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THE SPIDERS OF SUFFOLK A . RUSSELL-SMITH

T h e first c o m p l e t e a c c o u n t of Suffolk spiders was p r o d u c e d by the late W . S. B r i s t o w e o v e r f o r t y years ago (Bristowe, 1940). Since that time t h e n u m b e r of w o r k e r s w h o h a v e collected spiders in t h e county has greatly increased so that to d a t e t h e n u m b e r of species known f r o m Suffolk has almost d o u b l e d . P e r h a p s t h e g r e a t e s t stimulus to work o n spiders in Suffolk has b e e n the field c o u r s e s regularly held at F i a t f o r d Mill since 1953. It was h e r e that t h e Fiatford Mill S p i d e r G r o u p was f o r m e d in 1958, which itself was the nucleus of the p r e s e n t British A r a c h n o l o g i c a l Society. U n d e r the leadership initially of G . H . L o c k e t a n d D . W . M a c k i e and later of D r . J. A . L. C o o k e a n d J. R . P a r k e r (see C o o k e , 1962, 1963) these courses have laid a firm f o u n d a t i o n to o u r k n o w l e d g e of o u r f a u n a . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t source of records has been t h e ecological surveys c o n d u c t e d by D r . E . D u f f e y a n d small g r o u p s of v o l u n t e e r s in b o t h S u f f o l k a n d N o r f o l k which have focussed particularly on w e t l a n d h a b i t a t s . A s a result of the work of these and o t h e r collectors o u r k n o w l e d g e of t h e spiders of Suffolk is, at least in faunistic terms, fairly c o m p l e t e a l t h o u g h n e w species continue to be r e c o r d e d . With t h e recent p u b l i c a t i o n of distribution m a p s for all British spiders ( L o c k e t , Millidge and M e r r e t t , 1974) t h e time s e e m s ripe for a review of the Suffolk f a u n a . The habitats of Suffolk spiders T h e m o s t intensively studied habitats in Suffolk have b e e n the heaths a n d the w e t l a n d s , particularly fens. M o s t of these lie within t w o relatively narrow b a n d s of light soils along t h e eastern s e a b o a r d on the o n e h a n d (the Sandling a r e a ) a n d o n t h e w e s t e r n b o r d e r of t h e c o u n t y on the o t h e r . T h e latter area i n c l u d e s t h e extensive h e a t h l a n d s of the Breck region a n d the fens of t h e Lark Valley. A n i m p o r t a n t exception is the small g r o u p of ' h e a d w a t e r fens' that f o r m t h e w a t e r s h e d of t h e W a v e n e y a n d Little O u s e river systems of which R e d g r a v e F e n is t h e best k n o w n . It is p r o b a b l y fair to say that the heathlands a n d f e n s of S u f f o l k have received m o r e attention f r o m arachnologists than all o t h e r h a b i t a t s p u t t o g e t h e r , a bias at least partly justified by their extremely rieh a n d i n t e r e s t i n g f a u n a s . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t g r o u p of habitats a r e those of the coastal region and i n c l u d e s a n d d u n e s , shingle b e a c h e s and saltmarshes. T h e s e habitats have r e c e i v e d m o s t a t t e n t i o n in t h e s o u t h e r n p a r t of the county during field courses b a s e d at F i a t f o r d Mill. A t least two species new to science and a f u r t h e r two n e w t o Britain h a v e b e e n described f r o m coastal habitats in Suffolk since 1950 a n d t h e y will u n d o u b t e d l y repay f u r t h e r study. By contrast t h e central b o u l d e r - c l a y p l a t e a u (High Suffolk) has received little attention f r o m a r a c h n o l o g i s t s . In p a r t this is d u e to the fact that most of this area is u n d e r intensive a r a b l e agriculture a n d consequently p o o r in natural or semi-natural h a b i t a t s . D e s p i t e this t h e r e a r e at least two habitat types in this part of the

