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IN order to put the study and records of the terrestrial Mammals of Suffolk on a sound basis, and at the same time to have a handy reference Catalogue, I thought it might be of some use to publish a List of those which are known to occur in the County ; with a few remarks, where called for, concerning each. I make no claim of novelty for this List as it is, to a great extent, a compilation though some of it is based on my own observations. I largely omit minutiae of detail purposely, putting down only salient features which any one may easily notice ; nor have I searched for all records : though the number of species I believe to be complete, so far as is known. CHIROPTERA—Bats.

1. Nyctalus noctula, Sch. (Pipistrellus noctula, Rope*). The Noctule.—The Great Bat is widely distributed throughout the County and, after the Pipistrelle, the bat which obtrudes on one's notice. It emerges rather early after sunset and may be easily recognized by its large size, high-flying and dashing light, and often two or three being more or less together. It hibernates in hollow trees, also sometimes in buildings. Stonham Aspal (Suff. Inst, xvi, 183). ^ 2. Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Sch. (idem, Rope). The Pipistrelle.—T his Flittermouse is probably the commonest bat, and the most evenly distributed. Common in towns, villages, and the country alike. It is the small bat, seen almost anyvvhere and well known. Emerges sometimes before sunset, usually about five-and-twenty minutes after. More or less solitary, though not so on the Continent. It has a flickering, uncertain flight, with frequent downward stoops. 3. \ espertilio serotinus, Sch. (not in Rope ; cf. Trans, supra i, p. 152). The Serotine.—Only known in Suffolk from Lowestoft. 'lere a colony exists of six or eight individuals, which may be seen on the road between north Lowestoft and Oulton Broad. Names in brackets are those employed in our last Catalogue of the •\lammals of Suffolk, that published by the late George T . Rope in lctona History, i, 1911. Living wild species alone are numbered.—Ed.





I had seen this colony, when out and feeding, for some years before 1 obtained one which established the identification satisfactorily. T h e colony constitutes a considerable extension of ränge northwards, as odd individuals only were known f r o m even Essex ; south of the T h a m e s , however, it is fairly c o m m o n . T h e Serotine emerges, as its name implies, somewhat later than the above two bats. I used to look out for their emergence at about thirty to forty minutes after sunset. Serotines are only a little smaller than Noctules ; the wing-membrane is broader in proportion, and the flight quite d i f f e r e n t ; it flies, too, not more than thirty feet from the ground, often lower : the flight is perhaps best described as floppy. 4. Myotis Daubentoni, Kühl, (idem, Rope). D a u b e n t o n ' s Bat. T h e Water Bat has certainly occurred in Suffolk, t h o u g h I cannot trace the original record [Zoologist 1889, p. 163 " at S u d b u r y Aying over the River Stour," in which Valley our M e m b e r , Dr. Laver, has since met with the species. A single, doubtful specimen is recorded from Ipswich Clements, about 1878. Breck (Clarke, Breckland Wilds 1925, 184).—Ed.] I n my experience elsewhere, it comes out late and skims low, always gnat-catching over water. A middle-sized bat, larger than the Pipistrelle and smaller than the Serotine, about the size of the next kind ; warm brown above and light brown below. [5. Myotis dasycneme, Rough-legged Bat.—It is the banks of the S t o u r " the single British record,

Boie (Vespertilio dasycneme, Rope). " reported to have been captured on (Harting, Zool. 1887, p. 162). This, needs confirmation.—Ed.]

6. Myotis Nattereri, Kühl, (idem, Rope). Natterer's Bat.— T h e Reddish-grey Bat certainly occurs in Suffolk and, though recorded on only a few occasions, it may be m u c h commoner than is supposed. Prof. Newton noted the first occurrence at Elveden in 1853 [Zool. 1853, p. 3 8 0 4 ; Dr. Laver second in the Stour Valley; Breck District (Clarke, 184).—Ed.] and Rope has met with it at Blaxhall; some years ago the latter, I think, told me that he considered it not very u n c o m m o n there. I have never seen it for c e r t a i n : distinctly bicoloured, greyb r o w n above and whitish below. 7. Myotis mystacinus, Kühl, (idem, Rope). Whiskered Bat.— [Dr. " Laver has met with this species in the Stour Valley " (Rope, Vict. Hist. 1911); and Clarke found bones on the Breck (Bkld. Wilds, 184).—Ed.] I t is the size of Pipistrelle, but blacker in f ü r and with other differences. 8. Plecotus auritus, Linn, (idem, Rope). Long-eared Bat.— T h i s is doubtless common and broadly d i s t r i b u t e d ; but, in my experience, it eludes Observation unless particularly looked for. It emerges about a half-hour after sunset and is very arboreal





in its feeding, flitting in and out among the branches of trees, especially those of willows, ashes and sallows when in flower. T h e enormously long ears, united at their base, compared with the small size of the animal, are very distinctive. It is fond of roosting under roofs. Stonham Aspal (Suff. Inst, xvi, 183). 9. Barbastella barbasUllus, Sch. (idem, Rope).—The distribution in Suffolk is doubtful. Newton recorded it from the County (Zool. 1857, p. 5420); Crowfoot thought it to be not uncomrnon near Beccles [Trans. Norf. Nat. Soc. i, 1871, p. 71 ; and actually took a specimen in a tree in Worlingham Park, the next village.—Ed.] ; and Rope met with one specimen of what he believed to be it at Glemham Parva. I met with it only once for certain, at Corton, where I took one flving in daylight. T h e slow and hesitating fl'ght attracted my notice. A distinct b a t ; colour nearly black, with the internal margins of the short ears meeting one another at the bases. [A Mammalian tooth, found (Ann. Nat. Hist. 1839, p. 194) in the Lower Eocene sand at Kingston in Woodbridge, is figured by Owen (Hist. Brit. Fossil Mam. and Birds 1846, p. 17) and provisionally regarded as that of some kind of Bat —Ed.] INSECTIVORA—Insect-eaters.

10. Erinaceus Europaus, Linn, Still fairly common throughout as an egg-stealer, as it was in 1580 1895, p. 104] one Robert Meake, moulles," was paid two pence by

(idem, Rope). Hedgehog.— the C o u n t y ; and destroyed when [Holland's " Cratfield " for " a Hegge hogs hede iij the parish of Cratfield.

11. Talpa Europcea, Linn, (idem, Rope). Mole.—Common everywhere ; sometimes to be seen above ground in daylight, where floods in marshes have made their abodes untenable. From Tudor times rewards were paid for their destruction : in 1580 John Newson was paid three pence for " ij bussardes hede inj moulles " (Holland, I.e.). [Still a pest in pastures : particularly abundant in winter of 1931-2, disfiguring turf, especially at Alpheton, Carlton Colville, Eye, Helmingham and Henham.—Ed.] 12. Sorex araneus, Linn, (idem, Rope). Common Shrew.— lentiful. T h e Shrew of Britain has been recognized as a Race (castaneus, Jenyns) of the Continental species, but it is noteworthy that F. Anglian speeimens approach rather nearer the European torm than to speeimens f r o m other parts of Britain. Verv variable in colour. Colloquially " Ranny " in Suffolk. 13. Sorex minutus, Linn, (idem, Rope). Pigmy Shrew.— Also very common. Besides being a smaller animal than the s t 11 h a s a ' relatively longer and more hairy tail, and the snout >s more heavilv moustached.




