THE DIPTERA OF SUFFOLK (Continued from Vol. X I , Pt. I, page 58) FAMILY xxix:
First P a r t : by W.
Syrphinae and Chysotoxinae
S . GEORGE a n d A . E .
THE Syrphidae are a family to which belong many of the more striking of our flies, both in colouring änd in their habit of hovering motionless in the air, some species low amongst the herbage others six to ten feet from the ground, where they form a splendid and often metallic sight in a spring glade. Clear against the sky the hover-fly remains quite steady until an intruder arrives to be chased off the territory and the hoverer returns. Syrphids are often to be seen visiting flowers and have been called " Flower Flies " on this account, but it must not be imagined that such a habit is a mere luxury, for Schneider in 1947 (Mitt. Schweiz, ent. Ges. 20 : 306-16) demonstrated that intake of pollen and nectar was necessary for maturation of the ovaries in certain Syrphidae. Mr. Parmenter has shown (Ent. mon. Mag. 88 : 50) that some Syrphidae have a preference for yellow colours in flowers and Dr. T . J. Dixon has demonstrated that Syrphidae prefer to oviposit on green stems (Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. Vol. III, p. 57). T h e adult flies vary considerably through the sub-families; almost all species, however, show a characteristic fold in the wingmembrane—a " false vein " (vena spuria)—the possession of which shows a fly to belong to this family. Many of the flies are striped with yellow and black, more or less resembling wasps and other hymenoptera but they can be distinguished by their Aying straight to their goal whereas Hymenoptera tend to follow a zig-zag path of continous motion much harder to observe. In most species of hover-fly the eyes of the males meet at the top of the head, forming a distinction from the females, whose eyes are separated by a narrow space. As larvae their habits vary remarkably between sub-families, though those of many species are little-known or completely unknown. Larvae ränge from the carnivorous Syrphinae, which eat greenfly and other aphids, to the vegetarians of the Cheilosnnae, which live in plant-tissues. T h e scavengers of the Volucellinae consume the waste in bees' and wasps' nests, while many of the Eristalinae are aquatic and live on organic debris in stagnant water—in fact there seems no basic larval type for the family.
THE DIPTERA OF SĂœFFOLK
Volume V I I I of Verrall's British Flies is detailed and useful on the Syrphidae but the Royal Entomological Society of London have issued a handbook on the Syrphidae by R. L . Coe. Mr. L . Parmenter published a list of the British species through the Entomologist's Gazette in 1954. Most of the records are here taken from the collection of Claude Morley but we have also used our own observations and have drawn on Morley and Atmore's 1915 " Diptera of Norfolk and Suffolk " , Trans. Norf, and Norw. Nat. Soc., Vol. X , pt. I. M S denotes Monks Soham, N F New Forest. An asterisk denotes Suffolcian. Brit. spp. about 234. Subfamily: Genus:
P A R A G U S , Latreille.
Species : *tibialis, Fallen. One of the smallest British hover-flies which is quite common and aphidiphagous. A female at Thorpeness on 13.vi.1958 (George). Timworth (Nurse). Ipswich district (Bennett). Twice in marshes at Bramford 9.viii.l897 and Oulton Broad 20.V.1898. W. Fidley, N F 27.vii.40 and 25.vii.36. Faversham dist. 2.viii.03. Charling, 2.viii.03. Solus at bramble flower Denny Bog, N F , 5.vii.40. Minstead, N F , on 15, 20.vii.25. Pignell, N F , Brick Pit, 26.vi.38. By Formica rufa Stubby, N F , 26,vii.32. King's Lynn July and Aug., lO.v.29 on blackthorn. Framlingham, 5.vi22. S o Suffolk records are sparse. *bicolor, Fab. Supposed to be less frequent than the last. Once on bank of Gipping at Sproughton, 18.viii.1895. Blakenham, 13.vii.23, Blakenham Chalk Pit, 20.viii.29, on Sphondylium at Bricet Parva, 16.viii.29, in a Parham garden, 15 .viii.31, Haiesworth window, 27.V.43, Brandeston, 17.vii.43, on Heracleum flowers M S paddock, 10.vii.43 and several there 26.vii.43. *albifrons, Fall. A doubtful specimen now in poor of preservation in Claude Morley's collection was taken at Ipswich on 18.vii.1895. Coe does not include it as British but Kloet and Hincks do. State
Genus : BACCHA, Fabricius. Species : *elongata, Fab. Frequent enough : the larva is known to hibernate. Not rare Newmarket (Verrall). Bury dist. Aug. (Tuck). Timworth (Nurse). Ipswich (Bennett). Singly at Farnham, T u d d e n h a m Fen, Reydon Marshes and rarely at Heracleum flowers Bentley Woods, June. Letheringham, 6.viii,18, 13.V.21. Bentley Woods, 27.V.1900. Redgrave Fen, 22.V.35. Thorndon, 14.viii.22. M S Garden, 23.V.29. MS fly-trap, 27.vii.16. M S windows, 23, 28.vii.28, 19.V.40. M S , 24.viii.17, 22.V.21, 20.vii.28, 2, 16.viii.28, 6.viii.40. Rhinefield, N F , 6.vi.36, Ryde, ll.viii.02, W. Fidley, N F , 24.vi.32.
