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we had quite a mild winter and early spring, insects were not much in evidence notwithstanding the appearance of a specimen of the Pale Brindled Beauty (Phigalia pedaria, Fabr.) on 6th February. A few days later Mr. R. W. K. Kefford reported seeing this species on 5th February at Wickham Market. A very fresh Early Moth (Theria rupicapraria, Schiff.) was seen on 12th March and the following day a Small Tortoiseshell Butterfly (Aglais urticae, Linn.) was enjoying the sunshine after hibernation. ALTHOUGH

Mr. C. W. Pierce and I were away on a collecting trip in Scotland and North Wales for about ten days in April, and on our return we found that the season in East Anglia was still behind normal. I saw the first Orange-tip Butterfly (Anthocharis cardamines, Linn.) on 12th May, and on 22nd a number of Sulphur-underwinged Tubic Moths (Dasycera sulphurella, Fabr.) emerged from some old timber and were Aying in the sinshine. On 5th June, Mr. Pierce and I visited Belstead Woods and found the Speckled Yellow Moth (Pseudopanthera macularia, Linn.) Aying in numbers. There were also a few Mother Shipton (Euclidimera mi, Clerck) about and some Degeer's Long-horn (Nemotois degeerella, Linn.). All these moths fly by day. Beating the oaks for larvae produced a Green Silver-lines Moth (Berta prasinana, Linn.) and Mr. Pierce beat one Scarce Silver-lines (Pseudoips bicolorana, Fuessl.) larva which he kindly gave to me. In the 1937 Memoirs Claude Morley mentions that there is no West Suffolk record for the Sluggish Plume Moth (Leioptilus lienigianus, Zell.), but in 1964, Mr. S. Wakely pointed out some old larva mines of this species in Artemisia vulgaris growing in Shakers Lane, Bury St. Edmunds. Search of these plants on 7th June this year showed that larvae were present and these duly produced moths in early July. On the same day larvae of the Spotted White Plume (Pterophorus galactodactylus, Schiff.) were found on burdock leaves near Barton Mills. This larva makes prominent round holes in the leaves, but is quite difficult to see as it lies along a vein on the underside of the leaf. Visits to Icklingham with Mr. Pierce on 12th and 19th June produced the White Colon (Heliophobus albicolon, HĂźbn.), Light Brocade (Hadena w-latinum, Hufn.), Bird's Wing (Dipterygia scabriuscula, Linn.), Archer's Dart (Agrotis vestigialis, Hufn.), Reddish Light Arches (Apamea sublustris, Esp.), and Shoulderstriped Wainscot (Leucania comma, Linn.). On 25th June a specimen of the Royal Mantle (Euphyia cuculata, Hufn.) emerged from some larvae swept from bedstraw at Mildenhall in 1964.




