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PLANT RECORDS FROM LANDGUARD COMMON 1985 TO 1988 A . CoPPING 1988 saw t h e completion of ten years of detailed recording of t h e vascular plants at L a n d g u a r d C o m m o n . Previous p a p e r s reporting on t h e early years of the survey were published in Suffolk Natural History ( C o p p i n g , 1983, 1984 & 1985). T h e survey has now b e e n concluded and the present account describes d e v e l o p m e n t s at the C o m m o n f r o m 1985 to 1988 and lists additional taxa discovered during this period. T h e work was gi ven fresh impetus in 1985 by t h e extension of t h e recording area to include the L a n d g u a r d Bird O b s e r v a t o r y and the g r o u n d s and interior of L a n d g u a r d F o r t . T h e whole of the new area is o w n e d by English H e r i t a g e a n d is k n o w n as the ' L a n d g u a r d Fort G u a r d i a n s h i p ' . T h e Bird O b s e r v a t o r y was surveyed f r o m early May 1985 (by kind permission of M r . S. Piotrowski) and the remaining a r e a of the G u a r d i a n s h i p f r o m late J u n e (by kind permission of M r . D . Sherlock of English H e r i t a g e ) . T h e G u a r d i a n s h i p provides habitats which do not occur elsewhere on L a n d g u a r d and its inclusion has resulted in t h e addition of 52 species to the Catalogue. Many of these a r e p r e s e n t as a direct result of the proximity of the Fort, whose walls have p r o v i d e d niches for six species of fern and shelter for two m o r e . T r e e s and s h r u b s have b e c o m e established a r o u n d it and d a m p and s h a d e are f o u n d on its n o r t h e r n side to an extent not met with elsewhere on t h e C o m m o n . Within t h e Bird O b s e r v a t o r y is a shallow, circular artificial pool, set in c o n c r e t e , and m a i n t a i n e d by ringers and o t h e r w o r k e r s on t h e site. It contains a n u m b e r of p l a n t e d aquatics and can be expected to provide r e f u g e for s o m e native species as time passes. A n o t h e r small, polythene-lined pool has b e e n established to attract birds and a few species, especially d u c k w e e d s , have a p p e a r e d t h e r e .

Classification of Habitats in the Guardianship In the 1 9 7 9 - 8 2 account ( C o p p i n g , 1983) the various habitats on t h e C o m m o n w e r e assigned capital letters A , B, C , . . . A brief description of each was given and its position shown on a sketch m a p . A slightly a m e n d e d r e p r o d u c tion of this m a p is shown h e r e , illustrating additional habitats in t h e G u a r d i a n s h i p . T h e s e may be described briefly as follows: IF. T h e region within t h e Fort o u t e r walls, accessible only through t h e main gate which is locked except w h e n guided parties are shown r o u n d . It was possible to survey this area on f o u r occasions only, 13-7-85, 26-8-85, 5-10-85 a n d 14-6-86. By J u n e 1986 work was well advanced in restoring the Fort interior and suitable areas for plant colonisation much r e d u c e d . A t first, in a d d i t i o n to a r e a s of natural soil overlying shingle, there had b e e n much crumbling brickwork and masonry and patches of organic detritus, accumulated o v e r many years, overlying concrete or asphalt. B O . T h e area inside t h e L a n d g u a r d Bird Observatory enclosure. This

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 26 (1990)

PLANT RECORDS FROM L A N D G U A R D C O M M O N , 1 9 8 5 - 1 9 8 8 O L D ROAD TO H A R B O U R





Division of Landguard into habitats A rough sketch map on a scale of approximately 1: 18,750. The outline of the 1979-84 recording area is shown dotted and the principal habitats of the Fort Guardianship are illustrated numerically: 1 = BD 2 = IF 3 = OFT 4 = OFB

contains e a r t h b a n k s (an extension of L), s o m e decayed buildings, a low flat area on the western side containing the polythene-lined pool, and the circular concrete based pool r e f e r r e d to a b o v e . T h e s e f o u r subdivisions will be called BOL,BOB,BOF andBOP. O F . This consists of all parts of the G u a r d i a n s h i p not contained in I F and B O . T h e r e is a diversity of habitat; a few scattered outbuildings (some of which w e r e demolished in 1985), low earth b a n k s on the western side and some a r e a s of short, rabbit-grazed turf. O n e of the buildings in the north- s t e r n p a r t of the Fort complex houses the h e a d q u a r t e r s of the Felixstowe and D i s t n c t M u s e u m Society and an area of turf on its western side contained several species new to, or r a r e o n , L a n d g u a r d . This turfy area will b e d e n o t e d

