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Pleurobrachia pilens (O. F. Muller). DĂźring the past 15 months Pleurobrachia pilens has been taken in small numbers at all seasons in the large tidal lagoon at Shingle Street. The animal is carnivorous and at Shingle Street the chief food appears to be Praunus flexuosus an opossum shrimp occurring in larger numbers there. This crustacean has been found in the enteron of Pleurobrachia on a number of occasions. Orchestia bottae Milne Edwards. On August 2nd, 1958, several sand hoppers (resembling freshwater shrimps) were found amongst damp stones and soil on the margin of Dedham Mill Pool. These proved to be Orchestia bottae (Crustacea Amphipoda). Sand hoppers are typically maritime, and there is a number of British species occurring in various habitats round our coasts. O. bottae is exceptional in that it is an inland species. It is apparently very local in its distribution and only one of the recorded localities in East Anglia is the River Yare at Brundali, Norfolk. Early in September, 1958, more individuals were found at Dedham, on this occasion under damp moss on the lock gates. Further investigations may prove that this species is widespread on the banks of Suffolk rivers.


F. W.


THE Willows form an important part of our flora and there is hardly a marsh, damp wood, river bank, stream, pond, flooded quarry or waste place where they do not occur. Plantations of various kinds can be seen in all areas. Osiers have been extensively cultivated near Stowmarket and other towns for very many years. However, many of the beds are now much overgrown and neglected since there has been a decline in the demand for baskets and other articles which were formerly made locally in considerable numbers.



Over a hundred years ago more than one hundred and sixty different species were described as growing in this Country. It was not understood at that time, nor in fact until quite recent years, the ease with which the species hybridize. The introduction of foreign species and varieties has added to the bewilderment of botanists attempting their study. Male and female catkins occur on different trees or bushes, usually early in the year before the leaves develop, so that it is necessary when in doubt to pay later visits to the same specimens to collect fully developed leaves and stipules. I think that there is, in fact, only a relatively small number of native species. It is very difficult sometimes to feel certain that an example of a species is really " pure ". A very large number I have examined when found growing " wild ", that is, selfsown, show hybrid influence, although in many cases only slight. It is necessary to form a clear picture of a species, getting "one's eye in " and deciding the probable parents of any doubtful or hybrid specimens. Sometimes three species may be involved. A number of such ternary hybrids have been described, but I have never feit certain of being able to recognise them, although no doubt they do occur in Suffolk. In this list of the Suffolk wilows I have attempted to simplify, and reduce to a possible minimum, the unwieldly number of species and varieties of some Floras. I hope that other botanists will follow-up this brief article and not be afraid to tackle what atfirstseems a difficult genus. It is realised that further research will result in some alterations and additions. Nofloracan ever be termed complete or final. It is difficult to obtain a good illustratedfloraon willows. The majority of species and varieties are excellentlyfiguredby Sowerby in " English Botany ". However, this work, based partlyon " The English Flora ", 1828, by Sir J. E. Smith, describes as species or varieties several which undoubtedly must now be accepted as hybrids. Hind's " Flora of Suffolk ", 1889, does not mention a single hybrid, but a large number of forms, and some species which may be associated with recognisable hybrids, if we are to accept the old identifications. We cannot do so in many cases and Hind's own records or herbarium specimens have been queried, and some are obviously incorrect. I have tried to assess the authenticity of the old records as far as is possible, in compiling this list. Only increasedfieldand other work can prove or disprove some of the doubtful records and add to our limited knowledge of this genus.





S. pentandra L. Bay-leaved or Sweet-bay Willow. A small tree or shrub with attractive glossy and fragrant leaves. Native. Rare or local. Barton Mills, Mildenhall and Waveney Valley, near Bungay. S. alba L. White Willow. Common and very frequently planted. Probably native. S. alba X fragilis=S. X rubens Schrank. (S. alba var. caerulea (Sm.) Sm.) Cricket-bat Willow. A frequently planted and quick growing hybrid. S. alba var. vitellina (L.) Stokes. Golden Willow. An ornamental variety. Sterns bright and shining. May possibly be a hybrid. S. babylonica L. Weeping Willow. monly planted.

