Page 1

SUFFOLK By

F.

W.

GRASSES SIMPSON

the most important family of flowering plants for their economic value, the Gramineae, is widely neglected by many botanists. A great number of species can be easily identified, while others are certainly difficult and require more critical examination. In recent years some of the confusions which have existed for a long time among genera and species have been resolved. However, much field work remains to be done in order to map more accurately the distribution of many species, varieties and hybrids. The work is made more difficult by the frequent introduction of new strains to agriculture. This article lists the species, several varieties and hybrids which have been found in Suffolk and it is hoped that others, which I have so far been unable to find, will be recognised. PERHAPS

Grasses can be found in practically every type of habitat and one soon gets to know the kinds to expect when searching a particular locality. Some genera contain species which are difficult to determine at sight and frequently a hybrid may confuse a beginner. Among Suffolk grasses we need to know far more about the distribution of a number of probably common and overlooked species. These include Glyceria plicata, G. declinata, Festuca longifolia, Poa cotnpressa, P. angustifolia, Bromus lepidus, B. racemosus, B. commutatus, Agrostis canina, A. gigantea, Phleum bertolonii. There are others which are no doubt far more frequent than my records at present show. Some local species when flowering are very attractive and therefore noticed and identified. T h e acres of the lovely Deschampsia flexuosa (Wavy Hair-grass) on heaths, as at Walberswick, deserve mention. The graceful Milium effusum (Wood Millet) and Melica uniflora (Wood Melick) are a constant delight in shady woods and thickets. There are other grasses equally attractive, and although abundant, not so well known, such as Agrostis tenuis (Common Bent) of heaths, Holcus lanatus (Yorkshire Fog) of waste places and Arrhenatherum elatius (False Oat) which dominates some shingle beaches. Several species, for example, Briza media (Quaking or Totter Grass), of permanent pastures have become less frequent in recent years and are now absent from many areas where old pastures have become arable or are reseeded. The nomenclature and arrangement I have followed is based on " List of British Vascular Plants", J . E. Dandy, British Museum (Natural History) and the Botanical Society of the British Isles, 1958. Space limits the publication of all records.


SUFFOLK GRASSES

73

GRAMINEAE PHRAGMITES COMMUNIS Trin. Common Reed. Swamps P and wet places. Very frequent. C ? T J A V E R I A f E L L ° 1 N f (J- A - & J- H- Schult.) Aschers. & Graebn. Pampas Grass Is frequently planted on waysides and rauway embankments and appears naturalised. CAiERUL?A (L-) Moench. Purple Moor-Grass. S S " 5 ? b ° g S " L " c a l l y a b u n d a n t - E a s t ^ d West Suffolk. Blythburgh, Westleton, Benacre, Beiton, Fritton, Lound Bexley

S

Ä

!

?

e t ^ ^ -

^

S t

-

SJEGLINGIA DECUMBENS (L.) Bernh. Heath Grass. Heaths and old pastures. Generally distributed although never HoufeR "II? PrH°bnablT 0 V e ' l o o k e d R u s h m e r e Common 8 Warren C X / C y D e c °>'> Westleton, Groton, WrtheringU« J ! ? f g sett, Hinderclay, Redgrave, Tuddenham. GLYCERIA FLUITANS (L.) R.Br. Floating Sweet-grass Flöte Grass. Common. Shallow ponds and wet ditches East

G d^Unata

^

^

^

°

^

a t a

and

GLYCERIA PLICATA Fr. Plicate Sweet-Grass. A p p a r e n t l y scarce or overlooked and mistaken for G. fluitans, as it grows in similar habitats. Tuddenham, Wiston, Bexley Decoy. The hybrid G. fluitans x plicata probably occurs in the County. GLYCERIA DECLINATA Shallow ponds and wet mud.

Breb. Glaucous Sweet-Grass. Probably frequent and overlooked

E

P

LeTsatonnS

W

°°dland

°nds-

Barkin

§'

EImsett

> Felsham,'

GrGEYCf™ MAJUMA (Hartm.) Holmberg. Reed Sweet^rass. Banks of rxvers, streams and large ponds. Frequent in all

FESTUCA PRATENSIS Huds. and waysides. Very frequent.