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by O F T in the catalogue. Two low brick walls flanking the approach path to the museum entrance provided a home for ferns and these walls will be shown as Ă– F W . Finally, the 100 yds. of earth bank stretching northwards from the boundary fence of the Bird Observatory, and running parallel to the tide line, contained several base loving species and, because of its special interest, will be labelled OFB. Principal changes in the remaining parts of the Common The most significant change, resulting in the loss of habitats A , B, C and D, has been the construction of the Customs and Excise Building to the west of the road to the H a r b o u r Viewing Area (now known as Viewpoint Road). Work began in April 1985 and was completed in May 1987. Areas B and D and that part of C between the new building and Viewpoint Road were planted by Tennyson Landscapes of Campsea Ash, and fenced off. Limited recording was possible here in 1987 and 1988 from outside the fence. One accompanied visit within the restricted area was possible on 6th June 1987 arranged by, and with the kind permission of, Mr. John Rose of Tennyson Landscapes. Also, in May 1985, construction of the new sea wall began and areas P, N and M were closed for the rest of the year. A Compound for construction workers' Caravans was created at the southern end of H and a section of the earth bank, J, separating H from the beach, was destroyed. By 1986 the work was complete, the earth bank replaced, the Caravans removed and their site levelled. A sizeable population of Chenopodium vulvaria appeared on the former caravan site as a direct result of the disturbance. Other temporary changes occurred in various parts of the Common at different times but are too trivial to detail here. The experimental fencing off of areas of the Suffolk Wildlife Trust Reserve to prevent trampling had not significantly affected the flora of these areas by 1988. However, heavy erosion outside the fences was becoming evident and this could be damaging in the longer term. Dates of Visits 1985: 1986: 1987: 1988:

23-3,20-4,5-5,18-5,1-6,15-6,22-6,29-6,13-7,27-7,2-8,17-8, 26-8, 7 - 9 , 28-9, 5 - 1 0 , 1 9 - 1 0 . 2 9 - 3 , 1 9 - 4 , 3 - 5 , 3 1 - 5 , 1 4 - 6 , 2 8 - 6 , 1 8 - 7 , 9 - 8 , 2 2 - 8 , 1 3 - 9 , 27-9. 2 1 - 3 , 1 8 - 4 , 1 6 - 5 , 6 - 6 , 1 3 - 6 , 2 7 - 6 , 2 1 - 7 , 2 2 - 8 , 1 2 - 9 , 24-10. 29-3, 30-4, 21-5,11-6,25-6, 9-7,23-7,13-8, 29-8,17-9,15-10.

Nomenclature and Notes relating to the Catalogue The scientific names used are those adopted by Clapham, Tutin and Moore (1987). Common names are those used in Simpson's Flora of Suffolk except for the few species which do not appear in that Flora. For these, common names from Flora of the British Isles have been quoted instead. Each taxon in the catalogue is followed by an arrangement of four symbols, enclosed in brackets, selected from / and x. The four symbols relate to the years 1985,

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 26 (1990)




1986, 1987 and 1988 in that Order, and indicate whether the taxon was recorded for a particular year (/) or not (x). For example (/x//) would indicate that the taxon was recorded in 1985, 1987 and 1988, but not in 1986

