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passage and its context, it would appear that Cedars were practically unknown in England in 1670. So far as I am aware, it is not known at what date or by whom the garden at Campsea Ash was laid out (the house itself was built by John Glover, who died in 1629) ; but I find that one John Sheppard, born in 1675, owned the place until 1747 when he died. He seems to have been a " big noise " in his time, and an enterprizing sort of fellow, for he married the Countess of Leicester, Philip Sydney's widow, was twice High Sheriff of Suffolk, viz., in 1709 and in 1714, and after the death of his wife in 1726 was bold enough to embark on a second matrimonial venture. Can he have been the planter of the Cedars ? and the layer-out of the gardens ? They have a Dutch feeling about them, with their cut Yew fences, bowling green and parallel rectangular pieces of water. Supposing that John Sheppard planted the Cedars to celebrate this second ührievalty, the trees would be two hundred and five years old. Is that possible ? Must we wait until one of them is blown •over and we have an opportunity to count the rings ?— Ullswater, Campsea Ash ; 4th Nov., 29. [A Cedar, " brought direct from Lebanon and planted at Enfield, about the middle of the seventeenth Century, had a girth of fourteen feet in 1689."-—Scripture Nat. Hist. For a word-picture of Enfield, at that period, cf. Scott's 'Fortunes of Nigel,' chapt. penult.]

T H E DRAGON-FLIES OF SUFFOLK. Light and airy as a fairy, Darting o'er the tide, Dragon-flies and Water-flies Flash along on every side, Glist'ning in the sun. Few insects are more conspicuous than Dragon-flies, on account of their large size and the way in which they thrust themselves in the tarnest and most audacious way before our eyes, their glittering wings flashing in the sun, as they pursue their insect-prey in swift gyrations that no aeroplane can hope to imitate. Technically they are known as ODONATA, a group of the Order NEUROPTERA ; and in their earlier stages of egg, Caterpillar and chrysalis, here called nymph because it is active and walks about unlike the pupa of a moth, all these insects live entirely under water. Consequently it is not surprising to find that the majority of the kinds occurring in


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DRAGON-FLIES.

Britain has been noticed in Suffolk, which possesses so close a ramification of streams, as well as its share of the Broads in the north and Fens in the west. The sole local drawback is that all these waters are sluggish, so that one cannot hope to discover any kinds of insects that are confined to swift-running torrents, like those of the Scots and Irish mountains. No very special attention has been accorded the collection of Dragon-flies with us ; but few can be overlooked, despite Mr. Maynard's suggestion two or three years ago that those living along the River Gipping were almost unnamed. In fact, they have been noticed by various writers for a füll Century : since J. F. Stephens recorded a few in his 1835 Illustrations of Brit. Entomology ; and, during the last forty years, I have constantly looked out for the rarer kinds. In all Britain only forty different species are known and, of them, Suffolk possesses at least twenty-five. With us the whole are indiscriminately lumped under the colloquial name " Horse-stingers," though really quite harmless to everything but the usually small insects that they catch and devour while still upon the wing. In the first family, the Libellulidae or flat-bodied Dragon-flies, we have nine kinds. Sympetrum striolatum, Charp., is almost the commonest of all in the county from July to the end of September, often settling on the ground and, as it is a strong Hier, frequently seen a long way from any water. Aldeburgh (Tuck) ; Orford (Gibbs) ; I have noticed it at Sibton, Henstead, Benacre, Alderton, Henham, Foxhall, Bentlev, Lakenheath, Tuddenham W., Barnby, Parham, Letheringham, Eye and Blakenham. S. Fonscolombi, Sei., seems rare with us, but Col. Nurse captured at least one at Ampton on 17th August, 1911 (teste Lucas). S. ßaveolum, Linn., is doubtless much mixed with the first, and I have found it rarely at Tuddenham Fen on 12th August, 1906 (Entom. Month. Mag. 1908, p. 43) and in Covehithe Broad on 18th September, 1926. S. sanguineum, Mull., has occurred to me only with the last species at Covehithe. 5. Scoticum, Don., is by no meäns unlikely to have been overlooked among our 5. striolatum, as it occurs from Hampshire to Essex, though not yet found in Suffolk ; but Leucorrhinia dubia, Linn., is hardly likely to occur here, because it ranges from the north down to Stafford and Lincoln only. We have all the three British Libellula species, and the commonest is L. depressa, Linn., said to have been taken in Suffolk (Stephens), common about Yarmouth (Paget) ; Timworth and West Stow (Nurse) ; Framlingham and not rare in


SUFFOLK DRAGON-FLIES.

