THE DIPTERA OF
(Continued from Vol. X, Pt. III, page 229) FAMILY
B I G - H E A D E D F L I E S OR FROGHOPPER-PARASITES B y ALASDAIR
OF these unobtrusive insects Verrall wrote in Volume V I I I of his " British Flies " , " the Syrphidae may be the grandest, but the Pipunculidae are the most exquisite hoverers in the Diptera, as they can hover easily in a folded net, between the folds, without touching the network." They are small, thinly-haired and dark, with enormous globular heads mostly composed of their Compound eyes ; their heads are amazingly mobile. The larvae are internal parasites of Bugs (Hemiptera) of the sub-order Homoptera. When fully developed the parasitic larva occupies most of the host's abdomen and faces towards the head. For further details of their life-history consult Perkins, F. H. " Leaf-hoppers and their Natural Enemies"â€”Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Assocn. Div. Ent. Bulletin, Vol. 1, pt. 4. pp. 123-57, 1905. For a relationship with Froghoppers one can read Jenkinson, F. H. "Verrallia aucta and its h o s t " E . M . M . Vol. 39, pp. 222-3, 1903. The British species can be investigated with the help of Verrall's British Flies, Vol. V I I I and of Lundbeck's Diptera Danica, Vol. VI. There has of late been a movement to reorgan ise the Classification of the old genus Pipunculus, giving some groups the status of genera. Three useful papers have been written by Mr. Collin : 1 " T h e British Species of the sylvaticus group of Pipunculus (Diptera) " Ent. Mon. Vol. 56, pp. 270-6, 1920. 2. " The British Species of the genus Verrallia ( D i p t e r a ) " E . M . M . , Vol. 67, pp 234-6 1931. 3. " T h e British Species of the rufipes group of Pipunculus (Diptera) " E . M . M . , Vol. 73, pp. 209-18, 1937. Theodore Becker in 1897 and 1900 wrote, " Dipterologische Studien 5, Pipunculidae " Berlin ent. Zeitschr. Vols. 42 and 45. Professor Pius Sack has commented on the work of the above Becker and published, 1935, " Pipunculidae (Dorilaidae) in Lindner "â€”Flieg. Palaearkt. Reg., 32 : 1-57, 3 pls. When Dr. Elmo Hardy published in 1943 his revision of the Nearctic Dorilaidae (Pipunculidae) in the Kansas Science Bulletin, 29, pt. 1, he included information from the work published by Dr. Marton Aczel in the Zoologischer Anzeiger, Leipzig, for 1939 and 1940. British entomologists were not acquainted with this,
DIPTERA OF SUFFOLK
owing to one, A. Hitler, non-entomologist. The work of Hardy and Aczel must be modified by the views of Mr. Collin of Newmarket in his 1945, " Notes on some recent work on the Pipunculidae (Diptera) " E.M.M., Vol. 81 : pp. 1-6. This last makes fascinating reading exemplifying the working of the Opinions of the International Congress for Entom. Nomenclature : for instance what happens when the description of a genus is too vague to be recognizable. Leaving that, in the following list, except where otherwise stated, records are from the collection of Claude Morley. M S denotes Monks Soham, N F New Forest. An asterick denotes Suffolcian. Brit. spp. over 40. Genus : CHALARUS, Walker ( = A T E L E N E V R A Macquart). Species: *spurius, Fall. Stated by Colyer and Hammond to be a parasite of a leaf-hopper. Not uncommon in Newmarket garden (Verrall). Ampton (Nurse). Orford (King). Rather common about King's Lynn (Atmore). Tuddenham Fen, 5.vi.16. Barton Mills on birch, 7.vi.l6. In M S orchard on sloe, 8.viii.l7. In a spider's web, M S garden, ll.viii.18. MS, 8.vii.23, ll.vii.21, 3.vii.23. On M S windows, 7, 14.viii.28. On polygonum in Bentley Woods, 27.viii.31. Swept from oaks at Brandon, 30.V.38. M S Paddock, 13.V.42. West Leake Hill, Notts, 9.viii.l4. Minstead, NF, 30.vi.36, 8.vi.38. Genus : VERRALLIA, Mik. (=JASSIDOPHAGA, End.). Species : *pilosus, Zett. Bentley Woods, swept from Mercurialis in the shade, 26.V.98. Brockenh., NF, 16.vi.07. Guestling, 1894 (Verrall). Horning, l.vii.24. C M considered it a usually uncommon species, but it was quite in evidence about King's Lynn in 1912, April to June (Atmore). *var. setosus, Verr., was found at Mkt. Rasen, 11.vi. 12, and was swept by C M from birch in Assington Thicks, 16.V.02. *villosus, Von Roser. Ampton (Nurse). Letheringham, 15.viii.18. Shrubland Park, 27.viii.20. NF, 17.vi.07. Dead in sand-pit, N F , 18.vi.34. *auctus, Fall. Colyer and Hammond quote Jenkinson who records it chasing and sitting on frog-hoppers. Suffolk (Verrall). Hoxne, 14.vii.21. Horning, l.vii.24. Sfk., 3.vii. 1895. King's Lynn, not common (Atmore). York, NF, 12.vii.09. Denny, N F , 7.vii.36. Genus : NEPHOCERUS, Zett. Species: *flavicornis, Zett. Two specimens in Mr. Morley's collection labelled M S dining-room window, 9.vii.46 and M S window dusk, 12.vi.44. There may be some error of identification here, however, as Verrall associated the species with the only British Cicada, which is found only in the N F . Genus : PIPUNCULUS, Latr. ( = D O R I L A S , DORYLAS).