Additions to the Catalogue Equisetum arvense (Field Horsetail) (xx//). One patch at the top of a bank in BOL. Polypodium interjectum (Intermediate Polypody) (//xx). A small group of luxuriant piants was found high on a north facing wall in IF. Identification was confirmed by R. H. Roberts. Pteridium aquilinum (Bracken) (////). Small colonies seen in IF and BOF The latter seems well established. Asplenium scolopendrium (Hart's Tongue Fern) (/xxx). One plant beneath a former window on a west wall of BOB. The plant died in late 1985 through lack of moisture. A. adiantum-nigrum (Black Spleenwort) (////). On walls in IF, BOB and OFW, the last named site containing many well grown piants. A. ruta-muraria (Wall-rue) (////). Scattered on walls in IF and OFW Less abundant than A. adiantum-nigrum. A. trichomanes (sA.) (Maidenhair Spleenwort) (//xx). One plant ona south facing wall in IF. From the habitat, the plant was almost certainly ssp quadrivalens. Athyriumfilix-femina (Lady Fern) (//xx). One plant about seven feet from the ground on a north-west facing wall in IF. The individual was fertile but poorly developed, doubtless a response to the unsuitable habitat. Dryopterisfilix-mas (Male Fern) (////). Very well established colonies were found at the foot of walls in both IP and BOF. Their continued existence is almost certainly a result of rainwater cascading from the flat roof and the shade afforded by the walls. Nigella damascena (Love-in-a-Mist) (/xxx). About six piants were found in the northern part of F/H in a surprisingly overgrown Situation. Nymphaea sp. (Water Lily) (////) One planted specimen in BOP. The large nowers with red and white petals suggest garden origin. Chelidonium majus (Greater Celandine) (xxx/). One or two piants on a north facing brick wall bordering the dry moat surrounding the Fort, in OF. Eschscholzia californica (Californian Poppy) (x/xx). One plant in OF on the Site of a building demolished in 1985. Lunaria annua (Honesty) (/x/x). One or two specimens were seen in vegetated parts of BOB. Nasturtium microphyllum (Brown-leaved Watercress) (/xxx). One plant was found in a shaded rainwater C h a n n e l leading into BOP. Aubrieta deltoidea (Aubrietia) (//xx). One small plant found on the eastern verge of Viewpoint Road. Viola arvensis (Field Pansy) (x///). One or two piants present in OFB Silene dioica (Red Campion) (xx/x). One plant in the ditch along the southern edge of the Manor Road Car Park in H.

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S. vulgaris ssp. vulgaris (Bladder Campion) (/xxx). One plant on the west verge of Viewpoint Road, at its southern end. Scleranthus annuus (Annual Knawel) (x/xx). About two plants found in OFB. Linum usitatissimum (Common Flax) (/xxx). About ten plants in disturbed ground by the sea defence workers' encampment. Growing with Phalaris canariensis, it arose almost certainly from the emptying of litter from a bird cage by the owners of the adjacent caravan. Geraniumpusillum (Small-flowered Cranesbill) (IIIx). An extensive patch in OFT. G. robertianum (Herb Robert) (xx//). A few plants beside Viewpoint Road near the Customs and Excise Building, an undoubted escape from the landscaping work (see Appendix). Erodium cicutarium ssp. bipinnatum (Common Storksbill) (/x/x). The existence of this subspecies had been overlooked before 1985 and it was not observed in 1986 and 1988, although it undoubtedly occurred. It is less common than ssp. cicutarium but is plentiful in the SWT Reserve, especially in sandy, somewhat thinly vegetated places near the sea. Intermediates between ssp. bipinnatun and ssp. cicutarium occur. Acer pseudoplatanus (Sycamore) (Ixll). One small tree in BOF, overlooked in 1986! Aesculus hippocastanum (Horse Chestnut) (////). A small tree on the western fringe of OF, near OFT. Euonymus japonicus (No common name) (////). Two or three bushes, survivors of a planting of unknown date, occur in BOF. Ulex minor (Dwarf Gorse) (xxx/) (det. P. Benoit). Several bushes were found flowering on 15th October in the planted area in front of the Customs and Excise Building in C. They were growing mingled with U. europaeus and had clearly been planted by Tennyson Landscapes in Spring 1987 as part of their programme. However, U. minor does not appear on the list of planted species supplied by Tennyson Landscapes (see Appendix). Lupinus polyphyllus (Garden Lupin) (/xxx). One non-flowering plant beside Manor Road Car Park in H, destroyed in October 1985 by the deepening of the ditch in which it grew. Viciafaba (Broad bean) (xx//). One plant each year beside the concrete road leading to Hall Aggregates' Workings (area S). Trifolium medium (Zigzag Clover) (x/xx). One or two patches with about 30 inflorescences found in OFB. There was no sign of them in 1987 or 1988, despite diligent searching. Fragaria vesca (Wild Strawberry) (x///). A few plants in habitat Y, near the site of Vinca minor, Muscari neglectum and Pentaglottis sempervirens, all first recorded in 1984. Rosa sp. (A Garden Rose) (xx//). An apparent garden escape beside buildings in BOL. R. pimpinellifolia x ? (Burnet Rose hybrid?) (xxx/). A puzzling rose resembling R. pimpinellifolia was found on 25th June in the northern part of F. The flowers were large, solitary and bright pink and the leaves bore 4 to 5 pairs of leaflets, hairy on both sides. Unfortunately the exact position of the Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 26 (1990)