Meadow Fescue.

Pastures rastures

FESTUCA ARUNDINACEA Schreb. Tall Fescue Wet pastures, especially on heavy soils and near the sea. Bawdsey CasTel'Grund^Cgh0^"1011' ^

Bdt0n

>

i n o Z U C Ä A G I G a A N ™ A (L-) Vül. Giant Fescue. Frequent m open woods and thickets, especially on the Boulder Clay


74

SUFFOLK GRASSES

FESTUCA RUBRA L. Red or Creeping Fescue. Frequenton sandy soils, but sometimes mistaken for F. ovina. It is a very variable species. Subsp. rubra is common on coastal sands. Subsp. commutata Gadin. is found on heaths and road verges and where it has been sown as a lawn grass. FESTUCA JUNCIFOLIA St.-Amans. Rush-leaved Fescue. On sand-dunes and near the coast. Local and much resembles Festuca rubra var. arenaria Fries. Felixstowe, Sizewell and probably elsewhere. FESTUCA OVINA L. Sheep's Fescue. Frequent on heaths, dry pastures and waysides. Very variable and a number of subspecies and varieties have been identified but their distnbution is not properly known. FESTUCA TENUIFOLIA Sibth. Fine-leaved Sheep's Fescue. Common on heaths and open plantations in East Suffolk, but not so abundant as formerly. FESTUCA LONGIFOLIA Thuill. Hard Fescue. Probably introduced and now naturalised on road verges, railway banks and parks. Beyton, Little Saxham and Risby. Distribution not known, although it is no doubt frequent. FESTUCA GLAUCA Lam. Blue or Grey Fescue. Probably introduced and cultivated in gardens. F. glauca var. caesia (Sm.) of heaths and sea coast may be native. Landguard Common, Felixstowe, Sudbourne, between Dunwich and Walberswick, Semer. FESTUCA PRATENSIS X LOLIUMPERENNE= X FESTULOLIUM LOLIACEUM (Huds.) P. Fourn. Hybrid Fescue. This hybrid grass is probably frequent and overlooked. Often described as F. loliacea, Huds. In meadows and on roadsides. Records in Hind's Flora may refer to this hybrid. Seen at Hadleigh. Also Pakenham Fen, B.S.B.I Meeting, 1955. Other hybnds between species of Festuca and Lolium may occur. LOLIUM PERENNE L. Perennial Rye-Grass. A very common species. Variable. Numerous selected strains cultivated. LOLIUM MULTIFLOR UM Lam. Italian Rye-grass. Cultivated and waste ground. Alien. Higham, Felixstowe, Bradfield St. George, Wiston and probably frequent elsewhere. The hybrid L. multiflorum X perenne no doubt occurs. LOLIUM TEMULENTUM L. Darnel. Alien. Waste places. Rare. Felixstowe Docks, Blythburgh, Dunwich (var. arvense Lilj.). VULPIA MEMBRANACEA (L.) Dumort. Dune Sandy places near the sea. Very local. Felixstowe.

Fescue.