14. Neomys fodiens, Sch. (idem, Rope). Water Shrew.— This species has segregated in Britain into a very recognizable Race (bicolor, Shaw). It is fairly common in suitable places, and in marshes probably quite common. I obtained it a good many times near Lowestoft. Not entirely confined to water, though stream-sides and ponds are its usual habitat. A very attractive animal; its colour, dusky-black above and cream-white on the under parts, oared feet and tail, render it distinct. RODENTIA—Gnawing Animals. 15. Lepus Europams, Pall. (idem, Rope). Common Hare.— Common and evenly distributed. T h e English Form (occidentalis, Winton) is recognizable from the Continental. Grey varieties are recorded. [Lepus timidus, Linn. Mountain Hare.—So common throughout England in Pleistocene times that we can hardly help believing the cheek-bone of a species of Lepus, recorded by Newton from the Red Crag (Vict. Hist. 1911, p. 39), to be referable to it.—Ed.] 16. Oryctolagus cuniculus, Linn. (Lepus cuniculus, Rope). Rabbit.—Abundant. T h e Rabbit certainly is not an indigenous inhabitant of Britain : it was unknown in Roman times, and r o bones have been found in deposits of ancient date. It was probably introduced in Norman times and did not become common enough to be mentioned in bills of feasts or in regulations tili about 1250. [" Probably indigenous, and not directly introduced by man to Britain. It seems pretty certain that fossil remains of the true Rabbit exist in Devon, Yorks and other English formations dating from the Pleistocene p e r i o d " (Sir Harry Johnston, D.Sc., Brit. Mamm. 1903, pp. 214 and 386) ; or earlier, though " the evidence on which remains of the Rabbit have been stated to occur in the Crag of Suffolk is not forthc o m i n g " (R. Lvdekker F.R.S., 1911, p. 39). Neolothic bones on Breck (Clarke, Breckland Wilds 1925, 184). Cf. Suff. Inst, xix, 232.—Ed.] 17. Sciurus vulgaris, Bork. (S. leucorus, Rope). Squirrel.— T h e white-tailed Squirrel is a Form (leucourus) peculiar to Britain and is fairly common with us, especially in coniferous districts ; but it is doubtful if it will remain so. T h e s u m m e r whitening of the tail of our indigenous species is found in no other form of Squirrel. 18. Sciurus Carolinsis, Gmel. ( n o t in R o p e ; cf. Trans, supra, i, p. 77). American Grey Squirrel.—The extraordinarily foolish introduction of this animal has already had disastrous effects. It is a much stronger and heavier creature than S. vulgaris, and has now overrun the Home Counties, doing great damage





in many ways, besides ousting our own Squirrel to a very large extent. I do not recollect having seen it in Suffolk ; but when it turns up [Already recorded from the district of Eye at Trans. I.e.—Ed.], it is to be hoped that ruthless extermination will be meted out to it. 19. Muscardinus avellanarius, Linn. (idem, Rope). Dormouse.—Recorded from Thurston, Tostock and elsewhere about Bury, Lavenham, Long Melford, Nayland-Stoke, IpswichStoke, Bentley and Belstead; in the British Museum is one from Bury ; but I have never come across Dormice in north Suffolk. It is, or was, said to be common on the Norfolk side of Beccles ; but here it was introduced at Geldeston Hall some years ago. 20. Micromys minutus, Pall. (Mus minutus, Rope). Harvest Mouse.—No doubt this is common throughout the agricultural parts of Suffolk ; I have found it abundantly round Lowestoft. Beyond noticing its pretty woven nest in corn-stalks and tall herbage, the best way of finding its presence is when corn-stacks are thrashed : then six or eight of these very handsome mice are not uncommonly discovered in one Stack. Also it is recorded as breeding in coast marram-grass and sedges by the Waveney. Our animal is the west European Form (soricinus); of smaller size than the House Mouse, sandy-red above, white below, and the tail prehensile. 21. Apodemus sylvaticus, Linn. (Mus sylvaticus, Rope). Long-tailed Field Mouse.—The most generally distributed and commonest of all the Mice ; found in almost any situations, perhaps typically in hedge-row bottoms. Possibly it does not occur, out in the open and in marshes, far from trees and bushes. Larger than the House M o u s e ; tawny-brown above, darker down the spine, white below, with tail as long as body or nearly so. _ 22. Apodemus flavicollis, Mel. (Mus flavicollis, Rope). \ ellow-necked Mouse.—This, which much resembles the last kind, is our island Form (Wintoni) of the widely distributed species that is found pretty well all over Europe, and quite distinet from A. sylvaticus (pace Trans, supra i, 152). T h e extraordinary fact about this animal is its apparently patchy distribution: colonies may exist here and there and doubtless do so, but it is not a universally common creature like A. sylvaticus. I know of it only from Tostock, whence our President used to send me specimens caught, I think, in their depredations upon church noral decorations. The colour is much as in the last kind, with tail longer than b o d y ; a yellowish band across ehest by the forelegs, typically extending forwards and backwards to make a crueiform marking ; whiskers long, and size rather larger than the Long-tailed Mouse.





23. Mus musculus, Linn, (idem, Rope). House Mouse.— T o o common. All Suffolk specimens, I have seen, belong to the dark-grey variety. House Mice are more or less constantly much darker in some parts of England, a Variation which seems little understood. 24. Rattus rattus, Linn. (Mus rattus, Rope). Black Rat.— Introduced into England from the East in or before the thirteenth Century; later here exterminated by subsequent introduction of the Brown Rat. It is the Rat of mediasval times ; and still to be found in the Yarmouth rows, probably by the means of later shippings. T h e Race Alexandrinus, Slys, also has been imported there [and both forms rarely into Ipswich.—Ed.], 25. Rattus Norvegicus, Bork. (Mus decumanus, Rope). Brown Rat.— All too c o m m o n : the rat-ridden hedgerows of some agricultural fields in Suffolk are a disgrace. Brown Rats were introduced from the East early in the eighteenth Century, and soon ousted the Black ones. Äpart from its colour, this species has proportionately shorter ears and the tail both shorter and stouter. Castor fiber, Linn. Beaver.—Remains have been found in the fens of Suffolk ; extinct long before historic times. [Inhabited England from before Pleistocene period to at least so recently as eighth Century: Neolithic bones on the Breck (Clarke, Breckland Wilds 1925, 184). We seem to retain an echo in the yet extant name " Beaversham Bridge," near Glemham Parva church.* T o this species Newton has assigned a cheek-tooth from the Red Crag nodule bed at Woodbridge, with a second from elsewhere in Suffolk, now in the Museum of Practical Geology. Castor veterior, Lank. Pliocene Beaver.—Other teeth from the same Red Crag at Sutton and elsewhere in Suffolk ; type in the York, others in Ipswich, museums. Trogontherium minus, Newton. Extinct Beaver.—A fragment of the lower part of one incisor-tooth, found in the Norwich Crag of Sizewell Gap (Owen 1846, 192) and now in the coli. Geol. Soc., has been referred to this species with hesitation by Newton (Vert. Plioc. Brit. in Mem. Geol. Survey, p. 47).—Ed.] 26. Arvisola amphibia, Linn. (Microtus amphibius, Rope). Water Vole.—Common throughout the County in suitable places. As a species it is confined to England and north Scotland, *This bridge takes name from the Saxon lordship, spelled " Bevresham " in Domesday Book of 1086, i.e. the Befer's home ; in Battersea was a place termed in AS. " Befer-rith," i.e. the Beavers' river, in the year 693 (Birch, Cartul. Saxonicum i, 117).—Ed.