Native of China.


S. fragilis L. Crack Willow. Native. Formerly much planted beside rivers and streams. This is the species which is usually pollarded, and old specimens form a prominent feature of our landscape, especially the river Valleys. There are several distinct varieties. S. decipiens Hoffm (White Welsh or Varnished Willow) and S. russelliana Sm. (Bedford Willow) are both recorded for Suffolk. 5. triandra L. Almond-leaved Willow or Long-leaved Triandrous Willow. A shrub or small tree. Native. Frequently planted in carrs, by rivers and streams and grown as an osier and pollarded. Leaves variable in shape. The bark tends to peel-off. Several varieties have been recorded. S. hoffmatiniana Sm. ; 5. undulata Ehrh (which may be the hydrid S. triandra X viminalis—S. X mollissima Ehrh) and S. amygdalina Sm., are recorded. 5. purpurea L. Purple Willow. A shrub or small tree. Native. Frequent or local. Marshes, stream and pondsides. Common in the Little Ouse Valley. Bark very bitter. Leaves very variable. S. purpurea X viminalis=S X rubra Huds. has been recorded and other hybrids with this species no doubt occur. 5. viminalis L. Common Osier or Withy. Native or introduced. Extensively planted, although many of the older plantations are now neglected. Those near Stowmarket, at Finborough, Haughley and Onehouse show several variations. There are more female trees than male. Some forms may possibly be




hybrid strains. A few self-sown hybrids occur here and there in the beds and these are probably S. fragilis x viminalis, S. cinerea X viminalis and S. caprea X viminalis. S. viminalis X "<=S. x stipularis Sm. (S. x smithiana Willd) or possibly S. cinerea X viminalis is recorded, but all records require checking. caprea L. Goat Willow, Great Sallow, Pussy Willow or " P a l m " . Frequent. A native of damp woods and marshes. I have noticed that true S. caprea is not as common as one supposes. Much of what is passed as " caprea " certainly shows hybrid origin. The catkins of this species appear very early in spring. The male catkins are very large and showy and are early surrounded by very prominent glossy brown scales. The male catkins of this species are almost over and withered before the catkins of other species have hardly appeared. The flowering of the hybrids overlap. S. caprea X cinerea is a very common and most variable hybrid and occurs all over the County in many habitats. 5 . cinerea L. Common or Grey Sallow. Native. Usually a shrub. Frequent in damp woods, swamps and wet places. A very common species of some of our boulder-clay woods. The catkins are usually late in appearing, and in some localities and seasons do not expand before the middle of April or even early May. S. atrocinerea Brot. I have never understood this Salix and believe that what passes for it may be only a variety of S. cinerea or possibly a hybrid. S. cinerea Xpurpurea.

At Mickfield and Bradfield St. George.

S. aurita L. Round-eared Sallow. Native. A small tree or shrub. Not very common. Marshes and woods. Bures, Barking, Burgate, Gosbeck, Felsham, Hesset, Fritton, etc. It is difficult to find specimens which do not show some hybridisation. S. aurita X cinerea. At Mickfield. S. aurita X caprea : this hybrid appears to be fairly widespread, especially in damp woods and thickets on the boulder clay. S. calodendron Wimm. (S. acuminata Auct.) Black Willow. Introduced. Recorded in Hind's Flora for Hopton and Worlingham. Female trees only. Perhaps this is really a hybrid. S.

repens L. Creeping Willow. Native. On wet heaths. Not very common. Variable in habit and seldom appears to be true " repens " . Some of the more ascending forms are probably hybrids with S. caprea, S. cinerea or S. aurita as parents. Found at Cavenham, Flempton, Hinderclay, Redgrave and Tuddenham West Suffolk and Badley (probably hybrid S. cinerea X repens), Beiton, Fritton and Sudbourne in East Suffolk.

Suffolk Willows  
Suffolk Willows