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TRANSACTIONS A PRELIMINARY ACCOUNT OF THE SPIDERS OF THE FLATFORD MILL REGION, EAST SUFFOLK by J. A. L. COOKE

(Department of Zoology, University Museum, Oxford) INTRODUCTION SINCE 1956 specialist courses

on spiders have been held annually at Fiatford Mill Field Centre. Although primarily designed as an introduction to the study of spiders, with special emphasis on the problems of identification, these courses have resulted in a considerable increase in our knowledge of the East Anglian fauna, and the present paper is an attempt to systematise some of this information so that it may prove useful to future workers in the area. Until 1953 the Arachnological potential of the East Anglian coast, although suspected by such authorities as Dr. A. R. Jackson, remained virtually unsounded. However, during the Coronation week-end in June, 1953, G. H. Locket and A. F. Millidge stayed at Fiatford and made a number of collections in the neighbouring districts. Their results (Duffey, Locket & Millidge, 1954) fully confirmed Dr. Jackson's suspicions, which have been further borne out by subsequent studies, e.g., Lampel (1959), Duffey (1961), Cooke (1962 a + b), Wild (1962) and others. RECENT ADDITIONS TO THE BRITISH LLST

Since the appearance of Locket & Millidge's " British Spiders " (1951-53), a number of species have been taken in the Fiatford area which are either new to Britain or which were very imperfectly known, and brief diagnoses of these, together with illustrations of genitalia, are given below. Zora silvestris, Kulczynski. This species resembles Z. spinimana (Sund.) in general appearance, but is rather smaller (4 mm.) and more distinctly marked. Unlike the other British representatives of the genus, Z. silvestris has only two pairs of long ventral spines on metatarsi I and II. In addition, the males may be recognised by the total absence of the " brush " of short, thick hairs on coxae IV and the shape of the apophysis on the palpal tibia. Originally recorded by Millidge & Locket (1955) from Surrey. Epigyne Fig. 9 Palp Fig. 1.


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Micaria silesiaca, L. Koch. The female of this species is described in the addenda to Locket & Millidge's " British Spiders ". The male may be readily recognised by the details of the palpal structure (Figs. 2 and 3) and by the great length of the tibia compared with the tarsus. The male was originally recorded as British by Locket, Millidge and La Touche (1958). Drassodes minor, O.P.-Cambridge. Until 1955 D. minor was known in this country by a single female and three immatures. Its small size (3.3 to 4 mm.) makes it immediately recognisable, whilst the genitalia are quite distinctive. Male palp Figs. 4 and 5. The male was Ăźrst recorded in Britain by Locket and Millidge (1957). Philodromus collinus, C. L. Koch. This species is very similar to P. aureolus, although the more distinct abdominal chevrons make it more conspicuously marked. The epigyne (Fig. 11) differs somewhat, whilst the male palp (Fig. 6) is quite distinct, particularly in the form of the ventral tibial apophysis (v). P. collinus has occurred in a number of East Anglian localities, all on the foliage of Scots Pine (Duffey, Locket and Millidge, 1954). Heliophanus auratus, C. L. Koch. T h e general appearance of H. auratus resembles that of II. flavipes, although in bright sunlight it appears rather more metallic. The female may be recognised by the palpal femora being black (as opposed to clear yellow throughout in H. flavipes) whilst the epigyne (Fig. 17) is unmistakable. The male may be separated on details of the palpal organ (Fig. 18) particularly the more central position of the style. First recorded in Britain by Cooke (1962a). Euophrys browningi, Millidge & Locket. This small (2.8 to 3 mm.) dark salticid, which lacks a distinctive pattern, was first discovered at Shingle Street in 1953 (Duffey, Locket and Millidge, 1954), but has since turned up at a number of localities along the coast. Both the palp (Fig. 16) and epigyne (Fig. 7) are quite distinctive, and the species cannot be confused with any other at present known in this country. Entelecara congenera, (O.P.-Cambridge). This small, black species is very similar in size and appearance to E. acuminata, and does not appear to differ in its spination or the position of its trichobothria (Tm I 0.45-0.47). T h e males


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may be distinguished by the shape of the head, (Fig. 10) which is appreciably lower than E. acuminata, and by the form of the palpal tibia (Fig. 8). T h e tooth (t) is absent in E. acuminata. The form of the epigyne is rather variable, and the females cannot be separated with certainty f r o m E. acuminata, although it may be that the spacing of the posterior eyes is sufficiently consistent to allow the distinction to be made. If so, the posterior eyes are equidistant in E. congenera, whereas in E. acuminata the medians are closer to one another than to the laterals. First recorded for Britain by Duffey, Locket and Millidge (1954). Trichopterna cito, (O.P.-Cambridge). T. cito differs from the other two British representatives of the genus in the positions of the spines and trichobothria, as well as in its different genitalia. T m I, ca. 0.75-0.80, tibia I spine 0.10.15. T h e male has a distinctive head (Fig. 19). whilst there are also differences in palpal organ (Fig. 20) and in the palpal tibia (Fig. 22) on which there are two apophyses. T h e epigyne (Fig. 21) is also characteristic. Originally recorded from Rye (Sussex) by Locket, Millidge and La Touche (1958). Praestigia duffeyi, Millidge (1954). This genus was created for two species, P. pini (Holm) and P. duffeyi, of which only the latter has occurred in this country. T h e genus Praestigia is close to Baryphyma in many particulars, such as the position of spines and trichobothria and the general form of the genitalia, but the species P. duffeyi is quite distinct. $ : Tibiae I and II with two short dorsal spines ; tibiae I I I and IV with one short dorsal spine ; position of tibia IV spine 0.4-0.45. All metatarsi with a trichobothrium ; T m I 0.90-0.93. Epigyne (Fig. 26). cJ : Tibia I spineless, tibia II with two very short dorsal spines ; tibiae I I I and IV with a single dorsal spine ; T m . I 0.90-0.93. T h e head bears a very distinctive projection (Fig. 25) consisting of a dark cap on a fibrous base. In the female there is only a slight cusp behind the anterior eyes. T h e palpal organs (Fig. 23) and palpal tibia (Fig. 24) also serve to distinguish the species. Trichoncus hackmani, Millidge (1955). This species, which was first described in 1955 from Finland, is rather confusing, as the female is very similar to T. saxicola (O.P.-C.) whilst the male resembles T. affinis, Kulcz. Apart from the genitalia (Figs. 12, 14 and 15) the main distinguishing characters of T. hackmani are the darkening of tibiae I and I I (absent in T. affinis) and the projecting cylpeus (Fig. 13) of the male, which is absent in T. saxicola. T h e first British record was reported by Cooke (1962a).


