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on the opposite side of the estuary in a trench near the L.N.E.Rly. Halifax Box (where much of the Reading Clay contained abundant and large nodules of " race "). At no time has the Thanet Bed been exposed in any of the excavations for the construction work for the several stages of building ClifF Quay, but the Bull Head Bed was formerly exposed on the foreshore between tide marks before the quay was made. Thanet Sands of a bright green colour were exposed during the building of the British Petroleum Company's Tank Farm about one quarter of a mile to the north. It has also been dredged from about twenty-five feet in the river bed a few miles downstream. Recent dredging alongside the ClifF Quay extension has, for the most part, been in the chalk. Above the chalk is a rubble consisting of sand, clay and chalk with angular flints, with occasionally flints worked by Pre-historic man, one having been collected while the dredger was working. This deposit very closely resembles the more chalky portions of the Upper Boulder Clay, (deposited during the last but one Glaciation) and sometimes contains above eighty per Cent of chalk. It is evidently from this rubble that the large boulders of Sarsen were brought up during the work which in places prevented the steel piles from being driven to their pre-determined depth. Between this Stratum and the mud and ooze there is a peaty deposit the upper part being interlaminated with sand. One of the dredger crew recovered a femur of the extinct giant ox Bos primigenius from this level which is presumably of post Glacial age.

COLLECTING IN SUFFOLK, JULY, 1956 For the third year in succession I have visited Suffolk towards the end of July. In 1956 I motored direct to Southwold on July 23rd where I joined Mr. E. J. Hare. Conditions were very promising with a warm south-west wind and a dark sky. As in the previous year, we decided to try the marshes near Walberswick which we reached by 9.30 p.m., and set up our mercury-vapour light. Insects soon started Coming freely. One of the first to arrive was a female of the Oak Eggar (Lasiocampa quercus Linn.), while a little later an even larger female of the Läppet (Gastropacha quercifolia Linn.). We were kept busy up tili 12.30 a.m., with a steady stream of visitors comprising up to 43 species of the macrolepidoptera. Of these among the marsh-loving insects noted were the Striped Wainscot (Leucania pudorina Schiff.), the Shore



Wainscot (Leucania littoralis Curt.), the Fen Wainscot (Arenostola phragmitidis Hübn.), but a notable absentee was the Sussex Wainscot (Nonagria neurica Hübn.) which we hoped to get once more in that area. Other noctuids of interest seen included the White-line Dart (Euxoa tritici Linn.), the Dog's tooth (Hadena suasa Schiff.). T h e Rosy Minor (Procus literosa Haworth) and the Golden Y (Plusia iota Linn.). Later that evening we returned to the sandhills at Southwold. Searching the marrams and the lyme-grass yielded several fresh examples of the Lyme-grass Wainscot (Arenostola elymi Treits.). The next day we toured the local countryside. In the Frostenden brick pits we saw a good many Gatekeepers (Maniola tithonus Linn.) and Ringlets (Aphantopus hyperanthus Linn.), but the Vanessid butterflies were noticeably scarce. The afternoon was spent in the Dunwich area, but our only find was a few larvae of Webb's Wainscot (Nonagria sparganii Esp.). That night we chose as our site the marshes adjoining Easton Broad at the point where the main road from Southwold crosses it. It turned out to be one of the best nights I have experienced in recent years with a warm balmy air to encourage the moths. Mr. Chipperfield had come over from Stowmarket to share our sport and harvest. As soon as we started the mercury-vapour light, insects began arriving in a steady stream and up tili 1 a.m. we had recorded no less than 90 species. One of the first to appear was a perfect specimen of the Maple Prominent (Lophopteryx cucullina Schiff.), and again huge females of the Oak Eggar and the Läppet. Other Prominents included the Iron (Notodonta dromedarius Linn.), the Pebble (Notodonta ziczac Linn.), the Swallow (Pheosia tremula Clerck) and the Lesser Swallow (Pheosia gnoma Fabr.), and the Coxcomb (Lophopteryx capucina Linn.). The Arctiids well represented by the Garden tiger (Arctia caja Linn.) the Ruby Tiger (Phragmatobia fuliginosa Linn.), the Round-winged Muslin (Comacla senex Hübn.) and a fine Water Ermine (Spilosoma urticae Esp.). A feature among the Noctuids was the abundance of the Triple-spotted Clay (Amathes ditrapezium Borkh.) and the Crescent (Celaena leucostigma Hübn.), the latter producing many fine and variegated forms. The Wainscots were again to the fore with a late example of the Obscure (Leucania obsoleta Hübn.), the Southern (Leucania straminea Treits.), the Reed (Arenostola phragmitidis Hübn.) and the Lyme-grass (Arenostola elymi Treits.), and two Fenn's Wainscot (Arenostola brevilinea Fenn). Other noctuid species comprised the Broad-barred White (Hecatera serena Fabr.), the Archer's Dart (Agrotis vestigialis Rott.), the Starwort Shark (Cucullia asteris Schiff), the Common Shark (Cucullia umbratica Linn.), the Golden Y (Plusia iota Linn.), the Blackneck (Lygephila pastinum Treits.), the Beautiful Hooktip (Laspeyria flexula Schiff.) and the Dotted Fanfoot (Zanclognatha cribrumalis Hübn.). Many Geometers also came to the sheets.