the form of which has been separated from ours by its blacker colour and smaller size. Typically aquatic in habitat; but at times it wanders away from water, and I have found it in a heap of roots during winter at some distance from water The rat-size, brown colour, aquatic habits and vole-like face at once distinguish it. 2,7;

Microlut hirtus, Bell, (agrestis, Rope). Short-tailed vole.—An inhabitant of fields, and marshes more particularly ; common upon Orford beach. Like all the Voles it is truly herbivorous, in contrast to the Mice which eat grain, etc. ; also it has the Vole characteristics of dumpier body,' longer für, shorter ears, rounder face and less pointed snout than Mice. Their " r u n s " in marshes are very distinctive, partially above and partially below ground. Larger than the House Mouse, but tail very short and about 35 mm. in length. 1 wo perfectly black females have been taken at Blaxhall by Rope. 28 Evotomys glareolus, Sch. (idem, Rope). Bank Vole.— A widely distributed species, the indigenous form (Britannicus) S pecuhar to these islands. I have found this Vole to be common round Lowestoft, as it is in many parts of the County • it lives in gardens, rockeries, banks, etc. T h e size is about the same as the last species ; but it is redder brown on the upper parts, and the tail of about 50 mm. is longer. [MimomysPliocenicus, Maj. Extinct V o l e . - F r o m the Norwich crag at Kyson in Woodbridge have been taken remains of this voie, whose typical Stratum is the Pliocene of the Val d'Arno ' o c - Zool. Soc. 1902, i, p. 105).—Ed.Jf











30. Mustela nivalis, Linn. (Putorius nivalis, Rope). Weasel.— ct these animals are common throughout the County The stoat that inhabits England (stabilis) has been separated from m mm l ° f S c a n d l n a v i a owing to its heavier teeth, inompiete winter whitening, and other small differences; the b t o a t j s , again, a very distinct species (M. hibernicus). n S f Ro EN IA are+ verRynms sl I > {™m the small size of most of its members, c a rrc e ° l n ° «he Crag (Lydekker, Vict. Hist. 38). Jn as "xtraneo?,?® " ^ I \ l a m " l a l l a n remains generallv must be regarded from sTräta of T iCLng P r o b a b ' y °f ^te Miocene age," and 1,ocene seas into d«poJuDr' T^ Vf i 5 ^ t h e P1885 their own Crag Wh t S i5 ffolk for the richness rirhn ^of •its ,'Marine / "fossils.—Ed. ' > 77 )- a '»oral one accountinl



In Suffolk the Stoat is often called " Weasel " ; and the male Weasel termed " White-throat" and female " Mouse-hunt." In both species the females are smaller than males, disparity being rather greater in Weasels. These may be recognized from Stoats by smaller size and, in proportion to the body, shorter tail: i.e. 40-70 against 105-120 mm. 31. Mustela martes, Linn. (Mustela martes, Rope). Marten.— There seems no doubt that the Marten was an inhabitant of Suffolk, and that it became practically extinct by gamekeepers' slaughter in or about 1850. Since that time, no more than a vagrant pair at Sutton on 29 May, of which one was mounted by a Woodbridge taxidermist and the other fortunately escaped, are upon record (The Field, 13 July 1889). 32. Mustela putorius, Linn. (Putorius putorius, Rope). Pole-cat.—Apparently now extinct for some years. Rope's details in Vict. Hist. show that it must have been common enough before reclamation of fens and marshes had progressed far. Pole-cats are mentioned in the Bedingfield parish accounts of 1568 ; and " in 1739 Danbrook's bag was one fox, seven polecats, one weasel. Polecats have not survived modern game preserving, and foxes are nearly extinct in this district" (Doughty's 1910 Chron. Theberton, p. 175). Rope considered it extinct in east Suffolk by 1888 ; but at least six examples were examined in the Breck district, south of the River Ouse during 1898. [It is possible that Mustela putorius lived in the Crag period, though it does not seem certain that a lower jaw of that animal, in the British Museum from the Coralline Crag of Orford, is really of Pliocene age. Didelphys Colchesteri, Owen. Extinct Opossum.—The low jaw retaining an entire cheek-tooth, obtained in 1839 by Mr. William Colchester of Ipswich from the Lower Eocene sand of Kingston in Woodbridge, has been thus described though its real affinities still remain in some doubt (Owen's Fossil Mam., pp. xx, 71).—Ed.] 33. Vulpes vulpes, Linn, (idem, Rope). Fox.—The Fox of Britain and west Europe, which is rather different (crucigera) from the Scandinavian typical form, is said to be fairly common in west Suffolk. In the north-east corner of the County, I remember hearing of only one during some seventeen years. [One of each sex near Aldeburgh in 1864-6 (Hele, 181).—Robert Bell discovered the imperfect skull of this species, now in the British Museum, in the Red Crag nodule-bed at Eoyton, and believed it to be truly of the Pliocene period. Canis lupus, Linn. Wolf.—Wolves were not exterminated in England tili about the year 1500 (Harting); a mediaeval skull, dug up beneath the Norman Tower in Bury is still preserved in the Museum of that city. Remains from the Pleistocene