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LOCALITIES

Repeated visits to certain areas of particular interest havc tended to keep the number of localities studied by courses fairly low, but the following list is swollen by the labours of individual collectors, and includes a number of published records. The abbreviations are those used in the check-list. B BC BW CP CS. DM DW. F FM HI. IH JG. K M O OM Pi Pii SF SO SS

Brantham. 2 miles East of Fiatford Mill. ( T M 112342). Butley Creek. 3 miles North-West of Orford. (TM 387516). Bonny Wood. 3 miles South-West of Needham Market. (TM 075518). Colne Point. 5 miles South-West of Clacton. (TM 100123). Crabknowe Spit. 2 miles South of Harwich. (TM 242279). Dedham Mill. 2 miles West of Fiatford Mill. (TM 056335). .. Dodnash Wood. 3 miles North-Eastof Fiatford Mill. (TM 105362). Finningham. 8 miles North of Stowmarket. (TM 065695). Fiatford Mill, East Bergholt, Suffolk. (TM 077333). Havergate Island. 1 mile South of Orford. (TM 420480). Iken Heath. 4 miles North-West of Orford. (TM 396557). ..... Judas Gap. J miles East of Fiatford Mill. (TM 080328). ... Kesgrave. 2 miles East of Ipswich. (TM 225458). Marshes opposite Fiatford Mill. Orford Ness. (TM 454490). Oxlev Marshes, Shingle Street. (TM 370435). . Red Crag Pit. 1 mile South of Butley village. (TM 370494). . Red Crag Pit at Neutral Farm, Butley. (TM 372511). Scotland Fen. 4 miles South-West of Orford. (TM 361469). . St. Osyth Priory. 3 miles West of Clacton. (TM 121157). Shingle Street. Ät the entrance to Orford Häven. (TM 370430).


SPIDERS OF FLATFORD MILL REGION

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Staverton Thicks. 4 miles West of Orford. (TM 363504). TW. Ten Wood. 3 miles South-West of Needham Market. (TM 032520). UHC. Upper Hollesley Common. 3 miles North-West of Shingle Street. (TM 334472). W. Stour Estuary North of Wrabness. (TM 178324). WN. Walton Naze. (TM 266235). Of these localities, only Colne Point, the marshes near Fiatford Mill, Shingle Street and Upper Hollesley Common have been regularly collected, but even so every visit produces additional species, and no locality may be regarded as well-known. Colne Point, Shingle Street, Crabknowe Spit and Walton Naze are all coastal habitats, but each possesses strictly individual characteristics, which are reflected in the differing faunas. The most uniform habitat exists at Shingle Street, where an apposition shingle beach has been built up from the off-wash of the Orford spit. Within the successive shingle crests lie a string of small lakes, whose varying salinities support different faunas, although this is not apparent in the associated spiders. Although the seaward side consists of pure shingle, the landward parts contain increasing quantities of sand, which in turn result in more extensive Vegetation, whilst the whole shingle system is separated from the mainland by dykes, saltmarshes and a sea-wall. A number of summer bungalows and coastguard cottages have added further habitats but only of limited extent. Crabknowe Spit, which is rather difficult to reach, and has hence only been visited once, consists of a narrow spit of eroded yellow dune, well covered with typical dune Vegetation. It is apparent that the dunes are not infrequently breached when storms force the sea into the extensive salt marshes lying behind the spit. Walton Naze is another area which badly needs further examination, but in this case it is ease of access rather than the reverse which has caused its neglect, for during the summer the whole region is rendered hideous by trippers. At the southern (landward) end high cliffs of Red Crag, well provided with springs, pools and vegetative cover drop down to a narrow strip of tidewashed beach. Towards the north the general height of the land drops gradually to sea level, and in the no-mans-land between the old and new sea-walls, where salt marsh plants appear to be slowly establishing themselves on the extensive wastes of periodically flooded sand and detritus, lie quantities of decaying sea-weed, etc. This " tide litter " supports a rieh Linyphiid fauna.