75

SUFFOLK GRASSES

VULPJA BROMOIDES (L.) Gray. Squirrel-Tail Fescue. Waysides, dry grassy places and heaths. Very frequent. VULPIA MYUROS (L.) C. C. Gmel. Rat's-Tail Fescue. Waste sandy fields and on walls and dry banks. Probably frequent and mistaken for V. bromoides and V. ambigua in West Suffolk. Records for Ipswich, Levington, Newbourne, Boyton, Aldeburgh, Blythburgh and Risby. VULPIA AMBIGUA (Le Gall) A. G. More. Bearded Fescue. A Breckland species, where it is locally abundant. in disturbed soil. PUCCINELLIA MARITIMA (Huds.) Pari. " Sea Poa ". A very frequent salt-marsh grass and of estuaries from the Stour to Lowestoft. PUCCINELLIA DISTANS (L.) Pari. " Reflexed Poa ". Salt marshes and muddy estuaries. Fairly frequent and observed in nearly all coastal parishes between Felixstovve and Lowestoft. Said also to occur inland in West Suffolk on sandy heaths, but I have seen no specimens. T h e hybrid P. maritima X distans was found between Dunwich and Walberswick in 1937. P. pseudodistans (Cred.) Jansen & Wächter may occur in Suffolk. It has been found in Essex. PUCCINELLIA FASCICULATA (Torr.) Bicknell Borrer's Salt-Marsh Grass. Muddy salt-marshes. Rare. Felixstowe, Woodbridge, Dunwich. PUCCINELLIA RUPESTRIS (With.) Fernald & Wetherby. Stiff Salt-Marsh Grass. Salt marshes and muddy estuaries. Rare. Felixstowe, Woodbridge, Aldeburgh, Sudbourne and Orford.

CAT APODIUM RIGIDUM (L.) C. E. Hubbard. Poa rigida L. Hard Poa, Fern Grass. in all areas.

On Sandy banks, walls, etc.

Frequent

CATAPODIUM MARINUM (L.) C. E. Hubbard. Poa loliacea Huds. Stiff Sand-Grass. Sea-shores, on sand and shingle. Generally distributed. Felixstowe, Bawdsey, Hollesley, Boyton, Orford, Sudbourne, Aldeburgh to Southwold, Covehithe, Benacre, Lowestoft. POA ANNUA L. Annual Meadow-Grass. where. Cultivated and waste ground.

Abundant every-

POA BULBOSA L. Bulbous Meadow-Grass. Sandy places near the sea. Very local. Felixstowe. Probably still to be found on Lowestoft Denes and perhaps at Southwold.


76

SUFFOLK

GRASSES

POA NEMORALIS L. Wood Meadow-Grass. Shady hedgebanks and woods. Not uncommon. More frequent in East Suffolk. Bentley, Freston, Tattingstone, Capel St. Mary, Coddenham, Martlesham, Aldeburgh, Stoke-by-Nayland and Thelnetham. POA COMPRESSA L. Flattened Meadow-Grass. Drypastures, waste ground and old walls. Apparently scarce but may be frequently overlooked. Felixstowe, Orford, Aldeburgh, Dunwich, Little Blakenham, Bramford, Bungay. POA PRATENSIS L. Meadow Grass. Found in many habitats, meadows, roadsides, cultivated and waste ground. Very frequent. POA ANGUSTIFOLIA L. Narrow-leaved Recorded for Suffolk ; dry places in Breckland. specimens. May be locally frequent.

Meadow-Grass. I have seen no

POA SUBCAERULEA Sm. Spreading Meadow Grass. Pastures and dunes. Rare or local. Sizewell and probably elsewhere. POA TRIVIALIS L. Rough Meadow Grass. shady places. Very frequent.

Woods and

CAT ABROSA AQUATICA (L.) Beauv. Water Whorl-Grass. Margins of ponds, streams and ditches. Apparently scarce and decreasing. Norton, Hinderclay, Bamham, River Stour at Cornard. DACTYL1S GLOMERATA L. Cocksfoot. Pastures, waysides and waste ground. Very common. Proliferous forms at Hollesley and Stutton, 1958. CYNOSURUS CRISTATUS L. Crested Dog's-tail. Meadows and waysides. Very frequent. CYNOSURUS ECHINATUS L. Rough Dog's-tail. Waste places. Landguard, Felixstowe, Hollesley, 1940.

Alien.

BRIZA MEDIA L. Common Quaking-Grass or Totter Grass. Old meadows and pastures especially on heavy or calcareous soils. Common on many railway embankments. Not so abundant as formerly as this is a grass of permanent pastures. BRIZA MAXIMA L. Large Quaking-Grass. Alien. Frequently cultivated, as it has attractive spikelets. Found on rubbish tips. Felixstowe, Aldeburgh. MELICA UNIFLORA Retz. Wood Melick. In woods and on shady banks. Frequent in East and West Suffolk. I have seen it in nearly fifty parishes.


