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This paper brings forward six species of Scolytid beetles new to Suffolk, recommends the deletion of a further species, and provides notes on four other members of the family. Collectors' initials (see 'Acknowledgements') have been placed after all records except my own, and Ordnance Survey grid references in Square brackets are those I have assigned to records.

Species new to Suffolk Leperisinus orni (Fuchs) This species, formerly confused with its close ally L. varius (Fabricius), or considered a variety or form of that species, is now recognised (vide Allen, 1970) as a good species. It appears to be less common than varius, and is probably not rare, although there are few published records. Careful cleaning and examination of Claude Morley's series of 'Hylesinus fraxini (Pz.)' ( = Leperisinus varius (F.) partim) at Ipswich Museum revealed what would appear to be eleven Suffolk examples of L. orni taken as follows: 20 iv. 95 and 26.iv.97-singletons, Belstead Woods [TM 14]; 2 7 . i v . 9 7 - 3 exx, Dodnash Wood [TM 13]; 14.V.24-2 exx, Rishangles [TM 16]; 2 5 . i x . 2 9 - 1 ex, Wantisden [TM 35]; 4.v.40 and 16.iv.41 -singletons, Letheringham [TM 25]; 25.vii.44 - 1 ex, Brandeston [TM 26]- There is also an example Standing over the name Hylastes angustatus (Herbst) taken on 2.v. 1901 at Wherstead [TM 14] (vide infra). I have also identified three specimens taken on 15.iv.60 at Rendlesham [TM 3451] and found crawling on young (ca. 14 cm diameter), Standing, live ash trunks, C.S.B. H. varius is probably found throughout the County wherever Fraxinus occurs. It can be reliably reported from the following localities: Dodnash Wood [TM 13], Belstead Woods [TM 14], Monks Soham [TM 26], Eyek [TM 35], Risby [TL 76] (all C. M. Coli. det. D . R . N . ) ; Wolves Wood (TM 0543), Felshamhall Wood (TL 9358) H . M . ; Campsey Ash (TM 3155), Ipswich (TM 1845) C.S.B.; Groton Wood (TL9743). Ernoporus fagi (Fabricius) A tiny rather rare species associated exclusively with Fagus. As was pointed out by Morley many years ago, beech is not a common tree in Suffolk, so it is not altogether surprising that this beetle has been overlooked until recent times. Recorded as follows: 14.V.75 - several exx. dead under beech branch bark, Shrubland Estate, Coddenham (TM 1252); 22.V.76- 1 ex. under bark of beech trank, Church Walks, Sudbourne (TM 4151) Trypophloeus asperatus (Gyllenhal) A n o t h e r tiny rare species, T. asperatus develops in Populus and Salix spp.

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 20



On 27. vii.80 it was beaten in numbers from dead twigs of a fallen Grey Poplar on Icklingham Plains (TL 7573). A sample of these twigs collected on 28.iii.81 yielded further adults in May, 1981 (both records H.M.). I reared the beetle in May, 1982 from larvae found on 24.ii.82 in the bark of a fallen poplar in Scotland Fens, near Boyton (TM 3646). Boreholes, amost certainly of this species, were observed in the wrinkled bark of large (ca. 12 cm diameter), living boughs of sallow (Salix sp.) nearby. Xyleborus saxeseni (Ratzeburg) A very localised southern species most frequently encountered, in my experience, under/in beech bark, although Duffy (1953) lists it from only Quercus, Ulmus, Acer and Pinus. There is a Single Suffolk specimen (teste D.R.N.) in Morley's collection labelled '6.V.23 M S'. His diary yields additional data on this Monks Soham beetle, showing that it was taken at his home [TM 2165] viz.' 1 Xyleborus sp. ? in M S drive 5 p. m.' I know of only two other captures: 16.iv.61 - 1 ex. in piece of dry, rotten wood, Blackstock Woods, Campsey Ash (TM 35) C.S.B.; 18.iv.80-1 ex. on end of freshly cut beech trunk, Shrubland Estate, Coddenham (TM 1252). Pityogenes trepanatus (Nรถrdlinger) At one time confined to Scotland and rare in occurrence, P. trepanatus was first taken in England by Mr. A. A. Allen at Brockenhurst, Hants in 1935, but only recognised much later (Allen, 1951 a ). The species is now known as well from Surrey and Berks. (Allen, 1951 b ), and more recently, Norfolk (Allen, 1976). Its occurrence with us is, therefore, not wholly unexpected. On 5.V.701 took six Pityogenes from a large number under the bark of a dead, upright pine sapling in Tunstall Forest (TM 38055). Subsequent examination showed them to be trepanatus, which in common with the next species, has almost certainly spread as a direct result of the increased afforestation of southern England with conifers. Pityogenes chalcographus (Linnaeus) A very uncommon species originally considered indigenous to a Single site in Perthshire. The first English specimen known was taken by Mr. A. A. Allen in Windsor Forest, Berks. (Allen, 1951 a ). The following Suffolk captures are known to me: viii.71 - on Scotch fir, Martlesham Heath [TM 24] (Aubrook, 1972); 10.viii.80- 1 ex. (teste A . A . A ) beaten from pine, Mildenhall Warren (TL 743750) P.H. I am unaware of any other English Records. Deletion from the Suffolk list Pityogenes quadridens (Hartig) This species has always been, and still appears to be, an exclusively Scottish insect. The beetle was added to our County list by the competent, professional Coleopterist K. G. Blair, who recorded it in these 'Transactions' from the Dunwich area (Blair, 1933). The species was noted as new to Suffolk in both the text of Blair's paper and the index to the volume, but no comment was made by author or editor (Morley) upon the remarkable nature of this