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Colne Point is probably the most varied of these coastal localities, •and this is borne out by its spider fauna of well over one hundred species. The main feature is a shingle spit, widening in places to Support considerable areas of sandy shingle, covered with various grasses, and behind which lie the inevitable Salt Marsh complex. The basic potential of the area has been increased by the limited activities of man, principally by the erection of a sturdy sea-wall, very far from sturdy bungalows and by localised commercial excavation of shingle. The litter of scrap metal and baulks of timber left by the latter has provided a number of extremely interesting habitats. Havergate Island, lying within the protective sweep of Orford beach, ought also to be listed here amongst the coastal localities, but as it is a Nature Reserve, strictly controlled by the Nature Conservancy, it is not ordinarily available to the collector. Brackish marshes abound in the region, but the only ones to be extensively studied are those near to Fiatford Mill and those bordering the Stour estuary at Wrabness. Fresh water marshes are not readily found in the Fiatford region, and although one visit was made to Redgrave Fen, this has been excluded from " The Fiatford Region " for obvious reasons of distance. The one area of true Fen within easy reach of Fiatford, namely Scotland Fen, has recently been cleared and drained by the Forestry Commission, and the only visit in search of spiders showed that any specialised fauna it may have possessed has been totally destroyed. In various parts of East Suffolk the Red Crag beds have been commercialy exploited, and visits have been made to two of these exposures in search of spiders. They consist of a 20 to 30 ft. wall of exposed Crag, with grass and shrubs all round, and on the floo of the pit. There does not appear to be a particularly striking fauna associated with these outcrops, although a number of interesting species have been taken on them. A number of areas of woodland have been included, but unfortunately the one which is most likely to be of interest, Staverton Thicks, which is a relict stand of primaeval oak, it not accessible for much of the year. Upper Hollesly Common is the heathland most frequently visited, and has provided a surprising number of interesting captures. Essentialy it consists of a small area of heather (recently planted with conifers by the Forestry Commission !) entirely surrounded by Pine trees. At the lowest point the ground is fairly damp, as evidenced by the scattered clumps of Juncus, and the presence here several years ago of a large heap of wood chips (teste Lampel) now widely scattered, provided a habitat of extraordinary richness. The rapidly changing character of this small area should provide an excellent study for future courses.


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K E Y TO HABITAT ABBREVIATIONS

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (k) (1) (m) (n) (o) (p) (q) (r) (s) (t) (u)

On heather. In wet tide litter, e.g., at base of sea wall and in sah marsh. In tide litter washed up on crest of shingle or beach, rather dryer. Living on open shingle. Under logs and scrap metal on sandy shingle. Amongst grass roots on sandy shingle. Amongst grass roots inland. On sand. Under heather. On open sandy heathland. Amongst moss and pine needles. In dry deciduous leaf litter. On Pine trees. On wet mud in salt marsh. On Vegetation in salt marsh. Under bark of logs washed up in salt marsh. Inside buildings. On the face of exposed " Red Crag " cliffs. On trunks of trees. Under clumps of mud and rocks in salt marsh.

No attempt is made to give the detailed habitat preferences of each species in this paper. Such information as is given is supplementary to that in Locket & Millidge (1951-1953). N.B. County records additional to those listed by Bristowe (1939) are marked with an asterisk (*). No attempt has been made to include subsequent additions.


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ANNOTATED LIST OF THE SPIDERS OF THE FLATFORD REGION DICTYNJDAE Ciniflo fenestralis (Stroem) : FM. DW. W. SS. UHC. ; SS iv-x. Ciniflo ferox (Walck.) : FM. SS. ; $$ SS iv-ix. Ciniflo similis Bl. : FM. ; $?(?(? iv-ix. Dictyna arundinacea (L.) : FM. DW. UHC. W. WN. P iv-x, SS iv-vii. *Dictyna latens (Fab.) : UHC. ; S iv (a). Dictyna uncinata Thor. : FM. W. UHC. ; $$ v-ix, SS *Protadia patula (Sim.) : W. CS. CP. HI. WN. ; ?? SS v*Argenna subnigra (O.P.-C.) : HI. ; ?$ SS v (b). Lathys humilis (Bl.) : UHC. ; ?? vi (a). OONOPIDAE *Oonops pulcher Temp. : W. ST. UHC. ; SS v-vi.

DYSDERIDAE Segestria senoculata (L.) : FM. DW. UHC. ; ?? iv-x Harpactea hombergi (Scop.) : FM. DW. UHC. SS. ; $ iv-ix. Dysdera crocata C.L.K. : FM. W. SS. CP. ; SS Dysdera erythrina (Walck.) ; CP. ; $$ SS iv-v.

PHOLCIDAE *Pholcus phalangioides (Fuess.) : FM. SO. ; $$ SS iv

GNAPHOSIDAE Drassodes lapidosus (Walck.) : FM. UHC. SS. CP. ; iv-x. Drassodes lapidosus var cupreus Bl. : UHC. CP. *Drassodes minor (O.P.-C.) : CP. HI. ; SS iv-vi (b, Drassodes signifer (C.L.K.) : UHC. CS. CP. ; ?? ivHerpyllus blackwalli (Thor.) : FM. CP. ; ?$ SS v-viii.


