THE NEUROPTERA OF SUFFOLK.
one or more of our Members devote a few years exclusively to the investigation of the local Spring-tails, Psocids, Stone-flies, May-flies, Dragon-flies and Caddis-flies that go to constitute the Order Neuroptera, we shall obtain but an inadequate knowledge of Suffolk kinds. The present preparatory Catalogue is tendered as a mere basis for future work, and an incentive to further study, for it embraces less than half the British species thus :â€” UNTIL
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Collembola Thysanura Ps.-Neuroptera Perlidae Ephemeridae ... Odonata P l a n i p e n n i a ... Trichoptera ...
Brit. 54 4 43 29 39 43 57 174 443
Suffolk. 10 2 29 10 7 25 38 76 197 species
The disparity in relative numbers is owing far more to the difhculty in correct naming than to lack of the insects themselves, for our County is so well watered that we lack nothing but swift-flowing streams and mountain torrents to cover the whole of the aquatic kinds' natural home : ponds, broads, rivers and brackish-water on the coast are all one could desire. These eight divisions are heterogeneous, yet conveniently treated in common from a faunistic view-point. The modern tendency is to separate ; but, in doing so, one gains nothing in natural systematics and merely multiplies Orders. McLachlan's 1870 Catalogue of British Neuroptera (revised at Trans. Ent. Soc. 1882) includes the whole, excepting only Collembola and Thysanura, regarded as not Insects by Westwood but treated as the ancestral type of insect by Lubbock's Monograph on the group, published by the Ray Society in 1873 : their affinities are certainly with Pseudo-Neuroptera, of which family Hagen records Suffolk species in the Entomologist's Annual of 1861. Of Perlidce no monograph exists but W. H. Nunney's "British Stone Flies" (Science Gossip 1892, pp. 35-51), largely drawn from Prof. Pictet's Histoire des Perlides : Suffolk's paucity is owing to our lack of fastflowing streams, for around Killarney we have taken great numbers. Our Member, Mr. Blair, published a " List of the British Ephemeroptera " in Entom. during 1930 ; they are abundant upon all our Suffolk rivers. Our Odonata seu Dragon Flies were printed at Trans. Suff. Nat. Soc. i, p. 19. An " Entomologist List of British Neuroptera " of 1929 embraces
T H E N E U R O P T E R A OF SUFFOLK.
onlythegroup that was monographed under the name Planipennia by McLachlan in Trans. Ent. Soc. 1868, p. 145 : as treated here. Much the best book on Caddis Flies is the same author's " Monographie Revision of Trichoptera of Europe," though nowadays somewhat out-of-date; Suffolk kinds occur in John Curtis' paper in the Philosophical Magazine of 1834 ; and the following list is based upon Dale's 1907 " Catalogue of British Neuroptera," though it excludes the groups treated of by Lubbock. Appended under each species are the first and last dates of local capture, to indicate the period of imaginal existence. An Ant-Lion is recorded under ' Observations,' post. Lepidopterists will be interested to know that the sole important difference between Trichoptera and Moths lies in the fact that the genus Rhyacophila of Pictet, belonging to the former, possesses one branch-nervure in the front wings that is lacking in the Micropterygina, a group embracing (sec. Meyrick 1927, 867) the Swift-moths, Hepiali, so generally attracted to light everywhere. COLLEMBOLA, Spring-tails. Smynthurus fuscus, DeG.—Common everywhere in rotten wood and sand-pits ; Monks' Soham, September, 1930. Orchesella cincta, Linn.—Ipswich District in 1904 ; common in moss and under logs. Orchesella villosa, Geof.—Abundant throughout the County : taken Bixley, 3 iv 1904. Tomocerus plumbceus, Linn.—Abundant throughout the County: taken Bixley, 3 iv 1904. Templetonia crystallina, Müll.—Abundant throughout the County : taken Bixley, 3 iv 1904. Seira domestica, Nie.—Ipswich, taken during 1904. Seira Buskia, Lub.—Ipswich, taken during 1904. Lepidocyrtus curvicollis, Bour.—A rare species, taken at Bixley Decoy, Aprü, 1904. Degeeria Nicoleti, Lub.—Abundant throughout the County : taken Bixley, 3 iv 1904. Podura aquatica, Linn.—Often on water (Kirby, Introd. vii, 454). Very commonly seen on the surface of ponds, etc.; Bramford, Brandon and elsewhere. T H Y S A N U R A , Silver-fish. Campodea staphylinus, Westw.—Rare ; two speeimens in a mossy bank at Hitcham, in early October, 1899 (Platten). Several immature in moss at Bedfield in February 1921. Lepisma saccharina, Linn.—Doubtless common in old houses, though I saw but one, in 1893, during a ten years' residence in Ipswich. Only too abundant among old church-books