77

SUFFOLK GRASSES

MELICA NUTANS L. Mountain or Nodding Melick. Recorded for Suffolk but no doubt in error for M. uniflora. M. nutans is of northern and western counties, where I have found it frequent on limestone. BROMUS ERECTUS Huds. Upright Brome. Dry pastures. Rare or very local. Combs. About Newmarket. BROMUS RAMOSUS Huds. Hairy or Wood Brome. Woods, thickets and hedgerows especially on the Boulder Clay. Frequent. BROMUS STERILIS L. Barren Brome. A weed of waste and cultivated land, roadsides and banks. Very frequent on light soils. BROMUS MADRITENSIS L. Compact Brome. Dry sandy places. Perhaps native. Recorded for Suffolk but I have seen no recent specimen. BROMUS TECTORUM L. Drooping Brome. Alien, native of the Mediterranean Region. Naturalised in parts of Breckland especially around Thetford and Elveden. BROMUS DIANDRUS stowe Docks, 1952.

Roth.

Great Brome.

Alien.

Felix-

BROMUS MOLLIS L. Soft Brome or Lop Grass. Meadows, roadsides and fallow fields. Very frequent in all areas. BROMUS THOMINII Hardouin. Roadsides, waste and cultivated ground. Similar to B. mollis but usually with glabrous spikelets. Found in Suffolk. I do not know its present distribution. Noted at Cavenham and Risby. BROMUS LEPIDUS Holmberg. Slender Brome. Cultivated grassland and waste places. Frequent in some sown hay-fields. Distribution not known as it is similar to small forms of B. mollis. BROMUS RACEMOSUS L. Smooth Brome. In damp meadows, cultivated and waste ground. Scarce or overlooked and confused with other species. Hinderclay. BROMUS COMMUTATUS Schrad. Meadow Brome. Damp meadows, grassy places, cultivated and waste ground. Probably scarce or local. Distribution not properly known and confused with other species. Orford. Dunwich. BROMUS ARVEN SIS L. Field Brome. Alien. Waste ground and on rubbish dumps. Rare. Felixstowe Docks. BROMUS SECALINUS L. Rye Brome. Arable and waste land. Rare. Felixstowe Docks. This grass was formerly very common in wheat fields and introduced with seed.


SUFFOLK GRASSES 78 BROMUS LACINIATUS Beal. Alien. Waste places rubbish dumps. Casual. Felixstowe Docks. BROMUS JAPONICUS Thunb. B. patulus M Koch. Alien. Casual. Recorded for Suffolk in Hind's Flora.

BRACHYPODIUM SYLVATICUM (Huds.) Beauv. or Wood False-Brome. Woods, banks and neglected pastures especialy on the Boulder Clay. Very frequent and dominant in many habitats. BRACHYPODIUM PINNATUM (L.) Beauv. Heath Brome or Tor Grass. On chalk and limestone grassland. Recorded for Suffolk. I have seen no specimens. Probably mistaken for previous species. AGROPYRON CANINUM (L.) Beauv. Bearded C Woods, thickets and shady banks. Rare or local on the Boulde Clay, especialy in West Suffolk. Melford, Whepstead, Dalham, Ousden. AGROPYRON REPENS (L.) Beauv. Couch or Tw Cultivated and waste land. Very frequent. Var. aristatum Baumg. at Blythburgh and Felixstowe. AGROPYRON PUNGENS (Pers.) Roem. & Schult. Couch. Salt marshes and sea embankments. Very frequent and locally abundant. AGROPYRON PUNGENS X REPENS. Hy Felixstowe. Minsmere. AGROPYRON JUNCEIFORME (A. & D. Lรถve) A Lรถve. Sand Couch. Sandy sea shore. Frequent. Felixstowe, Bawdsey, Hollesley, Aldeburgh to Walberswick, Covehithe, Benacre, Kessingland, Gorleston. AGROPYRON JUNCEIFORME X REPENS. Felixstowe. Harkstead. AGROPYRON JUNCEIFORME X PUNGENS. Couch. A very variable hybrid with forms erect and tall similar to A. pungens or low and spreading resembling A. junce Local. Felixstowe, Bawdsey, Sizewell, Dunwich. ELYMUS ARENARIUS L. Lyme Grass. Sea-shore. F quent. Aldeburgh, Thorpeness, Sizewell, Dunwich, Walberswick, Southwold, Lowestoft, Gorleston. Formerly at Slaughden; destroyed through erosion.