valley-gravel of Paleolithic times are found in Ipswich ; from the Forest Bed of Neolithic times at Kessingland ; and two teeth from the Red Crag at Boyton are in the York Museum. The tooth from the Red Crag of Woodbridge, now in that museum, which was described by Lankester as " Canis primigenius," is now believed to have belonged to some Cetacean (Vict. Hist. 32-4). Barton Mere and Orwell river (Suff. Inst x 169, and ii, 278). Lycaon Anglicus, Lyd. English Hunting Dog.—The large Dog recorded by Mr. Andrews from Barton Mere and ascribed to the Stone Age (Trans, surpa i, p. 198) may be referrable to this species, though the latter is believed to have existed in England only during Pleistocene times.—Ed.] 34. Meies meles, Linn, (idem, Rope). Badger.—I do not believe that this animal is extinct in Suffolk, but it easily escapes Observation through its nocturnal habits. Poor " Brock" nearly always comes under notice bv being caught in a rabbitt-P; I can remember three thus täken near Lowestoft, about 1912, of which at least one was close to the town. As Badgers prefer a rocky slope with undergrowth, many parts of our county are not very suitable for its residence in this respect. 35. Lutra lutra, Linn, (idem, Rope). Otter.—I should think there is hardly a suitable stream and certainly no Broad m the County that lacks Otters. In east Suffolk, I have found it quite common : occasionally I have been able to watch them at play, but more usuallv have detected their presence by the well-worn runs in the reed-beds and the distinctive pad-marks on the mud, or have found the remains of their meals. A delighttul animal, though he may possibly take toll of aquatic birds. [It has been found fossil in the Pleistocene gravels of Ipswich (rrestwich); and, according to Owen, in the Norwich Crag, at both Aldeburgh and Southwold (Fossil Mam. 121). Lutra dubia, Blain. Extinct European Otter.—A lower-jaw, trom the Red Crag nodule-bed at Foxhall, has been provisionallv ascribed to this species (Newton, Vert. Plioc. Depos. Brit., p. 12). . sElurus Anglicus, Dawk. Cat-bear or British Panda.—Single jaws have been found in the Red Crag nodule-bed at both relixstow and Woodbridge, now in York Museum (41y Jour. k 7*' 1890' P" 451) ^ and an uPPer molar from Butley, now ' " l ' j i Survey's Museum, shows the animal to have been a third larger than the sole living species of Panda, /Elurus spiendens of the eastern Himalayas (Newton, lib. cit., p. 13)



Hycenarctos Sivalensis, Falc. Primitive Bear.—A genus known only from the Pliocene strata of northern India and Europe, outside the Red Crag nodule-bed of Suffolk. Single upper molars, from respectively Waldringfield and Felixstow, are in the Ipswich and York museums ; and a lower molar with tusk, possibly of a different species of this genus, from Felixstow is also at York (41y Jour. Geol. Soc. 1877, p. 534). Ursus aretus, Owen. Brown Bear.—Formerly distributed over Britain ; now extinet. T h e bones and part of a claw of a " large Bear," found in the Pleistocene valley-gravel of palaeolithic age at Ipswich tunnel by Miss Layard (Proc. Suff. Inst. 1910, p. 60), have been assigned to this species : still wild in northern Europe and Asia. Ursus spelceus, Blum. Cave Bear.—This great animal has left its remains in the Forest Bed of neolithic times upon our coast. Extinet, of course; but formerly abundant over the southern half of England. Ursus Arvernensis, Croiz. Pliocene Bear—A tooth from the Red Crag nodule-bed of Newbourn, now in York Museum, is tentatively assigned to this small bear, described from the cceval Stratum of Auvergne (Newton, 41y Jour. Geol. Soc. 1877, p. 16 ; Cp. Owen 1846, 105 and 170). Ursus sp. A Carnivorous Mammal.—An undetermined Ursid, apparently distinet from the above Bears, is known by a single tusk from the Crag at Kessingland, now in the Wisbeach Museum. Hyeena crocuta, Zimm. Spotted Hyeena.—The cave form (spelfea, Goldf.) of our living south African Hyaena was very common in England throughout Pleistocene times. Bones have been determined from the Forest Bed at both Kessingland (Newton. Geol. Mag. x, p. 404 ; Trans. Norf. Soc. 1884, p. 632) and Corton (Patterson, Nat. E. Norf. 14); and to it must be referred that Hyasna materialised from the manner in which it had gnawed a bone in Russell Road, Ipswich (Proc. Suff. Inst. 1910, p. 63). Hyeena striata, Zim. Striped H y s n a . — T h i s yet-extant animal inhabited east England during the early Pleistocene period ; but all the Suffolk remains are from the older Red Crag : a right upper carnassial from Trimley Mary in Ipswich Museum, a similar tooth on the opposite side from Woodbridge in York Museum, and cheek-teeth from Felixstow, described by Lancaster as a new species, II. antiqua, for no better reason than that of their antiquity (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 3, xiii, p. 56). Felis leo, Linn. T h e Lion.—The cave Form (spelaea) of the living Lion used to be very abundant throughout England in Pleistocene times ; remains lying immediately above the post-



glacial freshwater valley-gravel of that period are recorded f r o m Ipswich ry tunnel (Prestwich; cf. 41y Jour. Geol. Soc. xvii, p. 363) and two large teeth in 1920 (Layard, Proc. Prehist. Soc. E.A.), with teeth and tarsal bone of a second specimen there. Felis pardus, Linn. T h e Leopard.—Confined to southern England, not later than the above p e r i o d ; though known in Suffolk by only the older two teeth from the Red Crag at Newbourn, upon which Owen founded his race pardmdes (Brit Foss. M a m . 1846, 105 and 169; 41y Jour. Geol. Soc. 1S56 p. 266). Pterodon sp., Owen. Carnivorous M a m m a l . — A single tooth, washed out of an earlier Eocene Stratum into the Red Crag of Suffolk, has been described as new (I.e., 227).—Ed.] UNGT-LATA—Hoofed Mammals. BY



[I have omitted the Deer f r o m my Terrestrial List, as it does not seem at all certain that any living now are indigenous stock, i'erhaps some M e m b e r , who has the opportunity and knowledge will investigate the point.—Dr. Ticehurst.] 36 Cervus elaphus, Linn, (idem, Rope). Red D e e r . — N o record of their existence in Suffolk in recent times : probably not since the M i d d l e Ages. Present ränge includes the H i g h lands of Scotland, Killarnev and Connemara in Ireland, while in England they are a b u n d a n t in Exmoor Forest and its environs with a few in Westmoreland and the New Forest. T h e v are generally distributed over the numerous forested areas of Europe and Western Asia. [Numerous here in Pleistocene t i m e s antlers have been dug from the peat of Undley Fen in Lakenheath, Barton Mere, and drift of Mildenhall (Andrews) ; remains are known from Woodbridge and below the flint-gravel at Hoxne Lyell Antiq. M a n , 167), from valley-gravel at Ipswich tunnel tL-a\ard), the Forest Bed at Kessingland and Pakefield (in N o r w Mus.) from the River Waveney (Suff Inst, xx, 322), from the glacial drift at Southwold (Critten) and Easton (Doughty, T r a n s supra i, 241). Pliocene (Andrews, I.e., 195) at N e w b o u r n (Owen, —Ed.] v37Capreolus capreolus, Linn, (idem, Rope). Roe Deer.— Dative and formerly abundant in England ; exterminated in \V n u r ° c k e d t 0 t h e B r e c k o f north-west Suffolk by ac enzie in .. ^ esquire (Zool. 1903, p. 157) and now found >n small n u m b e r s in the Elveden, Euston, West Stow, Icklingham na Livermere Covers. C o m m o n in the New Forest and the öiackmore Vale in Dorsel, a few in Windsor Forest and Epping forest, and the wilder parts of the north of England. N u m e r o u s n all suitable localities in Scotland, and in large numbers on the