at Monks' Soham, Bedingfield, etc. ; and I have frequently seen it from December to June in my bedrooms at the former village, sometimes attracted to light and there sitting quiescently about midnight. PSEUDO-NEUROPTERA,
Amphigerontia variegata, Latr.—Suffolk (Stephens & Hagen). Freston and often abundant on oak-trunks in Bentley Wood, in which Situation its markings so exactly resemble the bark as to render it nearly invisible ; on 4 July 1909 several were sitting in my Monks' Soham garden on a beech-trunk among the Coccid Cryptococcus fagi, Bar. ; Walberswick Wood on ash, and Henham ; Barton Mills and Brandon on pine. 13 June to 13 September. A. fasciata, Fab.—Common in Suffolk (Stephens). Swept "from reeds and pine at Barton Mills, and rarely from heather in Tuddenham Fen ; on walls and pine-trunks at Brandon. 4 to 22 June only. A. bifasciata, Latr.—Suffolk (Hagen & Stephens). Brandon on gorse, Tuddenham Fen and Blythburgh Wood. 10 June to 26 September. Psocus morio, Latr.—On trunks of lime-trees at Thetford in July (Curtis, pl. 648 and Entom. Annual 1861, p. 32) : not noted later. P. nebulosus, Ste.—Common in Suffolk (Stephens & Hagen) ; but apparently local. Bentley Wood, Herringswell and Tuddenham fens, Wangford St. Martin. 8 viii—22 ix. P. longicornis, Fab.—Suffolk (Stephens & Ent. Ann. 1861, p. 28 : P. lineatus). Not rare on holly and pine ; Barnby Broad, Bentley Woods and Barham. 18 vii—21 viii. Stenopsocus immaculatus, Ste.—Found in Suffolk (Stephens ; Hagen, Ent. Ann. 1861, p. 25). [My examples are from Stony Cross and Mark Ash in New Forest; 6—15 vii.] S. stigmaticus, Imh.—Common on lime-leaves in Monks' Soham garden ; beaten from oak and pine near Foxhall obelisk ; Brandon staunch. 4 vii—28 ix. Graphopsocus cruciatus, Linn.—Suffolk (Psocus subocellatus, S t e ; Ent. Ann. 1861, p. 24). Abundant on oaks from April to November ; Ipswich, Bentley, Foxhall, Wherstead, Staverton ; Brandeston, Monks' Soham ; Brandon, Barton Mills, Tuddenham and Herringswell fens. Mesopsocus unipunctatus, Müll.—Suffolk (Psocus immunis, Ste. ; Ent. Ann. 1861, p. 23). Not uncommon on oak and more rarely pine; Bentley Woods, Shrubland, Assington; Reydon on alder ; Brandon, Barton Mills, Icklingham, Tuddenham Fen. 4 vi—23 vii [Elliott has taken it at Braemar in August].
THE NEUROPTERA OF SUFFOLK.
Philotarsus fiaviceps, Ste.—Apparently rare ; beaten from pine at Foxhall, only on 10 September 1904. Elipsocus hyalinus, Ste.—Found occasionally in Suffolk (Stephens' P. bipunctatus et P. sexpunctatus, Illus. Man. vi, 123). Bentley Woods, Monks' Soham garden; Henstead, Blythburgh ; Tuddenham Fen. 13 v—28 viii. E. Westwoodi, McL.—Orford on willow ; commonly swept in Tuddenham Fen ; and many both on seeding ash in Monks' Soham paddock and at Cossus-burrows in a tree at Boxford with the beetles Homalota succicola and H. nigricornis. 7 vii—26 ix. E. abietis, Kol.—Abundant on Abies excelsa at Bentley Woods, Barnby Broad; Elveden and Barton Mills. A winter species, commonest in May : 17 xi—20 vi. E. cyanops, Rost.—Four beaten from Pinus sylvestris on Tuddenham Heath at end of June 1880 (McLachlan, EMM. xvii, p. 71 ; cf. lc. p. 21). Abundant on pines at Icklingham Plains and Barton Mills during 18-20 June 1915. E. consimilis, McL.—Several beaten from oak at Foxhall on 4 July 1904. Pterodela pedicularia, Linn.—Taken in Suffolk (Psocus abdominalis, Ste. & Hagen). Abundant : shaken from bones of dead calf at Foxhall (cf. EMM. 1899, p. 273) ; Monks' Soham, in my Ipswich study, at roots of marram-grass on Southwold beach ; on oak at Wangford and pine in Herringswell Fen. 1 vii—21 ix. Peripsocus alboguttatus, Dalm.—Found in Suffolk (Psocus 4maculatus, Ste. Illus. Man. vi, 125). Certainly very local; common on dwarf sallow, Salix repens, Linn., in Tuddenham Fen during 22 Aug. 1905—26 Sept. 1907. P. phceopterus, Ste.—Probably common, but rarely taken; swept at Brandon and beaten, with many of the Heteropteron Loxops coccineus, from flowering ash in Monks' Soham paddock ; rarely on box-bushes. 14 vii—11 viii. Ectopsocus Briggsi, McL.—Often abundant on ash and oak trees at Wherstead, Monks' Soham and Wangford Wood ; rarely on pine in Bentley Woods, and whitethorn in Tuddenham Fen. A winter species, occurring 18 ix—6 iv. Ccecilius fuscopterus, Latr.—Somewhat local, much more so than in south England, and essentially a sylvan insect but in woods abundant on hazel and other trees and bushes at Bentley, Wangford, Henham and Blythburgh ; singly at Parham, and once only in my Monks' Soham garden. 22 vi—5 x. C. atricomis, McL.—This species was described from the Isle of Wight in November (EMM. 1869, p. 196), and always considered by its late author as of extreme rarity. With us it occurs only by sweeping reeds in autumn ; first in
THE NEUROPTERA OF SUFFOLK.