plant was not marked and all attempts to relocate it when fruit might possibly be available failed. The most plausible guess suggests the taxon might be R. pimpinellifolia x subsection Villosae, although no members of subsection Villosae have been recorded at Landguard. Prunus domestica (Plum) (////). The existence of these bushes in L was noted in 1981 and their identity then was in doubt. Fruit was produced in 1985 (but not subsequently), purple, measuring about 3cm by 2-5cm. The flavour was bland, but not sour, and the plants would seem to belong to ssp. domestica. More, younger, bushes of apparently this species were found nearby in 1987. P. cerasifera (Cherry Plum) (//xx). One tree occurred to the west of OFT. It was a good specimen tree of this species but was unfortunately felled in September 1985. It regenerated from the stump but was finally destroyed by fire in 1986. Sorbus intermedia (Swedish Whitebeam) (//xx). One small sapling in a shady corner of IF, probably bird sown. Pyrus pyraster (Pear) (x///). One tree in J, 2 to 3m high, previously overlooked. Small, hard fruits have been produced each year. Epilobium parviflorum (Hoary Willowherb) (/xxx). One small individual in a crack of a wall near a broken downpipe in IF. The exceptionally wet summer had enabled it to flower. E. montanum (Broad-leaved Willowherb) (/xxx). A small colony was found in shaded shingle in IF and one individual on the western verge of Viewpoint Road. Oenothera sp. (Evening Primrose) (xxx/). Two or three plants were noted in that part of C claimed by the Freightliner Terminal Extension in 1980. Some small areas remain free from asphalt and the Oenothera plants were growing on heaps of displaced soil from a nearby development. They were some 50 yards beyond the Security Fence so specific determination proved impossible. Landguard has always seemed a likely site for Evening Primroses and their absence until 1988 is surprising. Myriophyllum aquaticum (Parrot's Feathers) (xxx/). This species was first observed in B O P in 1985 and was mistaken for Hippuris vulgaris (Mare's Tail) which it resembles at a distance. However, Mr. M. Crewe dragged out a specimen in 1987 and its identity was established the following year. It is increasing and seems likely to persist for a lengthy period. Chaerophyllum temulentum (Rough Chervil) (x/xx). A few plants present inOFB. Rurriex rugosus Campd. (A Sorrel) (xxx/). Plants of this species appeared scattered throughout the landscaped part of C in front of the Customs and Excise Building. They appeared first in 1987 and were regarded as robust specimens of R. acetosa (Common Sorrel). The writer is indebted to Mr. F. W. Simpson for querying their status and to Dr. J. Akeroyd for his determination. R. rugosus was clearly a constituent of the 'Wild Flower Mixture' sown by Tennyson Landscapes, although R. acetosella (Sheep's Sorrel) is the only named member of the genus to appear in their published list (see Appendix). Unlike R. acetosa, R. rugosus can be found in flower continuously from early spring to late autumn.