SUFFOLK

GRASSES

79

HORDEUM SECALINUM Schreb. Meadow Barley. Meadows, pastures and drier parts of salt-marshes. Very frequent along the coast. Becoming scarce or local inland. HORDEUM MURINUM L. Wall Barley. Waste ground and waysides especially about towns and villages. Very frequent or abundant in East Suffolk, generally distributed in West Suffolk. HORDF.UM near the sea.

MAR1NUM Iluds. Sea Barley. On bare ground Rare and decreasing. Felixstowe to Bawdsey.

HORDELYMUS EUROPAEUS (L.)' Harz. Wood Barley. Woods or copses on chalk or chalky-boulder clay. Very rare. Witnesham. I discovered this attractive grass in a small thicket in 1936 and observed it until 1940. Not seen since as conditions of the habitat were changed through cutting of trees. KOELERIA CRISTATA (L.) Pers. Crested Hair-Grass. Open sandy or chalky heaths and the sea coast. Very frequent in Breckland. Butley, Eyke, Sudbourne and Orford. TRISETUM FLAVESCENS (L.) Beauv. Yellow Oat-Grass. In old meadows and pastures and dry grassy places. Frequent in all areas. AVENA FATUA L. Spring or Common Wild Oat. A frequent weed of cultivated and waste places, sometimes abundant among cereal crops. Introduced. A variable species. Avena ludoviciana Durieu—Winter Wild Oat. Probably occurs and has been overlooked. T h i s species was introduced from France d u n n g the 1914-18 war and is very common in the Midlands, and other areas in the South. AVENA STRIGOSA Schreb. Bristie, Small or Black Oat. Casual. Waste places and cultivated ground. Felixstowe Docks. Ipswich. Naughton. This species is cultivated in many areas of Wales, Scotland and Ireland where the Common Oat, Avena sativa L. cannot be grown. HEL1CTOTRICHON PRATENSE (L.) Pilg. Meadow OatGrass. Chalky heaths, waysides and old quarries. Frequent in Breckland where it occurs in nearly every parish, also Newmarket. Melford, Bramford and Little Blakenham. HELICTOTRICHON PUBESCENS (Huds.) Pilg. Downy or Hairy Oat-Grass. Chalky heaths and waysides. Frequent in Breckland but not so common as H. pratense. ARRHENATHERUM ELATIUS (L.) Beauv. ex J. & C. Presl. J-alse Oat-Grass. Pastures, roadsides, waste places, shingle beaches. Very common.


80

SUFFOLK

GRASSES

HOLCUS LANATUS L. Yorkshire Fog or Meadow Softgrass. Open woods, heaths and fallow fields, especially on light soils. Abundant. HOLCUS MOLLIS L. Creeping Soft-grass. Open woods, heaths and shady banks on light acid soils. Very frequent. DESCHAMPSIA CAESPITOSA (L.) Beauv. Tufted HairGrass. Wet pastures, marshes and woods. Very common on the Boulder Clay. DESCHAMPSIA FLEXUOSA (L.) Trin. Wavy Hair-Grass. Heaths and banks. Local and sometimes abundant. Rushmere Common, Purdis Farm, Bromeswell, Chillesford, Blythburgh, Walberswick, Westleton, between Polstead and Stoke-by-Nayland. AIRA PRAECOX L. Early Hair-Grass. Sandy places, banks and walls. Frequent in all areas. AIRA CARYOPHYLLEA L. Silvery Hair-Grass. Heaths and dry grassy places and banks. Very frequent in Breckland. More local in East Suffolk. Newbourne, Boyton, Hollesley, Tunstall, Sudbourne, about Aldeburgh and Thorpeness, Covehithe. CORYNEPHORUS CANESCENS (L.) Beauv. Grey HairGrass. Sandy beaches. Local at Benacre, where it was formerly abundant. Recorded for Breckland at Lakenham, Wangford and Lackford, but I have seen no specimens from the area. AMMOPHILA ARENARIA Sand-dunes and sandy seashore.