the Bramford marshes (I.e. 1899, p. 272; in coli. McLachlan) ; later in Mildenhall fens (I.e. 1908, p. 43 ; in coli. Morton) ; and at Potters Bridge near Southwold : hence it is very widely distributed. 20 ix—11 x only. C. flaviclus, Ste.—Suffolk (Stephens & Hagen). Not very common, usually taken by sweeping low herbage : Foxhall, Wherstead, Southwold, Monks' Soham ; Wangford St. Martin and Tuddenham Fen ; never seen in Bentley Woods. It has the long span 5 vi—27 x. C. Burmeisteri, Brau.—Distributed across the County, but apparently rare ; taken by sweeping Erica tetralix at Palmers Heath in Brandon on 20 June 1914 (Elliott), and several on heather outside Blythburgb Wood on 25 September 1913. C. Kolbei, Tet.—First found in Britain by J . J . King, when he took about twenty examples on 16 August 1892, just within the entrance to Tuddenham Fen, by sweeping dead and dry stems of Ragwort in the vicinity of Scots fir (McLachlan, EMM. 1894, p. 244). Not since noticed. C. piceus, Kol.—Ipswich, among decayed insects. Under dead pine-bark at Sproughton and beaten from gorse in Bentley Woods ; Southwold swept. A winter species, from September to March. Kolbea quisquüiarum, Ber.—One male swept at Brandon staunch by the River Ouse on 10 September 1915, and an apterous female found beneath plants in the Southwold salt-marshes on 16 July 1912 (both by Morley; and former now in coli. Morton). Atropos pulsatoria, Linn.—This divinatoria of Müller was only too common among my dried insects in Ipswich ; though probably not indigenous. I have taken it indoors also at Lowestoft and Southwold in autumn. Lepinotus inquilinus, Heyd.—Under pine bark ; Ipswich, Sproughton and, I believe, Bentley Woods and Tuddenham Fen, singly. A winter species. PERLID/B, Stone-flies.
Chloroperla grammatica, Poda.—Extremely rare or absent: I have two speeimens that may have been taken in the Ipswich district in 1893. Not since seen. Nemoura pracox, Mort.—Swept rarely from reeds in Bixley Decoy on 17 September 1904. N. cinerea, Oliv.—Apparently rare ; one near Ipswich in 1894 and one in my garden at Monks' Soham early in 1905. N. Standfussi, Ris.—Occurs sparingly, with the last, in my garden in early May. Both species are bred, doubtless, in the surrounding moat.
THE NEUROPTERA OF SUFFOLK.
variegata, Oliv.—Abundant everywhere on willows: Bradfield, Timworth, Ampton and Tuddenham (Nurse). Tuddenham Fen, Brandon, Sotherton, Staverton, Fressingfield, Monks' Soham, Ickworth Park, Stanstead, Sudbury, Barham, Bentley, Aspall Woods. 23 iii—6 vii. N. inconspicua, Pict.—Uncommon : Timworth, Ampton, West Stow and Tuddenham (Nurse). Bentley Woods and Bixley Decoy ; it flies about eight feet from the ground. 9 iv—5 v, and again in September. N. dubitans, Mort.—This Swiss and Danish species was first recorded from Britain (Entom. 1911, p. 134) on the strength of a male taken at West Stow by Col. Nurse, who there found it commonly during the next spring (1. c. 1912, 93). Leuctra geniculata, Ste.—Rare at Brandon staunch on the River Ouse, 21 September 1907. L. Klapaleki, Kern.—Not rare on alderby streams in autumn : Wherstead, Foxhall, Brandon, etc. L. fusciventris, Ste.—Taken at Foxhall on bracken near water, 25 September 1902. May-flies. Ephemera vulgata, Linn.—By no means the prevalent insect it is in the south of England. Ixworth (Nurse) ; Lavenham, Nayland, Wickham Market and formerly on banks of the Gipping at Ipswich, Blakenham and Needham Market. 27 v—24 vi, only. Leptophlebia marginata, Linn.—Doubtless common ; taken by the Gipping at Ipswich. L. submarginate, Ste.—Found commonly in a swampy meadow at Foxhall on 30 May 1896. Bcetis Rhodani, Pict.—Abundant at Belstead, Bentley Woods, Washbrook, Dodnash, Foxhall, etc. Throughout iii—v and viii—ix. Clceon dipterum, Linn.—Very common throughout summer : Assington Thicks, Bentley Woods, Shrubland Park, Southwold, etc. C. simile, Eat.—Taken at Brandon by the River Ouse in June 1903 (Chitty). Ecdyurus sp.—Many specimens noted re-entering the water of the Stour two miles above Bures in Suffolk on 17 September 1903 (EMM. 1904, p. 15). EPIIEMERID.E,
See Trans. Suff. Nat. Soc. i, p.