fp 24


continent generally and Western Asia. [Antlers of this species have been dug from the peat of both Undley and Burnt fern, near the Cambs. border (Frank Norgate) ; and found at Brettenham in 1927 (Suff. Inst, xix, 232.—Ed.] 38 Cervus Dama, Linn, (idem, Rope). Fallow Deer.—Two interbreeding varieties : dark brown with light underparts and light chestnut with white spots-this latter the true fallow, from A. Saxon fealo; German falb, pale yellow. None in Suffolk from genuine wild stock though some linger on indiöerent districts as escapes from parks, especialy Livermere (Trans, l, p 155) Its original homeis the Mediterranean region. Common in New Forest/some in Epping Forest, rarely in French forests and central Europe, abundant in Sardinia, Spam and some islands of the Grecian Archipelago, S. Russia and Asia Minor. [Antlers of Fallow Deer have been dug from the peat ot Undley Fen in Lakenheath (Suff. Inst, vii, p. 215). If our Dama be not indigenous, these must belong to the very closely allied Pleistocene Cervus Browni, carnutorum, or Savini. Cervus Falconeri, Dawk. Extinct Fallow Deer.—A doubtfully distinct species described from the Norwich Crag, to which antlers in the British Museum, from Suffolk Red Crag nodulebed have been ascribed. An antler of uncertain species was found by us in the former deposit at Bulcamp dunng Sept. 1930. Cervus gigan/eus, Blum. Irish Elk.—Pleistocene gravels o palasolithic times at Ipswich tunnel in 1845 (Prestwich); and an antler from Suffolk Red Crag (41y Jour. Geol. Soc. xn, p. 226) of the Polder Race, Cervus verticornis (Newton, Vert. Plioc. De 29). We have several large bones from the Forest Bed, trawled off Southwold, tentatively ascribed to this Elk (Cf. Suff. Inst, iii, p. 398). Cervus Suttonensis, Dawk. Near oriental Rusine Deer.— Antlers from the Red Crag nodule-bed at Sutton and elsewhere in Suffolk (41y Jour. Geol. Soc. xxxvi, 1878, p. 441). Moschus ? moschiferus, Linn. Musk Deer.—Two foot-b from Coralline Crag at Gedgrave, now in Mus. Pract. Geology, represent this extant or an allied extinct species* Rangifer tarandus, Linn. Reindeer.—British from Pleistocen times to probably eleventh Century. Unrecorded from Suffolk in Vict. Hist. ; antler in valley-gravel at Ickhngham (Andrews, Trans supra i, 196) and numerous bones at Ipswich (Man. 1918, No. 7 ; Proc. Preh. Soc. EA. vi, pp. 189 and 194). Gasella Anglica, Newt. The English Gazelle. *The Musk Ox (Ovibos moschatus, Zimm.), also, is referred to by Mr H. F. Osborn in his " Notes on Pliocene and early Pleistocene Mammalia of E. Anglia" (Geol. Mag. lix, 1922, p. 433), q.v.—Ed.



Saiga tatarica, Linn. Fat-nosed Gazelle.—Both recorded from E. Anglia by Johnston in Pleistocene times ; possibly represent the " Antilopes of several kinds," cheek-teeth of which have occurred in Red Crag nodule-bed at Boyton, Sutton, Woodbridge, etc. (Lydekker, Vict. Hist. 36). Capra hircus, Linn. Our present Goat.—Bones from Neolithic lake-dwellings in Barton Mere (Andrews, Trans, supra i, 198 : needs confirmation). Ovis aries, Linn. Our present Sheep.—Doubtfully indigenous (cf. loc. cit.) Bison bonasus, Linn. (priscus, Boj.) European Bison.— Remains in Pleistocene valley-gravel of Warren Hill in Mildenhall (Norgate ; cf. Trans, supra i, 195); in 1845 in Ipswich tunnel (Prestwich) and recently in Ipswich valley-gravel. Still extant in Lithuania and Caucasus. Bos taurus, Linn. Our present Cattle.—The ancestral type, the great Auroch (var. primigenius, Boj.), existed in England tili probably at least Roman times, when it merged into existing breeds; remains have been noted at Lowestoft, Maids Cross in Lakenheath (Norgate), Ipswich tunnel (Layard 1910), Barton Mere, Sicklesmere in Whelnetham (Andrews), etc. The earlydomesticated race, the Celtic Short-horn (var. longifrons, Owen), has been noted at West Stow heath, commonly at Barton Mere, Brettenham, and below Ipswich houses (Suff. Inst, x, 169 and 186, xix, 232), and is doubtless the " small Ox " of Ipswich tunnel (Layard 1910). [We have a skull, with vertebrae, from the peat of Quy Fen in Cambridge, 1882], Bos Etruscus, Falc. Extinct Etruscan Ox.—To this species, described from the coeval Pliocene deposits of the Val d'Arno, have been ascribed teeth and limb-bones from the Red Crag at Boyton and elsewhere in our County (Lydekker, Vict. Hist. 36). Bos sp. Another extinct Ox.—An undescribed metatarsal bone of some hollow-horned ruminant, distinct from the above, has occurred in the Norwich Crag at Easton (I.e.). Sus scrofa, Linn. Wild Boar.—Wild in Britain from at latest Pleistocene times to so recently as the seventeenth Century. Bones have been found in the Neolithic Barton Mere and the Forest Bed at Kessingland (Cp. Owen, 429). Brettenham, 1927 (Suff. Inst, xix, 232). Sus erymanthius, Roth. Larger Pliocene Swine. Sus antiquus, Kaup. ? Distinct from the last. Sus paheochcerus, Kaup. Smaller Pliocene Swine.—Two extinct species of distinct sizes are known, and the larger bones may embrace a third, in Red Crag (cf. Owen, 1846, pp. 105, 171 and 427). Tusks and incisors from the Newbourn and Waldringneld nodule-bed are in York, and four incisors from local Red '-rag, in Ipswich, museums.