(L.) Link. Marram Grass. Locally abundant and dominant.

AMMOPHILA ARENARIA xCALAMAGROSTISEPIGEJOS = X AMMOCALAMAGROSTIS BALTICA (Schrad.) P. Foürn. Hybrid Marram. Sand-dunes. Rare. Sizewell, Walberswick (planted), south of Gorleston. CALAMAGROSTIS EPIGEJOS (L.) Roth. Wood Small Reed. In damp woods and thickets on the Boulder Clay. Not uncommon. Fakenham, Great Saxham, Hepworth, Lavenham, Raydon, Burgate, Ringshall, Naughton. CALAMAGROSTIS CANESCENS (Weber) Roth. Purple Small-Reed. In damp woods and marshes. Scarce. Fakenham, Great Saxham, Felsham, Redgrave. AGROSTIS CANINA L. Brown Bent. On acid heaths and marshes. Apparently scarce or much overlooked. There are two distinct subspecies A. canina subsp. montans (Hartm. found on heaths and mountains and A. canina L. subsp. canina (Velvet Bent) of wet places. I do not know the distribution of the Suffolk forms. Brandon, Tuddenham, Redgrave, Snape, Westleton.


SUFFOLK

GRASSES

81

AGROSTIS TENUIS Sibth. Common Bent. Heaths, pastures and waste ground. Very frequent or abundant. AGROSTIS GIGANTEA Roth. Black Bent. Rough grassland, waysides, open woods, waste ground and a weed of gardens. Probably very frequent and confused with other species. Bury, Ipswich, Felixstowe, Bawdsey, Alderton, Hollesley, Leiston, Southwold, Lowestoft, Dunwich. AGROSTIS STOLONIFERA L. Creeping Bent. Salt marshes, damp grasslands, waste and cultivated ground. Very frequent in all areas. APERA SPICA-VENTI (L.) Beauv. Loose Silky-Bent. Sandy fields and waste places. Very frequent in Breckland. Local in East Suffolk. Felixstowe, Trimley, Tunstall, Covehithe. APERA INTERRUPTA (L.) Beauv. Dense Silky-Bent. Dry sandy fields, roadsides and sandpits. Very frequent in Breckland. I have not found it in East Suffolk although it has been recorded for a few parishes. MIBORA MINIMA (L.) Desv. Early Sand-Grass. Alien. Native of Europe and N.W. Africa. A weed in Messrs. Notcutt's Nursery, Woodbridge, where it was probably introduced on the roots of plants. GASTRIDIUM VENTRICOSUM (Gouan) Schinz & Thell. Nit Grass. A weed of arable land, light or heavy soils. Very local or rare. Polstead and Felixstowe, not seen in these parishes recently. PHLEUM BERTOLONII DC. (P. nodosum auct.). Small Cat'stail. Old pastures and grassy places. Frequent. Sometimes regarded as a small variety of Phleum pratense L. and therefore overlooked. PHLEUM PRATENSE L. Timothy Grass or Cat's-tail. Meadows, waysides and waste places. Frequently grown for hay. Very common. PHLEUM PHLEOIDES (L.) Karst. Purple-stem Cat's-tail. Dry chalky banks and waysides in Breckland where it is frequently abundant. Brandon, Barton Mills, Eriswell, Freckenham, Hermgswell, Icklingham, Mildenhall, Lakenheath, Santon Downham, Wordwell. PHLEUM ARENARIUM L. Sand Cat's-tail. Dry sandy places in Breckland and on the sea-shore. Frequent in all suitable areas. ALOPECURUS MYOSUROIDES Huds. Slender Fox-tail or Black Twitch. A weed in cultivated land and waste ground especially on the Boulder Clay where it is often abundant. Less frequent and rare on light soils.