These included several of the Pugs among which were the Foxglove (.Eupithecia pulchellata Stephens), the V Pug (Chloroclystis coronata Hübn.). Others of this family included the Common Emerald (Hemithea aestivaria Hübn.), the Sharp-angled Carpet (Euphyia unangulata Haworth), the Sandy Carpet (.Perizoma flavofasciata Thunb.), the Spinach (Lygris mellinata Fab.) and the Mottled Beauty (Cleora repandata Linn.). Two of the latest visitors were the Poplar Hawk (Laothoe ^opw/i Linn.) and the Eyed Ua\\ k(Smerinthus ocellatus Linn.). We had also put down many patches of sugar which were equally well patronised, chiefly by large numbers of the Crescent (Celaena leucostigma Hübn.), as well as by a few of Fenn's Wainscot (Arenostola brevilinea Fenn), two Silky Wainscots (iChilodes maritima Tausch.) and the Gothic (Naenia typica Linn.). Again the Sussex Wainscot failed us. Even at that late hour we paid a visit to the sandhills which was alive with insects, mainly the Lyme-grass Wainscot which was at rest on its food plant in dozens and also Aying freely about it. T h e following day I visited the Bentley Woods just south of Ipswich where the Silver-washed Fritillary (Argynnis paphia Linn.) and the White Admiral (Limenitis Camilla Linn.) were in numbers. T h u s ended another successful collecting trip to Suffolk. C.



DE W O R M S .

MOTHS AT WALDRINGFIELD DÜRING 1956 Owing to the exceptionally bad weather this year, the season has provided only a few, but nevertheless very interesting, insects. T h e early months brought some well-marked specimens of the Brindled Beauty (Lycia hirtaria Clerck). T h e Scarce Tissue (Calocalpe cervinalis Scop.) also came abundantly to light. In recent years this insect seems to be on the increase here and has frequently been taken at both light and on the plum blossom. On May 9th, I was Very pleased to find the Lunar Marbled Brown (.Drymonia ruficornis Hufn.) in the moth-trap. My grandfather had never taken it here and it was also new to me. Quite the most outstanding insect of the season was the Scarce Chocolate T i p (Clostera anachoreta Fabr.) which came to light in the local telephone box on August 3. In the " Memoirs " Mr. Claude Morley says it is lacking to our list. This appears to be the first time that this species has been recorded for Suffolk. Mr. Chipperfield writes that, while looking through the late Mr.

Collecting in Suffolk in July, 1956  
Collecting in Suffolk in July, 1956