DIPTERA OF SUFFOLK
*littoralis, Becker. Swept from marram grass on north denes at Lowestoft, 18.viii.08. Yarmouth, 29th June (Collin). Yarmouth, Martham and Palling (Andrews). Minimus, Becker.—none. cilitarsis, Strobl.—none. *sylvaticus, Meig. Lowestoft in June (Curtis). Newmarket garden, August (Verrall). Glemsford, June, 1900 and in a wood on the Breck at Wangford St. Martin, 12.vi.38. Tuddenham Pen, 30.viii.02, viii.05, 6.viii.l3. MS, 13.viii.22. Helpston, 13.vi.08. Staverton, 7.ix.l6. On bracken in Staverton Thicks, 25.vi.19. Swept in Staverton marshes, 26.vii.28. Southwold, 9.ix.21. Lowestoft, 13.ix.22. Gorleston, 16.vi.22. Wales, 19.vi.39. *geniculatus, Meig. Orford (King.) Livermere, 22.vi.13 (Nurse). Swept Bentley Woods, September, 1897. Tuddenham Fen, August, 1905 and 22.viii.33. Two at King's Lynn, June 1911 and one at Hunstanton, 1909 (Atmore). Ringstead Downs, 23.viii.1906 (Morley). " W.L.P., 19.ix.12 ". " C. Brod., 10.ix.12". Skegness, 7.vi.l2. Mablethorpe, 8.vi.l2. *nigritulus, Zett. Ipswich district, 20.ix.1897, C M . flavitarsis, Collin—none. ? = D O R Y L O M O R P H A , Aczel, 1939. *maculatus, Walker. (=lateralis, Macquart). Not uncommon in marshes of Lark River at Barton Mills as on 12.vi.1900 and in Tuddenham Fen on 19.vi.01. Brandon Staunch 31.V.29. semimaculatus, Beck.—none. *xanthopus, Thomson. Tuddenham Fen, 12.vi.1900 Reydon Alder Carr, 2.vii.l906. MS, 16.viii.25, 25.viii.28 and on windows there 29.viii.28. Isle of Wight, 27.vi.07. Eriswell, 22.viii.33. *haemorrhoidalis, Zett. Ampton and Bamham (Nurse). Wroxham (Verrall). infirmatus, Collin.—none. incognitus, Verr. (=geniculatus auctt. nec Meig.) On cliffs at Swanage, Dorset, 17.vii.30. N F , 4.vii.34. *confusus, Verr. Ampton (Nurse). Orford (King). Swept from reeds in Beccles marshes, 18.viii.1898. Wroxham and Horning (Morley). A few at King's Lynn (Atmore). Chippenham, Cambs, 16.vi.1899. Barton Mills, 18.vi.01. Unlocalised, 15.vi.01. Tuddenham Fen, 29.viii.02. Horning, 14.vi.22. imparatus, Collin.—none. *rufipes, Meig. $ 20.viii.32, M S window. Staverton marsh, 4.vi.31. extricatus, Collin.—none. GROUP T W O .
