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grow in a great variety of habitats such as damp woods, streamsides, waste places and as a weed in gardens and arable fields. Another Willow herb, a New Zealand species, Epilobium pedunculare, has not yet been found in Suffolk although very frequent in many areas. Perhaps it may be introduced first into gardens with the soil attached to plants obtained from nursery gardens in those areas where it is common. An American Rush, Juncus tenuis, will almost certainly become common on roadsides and waste places as it is already in many areas. Its seeds are dispersed with the mud on the wheels of vehicles and foot-wear. The Rayless Mayweed (Matricaria matricaroides) now an abundant weed was spread in this way. In Suffolk it has partly replaced the Scentless Mayweed (Matricaria inodora) which is considerably less common. Even some of our indigenous plants, hitherto unrecorded in Suffolk, may find conditions suitable in the changing habitats. The Northern Creeping Lady's Tresses (Goodyera repens) may spread into our coniferous plantations. I have found it in plantations at Holkham, Norfolk. Chickweed Wintergreen (Trientalis europaea), another northern plant, was discovered in a boggy birch-alder wood near Lowestoft in 1955 by Dr. F. Rose. In a changing flora there are many exciting plants to be found and we never know what may turn up even in a well-worked area, perhaps another colony of the Military Orchis (Orchis militaris) in West Suffolk.





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Travelling daily from Stowmarket to Needham Market by A 45, I have made a fairly complete list of the flora of the roadside from hedge root to hedge root, or fence base. The road runs roughly parallel to the River Gipping, at an average distance of four hundred yards from it, and averages about 100 feet above sea level, crossing Boulder Clay and occasional banks of loamy gravel. It is bordered by arable farmland and at either end has a fringe of houses. Acer campestre Acer pseudoplatanus. Infreq. Achillea millefolium. Freq. on drier banks and verges.

Aegopodiumpodagraria. Nr. farmyard and cottages. Aesculus hippocastanum. Two planted trees.



Clematis vitalba. Agrimonia eupatoria. Clinopodium vulgare. InAgropyron repens. frequent. Agrostis gigantea. Agrostis tenuis. Colonising Conium maculatum. 43 plants S. of Badley Bridge new sight-line banks. 8.6.55. Vegetation cut Alliaria petiolata. 23.6.55. Eight plants Angelica sylvestris. 14.6.56. Cut 17.7.56. Anisantha sterilis. Anthriscus neglecta. Stony 1.6.57 No plants. Convolvulus arvensis. ground bordering roadCornus sanguinea. Fairly way Combs Ford. frequent. Anthriscus sylvestris. Corydalis lutea. One plant Apium nodiflorum. Badley Bridge. Arctium vulgare. Arrhenatherum elatius. Corylus avellana. Fairly frequent. Abundant. Crataegus monogyna. Artemisia vulgaris. Crepis capillaris. Abundant. Avena ludoviciana. Cynoglossum officinale. frequent. Barbarea vulgaris. Cynosurus cristatus. Bellis perennis. Betula verrucosa. Planted. Brachypodium sylvaticum.Dactylis glomerata. Daucus carota. Not abunBromus mollis. dant. Bryonia dioica. Deschampsia caespitosa. fullonum ssp. s Calamintha ascendetis. Dipsacus vestris. Calystegia sepium. Campanula trachelium. Epilobium hirsutum Rare. Capsella bursa-pastoris. Equisetum arvense. Abun dant. Carex flacca. Erigeron canadensis. Carex hirta. Erodium cicutarium. Very Carex otrubae. rare. Centaurea nigra. Euonymus europaeus. Cerastium vulgatum. Chaerophyllum temulum. InOccurs. flowerfirsttwo weeks in June. gigantea. Chelidonium majus. CombsFestuca Festuca rubra. Ford. Filipendula ulmaria. Chrysanthemum leucantheFraxinus excelsior. mum. Cirsium arvense. Heavily Fumaria officinalis. infected with Honey Galium mollugo. Rust. Galium aparine. Cirsium vulgare.



Geranium molle. Geranium pyrenaicum. Cut in summer but flowers and seeds in Sept./Oct. Glechoma hederacea.

Onobrychis viciifolia. Infrequent. Ononis spinosa. Badley Hill summit. Orobanche minor.

Hedera helix. Heracleum sphondylium. Holcus lanatus. Hordeum murinum. Humulus lupulus. Hypericum perforatum.

Papaver rhoeas. Pastinaca sativa. Phleum nodosum. Phleum pratense. Plantago lanceolata. Abundant. Plantago major. Plantago media. Poa annua. Poa pratensis. Polygonum aviculare agg. Populus italica. Potentilla anserina. Potentilla reptans. Poterium polygamum. Infrequent. Primula veris. Prunus spinosa. Pulicaria dysenterica.

Juncus inĂ&#x;exus. Knautia arvensis. Lamium album. Lamium amplexicaule. Lathyrus pratensis. Leontodon autumnalis. Leontodon hispidus. Leontodon leysseri. Linaria vulgaris. Lolium multiflorum. Lolium perenne. Lotus corniculatus Lychnis flos-cuculi. Lycium halimifolium. Escape. Malus sylvestris ssp. mitis. Malva sylvestris. Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora. Matricaria matricarioides. Medicago lupulina. Medicago sativa. Melandrium album. Melandrium rubrum. Melandrium a. x M. r. Melilotus alba. Rare. Mentha arvensis. Mercurialis annua. Infrequent. Mercurialis perennis.

Quercus robur. Ranunculus acris Ranunculus bulbosus Ranunculus ficaria. Ranunculus repens. Ranunculus sceleratus. Reseda luteola. Rosa canina. Rubus fruticosa agg. Rumex acetosa. Rumex acetosella. Rumex crispus. Rumex obtusifolius. Rumex sanguineus viridis. Salix alba. Salix fragilis.




Salvia horminoides. Near Woodlands and N. end Needham Market. Sambucus nigra. Sarothamnus scoparius. Scrophularia aquatica. Senecio jacobaea. Senecio squalidus. Rare. Senecio viscosus. Restricted to roadside heaps of sand placed ready for icebound roads. Senecio vulgaris. Colonises bare patches in hedge banks. Silene cucubalus. Sinapis arvensis. Smyrnium olusatrum. Badley Hill. Sonchus arvensis. Sonchus oleraceus. Stachys sylvatica. Stellaria media. Tanacetum vulgare. Taraxacum officinale. Tragopogon pratensis minor.


Trifolium dubium. Trifolium ochroleucon. Infrequent. Badley Hill Summit. Trifolium pratense. Trifolium repens. Tussilago farfara. Slope of Badley Hill. Ulmus Ulmus Ulmus Urtica

glabra ssp. glabra. coritana. procera. dioica.

Verbascum thapsus. Veronica hederifolia. Veronica persica. Verbena officinalis. Vicia cracca. Vicia sativa. Vicia sepium. Viola arvettsis. Viola odorata. Zerna ramosa. (175 species.)

Farmers and gardeners inadvertently contribute something to the wayside flora : wheat, oats, barley, field beans and kale are found occasionally, and the gardeners have contributed Cosmea, one plant 200 yards from the nearest house. Lupinus polyphyllus one flourishing plant, spikes always picked, succeeding autumn spikes failing to act as seed ; Delphinium Orientale, fairly frequent at Combs Ford and on a sandy bank near Needham Market; Cerastium tomentosum at Needham Market. Iberis coronaria, one plant, verge opposite houses at Needham Market and a clump of Solidago canadensis near Combs Ford.

Flora of roadside of A.45  
Flora of roadside of A.45