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R. sanguineus (Wood Dock) (x///). A few individuals in OFB. Quercus ilex (Holm Oak) (////). Several large trees established in BOL. Populus x canescens (Grey Poplar) (////) (det. J. Jobling). A few trees in BOF, suckering freely and extending by this means into OF. Populus X canadensis var. serotina (Black Italian Poplar) (////) (det. J. Jobling). One small tree in BOF. Primula sp. (xx//). A non-flowering plant of either P. vulgaris or a 'Polyanthus' was found in Y in association with previously recorded garden escapes including Vinca minor, Melissa officinalis and Fragaria vesca. Buddleja davidii (Buddleia) (xx//). Two or three bushes to the west of Viewpoint Road in a part of C now enclosed and adjacent to the hard standing area for Container vehicles. Myosotis scorpioides (Water Forget-me-not) (xxx/). Deliberately introduced in BOP and apparently thriving. M. sylvatica ssp. sylvatica (Wood Forget-me-not) (/xx/). First appeared as a singleton in 1985 on the western verge of the concrete road leading to Hall Aggregates' workings. Several plants were seen in 1988 in BOL. M. discolor (Yellow and Blue Forget-me-not) (x/xx). One plant in OFT. Solanum tuberosum (Potato) (lx/1). Occasional plants as garden throw outs have appeared, mainly beside the Harwich Harbour Board Warden's bungalow near Q/U. These have not flowered. Antirrhinum majus (Greater Snapdragon) (//x/). Occasional in IF and BOB. One plant also appeared in 1985 in shingle on the western verge of Viewpoint Road. Verbena officinalis (Vervain) (x/xx). Two plants in H on the site occupied by workers' Caravans the previous year. Lycopus europaeus (Gipsy-wort) (xx//). Two plants found on the beach beside OFB. Surprisingly, they persisted for at least two years and produced numerous seedlings. Melissa officinalis (Balm) (x/xx). A few plants in Y near Fragaria vesca (listed above). Prunella vulgaris (Self-heal) (x/x/). Two plants found in Y in 1986 near the previous species. Others appeared in 1988 in the planted part of C in front of the Customs and Excise Building. Dittrichia viscosa (no common name) (xx//). The presence of this species outside the recording area was noted in the 1983 and 1984 papers. Since then the population has increased from 3 to about 12 plants, 2 of which are on the western verge of Viewpoint Road in the extreme south-west of the 1979 -1984 recording area. Filago minima (Small Cudweed) (////). Scattered in OFT with F. vulgaris (Common Cudweed). Aster tripolium (Sea Aster) (x/xx). One plant in M. Tanacetum parthenium (Feverfew) (/x//). One plant in IF and several in a dry 'ditch' between the Felixstowe Museum Society's building and OFT. Hypochoeris glabra (Smooth Cat's Ear) (////). Scattered widely in OFT. Taraxacum sp. (Dandelion) (IUI). In the 1984 paper reference was made to the help received from Mr. J. J. Heath of Colchester Museum who accompanied the writer in the field in May of that year. Determinations of Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 26 (1990)