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 20


Suffolk Natural History, Vol. 20

capture. As far as I can ascertain, no note of the capture was published in any of the national entomological journals, and Mr. A . A . Allen (in litt.) informs me that he is unaware of any southern records for the beetle. Several suggestions may be m a d e as to how this most unusual State of affairs may have occurred. Firstly, Blair may have been guilty of a lapsus calami meaning to write or type Pityogenes bidentatus (Herbst) in his manuscript. The latter is the commonest and most widely distributed British Pityogenes and would not merit comment in these Transactions now, or in 1933. It is perhaps significant that the specific name'bidentatus' does in fact appear in the same line (op. cit. p. 161) as the name Pityogenes quadridens - as a synonym of Pogonocherus hispidulus Pil. It is also apparent to the serious Student of Morley's work in the field of entomology, that Morley was not especially interested in the Coleoptera at that time and, upon checking the name P. quadridens against his lists of Suffolk Coleoptera and observing its absence, he may have unthinkingly added the editorial note 'New to Suffolk' in Blair's manuscript. On the other hand, Morley may have been taking into account the fact that some previously northern species had already become established in the south. H e had, himself, noted the first southern specimens of the coniferinfesting Cimberis (= Rhinomacer) attelaboides Fabricius in Suffolk in 1898 (Morley, 1899) . T h e a b s e n c e o f a n y comment does, however, seem to render this explanation unlikely. Having given the matter careful consideration, it would seem advisable to expunge the name Pityogenes quadridens from our list. Additional Notes Hylastes angustatus (Herbst) Although Morley does not appear to have brought this beetle forward as occuring in the County, there are two Scolytids Standing over this name in his collection. O n e of them bears a large label with 'Hylastes angustatus Hbst N E W S U F F . C . M . 20.ii.1935' on the upper surface and 'Found in bark of dead tree in Pannington Hall W o o d , Wherstead Suffolk 2.v.1901. C . M . ' on the lower. The insect is not an Hylastes at all and is a scale-denuded example of Leperisinus orni (Fuchs), (vide supra). The second insect bears the data '2.iv.40 Spruce, Lether.' This Letheringham beetle is only an example of Hylurgops palliatus (Gyllenhal). In what amounts to a third Supplement to Morley's 'Coleoptera of Suffolk', E . A . Elliott (1936) in introducing Polygraphus to our list comments (op. cit. p. 124): 'For long we failed to determine a Scolytid, very like a small Hylastes, all of which British kinds we possess, such as H . angustatus of the coarsely punctured thorax . . .'. It seems likely from the determination date and label (cf. second sentence of Elliott's paper. p. 121-2) that Morley meant this species to be added to the County list on the basis of his Wherstead specimen. It will also be observed from the sentence partially quoted above, that the printer did not italicise specific and generic names. Almost certainly as a result of this, the beetle is omitted f r o m all indices to the volume.