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county which deserve more attention. These are the deciduous woodlands (now sadly diminished) some of which, such as Bradfield Woods, are known to be at least medieval in origin and also undisturbed meadowland, all but a few remnants of which have been ploughed up in the last 30 years. Both habitat types support a diverse flora and may well have an equally diverse and interesting spider fauna. E a c h of the habitats discussed above have species of spiders that are more or less restricted to them and some of the more interesting of these will be mentioned below. However, most spiders are not restricted to a Single type of habitat. Some, such as the common linyphiids Walckenaera acuminata and Lepthyphantes simmermanni, are known from a ränge of quite different habitats while others are found in areas that can be characterised as either 'dry' (e.g. many Zelotes species) or 'wet' (e.g. Antistea elegans, Lophomma punctatum) but otherwise share little in common. This ability to exploit a wide ränge of habitats is partly due to the fact that spiders are predators but it must be assisted by their ability to disperse by 'ballooning' on the ends of silk strands produced from their spinnerets. A small minority of our species (less than 5% of the total) are rarely found outside buildings, whether they be houses, sheds, cellars or barns. Some of these species are found out of doors in the warmer climates of southern E u r o p e while others are occasionally also found in Britain in hollow trees, caves a n d similar dark, dry places as well as in buildings. A larger group of species, while not directly associated with man's habitations, have become extremely a b u n d a n t as the result of his activities. These species have adapted to life in 'disturbed' habitats such as arable fields, waste ground and gardens. They include many well known 'aeronauts' such as, for example, Erigone dentipalpis, E. atra, Meioneta rurestris and Bathyphantes gracilis, undoubtedly among the commonest species in the British fauna. Notes on spiders from the major Suflolk habitats 1. Heathlands. T h e Iowland heaths of southern England are among the richest of all spider habitats; those of Dorset and Hampshire have been renowned for over a Century. By contrast the East Anglian heaths were relatively neglected until the early 1950s when their importance was first fully recognized (Duffey, Locket and Millidge, 1954, 1959; Duffey, 1965). An interesting feature of heathland faunas is the high proportion of large species of the families G n a p h o s i d a e , Clubionidae and Thomisidae present. For example, species of the family Gnaphosidae account for only about 4% of all British spiders but may account for up to 16% of species from heathland sites (Merrett, 1976). Most characteristic heathland species have a southern distribution in Britain, many being confined to areas south of a line between the Wash and the R. Severn. Many of these are also found in other dry open habitats such as sand dunes and dry grasslands. Very few heathland species have a predominantly eastern distribution, the possible exception being Philodromus collinus. A m o n g the more interesting heathland species recorded from Suffolk are:

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Argenna subnigra Essentially a southern species known in Suffolk from the Breckland heaths but also from rather wetter habitats including Lakenheath Poors Fen, Icklingham Poors Fen and wet tidal litter at Havergate Island. Zelotes petrensis The large, black spiders of the genus Zelotes are night hunters characteristic of dry habitats. This species is known from only half a dozen localities in Britain, the Suffolk records being from Upper Hollesley Common and a crag pit a mile south of Butley. Micaria silesiaca A small, shining ant-like spider known from a few heathland sites in Suffolk, Surrey, Sussex, Hampshire and Dorset. In Suffolk known from Upper Hollesley Common, Walberswick Common, Foxhole Heath and Wangford Warren. Agroeca cuprea A very local species of southern Britain which is found both in dry coastal habitats and heathlands. Foxhole Heath and Wangford Warren. Zora silvestris A species known from only three sites in Britain and in Suffolk was found amongst heather on Iken Common in 1955. Oxyptila scabricula A southern species recorded from some dozen localities and in Suffolk apparently confined to the Breck heaths. Lakenheath Warren, Thetford and Foxhole Heaths, Icklingham, Mildenhall and Freckingham. Aelurillus v-insignitus An attractive and rare jumping spider recorded entirely from southern England with the exception of a Single Scottish record. The only Suffolk record is of a Single male from a pitfall trap on Wangford Warren in May 1976. Dipoena prona A rare theridiid of southern and eastern England found on gorse and heather. In Suffolk recorded as 'frequent' on Foxhole Heath. Dipoena coracina Old records from Suffolk were from 'Ipswich, 1903' and 'Brandon' (Bristowe. 1940) both of which require confirmation. Otherwise only known from one heathland site in Dorset. Steatoda albomaculata An attractive and scarce ground-living theridiid of south and east England, confined in Suffolk to the Breck heathlands. Foxhole and Thetford Heaths, Wangford Warren, Lakenheath Warren. Hyposinga albovittata A fairly widespread but scarce species recorded in Suffolk from Upper Hollesley Common, Foxhole Heath and Icklingham Plains. Entelecara congenera This species has been recorded from only six localities in Britain in Surrey, Buckinghamshire, Nottingham and Suffolk. In Suffolk it has been beaten from Pine trees on Upper Hollesley Common and a Single male was taken in a suction trap at Broom's Barn Experimental Station, Higham. 2. Fenlands and marshes Some of the most outstanding habitats for spiders in East Anglia are the surviving fens and marshes, both freshwater and brackish. Wicken Fen in Trans. Suffolk