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June 1917 in Parham Wood (Dr. Vinter). However, it is local and spasmodic in appearance : Beccles marshes in 1892, Ipswich in July, 1897 ; very rare at Monks' Soham in May and June, 1917 (Entom. 1917, p. 165) and May 1919. On lOth July, 1921, Dr. Vinter took a female, with the abdomen half blue and its edges yellow-spotted, in Iiis Framlingham garden. L. quadrimaculata, Linn.—Lound, rather rare (Paget) ; Broads near Lowestoft (Lucas). With us it seems confined to the broads of the Wavenev ; I have taken it only in marshes at Oulton and Beccles from May, 1892 to June, 1922. L. fulva, Mull.—Lound, rather rare (Paget's conspurcata, Fab.). Distinctly uncommon and ranging only with the last species from the Beccles marshes (in 1892 ; cf. Ent. Mo. Mag., 1897, p. 106) to Barnby Broad in July, 1906 (I.e. 1908, p. 43). Orthetrum ccerulescens, Fab.—Abundant near water and woods at Henham Park, Hulverbridge and Covehithe, late in September, 1900 (E. A. Elliott) ; Minsmere marshes in September, 1913 (Vinter) ; Ipswich, rare. Occurs in the Cambridge Fens. The other British species, O. cancellatum, Linn., has a southern ränge as far north as the Norfolk Broads, where I have found it commonly in June ; but it has not turned up in Suffolk yet, though sure to occur. Cordulia cenea, Linn.—Rare in Fritton Wood in May (Paget) ; Martlesham Heath, Suffolk (Curtis, Brit. Entom. pl. 616). It is found all over southern England, and Norfolk is likely its northernmost limit; so why we have not seen it in Suffolk for some sixty years is mysterious. Another southern species is Oxygastra Curtisi, Dale, which extends from Hants, Dorset and Devon only, to Portugal. In the second family, /Eschnidae, all the species are large. Brachytron pratense, Mull, has been found in " Broads near Lowestoft," by J. Prest (Lucas), and I have taken it there at Barnby (Vinter) in July, 1918 and Oulton in June, 1922 (Doughty), as well as in Henstead marshes on 29th May, 1905. Two other kinds, Gomphus vulgatissimus, Linn., and Anax imperator, Lch, are found in the south of England, both extending northward only to Essex, the latter also to Cambs. and the former to Worcester ; a third, the handsome Vordulegaster annulatus, Latr., has a western ränge from Scotland to the Channel Isles, but has been found no nearer us than Northants. Mschna mixta, Latr., was taken in Suffolk near Yarmouth by Paget in June, 1849 (E.M.M. 1908, p. 202), and Aying over the Stour at Wiston (Harwood); it is very rare everywhere, occurring only in south-east England, but I took one in a house at Beccles in 1892 (cf. E.M.M. 1897, p. 106) and a male Aying about Virginia creeper at midday on 17th October, 1902 in


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Ipswich. JE. caerulea, Str., is confined to Perth; but M. juncea, Linn., which I have foundat the height of a thousand feet on Cläre Island off the west Irish coast, is scarce from Scotland to Hants., approaching us nearest in Huntingdon. JE. cyanea, Mull., is everywhere common here in July and August ; Suffolk (Stephens) ; Yarmouth district (Paget) ; Stowmarket (Nurse) ; Dodnash, Bentley, Otley, Eye, Rishangles, Cretingham, Raydon, Bruisyard, Letheringham, Wingfield, Sibton, Westleton. Several times in Ipswich houses ; and once I found one at Dennington so sluggish that I picked it off the alder leaf, whence it was depending with wings expanded. At Monks' Soham, our cats sometimes catch this species—no mean feat !—hawking low over the lawns late in July evenings (1921) ; one was so hawking in the drive at warm and dull midday as late as Ist November, 1928, when ivy blossom was still covered with flies and wasps. M. grandis, Linn., is our largest Dragon-fly, a great tawny fellow. Near Lowestoft (Lucas) ; Tostock (Tuck) ; Ampton and Timworth (Nurse). Not rare in August along the River Gipping at Ipswich ; and on 26th August, 1929, I saw one catch a Current Moth (Abraxas grossulariata) and devour it while still on the wing, in my Monks' Soham garden. Blakenham, Claydon bridge, Foxhall, Parham, Framlingham. M. Isosceles, Mull.—Not uncommon near Yarmouth (Steph. Illus. vi., 83 : probably the JE. varia of Paget's List) ; Yarmouth, taken by Mr. Newman (De Selys, Ann. Nat. Hist. xviii., 1846, p. 224). It is confined in Britain to Norfolk and Cambs. ; but has not been detected in Suffolk since the above border-record of eighty years ago. Agrionidse is a family of small species, the largest and prettiest genus of which is Calopteryx, whose wings are glistening pale gold in the females. The male's are centrally banded with deep blue in C. Virgo, present in hundreds near the source of the Suffolk Stour on 22nd August, 1879 (Entom. 1879, p. 288) ; Bungay Common in July, 1899 (Tuck) ; abundant at Brandon during 1899-1929 ; in ditches at Sproughton as early as 16th June, 1893 ; Mildenhall, and Hoist Covert marshes in Walberswick : local, and found only near running water. C. splendens, Harr., in which the male's wings are blue throughout, is much rarer than the last. West Stow (Nurse) ; rare in ditches by the Gipping at Ipswich on 4th June, 1894 ; singly at Brandon on lOth June, 1908 ; and Snape Watering— since bridged—on lOth July, 1914. Lestes viridis, Lind., is said to have been " found in Suffolk " (Steph. Illus. vi, 77). It is likely synonymous with L. Dryas,


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DRAGON-FLIES.