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 20



Whether the original error was Elliott's (whose paper was published posthumously), Morley's (who edited it) or the printer's, we shall probably never know. Duffy (op. cit.) states that H. angustatus is a local southern species. It appears in fact to be the rarest of our Hylastes and is either missing or poorly represented in most collections I have seen. (It should be noted that Duffy's figure of the head of angustatus (op. cit. p. 8) is extremely misleading and more like that of opacus Erichson, the very species which has, like angustatus, two rows of granules and setae on the elytral interstices! H. opacus has a median, shining, punctiform spot, or possibly a slightly raised granule, whereas angustatus has a clearly defined, short, elongate, linear sulcus.) I am unaware of any Suffolk records for angustatus and most specimens I have seen are from Woking (G. C. Champion). Polygraphus poligraphus (Linnaeus) A very rare species added to the Suffolk list (as P. pubescens Bach) by Elliott (1936) on the basis of a specimen taken by Morley at Palmers Heath, Brandon on May 16th, 1930. I have examined this specimen in Morley's collection and it is merely Hylastinus obscurus (Marsham). The species can remain on our list, however, on the basis of Suffolk material in Ipswich and Manchester Museums as follows: Ipswich Museum Morley Collection 8.vii.36, Heveningham (4 exx.); a card of over a dozen Hymenopterous parasites labelled as having been taken with Polygraphus at Haiesworth in 1936. (Neither of the above sets of specimens were taken by Morley and the only clue to their captor(s) is the name 'Ellis' which appears in brackets on a label beneath the parasites. Mr. C. Johnson (pers. comm.) informs me that the data on both adults and parasites was not written by Horace Donisthorpe or H. W. Ellis. Manchester University Museum (BritishCollection)-3.ii.37, Haiesworth (2 exx., H. Donisthorpe);, Heveningham (3 exx., R. N. Chrystal); 2 exx. labelled 'Haiesworth' and 'ex. coli. Walker'. Morley, in an editorial note to Elliott's paper (op. cit. p. 124), refers to the occurrence of the species 'freely' at Heveningham in 1936, but it would appear that he did not collect specimens himself. Donisthorpe (1937) records taking thirty examples at Haiesworth and those in Manchester Museum are obviously from this collecting trip. In March, 1941 Morley went to look for the beetle, but failed tofindit, describing (Morley, 1941) how every affected tree had been felled and burned as part of a campaign to eradicate it. I am unaware of any subsequent Suffolk captures. All the above records are assignable to the 10km Square TM 37. Cryphalus abietis (Ratzeburg) There are comparatively few records in the literature of this tiny, very rare Scolytid. It was originally recorded by Morley in his 'Coleoptera of Suffolk' (1899) as follows: 'Taken by Mr. Garneys, at Bungay (Ent. Ann., 1863, p. 115)'. In view of the antiquity of this record and the possibility of confusion with its close relatives (in particular, the doubtfully indigenous C. picaea (Ratzeburg)) it would seem valuable to provide a more secure foundation for Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 20