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Suffolk Natural History, Vol. 18, Part 3 Cambridgeshire has long been renowned for its arachnid fauna but it was on more recently that systematic exploration of the fens of Suffolk and Norfolk was undertaken. Perhaps the most dramatic discovery was the large semiaquatic spider Dolomedes plantarius at Redgrave and South Lopham which remains the only known British locality. Of more general interest was the realisation that many fenland species, previously thought to be confined to the Cambridgeshire fens, are in fact more widely distributed in eastern England. Of the 30 or so fenland species in the British fauna, 10 are entire or almost entirely, restricted to eastern England. To some extent this doubt less reflects more extensive collecting in this region but also relates to th number of surviving fenland sites in East Anglia. Fortunately most of these are now afforded some protection at either national or local level. There are number of typical fenland linyphiids that have been recorded from other counties in eastern England but not, so far, from Suffolk. These include Maso gallica, Glyphesis sen'ulus, Maro sublestus, Caro Centromerus incultus all of which are relatively small species which easily be overlooked. However it seems stränge that none of these were foun during the intensive surveys of Suffolk fenlands conducted by Dr. Duffey and it is possible they may be genuinely absent from Suffolk. Fenland species o particular interest from Suffolk include: Marpissa pomatia This large jumping spider, the adults of which are in reed heads, was known in Britain for many years only from Wicken Fen is now recorded from a number of fens in East Anglia and from Shapw Heath in Dorset. Icklingham Poors Fen, Tuddenham Fen and Redgrave Fen Neon valentulus Another jumping spider for a long time known only Wicken. Now recorded from Norfolk, Surrey and Redgrave Fen in Suffolk. Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata A very rare wolf spider of fens in e England. In Suffolk known only from the Breckland area at Icklingham Poors Fen, Lakenheath Poors Fen and Tuddenham Heath Slacks. Dolomedes plantarius The only known British locality for this large handsome semi-aquatic spider is Redgrave and S. Lopham Fen (Duffey, 1958, 1960) where it is found in small pools surrounded by tall fen plants. Dolomedesfimbriatus More widespread in Britain than the previous and not strictly a fenland species. Bristowe (1940) records it from "the Ipswic district, 1904' but I know of no more recent records and it may be extinct the county. Theridion instabile A widespread but infrequent species found in fen marshes from Lancashire southwards. Westleton marshes, Minsmere rive marsh, Easton Broad, Butley Creek and Icklingham Poors Fen. Theridiosoma gemmosum This small, easily overlooked, orb-web found in the wettest parts of fens and marshes. The only Suffolk record from Redgrave Fen. Walckenaera kochi A widespread but rare linyphiid known in Suffo the Stour estuary, Butley Creek and Euston broad. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 18 part 3.


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Entelecara omissa A characteristic but rare species of fens in eastern England. Icklingham Poors F e n , Lakenheath Poors Fen, Redgrave Fen and Sandy L a n e Marsh, Dunwich. Hypomma fulvum A small erigonid restricted to fens in eastern England. H o p t o n F e n , Dunwich Common Marsh and Fiatford Mill. Gongylidiellum murcidum A minute species recorded mainly from fen habitats in southern Britain. In Suffolk only known from Redgrave Fen. T h e r e is a number of species of wet places generally which are of some interest. A m o n g them the following have been recorded from Suffolk: Walckenaera Tmecticus Baryphyma

vigilax affinis

Icklingham Poors Fen. ButleyCreek.

pratensis

Cavenham Heath, saltmarshes at Fiatford Mill.

Saloca diceros Icklingham Poors Fen, Pashford Poors Fen, Dunwich. Usually in wet deciduous litter. Notioscopus Erigonella

sarcinatus ignobilis

Redgrave Fen. Icklingham Poors Fen, Pashford Poors Fen.

Floronia bucculenta Walberswick Common Marsh; Fen Hill, Dunwich; Sandy L a n e Marsh, Dunwich; Minsmere; Upper Hollesley Common; Dodnash W o o d ; Ten W o o d ; Redgrave Fen. Taranucnus setosus Barnby Broad; Easton Broad; Fen Hill Marsh, Walberswick; Sandy Lane Marsh, Dunwich; Minsmere; Icklingham Poors Fen; Redgrave F e n .

3. Maritime habitats. T h e r e are about 30 British spiders which are restricted to coastal habitats of which 21 have been recorded in Suffolk. Only five of these appear to have an eastern distribution in Britain. Among the 21 species mentioned seven are from saltmarshes, seven from shingle and shoreline habitats, six from sand dunes and one from both shingle and dunes. A useful account of the biology and ecology o f spider populations of dunes is given by Duffey (1968), based largely on work done in the Gower, S. Wales, but we lack similar studies of saltmarsh or shingle habitats. A number o f species from coastal habitats have been recorded from Essex and Norfolk but not, so far, from Suffolk. They include the small salticid Heliophanus auratus, known only from Colne Point, Essex and also Clubiona similis, Trichopterna cito and Ceratinopsis romana any o f which may yet be found in suitable habitats in Suffolk. Species of particular interest from Suffolk include: SALTMARSH SPECIES

A rgenna patula A species recorded from some ten coastal sites from Lancs. southwards. Havergate Island and the Stour estuary.