82

SUFFOLK GRASSES

ALOPECURUS PRATENSIS L. Meadow or Common tail. Damp meadows and waysides. Very frequent. ALOPECURUS GENICULATUS L. Marsh or F Fox-tail. Margins of shallow ponds, ditches and streams, also damp meadows. Frequent in all areas. ALOPECURUS AEQUALIS Sobol (A. fulvus Sm. Fox-tail. In similar habitats to A. geniculatus. Very local o overlooked. Anthers bright orange or golden-yellow. This grass is usually only an annual or biennial. Tuddenham, W. Suffolk. Sudbourne. ALOPECURUS BULBOSUS Gouan. Tuberous or Bu Fox-tail. Salt-marshes and brackish pastures. Rare or overlooked. Dunwich and Martlesham. Formerly abundant at Beiton and Burgh Castle (Hind's Flora). MILIUM EFFUSUM L. Wood Millet. An attractive gra of shady woods and copses, very common on the Chalky Boulder Clay. Formerly grown in woods for pheasants. ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM L. Sweet Vernal-G Old grasslands, meadows, open sandy woods, heaths and waysides. Very frequent. ANTHOXANTHUM PUELII Lecoq & Lamotte. Annu Vernal-grass. Sandyfieldsand waste places. Now rare or casual. Recorded for W. Suffolk. I have no recent records. PHALARIS ARUNDINACEA L. Reed-grass. Strea river banks and wet meadows. Frequent in all areas. PHALARIS CANARIENSIS L. Canary Grass. Freque cultivated as food for cage-birds. Found on waste land and rubbish tips. Ipswich, Felixstowe, Leiston, Lowestoft. PHALARIS MINOR Retz. Alien. Mediterranean region an W. Asia. Casual. Rubbish tips. Felixstowe Docks in 1936. PHALARIS PARADOXA L. Alien. Mediterranean regio Casual. Felixstowe Docks, 1936. (var. praemorsa Coss & Dur.) PARAPHOLIS STRIGOSA (Dum.) C. E. Hubbard. Hard-grass. Near the sea along the margins of saltings and in damp hollows. Frequent in all suitable areas but often overlooked. PARAPHOLIS INCURVA (L.) C. E. Hubbard. Curved Hard-grass. Found in drier habitats than P. strigosa. Felixstowe, Alderton, Hollesley, Orford, Sudbourne, Dunwich, Walberswick and probably elsewhere. NARDUS STRICTA L. Mat-grass. On old heaths. Rare local and decreasing. Blythburgh, Dunwich, Fritton, Snape, Westleton. Rare in Breckland due to afforestation. Tuddenham.