Suffolk Natural History, Vol. 20

its inclusion on our list. Examination of Morley's collection revealed two Suffolk beetles standing over the name abietis, both taken at Monks Soham by Morley and labelled '29.V.41 M S on gate' [TM 2165]. Above the name picaea there are specimens taken by him from spruce at Letheringham [TM 25] as follows: 20.iv.40 (3 exx.); 24.iv.40 (3 exx.); 26.iv.49 (9exx.). Comparison with reliably named material from the Palaearctic Collection at Manchester Museum (there are no specimens of picaea in the British Collection) showed that all Morley's specimens are referrable to abietis. There is against abietis in Morley's own copy of his 1899 work the annotation 'Freckenham on Scots Fir in May 1920 (Donisthorpe)' [TL 67], In addition, I have taken the species on the Shrubland Estate, Coddenham as follows: - 1 ex. swept from grass near conifers (TM 1252); l . v i . 8 3 - 1 ex. by general sweeping (TM 1253); 3 . v i . 8 3 - 5 exx. beatenfrom fallen, mature pine bough (TM 1153). I am not aware of any other records for the County. Pityophthorus lichtensteini (Ratzeburg) Reference to the literature reveals that this species remains extremely rare, and apparently confined to Scotland. There seem to be no later published records than those in Fowler (1891). Mr. A. A. Allen (in litt.) informs me that, when he last inspected their collections, the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) had only specimens collected by Sharp, but that according to Philip Harwood B. S. Williams once took an example (almost certainly at Nethy Bridge). In a list of Coleoptera sent to the Suffolk Trust for Nature Conservation (Welch, 1978), a Single example of P. lichtensteini is recorded from beneath the bark of a pine log at Hollesley Heath Nature Reserve (TM 347466) on 18.vii.78. Unfortunately, the specimen was not retained, and Dr. Welch has recommended that the record should not be accepted unless it is confirmed. The facts are reported here since, theoretically, the beetle could occur with us as a result of Forestry Commission activities. Acknowledgements I thank Messrs. H. Mendel, C. S. Barham, E. W. Aubrook and P. Hodge for allowing me to include their unpublished records. I am especially indebted to Mr. Mendel of Ipswich Museum who kindly loaned me specimens from the Morley Collection and extracted data from the Morley diaries. I also thank Mr. C. Johnson of Manchester Museum for helpful discussion and allowing me access to the collections in his care. Finally, I am most grateful to Mr. A. A. Allen for much valuable correspondence and for checking critical specimens. References Allen, A. A. (1951a) New records of rare Ipinae (Col., Scolytidae) in Hants. and Berks. Entomologist's mon. Mag. 87,115. Allen, A. A . (1951b) Pityogenes trepanatus Noerdl. (Col., Scolytidae) spreading in England, ibid. 87,115. Allen, A. A. (1970) Ernoporus caucasicus Lind, and Leperisinus orni Fuchs (Col., Scolytidae) in Britain. ibid. 105 (1969), 245.

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 20

37 Allen, A. A. (1976) Pityogenes trepanatus Noerdl. (Col., Scolytidae) in Norfolk, ibid. 111 (1975), 22. Aubrook, E. W. (1972) Coleoptera recorded by E. W. Aubrook (Tolson Memorial Museum, Huddersfield) in Suffolk, August 7th-21st, 1971. Unpublished ms. list held by D. R. Nash. Blair, K. G. (1933) Entomological Captures about Dunwich. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 2,160. Donisthorpe, H. (1937). A rare boring-beetle. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 3, 284. Duffy, E. A. J. (1953). Coleoptera- Scolytidae and Platypodidae. Handbk. Ident. Br. Insects vol. v, part 15. Royal Entomological Society of London. Elliott, E. A. (1936). Critical Notes on our Beetles. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 3,121. Fowler, W. W. (1891). The Coleoptera of the British Islands vol. v. Reeve and Co. Morley, C. (1899). The Coleoptera of Suffolk. Plymouth. Morley, C. (1941). Proceedings of Suffolk Naturalists' for 1941 in Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 4, cxxx. Nash, D. R. (1979). Cryphalus abietis (Ratz.) (Col., Scolytidae) in Suffolk. Entomologist's mon. Mag. 114(1978), 190. Nash, D. R. (1982a). Pityogenes trepanatus (Nordl.) (Col., Scolytidae) new to Suffolk. ibid. 118, 54. Nash, D. R. (1982b). Cryphalus abietis (Ratz.) (Col., Scolytidae) in Suffolk an addendum. ibid. 226. Welch, R. C. (1978). Some Coleoptera and Isopoda collected at Melton Lodge Farm and Hollesley Heath Nature Reserve, Suffolk on 18.7.78. Unpublished ms. held at Ipswich Museum. NOTES ON THE SUFFOLK LIST OF COLEOPTERA: 4. SCOLYTIDAE

David Ridley Nash, 226 Colchester Road, Lawford, near Manningtree, Essex COll 2BU.

Grey squirrel swimming a ditch On September lOth 1983, whilst Walking along the northern edge of Martlesham Creek, I saw what I thought was a young coypu swimming across a ditch. To my amazement, when the creature emerged on the far bank I saw that it was a grey squirrel. It shook itself dry and ran across the adjoining marsh into thick cover. D. R. Moore. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 20

Notes on the Suffolk list of Coleoptera: 4. Scolytidae  
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