Beating oaks for larvae in the King's Forest on 26th June produced larvae of the Black Arches (Lymantria monacha, Linn.) and the Large Marbled Tortrix (Lycteola revciyana, Scop.) among other more common species. A specimen of the Maple Prominent (Lophopteryx cucullina, Schilf.) appeared in my light trap with other more common species on 29th June. From lOth July, I was at Thorpeness for a fortnight. The bungalow where we were staying was situated on the beach with the reed beds and the mere on the landward side. In addition to my light trap Messrs. Robin Mere and E. C. Pelham-Clinton also ran a trap from the bungalow and good catches of the local shore and marsh moths were made. These included the Shore Wainscot (Leucania litoralis, Curt.), Bird's Wing (Dypterygia scabriuscula, Linn.), Triple-spotted Clay (Amathes ditrapezium, Schiff.), White Colon (Heliophobus albicolon, Hübn.), Bordered Gothic (Heliophobus reticulata, Vill.), Marbled Clover (Heliothis viriplaca, Hufn.), Tawny Shears (Hadena lepida, Esp.) of the very light form similar to that found at Dungeness, Small Seraphim (Mysticoptera sexalata Retz.) and Tawny Wave (Scopula rubiginata, Hufn.). Five species of Hawk Moths were seen, the Privet (Sphinx ligustri, Linn.), Eyed (Smerinthus ocellata, Linn.), Poplar (Laothoe populi, Linn.) and Large and Small Elephant (Deilephila elpenor, Linn, and D. porcellus, Linn.). T h e local Bright Wave (Sterrha ochrata, Scop.) was also plentiful. Among the more interesting pyrales were the Gigantic Water Veneer (Schoenobius gigantellus, Schiff.), Marsh Grey (Witlesiapallida, Steph.), Striped Grey (Eudorea lineola, Curt.), Cloudy Wormwood Pearl (Ostrinia nubilalis, Hübn.), which seems to have established itself in the district, Banded Grass-veneer (Pediasia fascelinellus, Hübn.), Silver-edged Knothorn (Episclinia boisduvaliella, Guen.). Several surprising species also turned up. These included the Flame Wainscot (Meliana flammea, Curt.) whose occurrence in Suffolk Claude Morley doubted. The Clouded Buff (Diacrisia sannio, Linn.) and Maple Prominent (Lophopteryx cucullina, Schiff.) came to Messrs. Mere and Pelham-Clinton's trap on the beach. Both were far from their usual habitats. They kindly gave the former species to me. Mr. Pelham-Clinton discovered that he had taken a moth N E W to Britain when he returned home from Thorpeness. It was Zanclognatha tarsicrinalis, Knoch, a European species of Hypeninae. Later on Mr. Austin Richardson took a specimen of the Speckled Footman (Coscinia cribaria, Linn.) which is a N E W species for Suffolk and was no doubt a migrant to our shores. However no further Scarce Black Arches ('Celama trituberculana, Bosc.) were reported by any of the visiting entomologists, so the five specimens taken in 1964 by Messrs. Wakely, Chalmers-Hunt and Dr. Banner were also probably stray migrants.

170 Transactions of the Suffolk Naturalists',

Vol. 13, Part 3

Düring July, Mr. Pierce found that there were extensive colonies of the Poplar Hörnet Clearwing (Sesia apiformis, Clerck) on the Black Poplars growing at Coddenham and Bramford. This moth is usually out in June so the season was keeping up to its reputation of being late. I found a pair on a tree at Coddenham on Ist August and Mr. Pierce found further specimens on 2nd and 5th August. T h e Stout Dart (Spaelotis ravida, Schiff.) turned up at Stowmarket on 3 Ist July and again on several nights from 27th August until 7th September. As many as six specimens came on some nights, and the Rev. Guy Ford reported several specimens from Balsham near Cambridge. This is a species whose occurrence at any place is very erratic, and it is sometimes apparently quite absent for several years. Single specimens of the August Thorn (Ennomos quercinaria, Hübn.) and Pale Eggar (Trichiura crataegi, Linn.) came to the light on the 6th and 15th September and the Large Thorn (Ennomos autumnaria, Wemb.) appeared in some numbers both at Mr. Pierce's trap at Needham Market and at Stowmarket between the 6th September and 3rd October. This species which was said by Claude Morley to be " so rare as to be doubtfully indigenous " has apparently established itself in Suffolk since the 1937 Memoir was written. Beating the Artemisia absinthium plants on the beach at Thorpeness on 22nd September produced a few larvae of the Wormwood Shark (Cucullia absinthii, Linn.). These larvae harmonise extremely well with the buds and flowers of the wormwood on which they feed. As if to underline the lateness of the season three larvae of the Privet Hawk Moth (Sphinx lingustri, Linn.) were found by Mrs. Phillips of Stowmarket on 18th September. Two of these were only about half grown and were not fully fed until the end of the month. On Ist October a larva of the Lime Hawk Moth was found. Düring early October the usual autumn moths appeared in reasonable numbers with a good many Silver-Y moths Aying both by day and night. Of the butterflies, the Peacock and Small Tortoiseshell have been quite common, but very few Red Admirals and Commas have been seen in Stowmarket and no Painted Ladies. The Holly Blue continues to be very scarce, as none was seen in 1965, and reports from other parts of the country confirm this. Visits to some of the Suffolk heaths in July and August where the Silver Studded Blue used to be common, also failed to reveal any of this species. The opinion among entomologists is that 1965 was generally speaking rather a poor season apart from the odd item of interest.

Suffolk Lepidoptera, 1965