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Arctosa fulvolineata First recorded in Britain from Blythborough but is now k n o w n f r o m a few o t h e r saltmarshes on the east and south coast. In Suffolk also r e c o r d e d f r o m the Stour estuary. Praestigia duffeyi With the exception of a single Irish record this species is only k n o w n f r o m saltmarshes on the East coast. Havergate Island (the type locality) and Fiatford Mill. Enoplognatha schaufussi A rare southern species which may be more wides p r e a d than at present realised. Recorded in Suffolk from the Stour estuary and H a v e r g a t e Island. S H I N G L E A N D S H O R E L I N E HABITATS

Haplodrassus minor Known from five localities on the South and East coasts of England and recorded from dry tidal litter on Havergate Island. Phaeocedus braccatus This species is also known from chalk grassland and h e a t h l a n d mainly south of the Thames. T h e record from Shingle Street is the most n o r t h e r n in Britain. A n immature has been taken on O r f o r d Beach. Euophrys browningi A small species of jumping spider first described from material collected at Shingle Street in 1953 and is also known from Orford B e a c h . It has since been collected at a few similar sites in Norfolk, Essex and Kent. Pardosa agricola farenicola A characteristic but local wolf spider of shingle f o u n d mainly South of the Wash/Severn line. Shingle Street, O r f o r d Beach and Dunwich. Trichoncus hackmani and T. affinis Two closely related linyphiids known f r o m shingle in H a n t s . , Sussex, Essex and Suffolk. Both species recorded f r o m D u n w i c h and T. affinis from Orford Ness and Havergate Island. Sand d u n e habitats. Philodromus fatlax T h e only published record from Suffolk for this widespread crab spider is in Bristowe (1940) who mentions a specimen from the P i c k a r d - C a m b r i d g e collection labelled simply 'Suffolk'. Since there are suitable habitats it almost certainly still occurs here. Hyctia nivoyi This interesting elongate jumping spider is recorded from Suffolk in the distribution maps in Locket, Millidge and Merrett (1974) but I can find n o published record. Xerolycosa miniata A widespread species of both sand dunes and shingle r e c o r d e d in Suffolk f r o m Shingle Street. Minyrioloides maritimus This small erigonid has only recently been distinguished f r o m the m o r e c o m m o n M. trifrons. It is found in Marram on the s e a w a r d side of 'yellow dunes' and is now known from Norfolk, Suffolk, Lines, and Yorks. R e c o r d e d in Suffolk from Dunwich. Trans.

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4. Other habitats The remaining Suffolk habitats have been relatively little studied with the exception of the dry grasslands of the breck area on the one hand and Staverton Park on the other (Harding, 1975). The latter site, which includes Staverton Thicks, one of the few remaining pre-medieval woodlands of eastern England, proved rather uninteresting in its spider fauna with one or two exceptions. Despite this it is likely that our woodlands would repay more careful attention. The species below come from a variety of different habitats but all are sufficiently uncommon to merit some comment. Clubiona coerulescens A rare but widespread spider found on bushes and small trees. Bonny Wood, 3 miles SW of Needham Market. Philodromus collinus A rare crab spider from a few sites in E. England where it is found on the foliage and trunks of pine trees. Upper Hollesley Commom and Horn & Whether Heath. Myrmarachne formicaria This ant-mimicking jumping spider is widespread South of the Thames where it is usually found in dry situations such as on chalk grassland. The Suffolk record, of a Single specimen at Redgrave Fen, is at the northern limit of its distribution in Britain (Duffey, 1961). Ero tuberculata This small spider is only found south of the Wash/Severn Iine, normally amongst heather. Fiatford Mill, Upper Hollesley Common. Meta bourneti A large orb-web spider found in drains and culverts and known from only five localities in Britain. It was first recorded in this country from Gedding which remains the only Suffolk record. Araneus inconspicuus A bright green orb-web spider which can easily be confused with the common A. cucurbitinus. Known from a very few sites in southern England and in Suffolk recorded from Southwold. Walckenaera incisa A very rare linyphiid known from some dozen localities from Yorks southwards. Recorded from grass heath on Thetford Heath in 1961 and in leaf litter in Groton Wood, Boxford in 1979. Pelecopsis locketi An uncommon southern species of sandy places which is close to, and may simply be a form of, P. mediocris. Foxhole Heath. Pelecopsis radicicola Until recently known from only two localities in Sussex and Somerset. Taken in some numbers in pitfall traps in Staverton Park, M a y - J u n e 1972. Mioxena blanda A rare linyphiid recorded from a variety of habitats from Northumberland southwards. Recently captured in sugar beet and rape crops at Broom's Barn Experimental Station, Higham. Erigone vagans Although this species can sometimes be very abundant in sewage beds it appears to be rare in more natural habitats. Recorded in a small meadow at Walpole and in sugar beet at Broom's Barn Experimental Station, Higham.