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Kirby, a species confined to Essex and Cambs. and so very likely to occur in Suffolk. L. sponsa, Hans., is in Suffolk (Evans) common : Ampton (Nurse), Ipswich and Claydon marshes, Westleton, Monks' Soham ; Oulton and Barnby Broads. Platycnemis pennipes, Pall., is a small and slender insect with pure white body, found at Bures (Harwood) and by no means uncommon in late June at Sproughton, Claydon, Blakenham and Bentley Woods ; but rare or lacking in the rest of the County. Erythromma Najas, Hans., is occasionally taken at Ampton (Nurse). I have found it commonly in the Norfolk Broads, so we in Suffolk have likely overlooked it. Pyrrhosoma Nymphula, Sulz., is an abundant species, of brilliant red colour, from 26th April to 12th July. Beccles Common, Barnby and Oulton Broads, Henstead, Monks' Soham, Blakenham, Sproughton, Ipswich, Foxhall. P. tenellum, Vill., though not yet noted in our County, is a southern insect that occurs commonly in Cambs. and so has been merely overlooked with us. Ischnura elegans, Lind., is our most abundant Dragon-fly. Ampton and Timworth (Nurse) ; along the Gipping at Blakenham, Bramford and Claydon, often sitting upon Nympha lutea ; Foxhall, Monks' Soham, Tuddenham Fen and common in salt-marshes at Wherstead, Trimley, East Bridge, Southwold r Easton Broad and Lowestoft. In July, 1896, I took one preying upon the Syrphid fly, Platychirus manicatus, Mg. The only other British species of the genus, I. pumilio, Charp., seems nearly confined to the south of England, hardly extending north to Essex and Cambs., whence it is doubtfully recorded. Agrion pulchellum, Lind., and A. puella, Linn., are both pretty little pale blue kinds. The former, though extending to Kent, is commonest in the north of England and with us has been noticed only in the north of Suffolk, at the Lowestoft Broads (Lucas) ; Barnby Broad in 1906 ; commonly in the Brandon marshes and Tuddenham Fen during June. The latter, however, occurs everywhere : Common in west Suffolk (Nurse) ; Broads near Lowestoft (Lucas) ; and abundant from May to August at Bramford, Westleton, East Bridge, Wortham, Monks' Soham, Nayland, Tuddenham, and Lakenheath. A third species, A. mercuriale, Charp., that I have found only in the New Forest, is said to be confined to Hants. and Dorset. Finally we have the rather similar Enallagma cyathigerum, Charp., which is by no means rare with us in June and July.


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Ampton (Nurse) ; Barnby Broad ; and beside the River Gipping at Sproughton, Claydon and Blakenham. I have taken it, also, commonly in both the Norfolk Broads and Cambs. Fens. Thus we see that, of the fourteen different British kinds not yet recorded from Suffolk, both species of Swnatochlora and JEschna ccerulea are sure not to occur because they are confined to Scotland ; Oxygastra Curtisi and Agrion mercuriale, because they are confined to southern England ; very improbable are Leucorrhinia dubia on account of its ränge being northern, Cordulegaster annulatus western, and Ischnürapumilio southern. But closer working than has yet been accorded our Dragonflies might well reveal the widely distributed /Eschna juncea ; Sympetrum Scoticum and Gomphus vulgatissimus, known to occur in Essex; Anax imperator and Lestes Dryas, recorded from both Essex and Cambs., in which latter county Pyrrhosoma tenellum is common and must, surely, extend across the border into Lakenheath or Mildenhall. The last is the largest parish in all our County and its possibilities in the way of the Fen Fauna's retention have never been adequately tested. C. M. B B O W N - T A I L MOTHS.—Although my house at Gorleston is not upon the outskirts of the town, I sometimes, when possessed of an optimistic spirit, turn on the light in the bathroom and open the window in the hope of attracting moths. On 20th J u l y I had just returned from a month's collecting in the New Forest, where four other entomologists yet lingered. Visions •of them there mopping up all sorts of rare species was too much for me ; so I feil back upon m y light. (De facto, a violent thunder-storm and heavy rain pinned them within doors !) And to the light came two male Brown-tails (Porthesia chrysorrhcea, Linn.), greatly to my surprise. I told a young collector of this capture the following day, with the result that he netted as m a n y as he wanted, Aying round a lamp in the main Shopping thoroughfare; also, I took a further seven specimens at light, sitting on walls, and on fences, which were all within the town. Neither of us saw a female. The sole example I have ever found before was a male, caught in a cobweb, on a wall at Aldeburgh about thirty years ago ; nevertheless, it made a fair cabinet specimen.—C. G. D O U G H T Y . [We similarly took the species at light in Ipswich during July, 1893 and 1897, but have not since met with i t ; though Mr. Platten secured fourteen at light there in 1899, since which time it has been sparingly taken at Felixstow (Entom. Ree. 1899, p. 367) and Bungay. No influx of Brown-tails this year appears in Insect periodicals.—Ed.]

The Dragonflies of Suffolk  
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