LEPIDOPTERA OF 1958 by
THE summer of 1958, though generally damp, was warm, with many sunny days and little wind, thus many Lepidoptera were observed. Apart from a Peacock (Nymphalis io L.), Seen crawling in Crag Path, Aldeburgh on Feb. 15th, the first butterfly Observation I have is of a Small Tortoiseshell (Aglais urticae, L.) on March 27th. But this year was not to be particularly early, and very little eise was seen during April other than a single Brimstone (Gotiepteryx rhatnni, L.) on the 15th, and a few more urticae. May, as usual, produced the white butterflies and the Orange Tip (Anthocharis cardamines, L.). Two female Emperor moths Saturnia pavonia. L.) emerged in captivity on the 6th and 9th, and my first Small Heath (Coenonympha pamphilus, L.) was seen on the 25th. On this same day, a very worn Painted Lady (Vanessa cardui, L.) alighted in my garden, which raised my hopes of migrant species arriving this year. June started well with a Green Hairstreak (Callophrys rubi, L.) on the Ist. This, together with two more on the 13th and 15th, ends a long period since 1951, in which I have not seen any. The Ist also saw several Silver Y moths (Plusia gamma, L.) and the 6th a Humming-Bird Hawk-Moth (Macroglossum stellatarum, L.) at Haiesworth, both these last species are evidence of migrations. The Common Blue (Polyommatus icarus, Rott.) was very common the 13th and 15th, in one of our sunny spells, as was also the Wall (Pararge megera, L.), Small Heath, and Small Copper (Lycaena phlaeas, L.) The month ended with our finding newly emerged Meadow Browns (Maniola jurtina, L.) and Large Skippers (Ochlodes venata, Bremer & Grey) at Saxtead on the 29th, which, as usual of those first seen, were all males. During July, I did not see the Ringlet (Aphantopus hyperanthus, L.), but did not search at Blythburgh or Haiesworth where it is always so abundant. I have never seen this butterfly in the Aldeburgh area, but it may occur in some parts of this parish where I have not looked in the correct season. As usual, July produced the Small Skipper (Thymelicus sylvestris, Poda.), Grayling (Eumenis semele, Hubner.) and the Gatekeeper (Maniola tithonus, L.), but was otherwise uneventful. August lOth brought hot sunshine, and at Aldeburgh found many newly emerged Peacocks and a Painted Lady in perfect condition. The Silver Y was becoming very abundant.
Painted Ladies were quite common around Aldeburgh and Thorpeness after this, and Red Admirals (Vanessa atalanta, L.) also. On August 17th, I pursued a Clouded Yellow (Colias croceus, Fourcroy) across East Bridge marshes, tili it crossed the Minsmere river, and another was seen at Aldeburgh that day. At Sotterley, on the same day, while watching a Purple Hairstreak (Thecla quercus, L.) on a tree branch, I saw a Comma (Polygonia c-album, L.) which, though not so common in the last few years, still stays with us. I did not search for White Admirals (Limenitis Camilla, L.) or High Brown Fritillaries (Argynnis cydippe, L.) this year at Blythburgh, but am told that one White Admiral was seen there, but no Fritillaries, a repetition of my experience there in 1957. In 1956, I saw male Fritillaries only ; let us hope the colony survives.
A REVIEW OF BRITISH by
BARON DE WORMS,
THE early months of 1958 were on the whole average for the winter period, with the result that most of the lepidoptera were on the wing at their normal dates. T h e first butterflies of the year, the Small White (Pieris rapae Linn.) and the Orange-tip (Anthocharis cardamines Linn.) were fully out by the middle of April, but a cool spell in early May prevented the appearance of the Pearl-bordered Fritillary (Clossiana euphrosyne Linn.) tili well into the latter half of that month. DĂźring the first fortnight, of May, however, there was quite an immigration of the Bordered Straw (Heliothis peltigera Schiff.) along the south coast which also was the scene of several records of the Striped Hawkmoth (Celerio livornica, Esp.) some of which penetrated to the Home Counties Quite a number of the Painted Lady (Pyrameis cardui Linn.) also appeared in the South about this time. " On the 8th of the month