Lacewing-flies. Sialis lutaria, Linn.—Common about Yarmouth (Paget) and in west Suffolk (Nurse). Abundant everywhere by water : Ipswich, Bramford, Nayland; Monks' Soham, PLANIPENNIA,
187 Butley, Southwold, Henstead, Oulton and Barnby Broads ; Icklingham, Mildenhall, Brandon. 19 iv—9 vi. S. fuliginosa, Pict.—Very much rarer. The only certain specimens were taken in my Monks' Soham garden during late May 1929 (Morley). Raphidia notata, Fab.—Rare and confined to large woods. Ampton and once bred from pupa found at Livermere (Nurse). Beaten from bushes in Bentley Woods and Assington Thicks only; the larvse feed under bark of holly and other trees (cf. Entom. 1909, p. 143). Imago is abroad 6 v-—16 vi. R. cognata, Ramb.—A male at West Stow on 7 June 1909 and female at Ampton on 5 June 1909 (Nurse ; Entom. 1909, p. 142 and EMM. 1911, p. 113). R. xanthostigma, Sch.—Our commonest species, but found only in north-west. Brandon in June 1903 (Chitty) ; Barton Mills on pine, Brandon on dead oaks, Tuddenham Fen on Hydrolapathum and sallow. 24 v—19 vi. Sisyra fuscata, Fab.—Bamham (Nurse). Local; somewhat common on banks of Gipping at Ipswich, Blakenham, and Claydon; of Stour at Sudbury; and in Beccles marshes. Brandon, Icklingham, Syleham and Monks' Soham, rarely at light at night. 6 v—24 viii. Hemerobius micans, Oliv.—Ampton (Nurse). Mildenhall chyd on lime-trees ; Southwold and several swept from marramgrass on Kessingland beach. 16 vii—3 viii. H. nitidulus, Fab.—Barton Mills on fir (Elliott) ; Trost on and Ampton (Nurse). Common on Pinus sylvestris during April in Bentley Woods ; Elveden in 1907, captured by the ant, Lasius fuliginosus. A winter species, 16 viii— 11 v. H. humuli, Linn.—Not very common, as in south England. Ampton (Nurse) ; on bushes in Bentley, Woods, Monks' Soham and Assington Thicks; Henstead, Tuddenham Fen. Its imagines' life has the long span 20 ii—2 ix. H. marginatus, Ste.—One female beaten from birch in Blythburgh Wood at end of August, 1931. H. lutescens, Fab.—Not rare. Livermere and West Stow (Nurse) ; beaten from oak at Bentley, Harleston, Foxhall; found at Reydon marshes and Tuddenham Fen; on ash in Monks' Soham garden. 15 v—10 viii. H. nervosus, Fab.—Apparently rare. Four at Ampton by Nurse in 1911 (Entom. 1912, p. 222) ; taken on the wing in Bentley Woods on 5 May 1899, at Tuddenham Fen on 9 September 1915 and in Blythburgh Wood on 6 September 1928. H. subnebulosus, Ste.—Not uncommon at Dunwich in 1928 (Blair), Barnby Broad on alder, Lowestoft denes on THE NEUROPTERA OF SUFFOLK.
THE NEUROPTERA OF SUFFOLK.