THE DIPTERA OF SUFFOLK
*obscuripennis, Meig. Fairly frequently noticed. Ovipositing at M S (cf. E M M 1910, p.192 and 240) in garden, 3.vii.l0 above bullace and among Aphis pruni, Deg. A male at Halesvvorth, 26.V.59 and female 16.vii.59 at Chediston (George). Onehouse Wood on Heracleum, 1.viii.28. Hovering over honeysuckle M S garden, 10.vi.10. M S window, 30.vii.28, 29.vm.10, 6.ix.20, ll.viii.42. M S not rare 1910, 15.viii.25, first seen in 1943 on 3.vii.43 at woundwort fl. in paddock. Tuddenham Fen, 12.vi.1900. Southwold, 28.vii.26. R. Alder Carr, 4.vi.05. Glemsford, 18.vi.24, Horning, 20.vi.35. Epsom, Surrey (S. T . A. Chapman). Ryde, ix.04. N F , 16.viu.01. Genus :
Species : *granditarsa, Forst. Possibly aphidiphagous and more observed towards coast. Aldeburgh (Tuck) and there 28.vni.58 (George). Haiesworth: female 21.v., melanic female 29.v, 5.vi, 2 females 19vi, female town-centre 14.vii, marshes males and' females, 28.vii, male in marshes, 8.viii, all 1959 (George). Timworth, Ampton (Nurse). Felixstowe (Piffard). Usually seen singly at Bramford and Claydon Bridgeasl2.vii.99onangelica Walberswick, Buss Creek, 3.ix.28, Barnby and Easton Broads, Catfield Marsh, Nfk., 18.vi.50, Brandeston, 28.viii.23, Lowestott dist 24.viii.98, Horning, 14, vi.22, Buss Creek, 16.ix.28, Gedney Lines., 18.viii.06, Ryde, 16.viii.03, on myrica gale Boldrewood marsh, N F , 27.vii.19, Otterburn, Hants, 17.vu.29. Beaulieu, 30.vi.30, Louisburgh, 17.vii.10. Tuddenham Fen sometimes on flowers of Mentha hirsuta. *rosarum, Fab. Female at East Bridge, lO.v.59, female Haiesworth, 19.vi.59, male Haiesworth, 12.vm.59 (George). Blythburgh Wood, 6.vi.48, swept 25.V.45, 2 7 . V . 4 5 16.vi.35. Blythburgh workhouse, 31.V.43. Thorndon, 14.vin.25. Ihelnetham Fen Heracleum, l.vii.41. Frequent Tuddenham Fen, 21 vi 09 Heracleum fl. Southwold cliffs July. Matley Bog, N F , 18.vii.25, 4.viii.27, 22.vii.36. Stubby, N F , 2 vm.27. N F 25.vi.38 (H. Haines). N F , 2.viii.01, 14.viii.27. Isle of Wight, 20.vi.07. Louisburgh, 18.vi.10. ClĂ¤re Island, July, 1910. 14.vi.01 (E.N.B.). Genus :
St. Fargeau and Serville.
Species : melanopsis, Loew.
Unrecorded, a Northern species.