the species found had not been received by the date of publication. Subsequently Mr. Heath communicated the findings and included earlier records from a visit to Landguard he had made in 1981. All identifications were made by C. C. Haworth and A. J. Richards. A total of seven species were found in sections Erythrosperma and Vulgaria. The complete list, with authorships and years of discovery, appears below. Species marked * were new to East Suffolk. T.fulviforme Dahlst. (1981 and 1984), T. laticordatum* Markl. (1984), T. oblongatum* Dahlst. (1984), T. oxoniense Dahlst. (1981 and 1984). T. pallidipes* Markl. (1984), T. rubicundum (Dahlst.) Dahlst. (1981) and T. tanyphyllum* Dahlst. (1981). There is little doubt that this list could be greatly extended. Elodea canadensis (Canadian Pondweed) (//x/). In 1985 and 1986 this species was well established in BOP but then disappeared. It was seen again in 1988 in the polythene-lined pool in BOF. Potamogeton natans (Broad-leaved Pondweed) (////). Established and abundant in BOP. Hemerocallis fulva (Day Lily) (xxx/). One plant on the eastern side of the earth bank alongside Viewpoint Road. Tulipa gesnerana (Garden Tulip) (x/xx). Two plants in Y with Melissa officinalis (see above). Ornithogalum umbellatum (Common Star-of-Bethlehem) (x///). Abundant in parts of BOL and BOF. Apparently a relic of former plantings. Few of the many plants present flower. Hyacinthoides non-scripta (Bluebell) (xx/x). One plant at the southern end of H/J fitted well the description of this species. Nearly all the Landguard bluebells, which are increasing, are H. hispanica or its hybrids (see next species). H. hispanica (Spanish Bluebell) (////). Most plants in BOF could be confidently referred to this species. Luzula campestris (Field Woodrush) (/x//). Several extensive patches occur in the southern part of H. They are elusive and had clearly been overlooked in previous years. Leucojum aestivum (Summer Snowflake) (xx//). One clump beside the concrete road leading to Hall Aggregates' workings, near the foot of the fence enclosing the Landguard Bird Observatory. Irispseudacorus (Yellow Flag) (/x//). One clump in BOP. Dactylorhiza fuchsii (Common Spotted Orchid) (x///). One plant in OFB. Anacamptispyramidalis (Pyramidal Orchid) (x///). One plant at the foot of BOL appeared each year and a second on OFB flowered in 1988. Lemna trisulca (Ivy-leaved Duckweed) (xx/x). Found by Mrs. E. M. Hyde among a sample of L. minor removed from the polythene-lined pool in BOF. L. minor (Common Duckweed) (x///). Growing in the same pool as the previous species (det. F. W. Simpson). Typha latifolia (Great Reedmace) (xxx/). Mr. M. Crewe drew the writer's attention to this species growing in BĂ– in a circular pit of concrete similar to BOP. Although the pit does not contain water, the luxuriance of the Typha plants suggests abundant moisture is permanently available just below the

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surface: each plant is rooted in cracks in the concrete floor of the pit. The species appears to have been present for several years. Carex hirta ( H a m m e r Sedge) (////). Present in O F B but few plants appear to flower. C. pendula (Pendulous Sedge) (/x//). One clump in BOP. Festuca nigrescens (Chewing's Fescue) (xx/x) (det. Prof. C. A . Stace). One clump found in the extreme north-west corner of F among F. ovina, F. rubra and F. trachyphylla turf. This species is extremely difficult to detect when growing among other fescues and may be more widely distributed. F. rubra ssp. megastachys Gaud. (Red Fescue) (xx/x) (det. Prof. C. A. Stace). O n e or two culms were found on OFB. Prof Stace comments, 'Your specimen has lemmas c. 7mm and spikelets c. 10mm (to 4th floret tip, which is what Flora Europaea uses) or c. 13mm to end (which is what Hubbard uses). The basal leaves are tightly folded, so everything agrees with ssp. megastachys. In Flora Europaea, both this and ssp. multiflora are placed in F. diffusa, and I am inclined to think that these two taxa are not subspecifically distinct. I am rather doubtful, however, that F. diffusa is specifically distinct from F. rubra. Hence my inclination is to include megastachys and multiflora as one subspecies of F. rubra. However, for the moment, it would seem resonable to keep them separate and, in so doing, follow Hubbard: 'Neither megastachys nor multiflora are likely to be native in Britain . . .' No attempt has been made to divide the remaining F. rubra populations on Landguard into subspecies, although plants collected in 1988 have been referred by Mr. P. J. O . Trist to ssp. arenaria. F. ovina (Sheep's Fescue). Mr. Trist has determined material collected in F i n 1988 as F. ovina ssp. ophioliticola (Kerguelen) M. Wilkinson. Puccinellia rupestris (Stiff Salt Marsh Grass) (/xxx). One plant occurred beside the concrete road to Hall Aggregates' workings. It survived for several weeks but disappeared in late summer with the drying out of the habitat. There is no suitable area on Landguard where it could be expected to thrive. Apera interrupta (Dense Silky Bent) (xxx/). One small plant was found on the western slope of a recently built earth bank to the east of the Manor Road Car Park. The species was found on July 9th and a small fragment removed for identification and for the Landguard herbarium. A fortnight later the remainder of the plant had been destroyed following resurfacing work on the Car Park. Anthoxanthum odoratum (Sweet Vernal-grass) (x/x/). Two plants were found in O F B . They are heavily overshadowed by other Vegetation but represent the entire known Landguard population of this generally common species! Comments on Previously Recorded Species A number of species previously recorded on only one or two occasions, and thought to be rare, were found to be firmly established in the Fort Guardianship. The most notable were Cheiranthus cheiri (Wallflower), on walls in B O B and elsewhere on buildings in O F ; Viola odorata (Sweet Violet) in B O F