SUFFOLK

GRASSES

83

SPARTINA MARITIMA (Curt.) Fernald. Cord Grass. Salt marshes, estuaries. Formerly frequent in the south-east, now rarer. Stour valley, Stutton, Holbrook, Harkstead and Ewarton. Orwell estuary, Trimley and Felixstowe. Deben estuary at Felixstowe Ferry and Bawdsey. Still common between Hollesley and Aldeburgh, R. Ore and Aide marshes. SPARTINA ALTERNIFLORA x MARITIMA xS. X TOWNSENDII H. & J. Groves. Townsend's Cord Grass. Rice Grass. A fertile hybrid. Introduced into the Stour estuary at Seafield Bay and at Blythburgh about thirty years ago to reclaim mudflats. Now plentiful in all estuaries and "changing the aspect of our foreshores and frequently the old established flora. ECHINOCHLOA CRUS-GALLI (L.) Beauv. Cockspur Grass. Alien. Frequently imported with foreign seed. On rubbish tips and waste places. Felixstowe Docks, Ipswich. Tannery, Combs (E. Q. Bitton, 1958-9). Also occurred as a weed in carrot crops during World War II and was reported as frequent. The seed was imported from N. America. DIGITARIA ISCHAEMUM (Schreb.) Muhl. Smooth Finger Grass. Red Millet. Alien. Sandy fields and waste places. Annual. Recorded for Suffolk but I have no recent records, although I have no doubt that it occurs in a few places, perhaps in Breckland around Brandon. DIGITARIA SANGUINALIS (L.) Scop. Hair Finger Grass. Crab Grass. Alien. Weed of cultivated and waste land, and rubbish dumps. Recorded for Suffolk but I have no recent records. SETARIA VIRIDIS (L.) Beauv. Green Bristie Grass. Alien. A rare weed of cultivated and waste land. Recorded for several parishes in Hind's Flora, but I have seen no recent specimens although it probably still occurs in some areas. SETARIA LUTESCENS (Weigel) Hubbard (S. glauca auct). Yellow or Glaucous Bristie Grass. Rare alien of cultivated and waste land. In a garden Nelson Road, Ipswich, first observed 1951 and still there 1958. Annual species. The following species and hybrids not mentioned in the above list may occur in the County and have been overlooked. Festuca heterophylla Lam. Various-leaved Fescue. Introduced into the British Isles in the 19th Century and naturalised in woodlands. Festuca giganteaxF. pratensis. Wood margins. Vulpia megaluria (Nutt.) Rydb. Fox-tail Fescue. N. American alien. Weed of cultivated land. This species has been found in Norfolk. Puccinellia maritima xP. rupestris.

Salt marshes.


84

SUFFOLK GRASSES

Poa palustris L. Swamp Meadow Grass. Introduced in the 19th Century.

Poa chaixii Vill. Broad-leaved Meadow Grass. Introduced and sown in woodlands in the 19th Century, and naturalised in a few localities in England. Bromus inermis Leyss. Awnless or Hungarian Brome. Form cultivated. Alien and may still exist in Breckland on sandy fields Found in Norfolk. Bromus ititerruptus (Hack.) Druce. Interrupted Brome. Alie of arable and waste land. Formerly frequent infieldsof sainfoin and clover. Deschampsia setacea (Huds.) Hack. Bog Hair-Grass. heaths. Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf. Annual Beard Gra marshes. In 1936, I believe I saw the hybrid Agrostis stolonif P. monspeliensis beside a brackish ditch near the railway b Felixstowe Beach and Pier Stations, but unable to collect any specimens, and not seen since. Alopecurus geniculatusxA. pratensis=A.xhybrid Probably occurs in a number of places. Wet meadows and pond margins.

ADDITIONS. PHALARIS PARADOXA L. Alien. Casual. Lowestoft, 1 (Trans. S.N.S. Vol. VIII Pt. III p. 146). LAGURUSOVATUSL. Hare's-Tail. Casual. Rubbish dum Oulton, 1899. A very attractive grass frequently grown in gardens. (Trans. S.N.S. Vol. VIII, Pt. III, p.146.) ECHINARIA CAPITATA Desf. Alien. Waste places. Oulto Broad. (Trans. S.N.S. Vol. VIII, Pt. III. p.146). The following three grasses, as far as I can trace, are new to to Suffolk Flora. They were found on November 20th, 1958. BROMUS UNIOLOIDES H.B.K. " Rescue Grass ". A Native of N. and S. America. Waste heap at the Tannery, Combs Identified by Dr. J. G. Dony. CYNODON DACTYLON (L.) Pers. Bermuda Grass. Ca Introduced into the British Isles and now established in a few localities in the S.W. and the Channel Isles. On waste heap at The Tannery, Combs. PANICUM MILIACEUM L. Common Millet or Brown-Co Millet. Casual. Waste places. Roughfieldat Combs Ford.

Suffolk Grasses  
Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you