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*Phaeocedus braccatus (L.K.) : SS. ; S ix (d). *Zelotes subteiraneus (C.L.K.) : SS. CP. Pi. ; ?? SS vi-x (e, g). *Zelotes electus (C.L.K.) : CS. SS. CP. ; $$ iv-x, S vi (e, f). Zelotes latreillei (Sim.) : W. SS. Pi. ; ?$ iv, ix (g). *Zelotes lutetianus (L.K.) : CP. WN. ; ?? SS iv-vi (b). *Zelotes pedestris (C.L.K.) : UHC. ; ?? iv-vi, SS vi (i). *Zelotes petrensis (C.L.K.) : UHC. Pi. ; ?$ iv-ix, SS ix (g)*Zelotes pusillus (C.L.K.) : UHC. ; ?? SS iv-v1X (i). *Zelotes serotinus (L.K.) : CP. ; ?? iv, ix, SS (e)Micaria pulicaria (Sund.) : UHC. CP. ; $$ SS iv-x (h, k). *Micaria silesiaca L.K. : UHC. ; 2? SS vi (k). CLUBIONIDAE Clubiona brevipes Bl. : FM. UHC. ; ?? ix. *Clubiona coerulescens L.K. : BW. ; ?? SS ixClubiona compta C.L.K. : FM. UHC. ; $? ix, SS iv-vi. Clubiona corticalis (Walck.) : FM. DW. ; $$ iv-viii, SS vi. Clubiona diversa O.P.-C. : Pi. Pii. ; $? SS «v. * Clubiona lutescens Westr. : DW. ST. ; $? vi-ix. * Clubiona neglecta O.P.-C. : SS. CP. ; $$ v-ix, SS vi. Clubiona pallidula (Cl.) : UHC. ; $? ix. Clubiona phragmitis C.L.K. : FM. JG. W. CP. ; ?$ iv-x, SS ix. Clubiona reclusa O.P.-C. : FM. SF. ; ix. Clubiona stagnatilis Kulcz. : M. FM. JG. W. CS. CP. WN. SF. ; $$ SS iv-x. Clubiona terrestris Westr. : DW. UHC. W. ; ?? SS iv-x. * Clubiona trivialis C.L.K. : UHC. ; ?? SS iv-ix. Cheiracanthium erraticum (Walck.) : FM. CP. SF. ; $$ iv, imms. ix. * Cheiracanthium virescens (Sund.) : UCH. CP. ; $$ SS lx*Agroeca inopina O.P.-C. : UHC. CP. Pi. ; ?$ SS ix-x. *Agroeca proxima (O.P.-C.) : UHC. Pi. ; ?? SS viii-ix (i, g). *Scotina gracilipes (Bl.) : UHC. ; ?? SS ix. Zora spinimana (Sund.) : DW. UHC. Pi. IH. ; ?$ SS iv-ix. *Zora silvestris Kulcz. : IH. ; $$ SS v. *Phrurolithus festivus (C.L.K.) : UHC. W. CP. WN. ; ?? SS iv-vi. imms. x.


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ANYPHAENIDAE Anyphaena accentuata(Walck.) : DW. ST. Pi. ; $$ v

TU OMISIDAE *Diaea dorsata (Fab.) : Pi. ; imms. ix. Xysticus audax (Sehr.) : UHC. ; ?$ iv-vi, SS iv (1). Xysticus cristatus (Cl.) : FM. UHC. CS. SS. CP. Pi. Pii. iv-x, SS iv-vi. Xysticus erraticus (Bl.) : Pi. ; $$ ix. *Xysticus kochi Thor. : FM. UHC. CP. SS. Pi. Pii. ; iv-x, SS iv-v (e, g). *Xysticus sabulosus (Hahn) : UHC. ; $$ iv-ix, SS ix (i) Xysticus ulmi (Hahn) : DW. ; SS v. (m) Oxyptila atomaria (Panz.) : UHC. ; S ix. Oxyptila praticola (C.L.K.) : DW. ; $ ix. *Oxyptila Simplex (O.P.-C.) : W. OM. ; ?$ vi-ix, SS v ( Oxyptila trux (Bl.) : M. ; $? iv. Philodromus aureolus (Cl.) : FM. UHC. ; 2$ iv-ix, SS Philodromus aureolus caespiticolis Walck. : UHC. SS vi. *Philodromus collinus (C.L.K.) : UHC. ; ?? SS vi (m). Philodromus dispar Walck. : FM. ; ?? vi. "Philodromus fallax Sund. : CP. ; imms. ix. «Philodromus histrio (Latr.) : UHC. CP. HI. ; $? iv-ix, S •Philodromus rufus Walck. : FM ; $$ SS ix. Tibellus maritimus (Menge) : SF. ; imms. ix. «Thanatus striatus C.L.K. : W. CS. CP. HI. Pi. ; $? i SS

x.

SALTICIDAE Salticus scenicus (Cl.) : FM. JG. W. WN. CP. ; ?$ S *Heliophanus auratus C.L.K. : CP. ; ?? SS vi (d, c). Heliophanus cupreus (Walck.) : Pi. ; S iv. HeliophanusflavipesC.L.K. : SS. CP. ; ?? iv-x, SS iv-v. •Euophrys aequipes (O.P.-C.) : SS. CP. ; $$ SS vi-viii. *Euophrys browningi Loc. & Mil. : SS. CP. WN. ; iv-x (d, c).


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Euophrys frontalis (Walck.) : UHC. W. SS. CP. Pi. Pii. WN. ; ?? SS iv-x. *Bianor aenescens Sim. : CP. ; $ $ vi. *Neon reticulatus (Bl.) : DW. UHC. ; $ $ ix. *Sitticus pubescens (Fab.) : FM. ; $ 5 v. *Sitticus rupicola (C.L.K.) : SS. CP. ; S S iv-x (d, c). *Attulus saltator (Sim.) : CP. ; $ $ ix, So vi, ix. Evarcha falcata (Cl.) : DW. ; $ $ viii. LYCOSIDAE Lycosa *Lycosa * Lycosa Lycosa *Lycosa Lycosa

