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SUFFOLK NOTES FOR 1956 Once again the very cold weather in January and February prevented any observations of lepidoptera, but on March 3, when returning from Ipswich I saw many of the early species Aying just after dark near Shrubland Park. This was the first mild evening after three weeks of severe frost. Working light on sallow blossom in Barking Woods on April 12 produced many of the Quaker moths including a few of the Lead-coloured Drab (Orthosia populeti Treits.), but there was no sign of the Blossom Underwing (Orthosia miniosa Fabr.). Among the hibernated butterflies most species were in their usual numbers, but in spite of thorough search in several known localities, I saw no sign of the Large Tortoiseshell (Nymphalis polychloros Linn.). This is stränge, as the species was quite common in 1954. The Orange Tip (Anthocharis cardaminis Linn.) and the Holly Blue (Lycaenopsis argiolus Linn.) were more plentiful than they have been for several years. A larva-beating expedition to Barking Woods on May 27, produced larvae of the White-letter Hairstreak (Strymon w-album Knoch.) and of the Blossom Underwing (Orthosia miniosa Fabr.). The larvae of the latter were quite common which is a contrast to the moths which are seldom in evidence in this locality. On this occasion the Mocha (Cosymbia annulata Schulze) was very plentiful, the moths Aying out from almost every maple tree, of which there are a great number in the wood. A search of the butterbur growing near Bosmere Lake produced larvae of the Butterbur Moth (Hydraecia petasitis Doubleday) feeding in the lower parts of the stems. These larvae subsequently yielded moths at the end of July. Düring the Arst few days of July several specimens of the Varied Coronet (Hadena compta Fabr.) were found at rest on a fence near Stowmarket. This moth seems to be extending its ränge steadily in East Suffolk since it was Arst taken there at Polstead in 1953 by Mr. A. E. Aston. A Single Maple Prominent (Lophopteryx cucullina Schiff.) was among a large number of moths attracted to my trap on the night of July 14. There were also 27 specimens of the Peppered Moth (Biston betularia Linn.). It is interesting to note that of these, two were typical, 23 were the melanic carbonaria form, while only two were the intermediate f. insularia. Several specimens of the Large Twin-spot Carpet (Coremia quadrifasciaria Clerck) were seen during July. This species is usually not very common and is diAicult to get in good condition. During August, the light attracted a large number of the Lesser Broad-bordered Yellow Underwing (Triphaena ianthina Esp.) and also the Least Yellow Underwing (Triphaena interjecta


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HĂźbn.) together with several of the Double-lobed Moth (Apamea ophiogramma Esp.), while on August 10 I found a freshly emerged melanic Willow Beauty (Cleora rhomboidaria Schiff.), sitting on a wall near the Museum in Ipswich. With the warmer nights in September came a veritable influx of moths to light. These were mainly the commoner noctuids, especially the Setaceous Hebrew Character (Amathes c-nigrum Linn.), but it also included most of the autumn moths and in particular two of the White Point Wainscot (Leucania albipuncta Fabr.) which turns up most years. In contrast to the autumn of 1955 larvae of the Sycamore Moth (Apatele aceris Linn.) seem to be very scarce this year. I have found none myself and have only heard of one larva taken by a small boy. Of ten kept last year all pupated, but only three emerged. It would appear that a great number of the larvae are parasitised and destroyed by ichneumons. H. E.

CHIPPERFIELD,

Stowmarket.

Clostera anachoreta Fabr. A N O T E ON I T S H I S T O R Y I N T H E B R I T I S H ISLES T h e capture this last August of a specimen of the Scarce Chocolate Tip (Clostera anachoreta Fabr.) at Waldringfield has prompted me to say something about its past history in this country, since it has had a Very chequered career. Though mention is made of its occurrence in the older literature of the early 19th Century, its authentic starting point seems to have been in 1859 when it was noted almost simultaneously in the Folkestone area by a Mr. Cooper and Dr. Knaggs. Eleven larvae were found by the latter collector all together on poplar, since this species, unlike its near relatives, feeds gregariously. From these imagines were bred and further generations were obtained. A few more larvae were found annually until 1863 when the species virtually disappeared. Very little was heard of the insect for another 30 years. In the pages of the Entomologist of 1893, there was quite a controversy between the Rev. Joseph Greene and Dr. Knaggs as to whether the species had been artificially introduced or was of natural occurrence, the evidence resting on the latter theory. According to R. F. Bretherton in " Our Lost Butterflies and M o t h s " (Ent. Gazette, 1951, 2. 231) the insect reappeared that very year with the finding of larvae on sallow near Hastings.

Suffolk Notes for 1956  
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