marram-grass; Ipswich, attracted to oil and electric light, and Monks' Soham at light in house, always about 11 p.m. A specimen was bred at Ipswich on 6 May 1895 from its transparent subcylindrical cottonish cocoon of only five by two mm. 6 v—29 viii. H. stigma, Ste.-—Dunwich in 1926 (Blair) ; Troston and Ampton (Nurse). Foxhall and abundant on Abies excelsa in Bentley Woods during March, as well as sparingly later at Brandon, Elveden and Tuddenham. 8 ii—-29 viii. H. limbatus, Wesm.—Common on Pinns sylvestris in Ben Woods from 16 February to 11 May. Rare elsewhere : Brandon in September and on Gorleston palings in August. H. pini, Ste.—Two beaten in a fir wood at Barton Mills on 3-5 June 1916. H. concinnus, Ste.—Rarely noticed : beaten from pine in Bentley Woods on 24 June 1896 and from eider in Shrubland Park on 12 June 1926. H. qnadrifasciatus, Reut.—Found only on 5 June 1916, whe afineseries was beaten from Pinns sylvestris at Barton Mills. Micromus paganus, Linn.—Doubtless common, but rarely me with. Bentley Woods, Wherstead, and at 9 p.m. on 18 June 1909, oneflewin to light at Monks' Soham ; a female, taken in the Reydon marshes, laid one large egg, whence a larva emerged. 16 v —18 vi. M. variegatus, Fab.—Little Cornard in August 1923 (Entom. 1924, p. 147). Somewhat uncommon on pines and herbage in Bentley and Stanstead woods, Letheringham Old Park, Reydon marshes, Tuddenham Fen and at Barton Mills. 28 iv—28 viii. M. aphidivorus, Sehr.—The synonymous angulatus, Ste is recorded from Sudbury (Entom. 1924, p. 146). Chrysopa vittata, Wesm.—Rarely noticed : Aying among bushes in Bentley Woods on 24 June 1900 and 5 June 1930. C.flava,Scop.—Common in west Suffolk (Nurse). Less so in east Suffolk: Ipswich in 1893 and attracted by electric light there in July, 1898. C. alba, Linn.—Culford and West Stow (Nurse). Mutford Wood in August 1898, and in the Ipswich district. C.flavifrons,Brau.—At electric light in Ipswich ; common in Tuddenham Fen and at Monks' Soham. 18 vii—12 viii. C. tenella, Sch.—West Stow (Nurse). Easton Broad ; at electric light in Ipswich, about midnight on 16 August 1895; and common at Monks' Soham. 15 vi—8 ix. C. vulgaris, Sch.—Extremely abundant in the town at light and on the sand-hils at Lowestoft in July 1883 (Boyd, EMM. xxi, 1884, p. 21) ; Bamham (Nurse). Generally common : Tuddenham Fen, Monks' Soham, Southwold,
OF S U F F O L K .
Foxhall, Bentley Woods, Bramford and once on a streetlamp in Ipswich. 27 v—17 viii; rarely hibernating indoors, as at Gor leston on 8 February 1923 (Doughty) and Monks' Soham on 20 November 1906, and out-ofdoors, as among pine in Bentley Woods on 13 iii 1903. C. septempunctata, Wesm.—Rarely noticed : about Ipswich in 1894 and at electric light there the following August. C. prasina, Ramb.—Common everywhere. Dunwich in 1926 (Blair) ; Culford and Tuddenham (Nurse). Tuddenham Fen, Eriswell, Brandon staunch and Palmers Heath; Bentley Woods, etc. 14 vi—10 vii only. C. ventralis, Curt.—" Taken at Dunwich during hibernation, early in 1 9 0 5 " (Gimingham, in lit.). Apparently not very common : Barton Mills and Tuddenham Fen on reeds ; Bentley Woods on bushes. 21 vi—1 vii only. C. phyllochroma, Wesm.—Abundant : Tuddenham (Entom. 1924, p. 149) ; Culford (Nurse) ; Dunwich in 1926 (Blair) ; Mildenhall, Barton Mills, Sotherton, Henstead, Benacre, Bentley, Foxhall and at light at Monks' Soham and electric light in Ipswich ; sometimes on flowers of yarrow and Heracleum sphondylium. 30 v—24 viii. C. perla, Linn.—Common about Yarmouth (Paget) and throughout the County : Ipswich, Bentley Woods, Foxhall, Barnby, Tuddenham, West Stow. 27 v—12 viii. Coniopteryx psociformis, Curt.—Very local, and common only in Bentley Woods on holly and pine, and in Monks' Soham gardens on ivy and birch (for ecdysis and parasite cf. EMM. 1917, p. 256). 10 vi—14 vii only.—Var. pineticola, End. One in Monks' Soham garden on 26 July 1915. C. aleyrodiformis, Ste.—On oaks, elms and sallows at Wherstead, Foxhall and Wangford Martin. 12 vi—5 viii. C. lactea, Wesm.—Common at the staunch, waterworks and Palmers Heath in Brandon, and on Pinns sylvestris at Barton Mills ; Cutlers Wood in Freston. 4 v—27 vi. Panorpa communis, Linn.—Common about Yarmouth (Paget) ; Woolpit (Razor) ; Timworth (Nurse) and throughout the entire county from 21 May to at least 2 June : Bentley, Ipswich, Barham ; Assington, Lavenham, Stanstead ; Southwold, Reydon, Henstead, Barnby. P. cognata, Ramb.—Two males and a female found in August 1905 at Timworth, and both sexes on July 2 at Livermere (Nurse, Entom. 1912, p. 222). Not rare in Barnby Broad on 5 July 1906, but not noted elsewhere. P. germanica, Linn.—Less abundant than P. communis. Not rare in west Suffolk (Nurse). Earlier and occurring from 11 May to 11 June at Bramford, Blakenham ; Assington ; Henstead, etc. Bentley Woods, commonly and in 1931 as late as 27 August. 3
THE NEUROPTERA OF SUFFOLK.