amentata (Cl.): FM. CS. CP. Pi. DW.; iv-x, S S iv, x. arenicola O.P.-C. : SS. ; imms. ix-x (d). hortensis Thor. : DW. UHC. ST. ; ? ? vi-ix, SS iv. lugubris (Walck.) : UHC. DW. ; $ $ v-vi, SS v. monticola (Cl.) : FM. W. UHC. ; ? ? vi-ix, SS iv. nigriceps Thor. : FM. W. UHC. SS. CP. Pi. SF. ; $ $ iv-ix, SS iv-v. Lycosa prativaga L.K. : FM. W. CS. CP. UHC. Pi. Pii. SF. ; $ $ iv-ix, S S iv-vi. Lycosa pullata (Cl.) : FM. SS. CP. CS. DW. Pii. SF. ; iv-x, SS v. Lycosa purbeckensis F.O.P.-C. : FM. JG. W. SS. CS. CP. H I . WN. ; $ $ iv-ix, SS iv-vi, imms. x. *Xerolycosa miniata (C.L.K.) : SS. ; imms. viii. *Xerolycosa nemoralis (Westr.) : UHC. ; $ $ SS vi (i). * Tarentula cuneata (Cl.) : CP. Pi. ; iv-v, So x. Tarentula barbipes (Sund.) : UHC. CS. Pi. ; $ ? SS iv. Tarentula pulverulenta (Cl.) : SS. CP. Pii. ; vi-ix, SS iv-v. *Leaena [Trochosa] fulvolineata (Luc.): W. CP.; $ $ SS iv-ix (u). Trochosa ruricola (Deg.) : M. UHC. CS. SS. CP. WN. ; SS iv-x. * Trochosa spinipalpis (F.O.P.-C.) : CP. ; $ iv. Trochosa terricola Thor. : FM. UHC. W. CP. Pi. WN. ; iv-ix, SS iv, ix. *Arctosa leopardus (Sund.) : CP. OM. ; $ $ So vi-vii. *Arctosa perita (Latr.) : UHC. CP. ; $ $ SS iv-vi, imms. ix-x. Pirata latitans (Bl.) : BC. ; vi. Pirata piraticus (Cl.) : FM. JG. DW. W. SS. CP. BC. ; OO iv-ix, SS iv-vi.


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PISAURIDAE Pisaura mirabilis (Cl.) : FM. DW. UHC. W. CP. Pi. Pii $2 ix, imms. iv-vi.

AGELENIDAE Argyroneta aquatica (Cl.) : FM. DM. SS. ; ?? SS iv Agelena labyrinthica (Cl.) : FM. DW. UHC. CP. WN. viii-ix. Tegenaria saeva B1. [=atrica C.L.K.] : FM. WN. ; iv-ix. Tegenaria domestica (Cl.) : FM. Pi. ; iv-ix. Tegenaria parietina (Fourc.) : FM. ; v-ix, SS ix. Tegenaria silvestris L.K. : FM ; $$ vi-viii. *Antistea elegans (Bl.) : BC. ; ?? vi. *Hahnia helveola Sim. : UHC. ; ?? iv-ix, SS ix (1). *Hahnia montana (Bl.) : DW. UHC. ; iv-ix, SS ix Hahnia nava (Bl.) : CP. ; $$ v.

MIMETIDAE *Ero cambridgei Kulcz. : W. ; SS ix. Ero furcata (Vill.) : W. SS. CP. UHC. ; ?? SS ix. *Ero tuberculata (Deg.) : FM. UHC. ; $$ SS ix (a, r)

THERIDIIDAE *Episinus angulatus (Bl.) : UHC. ; iv-ix, SS iv. *Crustulina guttata (Wid.) : UHC. SS. IH. O. ; $$ iv-ix *Steatoda [Asagena] phalerata (Panz.) : UHC. ; S Steatoda bipunctata (L.) : FM. ; $2 v-viii. Neottiura [Theridion] bimaculata (L.) : FM. UHC. $$ vi-ix, SS vi. *Achaearanea [Theridion] lunata (Cl.) : FM. DW viii-ix. Theridion pallens (Bl.) : FM. DW. UHC. Pii. ; ix iv-ix. * Theridion blackwallii O.P.-C. : FM. ; $$ So vi * Theridion familiare O.P.-C. : FM. ; $$ SS vi. * Theridion instabile O.P.-C. : BC. ; $ vi. *Theridion melanurum Hahn. : FM. ; ?$ SS vi.


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*Theridion simile C.L.K. : UHC. ; 99 SS vi. Theridion neglectum Wiehle : UHC. ; 99 v. Theridion sisyphium (Cl.) : UHC. ST. ; 9 9 iv-ix, SS iv-vi. Theridion tinctum (Walck.) : UHC. ST. ; 9 9 vi. Theridion varians Hahn : UHC. ST. ; 99 SS vi. Anelosimus [Theridion] vittatus (C.L.K.) : UHC. ; 99 ix. *Enoplognatha thoracica (Hahn) : W. UHC. CP. O. ; 99 vi-ix, SS iv-vi. *Enoplognatha schaufussi (L.K.) : JG. W. CP. HI. ; 99 v-ix, SS v-vi (p, q). Enoplognatha [Theridion] ovata (Cl.) : FM. UHC. CP. SF. ; ? ? ix. Robertusarundineti{O.P.-C.) : CP.W.CS. ; ??iv-x, SSiv-vi(b). *Robertus lividus (Bl.) : DW. UHC. W. ; 99 SS iv-ix. Pholcomma gibbum (Westr.) : UHC. ; 99 vi (a). TETRAGNA