Hippopotamus amphibius, Linn. Hippopotamus—The extinct early form (major, Owen) of this extant African species came from the Lower Nile, by way of the Jordan Valley and certain lakes, now represented by the Mediterranean, to Greece and so across Europe as far as Yorks, in Pliocene times (Scharff, Europ. Animals 1907, p. 195), persisting here to near end of Pleistocene period Fully twenty tusks in late Pleistocene loam at Lavenham (Trans, supra i, p. 195), of which some, with molars and a small vertebra, went in 1876 to the British Museum. CoryphodonEocanus, Owen. Odd-toed PHorse.—Larger teeth than those of the next genus, washed from London Clay into our Red Crag, are preserved in the Ipswich and Practical Geology museums. Hyracotherium leporinum, Owen. Four-toed Horse—A skull, washed from London Clav into the Red Crag of Suffolk (Geol. Mag. II, p. 339). Hyracotherium cuniculus, Owen. Smaller Four-toed Horse.— A lower jaw retaining two teeth—at first erroneously considered a Monkey and described as Macacus Eocanus, Owen—and two upper cheek-teeth from the Lower Eocene of Kingston m ttoodbridge (Brit. Foss. Mam. and Birds 1846, pp. xx, 1 and 424). Xiphodon platvceps, Flow. Pliocene Horse.—The unique, imperfect and toothless skull, from our Red Crag, IS in the R. Coli. Surgeons' Museum (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1876, p. 3). Equus caballus, Linn. Our present Horse.—The older form (fossilis, Rüt.) was abundant wild in all Britain from late Pliocene to early historic periods ; domesticated here in paleeolithic times ; still wild in Mongolia. From the Red Crag of Bawdsey and Felixstow are single teeth of probably this older form, in the British and York museums respectively ; it certamly occurs in the Forest Bed at Kessingland (cp. Owen, 396) ; and both bones and teeth are recorded from the Pleistocene gravels of Hoxne (Howorth, Geol. Mag. 1901, p. 337). Coeval at Ickhngham, Thetford and Sicklesmere (Trans, supra i, p. 195). Brettenham in 1927 (Suff. Inst, xix, 232). Two sufficiently distinct forms are suggested in the Larger Horse of inter-Glacial times, fully a hundred-thousand years ago, sixteen hands in height, from Ipswich tunnel (I.e. xiv, 60-66) ; and the Smaller Horse of the Pleistocene gravels, about twenty-thousand years ago, of Ipswich, which is a Steppe breed of twelve hands. Rhinoceros Schleiermacheri, Blum. Two-horned Rhinoceros. Rhinoceros incisivus, Cuv. Hornless Rhinoceros.—Cheekteeth of this genus are fairly frequent in the Red Crag nodulebed of Suffolk at Foxhall, etc. (many are in Ipsw. Mus.) ; and have been not very conclusively synonymised with these two late Pliocene species of coeval strata in Germany.



Rhinoceros Etruscus, Falc. Etruscan Rhinoceros.—Emigrant from France in late Pliocene times ; extinct in England early in Pleistocene period. Remains, in Norwich Museum, are from the Forest Bed at Kessingland and (Patterson, Nat. E. Norf. 14) Corton. Rhinoceros tichorhinus, Cuv. (antiquitatis, supra i, 195). Woolly Rhinoceros.—Coeval with early man and verv like, though larger than, the extant African square-lipped Diceros simus. Recorded from valley-gravel of Ipswich at both the ry tunnel in 1845 (Prestwich) and Russell Road, where a leg-bone was found before 1910 (Suff. Inst, xiv, 63) ; coeval remains at Sicklesmere in Whelnetham (Trans, supra i, p. 195). Tapirus priscus, Raup. Extinct Tapir.—An odd-toed Ungulate, hardly distinguishable from the present Tapir of south-east Asia, has left its teeth in the Red Crag nodule-bed of Suffolk, possibly there washed from the older Miocene like many of the mammalian bones now found solely in Pliocene strata. Tapirus Arvertiensis, Dev. Extinct Tapir.—Our teeth, found with those of the last species, seem similarly identical with Continental specimens (Lydekker, Vict. Hist. 37). In Britain they are confined to E. Anglia, which seems much more closely related to Europe than to the opposite shores of the Wash at that era. Mastodon Arvernensis, Croiz. Auvergne Mastodon.—The teeth of this genus are more like those of huge swine than the typical elephants' ; also the remains are in older strata, probably always washed into the Red Crag of Suffolk from the underlying -Miocene or Eocene beds. Excepting the Pliocene cave near Buxton Mastodons, like Tapirs, are restricted in Britain to E. Anglia, where the four-ridged molars show the present to be the commonest kind in the nodule-bed. Easton, Sizewell, etc. (Owen, 279, 289) ; Cläre (Trans, i, p. 77); Easton cliff (Mrs. Critten, I.e. p. 241); etc. Mastodon longirostris, Raup. Four-tusked Mastodon.—Also having four-ridged molars and found with the above, as well as at base of Coralline Crag at Sutton (Geol. Mag. 1899, p. 14). Mastodon angustidens, Owen. Narrow-toothed Mastodon.— In \ork Museum from near Woodbridge; three-ridged (I.e., P- 289). ^Mastodon Borsoni, Hays. Borson's Mastodon.—This Continental species, with three-ridged molars, also certainly occurs in the Red Crag ; but it is our latest kind, since teeth are found so recently as in the Norwich Crag at Easton. Elephas meridionalis, Nest. Southern Elephant.—Not yet known from the Coralline Crag (sed cf. Trans, supra, i, p. 222). I hat Elephants' remains actually occur in English Pliocene Deposits, where they abound on the Continent, is proved by



a couple of this species' molars, in British Museum, from the Red Crag at Felixstow and Falkenham (Cat. Foss. Mam. B.M. iv, 113). Fine teeth and jaws are common in the later Forest Bed at Pakefield and Corton (in Lowestoft library and Norwich museum); teeth occur at Mildenhall (Trans, supra i, p. 196); and derivative teeth in Orwell estuary (Ipsw. Mus.). Elephas antiquus, Falc. Straight-tusked Elephant.—This and the last species were allied to the present Elephas Africanus ; and this one appears confined to early Pleistocene times in Suffolk. Molar-teeth have occurred in Norwich Crag at Corton (Patterson, Nat. E. Norf. 14), Easton and Southwold (Newton, Vert. Plioc. Dep. 47). Tusk in glacial-gravel close to Braiseworth church (Trans, supra i, p. 77). Molars and tusks numerous in gravel by old gaol in Bury (Norgate). Teeth at Mildenhall (Trans, supra i, p. 196). Derivative teeth dredged from Orwell estuary (Ipsw. Mus.).—? Ballingdon-hill, Sudbury, in drift, 1857 (Suff. Inst, iii, 399). Elephas primigenius, Blum. Woolly Mammoth.—Our extinct, and probably direct, ancestor of the present Indian Elephant, here persisting through Palaeolithic to near historic times (depicted in French caves). Though said to be British in Pliocene period (Scharff, 174), it is unknown in the Red and Norwich Crags. Suffolk remains are abundant and occur mainly in late Pleistocene river-deposits, e.g., at Bailingdon (Owen, 238), Icklingham (41y Jour. Geol. Soc. xvii, p. 363), Bury, Hoxne (Lyell, Antiq. Man, 167), Southwold, Orford and Ipswich. Many teeth in Ipswich gravels, with no other " Elephant bones " ; and in Orwell estuary (Proc. Prehist. Soc. E.A., vi, pp. 187-205); bones and teeth of several, at Ipswich ry tunnel (Layard, I.e. 1920; Proc. Suff. Inst. 1910, p. 60). Mildenhall, Bury and a tusk, eleven feet long, at Sicklesmere in Whelnetham (Andrews, Trans, supra i, p. 195).—Ed.] PART I I : MARINE SPECIES. BY THE H O N . SECRETARY.