Caddis-flies. Phryganeidae. Neuronia ruficrus, Scop.—Not noticed since one was taken near I pswich in 1893. Phryganea grandis, Linn.—Ampton, West Stow and Icklingham (Nurse). Abundant at Monks' Soham, but not very common about Ipswich, in June ; a larva, taken on 15 April, produced imago on 19 June 1893. P. striata, Linn.—Wickham Market on aspen, 28 May 1909 ; common in Monks' Soham garden, and frequently attracted to light in house in June. P. obsoleta, McL.—A pair taken near Ipswich in 1894, probably at Bentley Woods. P. varia, Fab.—Somewhat common in the marshes, and at sugar, at Orford (Gibbs). Agrypnia Pagetana, Curt.—'The type is from " near Yarmouth" (Entom. Annual 1859, p. 71) ; it was found by Curtis near Caistor in Norfolk in August 1833, in a salt-marsh on rushes (Brit. Ent., pl. 540). One on the Waveney near Beccles steam-mill on 12 October 1860 (in coli. McLachlan: Ent. Wkly. Intell. ix, 1861, p. 188). Oulton Broad, on reeds in May 1898-1924 ; uncommon elsewhere, Beccles marshes, Ipswich in 1894, etc. TRICHOPTERA,
Limnophilidae. Colpotaulius incisus, Curt.—Not uncommon on sugar, alders and attracted to electric light, from June to September : Ipswich, Bramford, Claydon ; Oulton and Barnby Broads. Grammotaulius atomarius, Fab.—Framlingham, in horto ejus (Vinter) ; West Stow (Nurse) ; Ipswich in 1894 ; common, and swept from Salix repens, in Tuddenham Fen in August ; Monks' Soham at light on 4 September 1920. Glyphotcelius pellucidus, Retz.—Suffolk (Curtis, Ent. Annual 1859, p. 72) ; Ampton and West Stow (Nurse). Generally distributed and not rare : by the Gipping, in Bramford marshes, Barham ; Tuddenham Fen ; Henstead marsh ; Monks' Soham on May blossom and sugar, and at light on 1 July 1915 at 10 p.m. 25 v—26 ix. Limnophilus rhombicus, Linn.—Somewhat common on sugar in the Ipswich marshes and at Oulton Broad; Barnby Broad, Hoo and attracted to electric light about midnight in Ipswich. 13 v—11 viii. L. borealis, Zett.—This species was discovered in some abundance by Winter in the fens of Suffolk (McLachlan, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1865, p. 39). L. flavicornis, Fab.—Occasionally attracted to sugar in garden at Monks' Soham during July and September 1905.
THE NEUROPTERA OF SUFFOLK.
L. marmoratus, Curt.—Occurs not uncommonly, with L. rhombicus, on sugar in Ipswich marshes; Brandon, Beccles and several in Barnby Broad. 18 viii—27 ix only. L. lunatus, Curt.—Orford (Gibbs) ; common in west Suffolk (Nurse), and throughout the County : Beccles, Henstead, South Cove, Wangford, Easton, Wenhaston, Southwold at light on pier at 10 p.m. on 7 ix 1910 ; Syleham, Pakenham Fen, Brandon ; Foxhall, Sproughton, Tattingstone and on sugar at Ipswich and Bentley Woods. 7 vi—23 ix. L. politus, McL.—Common along the Ouse at Brandon and Gipping, especially at Blakenham in 1922. 16 ix—9 x. L. ignavus, McL.—Found at West Stow by Nurse (Morton). L. nigriceps, Zett.—By no means uncommon on the banks of the Gipping at Ipswich and Sproughton on 7 x 95 and 9 x 97 (cf. EMM. 1898, p. 21). Not sought later. L. centralis, Curt.—Dunwich in June 1926 (Blair). Curiously rarely seen in the County : Ellough and very occasionally at Monks' Soham only. 17 vi—20 ix. L. vittatus, Fab.—Taken singly only, at Barton Mills in early June and Monks' Soham. L. affinis. Curt.—Suffolk (Ent. Ann. 1859, p. 84) ; Covehithe in August (Curt. Brit. Ent. 488) ; Aldeburgh (W. H. Tuck) ; Timworth (Nurse) ; Dunwich (Blair). Abundant; often about brackish water, on May blossom, and once beaten from dead bird on a keeper's tree : Assington, Wherstead, Ipswich, Nacton, Foxhall, Letheringham, Monks' Soham ; Felixstow, Bawdsey, Southwold, Reydon, Easton, Covehithe, Kessingland and denes at Lowestoft. Abroad the whole summer, 3 v—24 x. L. auricula, Curt.—Suffolk (Ent. Ann. 1859, p. 83) ; Lowestoft sandhills in mid-October (Curtis) ; Timworth, Fakenham and Brandon (Nurse) ; Dunwich (Blair). Common: Brandon, Lakenheath, Barton Mills, Tuddenham ; Monks' Soham ; Beccles, Blythburgh, Henstead and at Kessingland beach often in Ammophila arundinacea flowers, which it strongly resembles. 18 v—22 ix. L. griseus, Linn.—Overlooked, but likely not rare during July : Barton Mills woods, and in cop. on a pine-trunk at Haslewood in 1920. L. bipunctatus, Curt.—Apparently rare : Redlingfield " Moat Yards " at noon, 26 May 1908; Brandon, 11 June 1908. L. extricatus, McL.—A specimen in Knights Dales at Ipswich on 8 July 1896. L. hirsutus, Pict.—On willow-trunk at Mildenhall on 18 June 1901. [Abundant in the Norfolk Broads.] L. luridus, Curt.—Much rarer than in south and west. Our sole sure example was taken at Southwold on 16 July 1912.