THIDAE

Tetragnatha extenso (L.) : FM. DW. W. CS. CP. ; 99 iv-vi, SS vi. Tetragnatha montana Sim. : FM. ; 99 vi. * Tetragnatha nigrita Lendl. : FM. ; 9 ? vi. * Pachygnatha listeri Sund. : BW. ; 99 SS viii-xi. Pachygnatha clercki Sund. : FM. JG. DW. UHC. W. SS. CP. WN. SF. ; 99 SS iv-x. Pachygnatha degeeri Sund. : FM. JG. DW. CS. CP. WN. Pi. Pii. SF. ; 99 SS iv-x. ARGIOPIDAE Meta merianae (Scop.) : FM. WN. ; 99 v-viii. Meta segmentata (Cl.) : FM. DW. UHC. W. SS. CP. WN. SF. ; 99 SS iv-ix. Meta segmentata menget (Bl.) : UHC. WN. ; 9 9 SS iv-ix. *Araneus adiantus (Walck.) : UHC. CP. ; 9 9 SS vii-ix. Araneus cornutus Cl. : FM. JG. W. SS. CP. SF. ; 9 9 SS iv-x. Araneus cucurbitinus Cl. : FM. UHC. Pii. ; $ 9 SS vi, imms. iv-viii. Araneus diadematus Cl. : FM. DW. UHC. CP. Pi. ; $9 SS ix. *Araneus gibbosus (Walck.) : UHC. ; 99 vi-ix, SS vi. *Araneus marmoreus pyramidatus Cl. : DW. ; 9 9 SS ix.


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SPIDERS OF FLATFORD MILL REGION

Araneus quadratus Cl. : FM. JG. UHC. CP. ; $ $ c?c? ix. Araneus redii (Scop.) : UHC. ; ix, (var delta). Araneus sclopetarius Cl. : FM. ; ? ? SS iv-x. Araneus Sturmi (Hahn) : UHC. ; SS vi (n). Araneus umbraticus Cl. : FM. DW. ; $ $ v-ix, SS v. *Singa albovittata (Westr.) : UHC. ; imms. ix. Singa pygmaea (Sund.) : CP. ; So vi. Cercidea prominens (Westr.) : UHC. ; $ 2 S S ix (i). Zygiella atrica (C.L.K.) : FM. UHC. Pi. ; ? $ S S ix. Zygiella x-notata (Cl.) : FM. UHC. W. CP. ; $ ? iv-ix, SS ix. Cyclosa conica (Pall.) : DW. ; imms. ix. LIN YPHIIDA E *Ceratinella scabrosa (O.P.-C.) : DW. ; ? ? viii, SS v-viii. *Walckenaera acuminata Bl. : M. DW. UHC. Pi. WN. K. ; iv-ix. Wideria antica (Wid.) : UHC. SS. CP. Pi. WN. ; ? $ iv-vi, SS iv-v. * Wideria capito (Westr.) : CS. ; $ $ iv (b). Wideria cucullata (C.L.K.) : UHC. ; $ vi. * Trachynella nudipalpis (Westr.) : DW. ; ? ix. *Prosopotheca monoceros (Wid.) : CS. CP. HI. ; 2 $ iv-x, SS ix. *Cornicularia kochi (O.P.-C.) : W. ; SS ix (c). Dicymbium nigrum (Bl.) : W. WN. ; v-vi. *Entelecara congenera (O.P.-C.) : UHC. ; SS vi (n). Gnathonarium dentatum (Wid.) : M. JG. DW. CS. CP. W. ; ??<?<? iv-x. *Tmeticus affinis (Bl.) : BC. ; ? ? vi. *Gongylidium rufipes (Sund.) : DW. W. ; $ $ vi-ix. Dismodicus bifrons (Bl.) : UHC. ; $ $ ix. Hypomma bituberculatum (Wid.) : M. JG. W. CP. ; iv-ix, SS iv-vi. Hypomma cornutum (Bl.) : UHC. ; ? $ SS vi. * Hypomma fulvum Bรถs. : M. JG. ; iv-ix, SS iv-v (o). *Praestigia duffeyi Mill. : M. JG. HI. ; $ $ SS iv-vi, imms. ix (o). *Metopobactrus prominulus (O.P.-C.) : W. CP. HI. O. ; ? ? v-ix, SS v-vi (o). *Baryphyma pratensis (Bl.) : M. ; ? ? SS iv-v (o).


SPIDERS OF FLATFORD MILL REGION

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Gonatium rubellum (Bl.) : DW. Pi. ; $ $ SS ix. Gonatium rubens (Bl.) : DW. UHC. Pi. Pii. SF. ; iv, ix, SS ix. *Minyrioloides trifrons (O.P.-C.) : BC. ; $ vi. *Maso sundevalli (Westr.) : FM. DW. ; $ $ vi-ix. Peponocranium ludicrum (O.P.-C.) : UHC. SS. CP. Pi. ; $ $ iv-vi, SS iv-v. *Pocadicnemis pumila (Bl.) : FM. DW. CP. WN. ; v-ix, SS v-vi. Oedothorax agrestis (Bl.) : W. CP. ; $ $ vi, SS ix. Oedothorax apicatus (Bl.) : FM. CS. CP. WN. ; SS iv-ix. Oedothorax fuscus (Bl.) : M. JG. W. SS. CP. Pi. WN. SF. ; $? SS iv-ix. *Oedothorax gibbosus (Bl.) : W. CP. WN. BC. ; $ $ v-ix. Oedothorax retusus (Westr.) : M. JG. W. CS. CP. WN. ; $ $ SS iv-ix. *Trichopterna cito O.P.-C. : CP. ; $ $ SS x (f). Trichopterna thorelli (Westr.) : HI. ; S v *Lophocarenum nemorale (Bl.) : CS. SS. CP. ; $ $ iv-x, SS ixLophocarenum parallelum (Wid.) : UHC. Pi. SF. ; $ $ SS ix. * Silometopus curtus (Sim.) : M. JG. W. CP. CS. ; ? ? SS iv-x (b,o). *Silometopus reussi (Thor.) [ = interjectus (O.P.-C.)] : FM. W. ; ? ? vi (c). Cnephalocotes obscurus (Bl.) : UHC. SS. Pi. ; $ $ iv-ix, SS iv, ix. *Trichoncus hackmatii Mill. : CP. ; $ $ iv-vi, SS iv-x (c). *Trichoncus affinis Kulcz. : HI. ; $ $ SS v (c)Tiso vagans (Bl.) : W. CS. CP. HI. ; $ $ iv-ix, SS iv-v. Troxochrus scabriculus (Westr.) : Pi. WN. ; $ $ SS iv-v. *Minyriolus pusillus (Wid.) : UHC. ; vi. *Tapinocyba praecox (O.P.-C.) : UHC. HI. ; $ $ v-ix. *Aulacocyba subitanea (O.P.-C.) : Pii. ; $ $ iv (g, s). *Thyreosthenius parasiticus (Westr.) : JG. UHC. ; $ $ iv-vi (g). Monocephalus fuscipes (Bl.) : DW. ; SS v. *Lophomma punctatum (Bl.) : DW. CP. WN. ; v-ix. *Diplocephalus latifrons (O.P.-C.) : DW. ; ? $ SS viii. *Diplocephalus permixtus (O.P.-C.) : M. JG. ; $ $ iv-vi. *Diplocephalus picinus (Bl.) : M. DW. ST. ; ? $ SS iv-v. *Araeoncus humilis (Bl.) : M. W. CP. ; SS vi. *Erigone arctica (White) : M. UHC. W. SS. ; $ $ SS vi-ix.