No individual attention whatever has hitherto been accorded these most conspicuous creatures, still regarded by the populär eye rather as awesome curiosities and monstrosities than in any way related to terrestrial animals; their nomadic habits and sporadic occurrences upon our unsheltered coast are responsible for both facts. That the records of a good many species, more or less frequent here in media;val times, are irrecoverably lost cannot be doubted. PINNIPEDIA—Seals and Walruses. 39. Plioca vitulina, Linn, (idem, Rope). Common Seal.— Annual visitant in small numbers, from Yarmouth roads (first record 1822—Pagets) to the Stour: singly at Thorp before



Aldeburgh on 21 Aug. 1863, male; 4 Feb. 1865, old female • 10 Nov. 1868, young male; and 20 Dec. 1869, immature (Hele, 180). Now probably mainly Wanderers from the fine colony in the Wash (Trans, supra i, 155); Felixstow, 21 August 1930 (I.e.). Latest records : two speeimens are said to have come up the Yare at Gorleston in 1931 (Doughty, v.v.); a young one of thirty-four inches persisted at Sizewell the next summer (Local Paper, 15 Oct. 1932). N o fossils known. Phoca Aloori, Newt. T h e Suffolk Seal.—A small extinct species, known from only our Countv, the litorally-deposited Crag of which might be expected to "have retained more than two species. Of it two humeri are known from the nodulebed at Waldringfield, in the Practical Geology Museum, and foxhall, whence came the type that is still in the collection of Major E. Charles Moor of The Rosery, Great Bealings Phocanella minor, Ben. Small Seal. Two lesser humeri, from r oxhall in Moor's collection and elsewhere from Suffolk crag in the York Museum, have been erected into this new genus as doubtless synonymous with similar remains from the Antwerö F crag (Vict. Hist. 36). 40. Cystophora cristata, Erxl. (idem, Rope). Hooded Seal.— Arctic; Orkneys, W. Ireland and very rare on east coast of scotland and England. For long the sole-known English one was a young specimen that was slain in the Orwell on 29 June 1847, and fully described (Clark, Zool. 1847, p. 1870). It was presented by Mr. Ransome to the Ipswich Museum (Laver Alam. of Essex, 5 6 ; Southwell, Seals of Brit. Seas, 1881, 24Irans. Norf. Nat. Soc. 1884, p. 660). Halicheerus gryplius, Fab. (not in Rope, cf. Trans, supra i, r' / ; „ G r e y Seal.—Local from I. Wight, where it is extremely rare (Morey Guide 1909, 534), to Shetlands. Has been observed in Breydon Water. 42. Odobanus rosmarus, Linn, (not in R o p e ; cf. Trans WaIr W '' Pr', u s . — B u t recently extinct as British ; now - reue. Doubtless media;val on our coast; we may possess n

1IRn j j ° i 3 y o u n S f e m a l e i n Orford's Homo sylvester of U8U, dated by Bartholomew de Glanville's 1167-80 chatellany o that Castle (Baker's Chronicle, 58), though ascribed by other nistonans to anywhere in 1100-1205. Odobcenus Huxlei, Lank. Extinct W a l r u s . - T u s k s of this CrW


p 226)

'fS, h?ve,



found Suff




the subarctic part of the Red












SIRENIA—Sea-cows and Manatees. Fl0W a n d w S r ^ - E x t i n c t D u g o n g . - A unique bv , h . D J TT 11 o f t h l s P r i m ' t i v e Proboscidean was discovered * tne Revd. Henry Canham, M.A., B.C.L., of Waldringfield





in the Foxhall nodule-bed of Red Crag, and [a cast, along with part of four ribs] is now in Ipswich Museum (I.e. 1874, xxx, p. 1). It is probably derivative from earlier Miocene strata, in which other species of this genus occur on the Continent. CETACEA—Whales, e t c .

Odontoceti, with teeth and no baleen. often cannibalistic inter se.


43. Monodon monocerus, Linn. Narwhal.—Nearly extinet as British: " found fossil in E. A n g l i a " (Johnston). Needs confirmation. Monodon sp. Extinet Narwhal.—Our Red Crag nodule-bed has produced the swollen base of an aborted Narwhal tusk : pretty surely distinet from the last species. Delphinapterus ? leucas, Pall. White Whale, Beluga.—Two vertebrae of this genus, from the Red Crag of Suffolk, are in the erstwhile Jermyn-street Museum. 44. Orca gladiator, Lac. (idem, Rope). Grampus.— Lowestoft and, in sixteenth Century, a herd at Ipswich (Trans, supra i, p. 78). A fossil tooth of this species has been found in the Forest Bed at Pakefield. Orca Citoniensis, Cap. Extinet Killer-whale.—A tooth and a periotic from our Red Crag nodule-bed, in the Ipswich and the Practical Geology museums, are ascribed to this Pliocene species of Italy. 45. Phoccena communis, Cuv. Common Porpoise.—Common on the coast from the Orwell to Gorleston (Trans, supra, pp. 78, 176 and lxix). Delphinus delphis, Linn. Common Dolphin.—Recently unrecorded with us, though common round the English south coast. Remains have long been recorded from the Chillesford Bed (in Norwich M u s e u m : cf. Dr. Crisp, on a Chillesford Whale, before Brit. Assoc. at Norwich, 1868). 46. Delphinus tursio, Fab. (Tursiops tursio, Rope). Bottlenosed Dolphin.—Felixstow, a pair on 27 July, 1873. 47. Delphinus albirostris, Gray, (idem, Rope). White-beaked Dolphin.—Yarmouth, Breydon Water, Gorleston in 1890 and 1891, Lowestoft and Reydon beach (Trans, i, p. 240). PHYSETERIDIE, mainly Cuttlefish-feeders. 48. Physeter macrocephalus, L. Cachelot.—Sperm oil is in the huge forehead. This tropical whale is now extinet as British, but used to occur on our coast: Yarmouth church-chair is the base of its skull, in situ since before 1606. T h e British Museum copy of the 1787 " Philosophical Transactions " contains (says Laver, 80) a M S . letter, dated from Walberswick on 7 March