THE NEUROPTERA OF SUFFOLK.
L. sparsus, Curt.—Suffolk (Stephens) ; West Stow (Nurse); Dunwich (Blair). Rarely common : Blythburgh bog on birch, Barnby Broad on ash, and in 1892 abundant in Beccles marshes ; Tuddenham Fen. 19 vi—20 viii. L. fuscicomis, Ramb.—Tuddenham (Nurse) ; not uncommon on sugar in I pswich marshes during July. Anabolia nervosa, Curt.—Abundant at Brandon staunch, and all along the Gipping from Ipswich to Baylham ; once, 20 ix 1898, on flower of Angelica sylvestris at Claydon. 20 ix—20 x only. Phacopteryx brevipennis, Curt.—A female flew indoors to light at Monks' Soham House one evening in September 1906 (EMM. 1908, p. 43 ; cf. I.e. 1902, p. 185). Stenophylax stellatus, Curt.—Rarely noticed : Ipswich in 1893 and Brandon in September 1896. S. permistus, McL.—A Single speeimen at Ipswich, 1894. Mesophylax aspersus, Ramb.—The sole British speeimen of this Mediterranean insect was attracted to electric light in Ipswich on 23 April 1895 (EMM. 1895, p. 255). Micropterna sequax, McL.—With us noted solely at light : at the electrics in Ipswich town, at lamps in Lowestoft town, and at Monks' Soham House. 28 vi—1 x. M. lateralis, Ste.—Found here hitherto solely in Monks' Soham garden, sometimes Aying indoors to light at 10 p.m., and church ; Worlingworth. 11 v—12 vi only. Halesus radiatus, Curt.—At sugar, electric light and common on alders about Ipswich, Foxhall and Brandon in autumn. H. digitatus, Sehr.—Taken in Suffolk (Stephens : probably by Kirby at Barham) ; Suffolk (Entom. Annual 1859, p. 95). Not noticed later. Chcetopteryx villosa, Fab.—Found in Suffolk (Stephens) ; Suffolk (Ent. Ann. 1859, p. 97 : tuberculosa). On ivy blossom at Belstead ; abundant in Foxhall marshes ; and often in cop. by the Gipping. A very late species, 27 ix—19 xi only. Sericostomatidae. Sericostoma personatum, Spen.—Apparently local with us : Wherstead and common on the banks of the Aide at Farnham. 29 v—11 vii. Notidobia eiliaris, Linn.—Common in May, rarely again in August, on water-weeds at Wherstead and the banks of the Gipping; Lavenham, Nayland and Lakenheath fens. Gcera pilosa, Fab.—Doubtless abundant : Barton Mills, Nayland and on banks of the Gipping. 28 v—26 vi. Silo nigricornis, Pict.—Captured at Timworth and Ampton by Nurse (Morton, in lit.). Common at Brandon, 31 viii 1929. Lepidostoma hirtum, Fab.—Bamham (Nurse). On reeds in Wherstead marshes, 22 vii 1897.
THE NEUROPTERA OF SUFFOLK.