170

SPIDERS OF FLATFORD MILL REGION

Erigone atra (Bl.) : M. W. SS. CP. CS. Pi. Pii. ; 9 9 iv-ix, SS iv-vi. Erigone dentipalpis (Wid.) : M. JG. UHC. W. CS. CP. Pi. Pii. SF. WN. ; 9 ? iv-ix, SS ix. * Erigone longipalpis (Sund.) : M. JG. W. SS. CP. B. ; 9 2 vi-ix, SS vi-x. * Erigone promiscua (O.P.-C.) : WN. Pi. ; $ 2 iv-v. *Phaulothrix hardyi (Bl.) : UHC. ; 2 ? ix *Halorates reprobus (O.P.-C.) : CP. SS. ; 2 ? v-ix. Ostearius melanopygius (O.P.-C.) : CP. ; $ 2 Sä l x " x (f. g)*Porrhomma convexum (Westr.) : M. CS. ; 22 lv *Porrhomma microphthalmum (O.P.-C.) : FM. CP. HI. WN. ; 2 2 v-vi. *Porrhomma pygmaeum (Bl.) : M. W. ; SS v-ix. *Syedrula innotabilis (O.P.-C.) : UHC. ; S vi. *Agyneta conigera (O.P.-C.) : UHC. ; ? 2 SS vi (1). *Meioneta beata (O.P.-C.) : M. CS. SS. CP. Pii. WN. ; ? ? iv-v, SS iv-x. Meioneta rurestris (C.L.K.) : W. CP. UHC. Pi. Pii. SS. ; 2 2 SS

iv-X'.

Meioneta saxatilis (Bl.) : HI. ; ? v. Microneta viaria (Bl.) : DW. UHC. ; SS iv> ix*Centromerus dilutus (O.P.-C.) : UHC. DW. ; 2 ? v-vi. *Centromerus expertus (O.P.-C.) : M. JG. ; ? ? vi-ix. *Centromerus prudens (O.P.-C.) : UHC. ; 2 iv. *Centromerus sylvaticus (Bl.) : JG. CP. Pi. ; 2 2 iv-ix. *Centromerita bicolor (Bl.) : SS. WN. Pi. TW. ; 2 2 iv-v, SS IX—X

*Centromerita concinna (Thor.) : DW. CS. CP. UHC, WN. ; 2 2 iv-v, SS ix-x. *Oreonetides abnormis (Bl.) : Pi. ; 2 lx Macrargus rufus (Wid.) : UHC. ; 9 9 iv *Bathyphantes approximatus (O.P.-C.) : M. JG. BC. ; 9 ? SS Bathyphantes concolor (Wid.) : FM. DW. W. SS. CP. WN. Pii. ; 2 2 SS iv-ix. Bathyphanies gracilis (Bl.) : M. JG. W. CP. CS. SS. Pi. Pn. BC. ; ? 2 SS iv-ix*Bathyphantes nigrinus (Westr.) : DW. ; 2 ? viii. *Bathyphantes setiger (F.O.P.-C.) : DW. ; 2 9 viii. *Drapetisca socialis (Sund.) : UHC. ; imms. vi, 9 9 S S ix *Tapinopa longidens (Wid.) : DW. UHC. W. SS. CP. Pi. ; imms. vi, 2 9 SS ix-x (g).