1788, recording twelve Cachelots there in February 1763, after a stiff northerly gale ; some, cut up and measured by the writer came ashore. Physeterula Dubusi, Ben. Small Sperm-whales.— Physodon grandis, DuB. These six Continental Physodon fusiformis, DuB. species have all been disHoplocetus crassidens, Owen. covered in the Red Crag of Suffolk Hoplocetus Borgerhoutensis, DuB. nodule-bed (Vict. Hist. 1911, 41). Hoplocetus curvidens, Gerv. Eucetus amblyodon, DuB. Large Cachelot.—Several larger Crag teeth (in Ipsw. Mus.) have been ascribed to this Belgian species. Balcenodon physaloides, Owen. Large Cachelot.—Equally large teeth in our Felixstow Red Crag (Brit. Fossil Mam. and Birds, 1846, p. 536 : in Ipsw. Mus.). 49. Hyperoodon rostratum, Chem. Common Bottle-nosed W hale.—Nearly sure to have occurred on our coast, as it did at Hunstanton in 1910 (Tr. Norf. Soc. ix, pp. 197, 305). Needs confirmation. Hyperoodon Taylori, Lyd. Extinct Bottle-nosed Whale. A perfect right periotic from our Pliocene Red Crag in Ipswich Museum, and vertebnc from Antwerp Crag, have been thus named in honour of Dr. J. E. Taylor of that museum (Vict. Hist. 1911, p. 41). For var. Benedeni, cf. 41y J. Geol. Soc xliii P- 2, fig. 6. ' . Beaked Whales, of extinct I species occurring in our Choneziphius planirostris, Cuv. Red Crag nodule-bed, conChoneziphius planus, Owen. generic with the present Choneziphius Packardi, Lank. ) Ziphius cavirostris, Cuv., still a rare British visitor. Beaked Whales (cf. 41y Journ. Geol.Soc. xlvi, p. 18). Fossil rostra have been so numerously found in our Pliocene Red Crag, of which Mesoplodon angustus, Owen. one periotic from the nodule Mesoplodon longirostris, Cuv. -bed is in the Practtcal GeoMesoplodon tenuirostris, Owen. logy Museum, that many Mesoplodon angulatus, Owen. f species have been erected : these seven (in Ipswich Mesoplodon compressus, Hux. Museum, local tfrom rom Mesoplodon floris, Newt.-Trimleyy l .. l o c a I M ^ t - i J xt . I deposits) appear dist.nct. -1Iesoplodon scaphoides, Newt. \ M . Sowerbiensis, Blain., nowadays rarely visits Scots and Irish, but not Suffoician coasts (cf. Trans, supra i 240).



Mystacoceti, with baleen in mouth-roof but no teeth. Balsenidae, with no dorsal fin and the chest-skin not creased. SO Baiana mysticetus, Linn. Whale-bone Whale.—Arctic, now doubtfully British. Near Yarmouth, 8 July 1784 (Pagets); several jaw-arches in Yarmouth (Trans. Norf. Nat. Soc . 1 9 1 2 , p 303) and still one at Wratting Magna (Trans. Suff. Nat. Soc. l, p 240) A plate of whale-bone, from jaws of Whale taken at Yarmouth in Jan. 1857, was presented (Proc. Suff. Inst, in, 399); a pair of jaws are in Tollhouse. Mammal-bones, used as roadfenders by Dr. Armstrong's house in Framlingham, are probably remains of a similar jaw-arch. Baiana " Biscayensis," Esch. Atlantic Right Whale.— Common as food in France in 1338 ; extinct. Five occurred in the Orwell (Trans, supra i, 78 and 240). , Internal ear-bones seu tymI panics and other remains of Baiana affinis, Owen. [ Right Whales abound unrolled Balcena primigenia, Ben. , in the Antwerp Pliocene and f . • r> c 1 badlv water-rolled in the Baiana tnstgnis, Ben. Smaller. Red Crag noduie.bed ' of Suffolk. Baiana balanopsis, Ben. Small Right Whale - F o u n d with the last kind in Red Crag and also, in Brit. Museum, in the Coralline Crag at Sudbourn. Balaenopteridse, with a dorsal fin and the chest-skin creased. Megaptera affinis, B e n . - T h r e e Hump-backed Whales have left rounder and more shell-like tympanics in the Belgian and Suffolk crags. Two such bones of this species are in the Practical Geology Museum, one from near Ipswich and one from Coralline at Sudbourn. Megaptera similis, Ben.—A periotic bone from Woodbridge is in Brit. Museum. Megaptera minuta, Ben.—The smallest species, one ear bone of which from our Coralline Crag is now in Ipswich Museum and a second from Red Crag nodule-bed at Foxhall in that ot Practical Geology. Herpetocetus Scaldiensis, Ben. Extinct Rorqual.—Single tvmpanics of this Belgian species, from Felixstow and elsewhere in our Crag, are in museums of Pract. Geol. and R. Coli. Surgeons. Cetotherium Brialmonti, Ben. Extinct Rorqual.—A vertebra from Red Crag of Suffolk is in Brit. Museum. Cetotherium dubium, Ben.—Several tympanics are known from our Red Crag nodule-bed.



Our Red Crag has also yielded vertebrae that are considered identical with these two Belgian species. 51. Balcenoptera rostrata, Fab. Lesser Rorqual.—Yarmouth quay-head, 1890; Gorleston river in 1891, and beach in 1896 ; Lowestoft and Sizewell, 1911 (Trans, supra i, 176). Balcenoptera definita, Owen. Extinct Rorqual.—First described from the elongate tympanics, under the genus Balaena, from our Red Crag nodule-bed of Felixstow and Holywells in Ipswich (Owen, Foss. Mam. 531). Balcenoptera emarginata, Owen.—Occurred and described along with the last at Felixstow. Balcenoptera Goropi, Ben.—Tympanics thence are in the British Museum. Balcenoptera borealina, Ben.—Tympanics thence are in the Ipswich Museum (cf. Brit. Mus. Cat. Fossil Vertebrat. v, p. 39). 52. Balcenoptera musculus, Linn. Common Rorqual.—Dead specimens came ashore at Kessingland in 1899 and Aldeburgh in 1918 (Trans. Suff. Nat. Soc. i, 176). Pretty surely identical was the famous " Whale " found on 5 November 1816 off the buoy of the Rough near Harwich, and cut up at Dunham Reach, where all Ipswich hastened to see so rare an object. The populär description teils us (Suffolk Garland 1818, 241) that it was a female of 68-70 feet in length by about 18 in body diameter, and that the sides were striped or, rather, ribbed with paler colouration. Some not surprising disparity of opinion was obviously rife at the time, when the local poetaster adds :


" Some say 'tis a young one, at most but half-grown ; Others think, from its size, it has young of its own : . . . Monster cetaceous, a Sea-Monarch hails : And all have agreed 'tis the wonder of Whales." SUMMARY :— Extant Extinct Total Terrestrial . . . . 38 58 96 Marine . . . . 14 44 58 52



SOMATERIA MOLLISSIMA, L . — A n immature male Common Eider Duck was found dead on Corton beach on 19 November, rhe bird had one wing broken, but it did not look as if this had been done by shot.—C. G. DOUGHTY, in lit. 24 Nov. 1932. LI he common Eider is a sufficiently rare winter visitant; but it ^ high time we confirmed the King Eider (S. spectabilis) in our Suffolk list.]

The Mammals of Suffolk  
The Mammals of Suffolk