Leptoceridse. Bercea pullata, Curt.—Often abundant among reeds at Foxhall, Henstead marsh and Brandon. 21 v—14 vi only. B. maurus, Curt.—Noticed only in Tuddenham Fen and on Palmers Heath in Brandon. 20 v—3 vii. Molanna angustata, Curt.—Common on the Gipping at Sproughton and Blakenham, also at Mildenhall and Brandon. 31 v—-14 vii. Leptocerus nigrinervosus, Retz.—Sitting on Brandon staunch by the Ouse, 21 v 1912. L. fulvus, Ramb.—Swept in the Gipping marshes at Ipswich on 10 August 1896. L. senilis, Burm.—Ipswich in 1894, and Blakenham, vi 1904. L. aterrimus, Ste.—In the greatest profusion everywhere near water. Tuddenham, West Stow, Ampton (Nurse) ; Dunwich (Blair) ; Barnby Broad, Monks' Soham moat, Sproughton, Claydon, Foxhall, Mildenhall, 30 v—7 vii. L. einereus, Curt.—No rarer than the last species on the Gipping near Ipswich, at Brandon and in hundreds at Tuddenham Fen. 14 vi—9 ix. Mystacides nigra, Linn.—Bungay Common (Tuck). Abundant along the Gipping and about Brandon, etc. 24 vi—23 viii. M. azurea, Linn.—In profusion at Brandon and Tuddenham; often sitting upon poplar-trunks about Ipswich. 31 v—10ix. M. longicornis, Linn.—Ampton and Livermere (Nurse). Swept from reeds at Beccles on 9 September 1907. Tricenodes conspersa, Ramb.—One attracted to electric light in Ipswich about midnight on 8 July 1895. Not noticed later. T. bicolor, Curt.—Walberswick salt-marshes, and locally common in Oulton Broad and Barton Mils marshes; one in my green-house at Monks' Soham. 20 vi—5 viii. Adicella redueta, McL.—Probably rare ; taken in Tuddenham Fen on 19 vi 1901, only. CEcetis ochracea, Curt.—" At the end of last August  I took three from off plants in a marshy Situation near the sea, upon the estate of Sir Thomas Gooch, bart., Benacre, Suffolk " (Curtis, Brit. Ent. pl. 57). Livermere (Nurse). (E. lacustris, Pict.—Not uncommon at Claydon bridge (cf. EMM. 1897, p. 266) ; thrice at light in Monks' Soham, always about 10.30 p.m. 11 vi—10 viii. Setodes tineiformis, Curt.—Swept at Barnby Broad, August. Hydropsychidae. Hydropsyche pellucidula, Curt.—Taken at Brandon (by Nurse, teste Morton). In the marshes and very common beneath wall-coping at Brandon bridge in May 1911. H. angustipennis, Curt.—Common on the Gipping at Blakenham locks and Claydon bridge. 11 vi—4 ix.
THE NEUROPTERA OF SUFFOLK.
H. guttata, Pict.—Doubtless abundant: two specimens in Ipswich district. 16 vi—14 vii. Neureclipsis bimaculata, Linn.—Eriswell and several sitting on Brandon Bridge. 6-21 vi only. Plectrocnemia conspersa, Curt.—Rarely noticed : Tuddenham Fen in July 1903 (E. G. J. Sparke) ; Ipswich in 1894 ; and on sugar in Bentley Woods on 10 Sept. 1895. Polycentropus flavomaculatus, Pict.—On reeds by Box River at Nayland; Brandon staunch, and abundant both on the bridge there and at Mildenhall. 5 v—19 vi. Holocentropus stagnalis, Alb.—McLachlan expected it to be widely distributed in the Fen district; but hitherto it has occurred solely at two ponds (unconnected now with the Gipping) in the Bramford marshes : here, however, it occurs in great numbers in spring, 23 iv—9 v only (cf. EMM. 1897, p. 280). Elsewhere in Britain it has been noticed only at Worcester, and at Westport in Ireland. H. picicornis, Ste.—Ampton (Nurse) apparently rare : taken singly at only Barnby Broad, Southwold and Bramford. 1 vi—20 viii. Cyrnus trimaculatus, Curt.—Not uncommon, running on mud and water-weeds such as Scrophularia aquatica, along the Gipping from Ipswich to Blakenham; Brandon staunch. 29 v—4 ix. Tinodes Wceneri, Linn.—Ampton (Nurse). Probably our most abundant Trichopteron, occurring everywhere near running water, often sitting on bridges and walls: Mildenhall, Brandon; Blakenham, Claydon, Bramford, Sproughton, Ipswich. 29 v—9 ix. Lype phceopa, Ste.—Fairly common: Belstead Brook; Blakenham locks, Claydon bridge ; and always abundant at Brandon staunch. 29 v—28 ix, a long span. Rhyacophihdse. Agapetus fuscipes, Curt.—Probably not rare : taken at Ampton (Nurse) ; a Single specimen found at Foxhall on 29 v '97. Hydroptilidae. Agraylea multipunctata, Curt.—Attracted to an oil lamp in first storey window in Southwold about midnight on 31 July 1900. Hydroptila sparsa, Curt.—Flying abundantly over the Lark to west of Mildenhall on the evening of 19 June 1915. Specimens of this genus are abundant near running water everywhere, but difficult to preserve in good condition. H. pulchricornis, Pict.—Abundant on the railway bridge across the Waveney near Aldeby (Winter, Entom. Wkly. Intel! ix, p. 188). Oxyethira costalis, Curt.—Specimens, doubtfully referable to this species, were abundant at Brandon staunch and Claydon Bridge during June 1903.