SPIDERS OF FLATFORD MILL REGION

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*Floronia bucculentata (Cl.) : DW. UHC. TW. ; SS ix-x. *Labulla thoracica (Wid.) : FM. DW. UHC. ; ?? vi-ix. Stemonyphantes lineatus (L.) : FM. DW. W. UHC. CP. CS. Pi. ; " $? c?c? iv-ix. *Bolyphantes luteolus (Bl.) : UHC. CP. ; imms. vi, $$ SS *Lepthyphantes alacris (Bl.) : CP. ; SS iv. * Lepthyphantes cristatus (Menge) : JG. DW. CP. ; $$ ix-x. Lepthyphantes ericaeus (Bl.) : UHC. W. Pi. WN. ; SS iv-ix. *Lepthyphantesflavipes(Bl.) : UHC. SS. CP. O. ; vi-ix, SS iv-x. Lepthyphantes leprosus (Ohlert) : W. CP. Pi. Pii. SF. ; $? SS iv-ix. * Lepthyphantes mengei Kulcz. : M. DW. UHC. CS. SS. CP. Pi. Pii. SF. ; vi-ix, SS iv-ix. * Lepthyphantes minutus (Bl.): FM. DW. W. UHC. K. ; c?(? ix (t). * Lepthyphantes obscurus (Bl.) : UHC. ; $$ vi-ix, SS vi. Lepthyphantes pallidus (O.P.-C.) : WN. ; $$ v. * Lepthyphantes tenebricola (Wid.) : W. ; SS ix. Lepthyphantes tenuis (Bl.) : FM. JG. UHC. W. CS. SS. CP. WN. Pi. Pii. DW. B. ; $$ SS iv-x. Lepthyphantes zimmermanni Bertk. : JG. DW. UHC. W. CP. Pi. SF. ; ?? SS viii-x. Helophora insignis (Bl.) : DW. ; $$ SS ix. Linyphia clathrata Sund. : FM. UHC. CS. CP. WN. ; SS iv-vi. Linyphia impigra O.P.-C. : M. CP. HI. ; ?? v-vi, SS v. Linyphia peltata Wid. : FM. UHC. ; ?2 SS vi-viii. * Linyphia pusilla Sund. : FM. CP. ; vi, SS iv-vi. Linyphia triangularis (Cl.) : FM. DW. W. UHC. ST. SS. CP. Pi. SF. ; $$ iv-x, SS ix-x. Mengea scopigera (Grube) : JG. W. CP. ; $$ vi-ix, SS ix (p). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

It gives me great pleasure to thank the Warden and Staff of Fiatford Mill Field Centre for their frequent help and hospitality, and the course members and others, too numerous to mention by name, without whose labours this paper could not have been written. Particular thanks are due to G. H. Locket for unstinted advice and discussion, and also, together with Dr. A. F. Millidge, for kindly supplying the original illustrations forfigures1, 2, 6-11, 19-26. Thanks are also due to the editors of the Annais and Magazine of Natural History for permission to use these figures.


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SPIDERS OF FLATFORD MILL REGION

REFERENCES

Bristowe, W . S. (1939-1941). The Comity of Spiders. (2 vols.) Ra> Society, L o n d o n . Cooke, J. A. L. (1962a). T h e spiders of Colne Point, Essex, with descriptions of two species new to Britain. Ent. Mon. Mag., 97, 245-253. Cooke, J. A. L . (1962b). Spiders f r o m tidal marshes near Fiatford Mill, Suffolk. Ent. Mon. Mag., 98, 21-22. D u f f e y , E., Locket, G . H . and Millidge, A. F . (1954). O n some spiders collected in East Suffolk and Essex. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (12), 7, 574-578. D u f f e y , E. (1961). Spiders f r o m Redgrave, L o p h a m and H o p t o n fens in the Waveney and Little Ouse Valleys. Trans. S u f f . Nat. Soc., 12, (i), 31-38. L a m p e l , G. P. (1959). Additions to the county records of spiders, with notes on two species of interest. J. Soc. Brit. Ent., 6, (2), 52-54. Locket, G . H . and Millidge, A. F. (1957). O n new and rare British spiders. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (12), 10, 481-492. Locket, G . H . , Millidge, A. F. and La T o u c h e , A. A. D . (1958). O n new a n d rare British spiders. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (13), 1, 137-146. Millidge, A. F . (1954). O n a new species and genus of spider. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (12), 7, 253-256. Millidge, A. F. (1955). A new species of spider. Soc. Sei. Fenn. Comm. Biol., 15, (7), 1-5. Millidge, A. F. and Locket, G . H . (1955). N e w and rare British spiders. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (12), 8, 161-173. Wild, A. M . (1962). Notes on some rare British spiders. Ent. Mon. Mag., 98, 8-9. LEGENDS FOR FIGURES FIGS. 1 - 5

1. Zora silvestris <J, left palp f r o m outside. 2. Micaria silesiaca cj, left palp f r o m outside and slightly below. 3. M. silesiaca S, left palp f r o m below. 4. Drassodes minor left palp f r o m below. 5. D. minor cJ, left palp f r o m outside. FIGS. 6 - 1 1

6. Philodromus collinus 5. left palp f r o m below. 7. Euophrys browningi 2, epigyne. 8. Entelecara congenera left palpal tibia f r o m above. 9. Zora silvestris epigyne. 10. Entelecara congenera <?, carapace from side. 11. Philodromus collinus epigyne. FIGS. 1 2 - 1 8

12. Trichoncus hackmani $, epigyne. 13. T. hackmani cj, clypeus from side. 14. T. hackmani right palpal tibia f r o m above. 15. T. hackmani cj, right palpal tibia f r o m outside. 16. Euophrys browningi <3, left palp f r o m below. 17. Heliophanus auratus epigyne. 18. H. auratus <J, left palp f r o m below. FIGS. 1 9 - 2 6 .

19. Trichopterna cito <$, carapace f r o m side. 20. T. cito <J, left palp f r o m outside. 21. T. cito epigyne. 22. T. cito <?, left palpal tibia f r o m above. 23. Praestigia duffeyi <J, left palp f r o m outside. 24. P. duffeyi left palpal tibia f r o m above. 25. P. duffeyi clypeus from side. 26. P. duffeyi ?, epigyne.


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SPIDERS OF FLATFORD MILL REGION

A Preliminary Account of the Spiders of the Flatford Mill Region  
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