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Linn.), and Small Tortoiseshell (Aglais urticae, Linn.), being really scarce. No doubt the spraying of their foodplants had had a lot to do with it. It has taken the deaths of a large number of birds and mammals to draw the attention of the authorities to the problem of the excessive use of poisonous substances in the countryside.



I paid my usual visit to Suffolk again this summer which has proved far better from the weather point of view than its predecessor, though possibly less good for the lepidoptera, certainly during its first half, but numbers were starting to increase when I reached Southwold on 5th August. Once more Prof. J. V. Dacie was in residence at Walberswick and we revisited our former haunts on the marshes that night in the direction of the windmill, but in spite of mild conditions not as many species came to light as might be expected, only 42 up tili midnight. Among these were the Small Rufous Wainscot (Coenobia rufa, Haworth), the Ruby Tiger (Phragmatobia fuliginosa, Linn.), the Coast Dart (Euxoa cursoria, Hufn.), the Southern Wainscot (Leucania straminea, Treits.), the Fen Wainscot (Arenostola phragmitidis, HĂźbn.), the Rosy Minor (Procus literosa, Haworth), the Dusky Sallow (Eremobia ochroleuca, Esp.), and the Crescent (Celaena leucostigma, HĂźbn.). The following night when we placed our m.v. light on the edge



of the marshes near Walberswick we saw many more insects during the first two hours. One of our first arrivals was the Maple Prominent (Lophopteryx cucullina, Schiff.), a most unusual terrain for this insect. A female Oak Eggar (Lasicoampa quercus, Linn.), soon followed together with some 40 other species, mostly those we had seen the previous night, but with the addition of four of the Sussex Wainscot (Nonagria neurica, H端bn.), and several of the Brown-veined Wainscot (N. dissoluta, Treits.). Other interesting visitors included one (Arenostola brevilinea, Fenn.), several of the Powdered Wainscot (Simyra albovenosa, Goeze.), the Scarce Footman (Eilema complana, Linn.), the Pine Hawk (Hyloicus pinastri, Linn.), the Lesser Swallow Prominent (Pheosia gnoma, Fab.), the Small Yellow Underwing (Triphaena interjecta, H端bn.) and the Garden Dart (Euxoa nigricans, Linn.). My last night on the 7th on the sandhills near Southwold followed the very heavy gale and my only captures were a few of the Coast Dart (E. cursoria, Hufn.). Day work was not very productive. On the afternoon of the 6th Prof. Dacie and I went to one of the heaths near Dunwich, but only saw a few Grayling (Eumenis semele, Linn.), and many Small Skippers (Adopaea thaumas, Hufn.). Near Westleton we shelled out some pupae of the Bulrush Wainscot (Nonagria typhae, Thunb.), and of the Webb's Wainscot (N. sparganii, Esp.). On the 7th, Bank Holiday, I drove to Thorpeness where it was very sunny, but too populous for profitable collecting. Many of the Common Blue (Polyommatus icarus, Rott.), were on the seashore by the sandhills and I watched one in the process of laying on the Lotus. The Yellow Belle (Aspitates ochrearia, Ross.), was also much in evidence, but it would seem to bave been too late for the Ochraceous Wave (Sterrha ochrata, Scop.), which had apparently been taken again in this locality at the end of July. Prof. Dacie who was at Walberswick the last week of July and first fortnight of August teils me he had a poor season compared with those of 1959 and 1960 and apart from a number of the True Lover's Knot (Lycophotia varia, Vill.), and one Marbled Straw Pearl (Evergestis extimalis, Scop.), his main captures were very much the same as in his previous years, though much smaller in numbers. Several other collectors visited the East Suffolk coast about the same period. Mr. R. Fairclough during a week's stay had one very good night on the Southwold sandhills on August 4th when he took six of the White-point Wainscot (Leucatiia albipuncta, Fab.), on sugared marram heads. His other most notable captures were single specimens of the Kent Black Arches (Nola albula, (H端bn.), and of the Stout Dart (Spaelotis ravida, H端bn.).



Mr. David More paid two visits to Southwold and on the second in the last week of August also took six of the White-point Wainscot {Leucania albipuncta, Fab.), also the Twin-spot Wainscot (Nonagria geminipuncta, Haworth), the Brown-veined Wainscot ( N . dissoluta, Treits.), Webb's Wainscot (N. sparganii, Esp.), the Small Wainscot (Arenostola pygmina, Haworth), many of the Coast Dart (E. cursoria, Hufn.), and of the Pinion Streaked Snout (Schrankia costaestrigalis, Steph.). Among his Geometer captures were the Angle-barred Pug (Eupithecia innotata, Hufn.), the Sharp-angled Peacock (Semiothisa alternaria, Hübn.). and the Silky Wave (Sterrha subsericeata, Haworth), as well as the Crambid, the Pearl Streak Grass Veneer (Crambus hamellus, Thunb.). Mr. C. W. Pierce did quite a lot of collecting in Suffolk again during 1961. He also took a Maple Prominent (L. cucullina, Schiff.), at the end of July on the Dunwich Marshes. During the year he noted in the vicinity of the Belstead Woods near Ipswich the Lunar Marbled Brown (Drytnonia ruficornis, Hufn.), the Vapourer (Orgyia antiqua, Linn.), the Barred Sallow (Tiliacea aurago, Fab.), the Red Underwing (Catocala nupta, Linn.), the Pretty Chalk Carpet (Anticlea procellata, Fab.), the Fern (Horisme tersata, Hübn.), the Peacock (Semiothisa notata, Linn.), and the Large Twin-spot Carpet (Xanthorho'e quadrifasciaria, Clerck). In the Needham Market district he has recorded during the season the Blossom Underwing (Orthosia miniosa, Fab.), the Ruby Tiger (Phragmatobia fuliginosa, Linn.), Vine's Rustic (Caradrina ambigua, Fab.), the Large Marble Tortrix (Sarrhothripus revayana, Scop.), the Large Wainscot (Rhizedra lutosa, Hübn.), the Barred Straw (Lygrispyraliata, Schiff.), the Small Cream Wave (Sterrha immutata, Linn.), and the Dusky Thorn (Deuteronomos fuscantaria, Haworth). Mr. Bretherton and Mr. Messenger when collecting in early August in the Mildenhall area each took specimens of the Tawny Wave (Scopula rubiginata, Hufn.).

Notes on Suffolk Lepidoptera for 1961  
Notes on Suffolk Lepidoptera for 1961