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 26 (1990)

P L A N T RECORDS FROM L A N D G U A R D C O M M O N , 1 9 8 5 - 1 9 8 8


with violet flowers; Saginaprocumbens (Procumbent Pearlwort) throughout the Guardianship; Ornithopus perpusillus (Bird's-foot) in O F T ; Lathyrus nissolia (Grass Vetchling) in O F B ; Petroselinum crispum (Wild Parsley) in the dry, shingle-bottomed ditch between the museum and O F T ; Centaurium erythraea ( C o m m o n Centaury) in O F B ; Digitalis purpurea (Foxglove) in BOF; Inula conyza (Ploughman's Spikenard) abundant in B O L and B O F ; Leucanthemum vulgare (Marguerite) in small quantity every year on a bank at the western boundary of O F ; Carex muricata ssp. lamprocarpa (Prickly Sedge) in O F T ; Poa compressa (Flattened Meadow-grass) widespread on walls in all parts of the Guardianship; Holcus mollis (Creeping Soft-grass) on a wall beside O F T . This specimen flowered - all other H. mollis seen at Landguard has failed to do so. An unusual specimen of Fallopia convolvulus (Black Bindweed) was found in disturbed ground at the southern end of J in 1985 and has been named by E . J. Clement as var. subalatum. The willow removed f r o m A in October 1984, referred to in the 1984 account, has flourished under cultivation at Roydon, Diss and can be confirmed as Salix caprea (Great Sallow), female. Festuca juncifolia (Creeping D u n e Fescue) was reported in 1979 but not refound until September 1984, when seed was collected from possible material of this species near the tern nesting area. Plants raised f r o m this seed were confirmed as F. juncifolia by Prof. C. A . Stace in December 1986. In the meantime, plants of this species had been found in the ditch leading west from the M a n o r R o a d Car Park on 2nd August, 1985. Their identity was confirmed by P. J. O . Trist. Lactuca serriola (Prickly Lettuce) was first discovered in 1982 and was refound each year until 1987. At first all the plants seen were of forma integrifolia (S. F. Gray) S. D . Prince & R. N. Carter, but in 1985 a small colony in the north of F contained about six individuals of forma serriola mixed with a smaller n u m b e r of plants of f. integrifolia. All were growing in an almost closed Community, with Arrhenatherum elatius (Tall Oat-grass), Elymus pycnanthus (Sea Couch) and Heracleum sphondylium (Hogweed) being typical associates. Mr. Mark H y d e surveyed populations o f f . serriola in Ipswich in 1981 and recorded 14 stations for it (Mrs. E . M. H y d e , pers. comm.). Simpson's Flora of Suffolk does not distinguish the two forms and their relative abundance in Suffolk is not known. Atriplex glabriuscula (Babington's Orache) was recorded in 1979, 1980 and 1982. Following correspondence with D r . P. M. Taschereau it became clear that the plants found in these years had been hybrid derivatives of A. prostrata (Spearleaved O r a c h e ) and A. longipes (no common name). However, plants found in V in 1985 were confirmed by Dr. Taschereau as A. glabriuscula. T h e species has been seen each year since in V, and at the base of the new concrete wall on its southern flank at the northern boundary of the SWT reserve. Cynosurus cristatus (Crested Dog's-tail) was known originally only f r o m N/J (two plants). A few more appeared at the boundary of the Suffolk Sands Caravan Park as a direct consequence of sowing. However, in 1988, a triangular patch of ground in T, approximately 70 sq. yds. in area, was

