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Painted Ladies were quite common around Aldeburgh and Thorpeness after this, and Red Admirals (Vanessa atalanta, L.) also. On August 17th, I pursued a Clouded Yellow (Colias croceus, Fourcroy) across East Bridge marshes, tili it crossed the Minsmere river, and another was seen at Aldeburgh that day. At Sotterley, on the same day, while watching a Purple Hairstreak (Thecla quercus, L.) on a tree branch, I saw a Comma (Polygonia c-album, L.) which, though not so common in the last few years, still stays with us. I did not search for White Admirals (Limenitis Camilla, L.) or High Brown Fritillaries (Argynnis cydippe, L.) this year at Blythburgh, but am told that one White Admiral was seen there, but no Fritillaries, a repetition of my experience there in 1957. In 1956, I saw male Fritillaries only ; let us hope the colony survives.

A REVIEW OF BRITISH by

BARON DE WORMS,

M.A.,

LEPIDOPTERA

PH.D.,

F.R.E.S., F.L.S.

THE early months of 1958 were on the whole average for the winter period, with the result that most of the lepidoptera were on the wing at their normal dates. T h e first butterflies of the year, the Small White (Pieris rapae Linn.) and the Orange-tip (Anthocharis cardamines Linn.) were fully out by the middle of April, but a cool spell in early May prevented the appearance of the Pearl-bordered Fritillary (Clossiana euphrosyne Linn.) tili well into the latter half of that month. DĂźring the first fortnight, of May, however, there was quite an immigration of the Bordered Straw (Heliothis peltigera Schiff.) along the south coast which also was the scene of several records of the Striped Hawkmoth (Celerio livornica, Esp.) some of which penetrated to the Home Counties Quite a number of the Painted Lady (Pyrameis cardui Linn.) also appeared in the South about this time. " On the 8th of the month


A REVIEW OF BRITISH

LEPIDOPTERA

151

a Noctuid moth new to Britain was taken near Falmouth. It was Perigea conducta Bdv., a species very prevalent in tropical Africa. In spite of a very fickle and wet June, most of the spring butterflies were in average numbers. But those collectors who ran mercury vapour lights and traps regularly found that moths generally were well below normal quantity and this feature persisted throughout the entire season, though a few nights in July produced as many as 80 to 90 species of the macrolepidoptera. At this period the Heart Moth (Dicycla oo Linn.) was more numerous than usual both in Surrey and in Middlesex, while the very elusive little Triangle (Heterogenea asella Schiff.) appeared in some numbers in the Chiltern beech woods. T h e Purple Emperor (Apatura iris Linn.) was well up to normal date of emergence and numbers as was also the White Admiral (Limenitis Camilla Linn.). But many of the commoner butterflies such as the Ringlet (Aphantopus hyperanthus Linn.), the Gate-keeper (Maniola tithonus Linn.) and even the Meadow Brown (Maniola jurtina Linn.) seemed to be much scarcer than usual. August provided several warm spells and this part of the year once more produced some of the more interesting migrant species, though the more frequent ones such as the Clouded Yellow (Colias croceus Fourc.) were distinctly scarce as were also most of the usual late summer species of the Vanessid butterflies. Except in Northern England, where the Red Admiral (Pyameis atalanta, Linn.) was abundant. Very few of the Convolvulus Hawk (Herse convolvuli Linn.) and the Death's Head (Acherontia atropos Linn.) were reported, but the later months of the year were not entirely without some striking migrants. It turned out to be a remarkable season for the Ni Moth (Plusia ni Hübn.). This insect was taken at Eastbourne in early August and during that month there must have been some twenty records of it in the South and East of England including Suffolk. T h e Scilly Islands as usual provided its quota of rare species which included this Plusia and a specimen of the Small Marbled (Eublemma parva Hübn.), while an example of its near relative, the Purple Marbled (Eublemma ostrina Hübn.) was obtained at Torquay. During August the Chalk-hill Blue(Lysandra coridon Pod.)was in very good quantity in its many downland haunts. September saw yet further migrant moths come to our shores, the chief among which was the fine Silver-striped Hawk (Hippotion celerio Linn.). Quite half a dozen of this grand insect were reported both from the south and also from well into Yorkshire. It is a long time since this species has been noted in anything but single specimens in a season. T h e r e were one of two further Striped Hawks (Celerio livornica Esp.) taken during this month as well as larvae of the Bedstraw Hawk (Celerio galii Rott.) which seems to be breeding regularly in a restricted locality in the Eastern Counties. A single larva of this species was recorded from Scotland. It also


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A REVIEW OF BRITISH LEPIDOPTERA

proved a very good year for the little Vestal Moth (Rhodometra sacraria Linn.) which was reported as quite numerous in the Isle of Wight with many other records from well inland in the Home and Eastern Counties, especially during September. An example of the rare Cosmopolitan Wainscot (Leucania loreyi Dup.) was taken on the Hampshire coast during the first half of this month when several of the White-speck Wainscot (Leucania unipuncta Haworth) again appeared along our south-western seaboard. The autumn did not prove very spectacular, except for the abundance of the Pearly Underwing (Peridroma porphyrea Schiff) and of the Grey Pine Carpet (Thera obeliscata HĂźbn.). Blair's Pinion (Lithophane leautieri Bdv.), formerly known as L. lapidea HĂźbn., reappeared in good numbers, spreading to the Hampshire coast, while early October saw the capture at Torquay of the second British example of the striking American noctuid Plusia biloba Stephens, evidently indicating that some insects do get across the Atlantic most probably by natural means. So ended what was generally regarded on the whole as a very lean and disappointing season with very few outstanding migrant visitors or captures of remarkable aberrational forms.

SOME NON-MARINE MOLLUSCA FROM THE ICENIAN by

D.

C.

LONG

THE Norwich Crag at Sizewell has been known to be fossiliferous for a considerable time ; remains of Cervidae and other mammals from this area are shown in the British Museum (Natural History) and Ipswich Museum, and some of the molluscan material in the Crowfoot collection at Norwich Castle comes from there. During the past four years Mr. H. E. P. Spencer, Mr. P. E. Long and the writer have collected a series of fossils from a small exposure near the Rifle Range. The land and freshwater species enumerated below were found among an assemblage in which gastropods were very prominent (Ptychopotamides, Littorina, Nucella, Melampus, " Paludestrina ") together with Cardium edule, Tellenidae and Mya. A number of microtine remains were also found.

A Review of British Lepidoptera  
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