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Centromerus incilium A rare grassland species in southern England. R e c o r d e d on open heathland with sand sedge at Thetford H e a t h , at Foxhole H e a t h and from pitfall traps in a sugar beet crop at Broom's Barn Experimental Station. Centromerus capucinus Another rare member of this genus recorded from five sites in southern England. It has been taken in fair numbers in a variety of crops at Broom's Barn Experimental Station. Lepthyphantes insignis Another rare grassland species recorded in Suffolk f r o m Icklingham and Foxhole Heath on the Brecks and from a pitfall trap in winter rape at Broom's Barn Experimental Station. Conclusions From a faunistic viewpoint the spiders of Suffolk are probably as well known as f r o m any area of equivalent size in Britain or, indeed, Europe. However, new species continue to be added to the list each year in some cases, such as those listed from arable land by Thornhill (1980), from what at first sight seem somewhat unlikely habitats. Equally the species that have not, as yet, been recorded present some intriguing questions. Why is it that such widespread and c o m m o n species as, for example, Oonops domesticus, Oedothorax agrestis, Agyneta subtilis and Lepthyphantes nebulosus should not have been recorded from Suffolk? It seems unlikely that this should be for lack of collecting or of suitable habitats and only further work will reveal whether they are genuinely absent from our area. W h e r e much remains to be done is in the exact recording, in terms of both habitats and microhabitats, of the ecological requirements of even the more c o m m o n species. A r e there spiders characteristic of ancient, as opposed to secondary, woodlands? What effect have past management practices had on the spider faunas of grasslands? D o the different zones of a saltmarsh support different spider communities? Which species of spider are able to colonise arable fields and why? The list of such problems could be extended almost indefinitely. It is here that the amateur arachnologist, perhaps with some assistance from botanical colleagues, can potentially contribute so much. Acknowledgements I would like to thank Dr. E. Duffey, Dr. P. Merrett and Mr. W. A. Thornhill for their assistance in providing details of records of Suffolk spiders. Dr. D u f f e y kindly read and commented on the first draft of this paper.

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A check-list of Suffolk spiders N o m e n c l a t u r e follows L o c k e t , Millidge and M e r r e t t (1974). Species m a r k e d with an asterisk had not b e e n recorded in Suffolk w h e n this work was published.

Family A M A U R O B I I D A E Amaurobius fenestralis (Stroem.) A. simihs (Blackwall) A. ferox (Walck.) Family D I C T Y N I D A E Dictyna arunäinacea (L.) D. uncinata Thorell D. pusilla Thorell D. latens (Fabr.) Helerodictynapuella (Simon) Lathys humilis (Blackwall) Argenna subnigra (O.P.-Cambr.) A. patula (Simon) Family O O N O P I D A E Oonops pulcher Templeton Family D Y S D E R I D A E Dysdera erylhrina (Walck.) D. crocata C. L. Koch Harpactea hombergi (Scopoli) Segestria senoculata (L.) Family S C Y T O D I D A E Scytodes thoracica Latr. Family P H O L C I D A E Pholcus phalangioides (Fuesslin) Psilochorus simoni (Berland) Family GN A P H O S I D A E Drassodes lapidosus (Walck.) D. cupreus (Blackwall) D. pubescens (Thorell) Haplodrassus signifer (C. L. Koch) H. minor (O.P.-Cambr.) Herpyllus blackwalli (Thorell) l'haeocedus braccatus (L. Koch) Zelotespedestris (C. L. Koch) Z. pusillus (C. L. Koch) Z. electus (C. L. Koch) Z. latreillei (Simon) Z. apricorum (L. Koch) Z. petrensis (C. L. Koch) Gnaphosa lugubris (C. L. Koch)

Micaria pulicaria (Sundevall) M. silesiaca (L. Koch) Family C L U B I O N I D A E Clubiona corticalis (Walck.) C. reclusa O.P.-Cambr. C. stagnatilis Kulcz. C. coerulescens L. Koch C. pallidula (Clerck) C. phragmitis C. L. Koch C. terrestris Westring C. neglecta O.P.-Cambr. C. lutescens Westring C. compta C. L. Koch C. brevipes Black wall C. trivialisC. L. Koch C. diversa O.P.-Cambr. C. subtilis L. Koch Cheiracanthium erraticum (Walck.) C. virescens (Sundevall) Agroeca proxima (O. P.-Cambr.) A. brunnea (Blackwall) A. inopina O.P.-Cambr.) A. cuprea Menge Agraecina striata (Kulcz.) Scotina gracilipes (Blackwall) Phrurolithus festivus (C. L. Koch) Family Z O R I D A E Zora spinimana (Sundevall) Z. silvestris Kulcz. Family A N Y P H A E N I D A E Anyphaena accentuata (Walck.) Family T H O M I S I D A E Diaea dorsata (Fabr.) Misumnea vatia (Clerck) Xysticus cristatus (Clerck) X. audax (Schrank) X. kochi Thorell X. erraticus (Blackwall) X. lanio C. L. Koch X. ulmi (Hahn) X. sabulosus (Hahn) Oxyptila scabricula (Westring)