*discimanus, Loew. Predaceous on aphids, rarely noticed. Common Ampton April (Nurse) Ipswichd.st. 1906 (Raymond Bennett). Bentley Woods, 20.V.24 Bedfield, 26.viii.21. Denham, 19.viii.40. Swept Heveningham Park, l.ix.44. Oberwater, N F , 23.vii.32. M S Paddock, 16.V.Z9, 10.vii.43, on Heracleum. MS, ll.v.24.
:THE DIPTERA OF SUFFOLK
*manicatus, Meig. Waldringfield, Aldeburgh, Haiesworth, Ramsholt, M a y to J u n e and Aug. to Sept. (George). C o m m o n on Chaerophyllum sylvestre fl. everywhere in Suffolk (Morley). Assington, 21 .v. 1899, Ipswich dist. 12.V.1900, many on Stellaria fl. Framlingham, 25.V.41, Southwold, 12.ix.23, Herringfleet, 16.ix.22, Boston, 6.vi.l2, Skegness, 7.vii.l2, Spalding, 5.vi.l2, Docking, 24.viii.06. tarsalis,
*peltatus, Meig. Leiston, Haiesworth, Yoxford, Westleton, Aldeburgh, H o r n i n g with peak times M a y - J u n e , August (George). Often c o m m o n in J u n e at blackberry flowers as at Bentley Woods, 1897. Swept Belstead, 23.V.1896. Newmarket, T i m w o r t h , Tostock, Ipswich, Assington, D o d n a s h , Henstead, Tuddenham, Harleston. Helpston, 13.vi.08. Lowestoft, 17.viii.1898. Barnby Broad, Wordwell, 27.V.29. T u d d e n h a m Fen, 6.vi. 10, hovering at 7 feet H o x n e Bridge, 20.vi.42. Horning, 14.vi.22. Mablethorpe, 18.vi.12. N F , 19.viii.44, Ryde, ll.viii.02. On heather fl. Settie, N F 17 .vii.36. Louisburgh, 17.vii.10. *scutatus, Meig. T h e species has been bred f r o m rotten fungi. Aldeburgh, Haiesworth, Blythburgh, Yoxford, Westleton, Wenhaston, f r o m 23 to 27 April, 59, and in August (George). Bury, Lowestoft, August (Tuck). Newmarket (Verrall). U n c o m m o n at Ipswich, L a v e n h a m , T u d d e n h a m F e n , Ăś.vi.10, Barham, 30.vii.97, Bentley Woods, 26.vii.97, 12.V.26, 8.vii.46. Butley Ferry, 16.viii,97, 3.V.34. Barnby Broad. T h e l n e t h a m , 23.ix.40. O n ragwort at B a m h a m , 14.viii.39. F a r n h a m , 31.vii.23. W . Fidley, N F , 25.vii.36. *albimanus, Fab. H e n h a m , East Bridge, Haiesworth, Eyke, Leiston, Ramsholt, Blythburgh in early M a y and again in August (George). N e w m a r k e t (Verrall)' Tostock J u n e (Tuck). T i m w o r t h (Nurse). Ipswich (Bennett). Tuddenham Fen rare April and 29.V.24. Foxhall, 10.viii.97. O n blackthorn Bentley Woods, lO.v.29. St. Olaves' S t a t i o n . Shrubland, 23.vii.23. Beaten f r o m sallow Fritton M a r s h , l l . v . 3 9 . G o s field, 14.V.02. Barton Mills, 3.V.23. T h e l n e t h a m , 8.ix.40. M S , 15.V.21 a n d 3 or more hovering 7 ft. f r o m g r o u n d in garden, 9.V.29. Cromer, J u n e 03, Helpston, 13.vi.08, Boston, 6.vi.l2. Brockenhill D i t c h , N F , 5.vi.40. W . Fidley, N . F . , 25.vii.36. Ryde, 17.viii.03.
podagratus, Zett. Unrecorded.
T e n d s to be W e s t e r n and N o r t h e r n :
THE DIPTERA OF SUFFOLK
*immarginatus, Zett. Orford (King). Female at Felixstowe, 18.V.02 (Bennett). Ipswich, 1893 and 18.vii.95. On blackthorn Bentley Woods, lO.v.29. Shrubland, 13.viii.23. Martlesham, 3.viii.23. Oulton Broad, 18.V.05 and 19-21.V.1898. M S Paddock, 16.iv.29. M S Lanes, 5.V.43 and 21.vii.43. *scambus, Staeg. Rare. Aldeburgh July, 1894 (Verrall). Timworth and Ampton (Nurse). Ipswich district (Bennett). stiticus, Steag.
