragments, found derivative in our Red-crag (in Ipsw. Mus.). One such occurred to us in the Bawdsey nodule-bed during March 1932. P. decurrens, Agas. Extinct Ray.—Four specimens, from the Chalk of Suffolk, are in the Ipswich Museum.—Ed.] TRYGONIDAE.

147. Trygon pastinaca, Cuv. Sting Ray.—One of about twenty-eight pounds, with a double spine, was taken off Kessingland in 1856 (Gurney); one of thirty-five pounds landed with a line at Lowestoft pier on 4 August 1909 (Tr. Norf. Soc. ix, p. 84); one weighing sixty pounds, with a double-barbed tail, trawled off Southwold on 20 July 1912 (I.e. p. 820); and two, of 7J and 17| pounds, have occurred there recently (Collings). It is found rarely off Aldeburgh. Essex and Yarmouth. MYLIOBATIDAE.

148. Myliobatis aquila, Linn. Whip Ray.—Very rarely seen. One was found dead upon Lowestoft beach on 19 June 1867 (Vict. Hist.); and the species has once occurred in " the Norfolk Estuary " (Patterson) of Breydon Water, which is no more Norfolk than Suffolk. Unknown to Laver in Essex. [.Myliobatis tumidens, Wdw. Eagle Ray.—This is the species whose large, roller-like dental plates are typical of our Red Crag. We possess such plates of this and the following species from that formation at Walton in Essex, Newbourn, Butley mid-pit, Sutton south-pit, Ramsholt cliff, Bawdsey cliff nodule-bed, and Foxhall. Eagle Rays.—Dental plates of j both these typically Eocene kinds Myliobatis Dixoni, Agas. j have been found washed into Myliobatis toliapica, Agas. • our Red Crag. The latter is the sole species named in Ipswich Museum. Mtobatis irregularis, Agas. Eagle Ray.—Dental plates occur in Red Crag, from the lower Eocene strata (Ipsw. Mus.) with those of the last two kinds. Zylobatis Woodwardi, Agas. Eagle Ray.—Specimens from the " Red Crag " at Thorp by Aldeburgh are in Ipswich Museum. Extinct Myliobatid.—Cospecific (sec. Brit. Museum) palates and teeth of this genus, erected by Phyllodus toliapicus, Agas. Agassiz in 1843*, are said (under (=speciosus=hexagonus these four names : Vict. Hist. 1911 =polyodus). p. 45) to be far from uncommon in our Red-crag nodule-bed, washed from the underlying Lower Eocene London-clay.—Ed.] i m f . n R e c h e r c h e s s u r ' e s P ° ' s s o n s Fossiles, by L. Agassiz : ten volumes, A copy of this Standard work is in the Athenaeum at Bruy.


132

THE FISHES OF SUFFOLK. PETROMYZONTIDAE.

149. Petromyzon marinus, Linn. Sea Lamprey.—Rather rare about Yarmouth, but occasionally netted on Gorleston beach (Doughty) ; and in both Breydon Water—during 1909, where it becomes rarer each year owing to increased sewage—and the Waveney, sometimes in good numbers (Tr. Norf. Soc. ix, p. 600). One of " just on three feet " was brought into Lowestoft and exhibited by a Beccles fishmonger in January 1932 (Tr. Suff. Soc. ii, p. 90). Southwold (Wake), wbere it is now not uncommon; I have the cast of a large one, which I gave to St. Felix School (Collings). Very common at Ipswich about 1900.* 150. Lampetra fluviatilis, Linn. Lampern.—A hundrcd specimens of the typical form and its var. Pianeri, Cuv. (branchialis, L.) were taken by Norgate at Santon Downham (Tr. Suff. Soc. i, p. 164). Frequent in April, when shrimpers and drawnetters take many, about Gorleston. PRISTIPOMATIDAE.