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O. praticola (C. L. Koch) O. sanctuaria (O.P.-Cambr.) O. trux (Blackwall) O. simplex (O.P.-Cambr.) O. atomaria (Panzer) O. brevipes (Hahn) Philodromus dispar Walck. P. aureolus (Clerck) P. cespitum (Walck.) P. collinus C. L. Koch P. fallax Sundevall P. histrio (Latr.) P. rufus Walck. Thanatus striatus C. L. Koch Tibellus oblongus (Walck.) T. maritimus (Menge)

Xerolycosa nemoralis (Westring) X. miniata (C. L. Koch) Alopecosa pulverulenta (Clerck) A. cuneata (Clerck) A. accentuata (Latr.) Trochosa ruricola (Degeer) T. terricola Thorell T. spinipalpis (F.O.P.-Cambr.) Arctosa fulvolineata (Lucas) A. perita (Latr.) A. leopardus (Sundevall) Pirata piraticus (Clerck) P. hygrophilus Thorell P. latitans (Blackwall) P. piscatorius (Clerck) P. uliginosus (Thorell)

Family S A L T I C I D A E Salticus scenicus (Clerck) S. cingulatus (Panzer) Heliophanus cupreus (Walck.) H. flavipes C. L. Koch Marpissa muscosa (Clerck) M. pomatia (Walck.) Hyctia nivoyi (Lucas) Ballus depressus (Walck.) Neon reticulatus (Blackwall) N. valentulus Falconer Euophrys frontalis (Walck.) E. aequipes (O.P.-Cambr.) E. browningi Millidge & Locket Sitticuspubescens (Fabr.) S. caricis (Westring) S. rupicola (C. L. Koch) Attulus saltator (Simon) Evarcha falcata (Clerck) Aelurillus v-insignitus (Clerck)* Myrmarachne formicaria (Degeer)

Family P I S A U R I D A E Pisaura mirabilis (Clerck) Dolomedes fimbriatus (Clerck) D. plantarius (Clerck)

Family L Y C O S I D A E Pardosa agricola f arenicola (O.P.-Cambr.) P. agrestis (Westr.) P. purbeckensis F.O.P.-Cambr. P. monticola (Clerck) P. palustris (L.) P. pullata (Clerck) P. prativaga (L. Koch) P. amentata (Clerck) P. nigriceps (Thoreil) P. lugubris (Walck.) P. hortensis (Thorell) Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata (Ohlert)

Trans. Suffolk

Nat. Soc. 18 part 3.

Family A G E L E N I D A E Argyroneta aquatica (Clerck) Agelena labyrinthica (Clerck) Textrix denticulata (Olivier) Tegenaria parietina (Fourcroy) T. domestica (Clerck) T. gigantea Ivie* T. silvestris L. Koch Antistea elegans (Blackwall) Hahnia montana (Blackwall) H. nava (Blackwall) H. helveola Simon Family M I M E T I D A E Ero cambridgei Kulcz. E. furcata (Villers) E. tuberculata (Degeer) Family T H E R I D I I D A E Episinus angulatus (Blackwall) Dipoena prona (Menge) D. coracina (C. L. Koch) Crustulina guttata (Wider) C. sticta (O.P.-Cambr.) Steatoda phalerata (Panzer) S. albomaculata (Degeer) S. bipunctata (L.) Anelosimus vittatus (C. L. Koch) Achaearanea lunata (Clerck) A. riparia (Blackwall) A. tepidariorum (C. L. Koch)


223

THE SPIDERS OF SUFFOLK

Theridion sisyphium (Clerck) T. impressum L. Koch* T. simile C. L. Koch T. varians Hahn T. melanurum Hahn T. mystaceum L. Koch T. familiare O.P.-Cambr. T. blackwalli O.P.-Cambr. T. tinctum (Walck.) T. instabile O.P.-Cambr. T. bimaculatum (L.) T. pallens Blackwall Enoplognatha ovata (Clerck) E. thoracica (Hahn) E. schaufussi (L. Koch) Robertus lividus (Blackwall) R. arundineti(O.P.-Cambr.) R. neglectus ( O . P . - C a m b r . ) 4 Pholcomma gibbum (Westring) Thenรถe minutissima (O.P.-Cambr.)* Family T E T R A G N A T H I D A E Tetragnatha extenso (L.) T. montana Simon T. obtusa C. L. Koch T. nigrita Lendl Pachygnatha clercki Sundevall P. listen Sundevall P. degeeri Sundevall Meta segmentata (Clerck) M. merianae (Scopoli) M. mertgei (Blackwall) M. bourneti Simon Family A R A N E I D A E Araneusgibbosus (Walck.) A. diadematus Clerck A. quadratus Clerck A. marmoreus pyramidatus Clerck A. cornutus Clerck A. sclopetarius Clerck A. umbraticus Clerck A. redii (Scopoli) A. adiantus (Walck.) A. Sturmi (Hahn) A. triguttatus (Fabr.) A. cucurbitinus Clerck A. opistographus Kulcz. A. inconspicuus (Simon) Hy posinga albovittata (Westring) H. pygmaea (Sundevall) Cercidia prominens (Westring) Zygiella x-notata (Clerck)