DIPTERA OF SUFFOLK
GROUP THREE. STANDIMYZA, Duda, 1 9 4 0 = C E P H A L O S P H A E R A , End., 1 9 3 6 = P R O T H E C U S , Rnd., 1 8 5 6 . (Mr. Collin does not consider this to be distinct from PIPUNCULUS). *furcatus, Egger. Timworth (Nurse). CM swept a specimen on the Bank of the Gipping at Ipswich in early July, 1895. Gibbet Moor, 6.vii.35. ? = E U D O R Y L A S , Aczel, 1 9 3 9 . melanostolus, Beck.—none. horridus, Beck.—none. obtusinervis, Zett. King's Lynn, June, 1909, Mr. Collin. A doubtful specimen NF, 17.vi.07. ruralis, Meig.—none. *unicolor, Zett. Newmarket garden and marshy places in Suffolk (Verrall). Foxhall marshes, 13.ix.03. Staverton, 20.viii.17. H. Park(whichP), 4.ix.ll. NF, 26.vii.19. Louth, 19,vi.12. montiutn, Beck.—none. coloratus, Beck.—none. *terminatis, Thomson. Ampton and Brandon (Nurse). King's Lynn, May, June, 1911-13. Grovely, Wilts, 27.vi.ll. MS, l.v.26. M S windows, 25.viii.25. Tuddenham Fen, 10.viii.28. *fuscipes, Zett. Orford (King). Ampton (Nurse). King's Lynn, June, July, 1910-12. zonatus, Zett. Martham, Nfk. (Verrall). King's Lynn, singly, July, 1909 and 1911 (Atmore). NF, 6.vii.09. Minstead, NF, 18.vii.25. Rhinefield, NF, 29.vi.29. Aldrige Hill, NF, 18.vii.30. Stubby, NF, 23.vi.34. *pratorum, Fall. The ruling of Kloet and Hincks is not clear but it seems that this species is a synonym for zonatus, Zett. above ; there is, however, some doubt. A $ in Newmarket garden, 24.vi.1895 (Verrall). Ipswich district (Bennett). King's Lynn, July, 1907, 1909, 1912, 1913, rather common (Atmore). Barnby Broad, 30.vii.1900. Tuddenham Fen, 29.viii.02, 28.V.34, 27.vii.37. Parham Wood, 2.vi.21. Brandon Staunch, v.1929, vi.1921. Horning, 20.vi.25, 15.vi.27, 7.vi.29. Boldre Wood, NF., l.vii.29. M S window, 23.vii.28. M S paddock, 28.V.42. M S drawing-room window, 9 a.m., 6.vii.45. Unlocalised, 9.vii.03. distinctus, Beck.—none. *fascipes, Zett. Bradfield (Nurse). Theberton, midJuly and on oak in Bentley Woods, Barton Mills, 4.vi.l6. Tuddenham Fen, 9.vi.l0. Caister, 2.vi.32. NF, 23.vi.36. Denny Wood, NF, 21.vi.38. Rhinefield, N F , 8.vii.29. *modestus, Hall. Timworth (Nurse). Occasionally at King's Lynn (Atmore). GROUP
DIPTERA OF SUFFOLK GROUP
zugmayeriae, Kow.—none. *thomsoni, Beck. (=carinatus, Verr.). Tuddenham, 12.viii.06. spinipes, Meig. (=tcampestris, Latr.)—none. *varipes, Meig. Tuddenham Fen, September, 1891 (Verrall). Swept Bentley Woods, 23.vi.03. Oulton Broad, 18.V.05. 10.viii.02, Foxhall. Isle of Wight, 27.vi.07. T u d denham, 27.viii.06, 5.vi.l6. Killarney, ll.vi.13. M S house window, 20.V.14. M S lanes, 20.vii.15. MS, 14.vii.23, 26.viii. 29. Swept Bentley Woods on bluebells, 29.V.31. Horning, 20.vi.18. Coltishall, 21.vi.18. Light on Covehithe shore, 23.ix.37. Brandon, 25.viii.38. 1929, N F . NF, 17.vi and 7. vii.32. Swept NF, 8.vii.40. *ater, Meig. (=campestris, Verr., nec Latr.). Newmarket garden (Verrall). Common Timworth (Nurse). Ipswich, 10.ix.97. Tuddenham Fen, August, 05. 14.V.30. East Bridge, Covehithe, l.x.1900. Barnby Borad, Henstead, 12.ix.12. Common at Theberton, 10.vii.1900. Barton Mills fir-wood, 5.vi.l6. Letheringham Park Wood, 5.viii.l8. Bentley Woods, 4.ix.l7, Gipping at Baylham. Staverton, 7.ix.l6. Brandon Staunch, 30.V.29. MS, 10.vii.10 on lime, 30.vii.15. 7.ix.l6 on ash, 28.V.21, 3.V.22. Horning, l.vii.24. Salisbury, 24.vi.ll. Rhinefield, NF, 27.vi.29. Lyndhurst, NF, 12.vii.30. N F , 30.vi.38. GROUP
ultimus, Beck.—none. seminitidus, Beck.—none. *semifumosus, Kow. (=stringulipes, Verr.). Orford (King). Beaten from birch in Tuddenham Fen, 26.ix.1907. Brandon, 22.vi.21. Henny, Essex, 12.viii.21. Horning, 14.vi.22. Eriswell, 9.viii.28. Wangford Wood, 7.ix.28. M S windows, 23.vii.25, 29, 30.viii.28. *strobli, Verr. Orford (King). Matley Bog, N F , 25.vi.40. pulchripes, Thomson.—none. *halteratus, Meig., was known to Verrall as British from a solitary <J taken by him at Tuddenham Fen on July 20th, 1880.
*flavipes, Meig. On heracleum Bedfield, 10.viii.18. Drawing-room window, MS, 19.vi.44. NF, 3.viii.01. vittipes, Zett. Stubby, NF, 23.vii.34. Mr. Morley's collection contains seven unnamed specimens from MS, N F , Thorndon Fen, Heveningham Park, April-June, 1921-1950. Kloet and Hincks (1945) give 50 species, Colyer and Hammond (1951) 40. Here are listed 50, 28 in Suffolk. ALASDAIR ASTON, 23rd September, 1958.