*fulviventris, Macq. Local in marshes (Coe). Horning 7.vi.59 and Westleton, lO.v.59 (George). Pair at Timworth and W. Stow (Nurse). Not uncommonly swept in the Brandon marshes, 7. 8.vi.03 and female on umbels in Bramford marshes, ll.vi.97. Frostenden, 4.ix.28. East Cliff, 26.vii.24 Horning, 14.vi.22 and on umbel, 8.vi.31. Feibrigg, 30.viii.03. NF, 22.vii.36 and 17.vii.38. perpallidus, Northern species.
*clypeatus, Meig. Common. Framlingham 1945 (Aston). Tostock, Timworth, Foxhall, 30.V.96. Being eaten by female Agrion puella between Walberswick and Southwold, 28.vii.96. Shrubland Park, 27.viii.20. Buss Creek, 3.ix.28. Freckenham, 10.viii.28. Dunwich, 5.viii.23. Lynn, 17.viii.06. Catfield Broad, Nfk., 6.vi.31. Caistor, 17.viii.08. M S Lanes at light 3.viii.45. Widnerpool, Notts., 12.viii.44. Louisburgh, 17.vii. 10. Tralee, 14.vi.13 *angustatus, Zett. Aldeburgh September, 1901 (Tuck). Common Timworth (Nurse). Orford (King). Ipswich dist. (Bennett). Bentley Woods, 15.vi.95 and Butley Ferry, 16.viii. 97. M S lanes, 19.vi.42 and M S fly-trap, 24.vii.17. Brandon staunch May, 1929 and abundant on breck, 13.vii.39. Banchory, ix.1910 (Elliott). Ryde, ll.viii.02. Genus :
Species : *comtus, Harris. Hunstanton, 1901 (Andrews). Taken at Copdock during 1901 by the Reverend J. H . Hocking (Bloomfield). Sudbury garden August, 1940 (Harwood). Male at Norwich, 9.ix.36. Male hovering in shade under beech in Boldre Wood, N F , 2.vii.l940. Female at honeysuckle Dunwich Wood, 28.vi.1947. Coe mentions Lucchese's 1942 Observation of the larvae sucking the larvae of the Eucosmid moth Acroclita naevana, Hb., and Chapman mentioned it in 1905, 6, feeding on certain quasi-gregarious Tortricid larvae.
THE DIPTERA OF SUFFOLK
Speeles • *ambiguum, Fall. Occasionally in Newmarket garden (Verrall). Ampton, Livermere (Nurse). Ipswich garden (Bennett). Buss Creek, 25.lx.28. Heracleum fl. Fiatford 16.vm.28. Staverton Thicks, 22.viii.18. Icklingham, 28.V.29' 1 uddenham Fen, 20.V.04. Caistor, 17.vii.08. Ryde 17 viii 03 19 vL4 oF'~ }oMih27' °24.vn.38. Devon, ix.43.