Z. atrica (C. L. Koch) Cyclosa conica (Pallas) Theridiosoma gemmosum

(L. Koch)

Family L I N Y P H I I D A E Ceratinella brevipes (Westring) C. brevis (Wider) C. scabrosa (O.P.-Cambr.) Walekenaera acuminata Blackwall W. antica (Wider) W. cucullata (C. L. Koch) W. nodosa O.P.-Cambr. W. melanocephala O. P.-Cambr. W. capito (Westring)* W. incisa (O.P.-Cambr.) W. dysderoides (Wider)* W. nudipalpis (Westring) W. monoceros (Wider) W. furcillata (Menge) W. umcorms O.P.-Cambr. W. kochi (O.P.-Cambr.) W. cuspidata Black wall W. vigilax (Blackwall) Dicymbium nigrum (Blackwall)* D. tibiale (Blackwall)* Entelecara congenera (O.P.-Cambr.) ยฃ. erythropus (Westring)* E. flavipes (Blackwall) E. omissa O.P.-Cambr. Moebelia penicillata (Westring) Erigonidum graminicoia (Sundevall) Gnathonarium dentatum (Wider) Tmeticus affinis (Blackwall) Gongylidum rufipes (Sundevall) Dismodicus bifrons (Blackwall) Hypomma bituberculatum (Wider) H. fulvum Bรถsenberg H. cornutum (Blackwall) Metopobactrus prominulus (O.P.-Cambr.) Baryphyma pratensis (Blackwall) Praestigia duffeyi Millidge Gonatium rubens (Blackwall) G. rubellum (Blackwall) Minyrioloides trifrons (O.P.-Cambr.) M. maritimus Crocker & Parker Maso sundevalli (Westring) Peponocranium ludicrum (O.P.-Cambr.) Pocadicnemis pumila (Blackwall) Hypselistes jacksoni (O.P.-Cambr.) Oedothorax gibbosus (Blackwall) O. tuberosus (Blackwall)

Trans. Suffolk

Nat. Soc. 18 part 3.


224

Suffolk

Natural,

O. fuscus (Blackwall) O. retusus (Westring) O. apicatus (Blackwall) Trichopterna thoretli (Westring) Pelecopsisparallela (Wider) P. mediocris (Kulcz.) P. locken Cooke P. radicicola (L. Koch)* Silometopus ambiguus (O.P.-Cambr.) S. reussi (Thoreil) Cnephalocotes obscurus (Blackwall) Trichoncus hackmani Millidge T. affinis Kulcz. Tiso vagans (Blackwall) Troxochrus scabriculus (Westring) T. cirrifrons (O.P.-Cambr.)* Minyrioluspusillus (Wider) Tapinocybapraecox (O.P.-Cambr.) T. insecta (L. Koch)* Aulacocyba subitanea (O.P.-Cambr.) Thyreostheniusparasiticus (Westring) Monocephalusfuscipes (Blackwall) Lophommapunctatum (Blackwall) Saloca diceros (O.P.-Cambr.) Mioxena blanda (Simon)* Gongylidiellum vivum (O.P.-Cambr.) G. murcidum Simon Micrargus herbigradus (Blackwall) M. subaequalis (Westring)* Notioscopus sarcinatus (O.P.-Cambr.) Erigonella ignobilis (O.P.-Cambr.) E. hiemalis (Blackwall)* Savignva frontata (Blackwall) Diplocephalus cristatus (Blackwall) D. permixtus (O.P.-Cambr.) D. latifrons (O.P.-Cambr.) D. picinus (Blackwall) Araeoncus humilis (Blackwall) Panamomops sulcifrons (Wider)* Asthenarguspaganus (Simon)* Typhocrestus digitatus (O.P.-Cambr.)* Milleriana inerrans (O.P.-Cambr.) Erigone dentipalpis (Wider) E. atra (Blackwall) E. promiscua (O.P.-Cambr.) E. arctica (White) E. longipalpis (Sundevall) E. vagans Audouin Donacochara speciosa (Thoreil) Leptorhoptrum robustum (Westring) Drepanotylus uncatus (O.P.-Cambr.) Phaulothrix hardyi (Blackwall) Halorates reprobus (O.P.-Cambr.)

Trans.

Suffolk

Nat.

Soc.