Haemulon sp. American Fish.—A head and vertebrae, found washed up by the tide upon the beach at Lowestoft early in 1910, were determined by Dr. Boulenger of the Brit. Museum to belong to a Pristipomatid of the American genus Haemulon (Cuv. 1829). But, he adds, " no Haemulon has ever been recorded from the British seas . . . no one knows how far fish may travel in ice " (Trans. Norf. Nat. Soc. ix, p. 817). MYXINIDAE.

151. Myxine glutinosa, Linn. Borer.—"As a British fish, the Myxine occurs most frequently on the eastern coast " (Yarrell); Yorkshire, etc ; it enters the mouths of other fish that are hooked to lines lying under water for a tide, and eats them entirely out, excepting skin and bone. The first Suffolk specimen of this curious fish, just over a foot in length, was netted at Orford during October 1912: it is unrecorded from Norfolk (Trans. Norf. Nat. Soc. ix, p. 820) or Essex (Laver's Fishes, p. 122). * M r . Platten writes (in lit. 2 M a r c h 1932) :—I was surprised to find n o m e n t i o n of t h e Lamprey in M r . C a t o n ' s valuable local List, supra i, p . 164. It was very c o m m o n forty years ago at Ipswich, in the b r a c k i s h water below H a n d f o r d Weir basin and near t h e Seven-arches Bridge under the L o n d o n Road. As a boy, I used to catch t h e m there when they were sticking by their snouts, which are suckers, to large stones. They were darker than Eels, and never m o r e than eight or ten inches in l e n g t h ; they had six or seven holes in the side of the body, j u s t b e h i n d the head but, I think I r e m e m b e r , n o fins. It seems stränge t h a t the Victoria H i s t o r y could not record the species f r o m Suffolk, for D r . J. E. Taylor identified mine, while still in a jam-jar ; and I r e m e m b e r his laughing w h e n h e referred to K i n g H e n r y i's love of t h e m , " a food which a g r e e d better with his palate than his [physical, not political] Constitution • T h e Old Doctor took mine away w i t h h i m to Ipswich M u s e u m , w h e r e they were shown in spirit as the Sea L a m p r e y (P. marinus, L.) in my y o u n g days.


133

THE FISHES OF SUFFOLK. [CHIMAERIDAE.

Extinct Rabbit-fishes.—Dental plates, pertaining to species of both these Eocene genera, have been met with in our Red Crag (Vict. Hist.). T h e former is represented in Ipswich Museum.

i

Cylindracanthus (Coelorhynchus) rectus, Agas. Extinct Chimaera.—The fragment of a spine, found in the Eocene Stratum at Woodbridge, has been assigned to this species (in Brit. Mus.)— Ed.] SÜMMARY OF SÜFFOLK

SPECIES.

Extant Extinct

151 43 Total

..

..

194 (1 Nov. 1933)

ON THE STONE CURLEW OR NORFOLK PLOVER. BY

GEORGE B I R D .

THE Aristocrat of the Heathlands with a wonderful eye is surely this handsome and stately bird ((Edicnemus scolopax, Gm.), which returns each year from the arid wastes of Africa to make a nursery within our borders. For several seasons I have observed the species in East Suffolk, and find its most prominent habit is to return each year and nest in the same haunts. In fact, my Observation " h i d e " could well have remained from one season to the next in the same spot, if waterproof, for the returning bird scarcely moved from its former site. That this be the identical individual is proved : Düring 1929 I ringed a young specimen; the following year I photographed this previous season's chick, at once identified by its ring, at its nest close to the site of its own hatching ; this year I again photographed the chick of 1929, while it was standing over its own clutch of two eggs, upon the same spot. One wonders how far it has travelled during the intervening periods, and what became of the parent whose place it occupies. The sexes are similar : only when watching them together at close ränge can one detect the prouder bearing, and slightly more sheen on the outer feathers, of the male. T h e most noticeable feature is the large and handsome eye, that seems to penetrate the observer's " h i d e " and can indeed discern danger afar.

The Fishes of Suffolk  
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