*scalare, Fab. Commoner than mellinum ; it often stays on the Heracleum long after dark. Stowmarket male and female 1946 (Aston). At light at Benacre Broad 8 p m 23.ix.37. Bentley Woods, 9.viii.99, 23.V.31. Barking, 30.VÜ.' 97. Brandeston, 2.viii.45. M S Paddock, 23.viii.20 M S flyofP-' 16.viii.17. Blythburgh Wood, 16.ix.31. Southwold Clin Heracleum, 21.vii.03. Lowestoftdist.,21.viii.98. Cromer Sheringham Aug. 03. Brandon Staunch May 1929 Mkt' Rasen ll.vi.12. Banchory, ix.1910 (Elliott). Grovely, Wilts 27.vi. 11. Denny Wood, N F , 29.vii. 19. Isle of Wight, 27.vi 07' Devon, ix.43. Dalkey Dublin, 2.vii.l3. * mellinum, L. Will eat aphids and Tortrix larvae (Chapman). Coe mentions Giard's discovery of larvae on umbels where they sucked and attacked adults of Musca domestica, L. Tostock, Timworth, Newmarket, Ipswich dist 10 vn.99, Monk Park Wood, Oulton Broad, abundant on hawt'horn flowers. M S window, 24.viii.29. M S Paddock, 12.viii.46 M S lanes at light, 3.viii.45. Ipswich dist. at Bramford, 2.V.98. Blythburgh Wood, 24.ix.28. Frostenden, 4.ix.28. Letheringham o^'^'nö Brandon Staunch, 31.V.24. Oulton Broad, 19Dishforth, Felbngg, Cromer, 30,viii.03. Lynn salts, 19.vi.40. Docking, 24.viii.06. Leanlands, Lines, 18.viii.06. York. Louisburgh, 15, 17.vii.1910. *var. dubium, Verrall. Said to be found at Ipswich and V/r" ^ , ° a d L b u t 18 c h a r a cteristically arboreo-montane form. Vir. Mor ey has speeimens under this from Oulton Broad, Winston, 14.viii.18. ButleyFerry, 16.viii.97. Candlet 17.vn.23. Icklingham, 28.V.29. Ringstead, 23.viii.06. Mable8 . - ^ - 1 2 \ J o r k - Brandon Staunch v.29. MS, 11.viii. 23, 28.vn.28. N F , 16.viii, 27, 23. vii.32. Genus :
St. Fargeau and Serville.
Species : loewii, Zett, Unrecorded.
Rare on South Coast.
*rueppellii, Wied. Common on asparagus in Newmarket garden, July (Verrall). Mr. Morley considered it overlooked with us. Martlesham, 8.viii.23. Letheringham 4v40
THE DIPTERA OF SUFFOLK
Eriswell, 9.viii.28. " H o l m e " , 17.yiii.06. Oberwater, NF, 23.vii.32. N F , 13.viii.01. Abundantat Potentilla in Lyndhurst Fir Wood,: 7.viii.27. NF, 17.vii.40; N F , light, 18.vii.34. var. nitidicollis, Zett.
*scripta, L. Sexually dimorphic. Coe qüotes Scott's 1939 discovery that the larva hibernates. The genus is aphidiphagous and a specimen was bred fröm cabbage at Godalming, Surrey on 27.vii.42 (Latter, Trans. S.N.S.). Mr. Boreham has noted it to be the larval food of Coelocrabro leucostomus, L. Dunwich, 18.ix.48 (George). Aldeburgh, Westleton, Haiesworth, July 1959, (George). Common on ragwort and other flowers Newmarket, Bury, Tostock, Timworth, Foxhall, 30.vii.97, Barham, 7.viii..97, Blakenham, 13.viii.1900, Foxhall, 7.viii.99, Brandon, 24.vii.37, Shrubland, 17.viii,25, M S länes at light, 3.viii.45, at ragwort Sotterley Park, 17.viii.36, Otterburn, Hants, 8.viii.27, Feibrigg, 30.viii.03. Oberwater, N F , 23 .vii. 32 Devon, ix.43. *var. dispar, Lowe. Bury district 1897 (Tuck). Clopton, etc., July. *var. nigricoxa, Zett. var. strigata, Staeg.
Ipswich district (Bennett). None.
*menthrastri, L. Abundant everywhere in summer. On 22.vi.1909 a female hovering gently Over Lachnus pinicolus, Kalt., on a pine twig at Brandon (C.M.). Stowmarket 1946 (Aston). Westleton, 22.V and 30.vii.59. Haiesworth, 28.vii.59 (George). High Field Brandon, 22.vi.09. Nowton, 6.vii.22. M S lanes light, 3.viii.45. Foxhall, 30.V.96. Mkt. Rasen, ll.vi.12. Peterborough, 14.vi.08. Oberwater, N F , 23.vii.32. N F , Heracleum, 12.vii.30. Wales, 19.vi.39. Louisburgh, 13.vii. 1910. *var. picta, Meig.
Lowestoft, August (Tuck).
*var. taeniata, Meig.
var. dubia, Zett. Genus :
Species : conopseus, Fab. Unrecorded and rare, approaching as close as Essex. Mr. Morley possessed an Indian species of the genus Doros from Calcutta. It was ex coli. Collings Oct. 46 and taken by Atkinson. (To be continued.)