18 part

3.

itory, Vol. 18, Part 3 Ostearius melanopygius (O.P.-Cambr.) Aphileta misera (O.P.-Cambr.) Porrhomma pygmaeum (Blackwall) P. convexum (Westring) P. microphthalmum (O.P.-Cambr.) P. egeria Simon _ Syedrula innotabilis (O.P.-Cambr.) Ă„gyneta conigera (O.P.-Cambr.) A. ramosa Jackson* Meioneta rurestris (C. L. Koch) M. mollis (O.P.-Cambr.)* M. saxatilis (Blackwall) M. beata (O.P.-Cambr.) Microneta viaria (Blackwall) Centromerus sylvaticus (Blackwall) C. expertus (O.P.-Cambr.) C. prudens (O.P.-Cambr.) C. dilutus (O.P.-Cambr.) C. capucinus (Simon)* C. incilium (L. Koch) Centromerita bicolor (Blackwall) C. concinna (Thorell) Sintula cornigera (Blackwall)* Oreonetides abnormis (Blackwall) O. firmus (O.P.-Cambr.) Macrargus rufus (Wider) Bathvphantes approximatus (O.P.-Cambr.) B. gracilis (Blackwall) B. parvulus (Westring) B. nigrinus (Westring) B. setiger F.O.P.-Cambr. Kaestneria dorsalis (Wider) K. pullata (O.P.-Cambr.) Diplostyla concolor (Wider) Poecilonota globosa (Wider) Drapetisca socialis (Sundevall) Tapinopa longidens (Wider) Floronia bucculenta (Clerck) Taranucnussetosus (O.P.-Cambr.) Labulla thoracica (Wider) Stemonyphantes lineatus (L.) Bolyphantes luteolus (Blackwall) Lepthyphantes leprosus (Ohlert) L. minutus (Blackwall) L. alacris (Blackwall) L. obscurus (Blackwall) L. tenuis (Blackwall) L. zimmermanni Bertkau L. cristatus (Menge) L. mengei Kulcz. L. flavipes (Blackwall) L. tenebricola (Wider)


225

T H E SPIDERS OF SUFFOLK

L. ericaeus (Blackwall) L. pallidus (O.P.-Cambr.) L. insignis O.P.-Cambr. Helophora insignis (Blackwall) Linyphia triangularis (Clerck) L. hortensis Sundevall L. montana (Clerck)

L. clathrata Sundevall L. peltalu Wider L. furtiva O.P.-Cambr. Microlinyphia pusilla (Sundevall) M. impigra (O.P.-Cambr.) Allomengea scopigera (Grube) A. Harburtoni (O.P.-Cambr.)

References B r i s t o w e , W . S. (1940). T h e A r a c h n i d a of Suffolk. O r d e r A r a n e a e : T h e true spiders. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 4, 156. C o o k e , J. A . L . (1962). Spiders from tidal m a r s h e s near Fiatford Mill, S u f f o l k . Entomologist's mon. Mag. 9 8 , 2 1 . C o o k e , J . A . L. (1963). A preliminary account of t h e spiders of the Fiatford Mill r e g i o n , E a s t S u f f o l k . Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 12. 155. D u f f e y , E . (1958). Dolomedes plantarius C l e r c k . a spider new to Britain, f o u n d in t h e u p p e r W a v e n e y Valley. Trans. Norfolk Norwich Nat. Soc. 18, 1. D u f f e y , E . (1960). A f u r t h e r note on Dolomedes plantarius Clerck in the W a v e n e y Valley. Trans. Norfolk Norwich Nat. Soc. 19, 173. D u f f e y , E . (1961). Spiders f r o m R e d g r a v e , L o p h a m and H o p t o n fens in the W a v e n y Valley. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 12, 31. D u f f e y , E . (1965). T h e distribution of s o m e rare Breckland spiders. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 13, 67. D u f f e y , E . (1968). A n ecological analysis of the spider f a u n a of sand d u n e s . J. Anim. Ecol. 37, 641. D u f f e y , E . . L o c k e t , G . H . a n d Millidge, A . F. (1954). O n s o m e spiders collected in E a s t S u f f o l k a n d Essex. A. Mag. nat. Hist. 7, 474. D u f f e y , E . , L o c k e t , G . H . and Millidge, A . F. (1959). T h e spider f a u n a of the h e a t h s a n d f e n s in W e s t S u f f o l k . Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 10, 1. H a r d i n g , P. T . (1975). A preliminary list of the f a u n a of Staverton Park, S u f f o l k , Part 3. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 16, 399. L o c k e t , G . H . , Millidge, A . F. and M e r r e t t . P. (1974). British Spiders. Vol. III. p p . 1 - 3 1 4 . R a y Society, L o n d o n . M e r r e t t . P. (1976). C h a n g e s in t h e ground-living spider f a u n a a f t e r h e a t h l a n d fires in D o r s e t . Bull. Br. Arachnol. Soc. 3, 214. T h o r n h i l l , W . A . (1980). T h e study of spiders a n d s o m e recent records of i n t e r e s t i n g s p i d e r s f o u n d in Suffolk. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 18. 149. A. Russell-Smith Poplar Farm, Walpole, Haiesworth, Suffolk.

Trans.

Suffolk

Nat. Soc.

18 part 3.

The spiders of Suffolk  
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