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 26 (1990)


Suffolk Natural History, Vol. 26

discovered dominated by C. cristatus and many hundreds of panicles were estimated to have been present. Veronica chamaedrys (Germander Speedwell) was recorded in 1979 and not refound until 1988 when it appeared in J/H. Cytisus scoparius (Broom), known only from non-flowering juveniles, appeared as a handsome bush in 1988 on the top of the bank on the eastern side of Viewpoint Road. Voucher Specimens The following were sent to Mrs. E. M. Hyde who retains them in the 'Landguard Herbarium'. 1984: Poa angustifolia. 1985: Fallopia convolvulus var. subalatum, Atriplex glabriuscula, Puccinellia rupestris, Agrostis capillaris (a form with unusually long ligules collected from the sown bank at the southern end of the Suffolk Sands Caravan Park), Epilobium tetragonum ssp. tetragonum (det. T. D. Pennington), Epilobium ciliatum and Polypodium interjectum. 1986: Elymus farctus ssp. boreali-atlanticus X pycnanthus (det. T. G. Tutin). 1987: Festuca nigrescens. 1988: Apera interrupta, Rumex rugosus, LJlex minor, Festuca rubra ssp. arenaria, F. juncifolia and F. ovina ssp. ophioliticola.

Acknowledgements The writer wishes to thank all nineteen persons whose names appear in the above account for their help in allowing access to parts of Landguard not open to the public or for assistance in species identification. In particular, thanks are due to English Heritage whose invitation to record inside the Fort afforded a unique opportunity to monitor plant colonisation therein. The writer also acknowledges with gratitude the contributions of Mr Rayner of the Felixstowe Museum Society (who unlocked the door to the Inner Fort), Mr. S. Harrison of the Suffolk Wildlife Trust, Mr. G. Maybury, Mr R. Learmonth, and various members of the Suffolk Naturalists' Society who assisted with recording on one or more occasions. As a result of the collective effort of all concerned, 454 distinct taxa have been found at Landguard during the ten year survey.

Bibliography Clapham, A. R. Tutin, T. G. & Moore, D. M. (1987) Flora ofthe British lsles (Third Edition). Cambridge University Press. Copping, A. (1983). Plant Records from Landguard Common (1979-1982). Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc., 19,374. Copping, A. (1984). Additional Plant Records from Landguard Common, 1983. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 20, 88. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 26 (1990)




Copping, A . (1985). Further Plant Records from Landguard Common, 1984 Trans. SuffolkNat. Soc. 21, 45. Lousley, J. E . & Kent, D. H. (1981). Docks and Knotweeds of the British Isles. Botanical Society of the British Isles. Simpson, F. W. (1982). Simpsons Flora of Suffolk. Suffolk Naturalists' Society. Appendix Species planted in the area surrounding the New Customs House, Landguard, May 1987. (Reprinted by kind permissionofTennyson Landscapes.): Alnus glutinosa, Betula pubescens, Crataegus monogyna, Cytisus scoparius, Hippophae rhamnoides, Pinus nigra maritima, P. sylvestris, Populus alba, Quercus ilex, Salix repens, Tamarix gallica & Ulex europaeus. Crambe maritima, Eryngium maritimum, Foeniculum vulgare, Glaucium flavum & Sedum acre. Wild flower seeds: Achillea millefolium, Daucus carota, Echium vulgare, Geranium robertianum, Galium verum, Glaucium flavum, Hypochoeris radicata, Prunella vulgaris, Rumex acetosella & Lotus corniculatus. Grass seed mixtures: Agrostis stolonifera 10%, Festuca rubra 'litoralis' 55%, Poapratensis 25% and Puccinellia distans 10%. A. Copping, The Nook, The Green, Roydon, Diss, Norfolk, IP22 3SD

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 26 (1990)

Plate 8: Landguard Point, one of only three British sites for Stinking Goosefoot, Chenopodium vulvaria (p. 64). (Photo: Charles H Beardall)

Plant records from Landguard Common, 1985-1988  

Copping, A.

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