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R.D. F.E.S.

THE REVD. E. N. BLOOMFIELD, M.A., F.E.S. FEW among the last generation of All-round Naturalists, to which eminence we have no leisure to attain now that the study is become so vast and complicated, were more generally known than ' Bloomfield,' a name that is and long will persist familiar on the lips of Suffolk Lepidopterists. His insight to all winged insects was intimate : flies sitting on leaves were specified at a glance, and hardly less familiar was he with HymenÜptera, Neuroptera, Orthoptera and moths of every sort. It was mainly he who stimulated that love of Suffolk biology that has resulted in the local lists our Society is privileged to elaborate and publish. None (but Kirby) were better fitted to fill our Presidential Chair if times had synchonised : he catechised with level facility on Geology or Botany or Zoology, and no Naturalist can do more. A Suffolk man, with affection for Suffolk all his life, was Bloomfield whose memorv must ever live among our Members. He was born at Wrentham on 25 September 1827, the son of Captain Edwin Bloomfield who lived for the next score of years at Otley, where our great Naturalist's earliest observations were made (see P irage /Egeria) ; but, during boyhood, his interests chiefly turned on Botany and Geology. He had a long and brilliant career of no less than eighteen years, 1846 to 1863, at Cambridge and was eighth wrangler in 1850. There he had the honour of election to the Ray Club, an exclusive circle of twelve Members and six Associates that included Sedgwick, Newton, Henslow and other pioneers of our creed : forerunner of The Upware Republic (see ECount. Mag. ii, 338). He contributed largely to Henslow-Skepper's 1860 Flora of Suffolk, our copy of which came from him in March 1900; his material was gathered about Swefling and Glemham Magna, where The Grove was long occupied by his brother, Colonel Alfred Bloomfield, J.P. He collected all available material in 1876 for a ' Lepidoptera of Suffolk,' which saw the light in 1890, followed by Additions in 1900 : " Few counties can show so complete a list as Suffolk of Macro-Lepidoptera, but that of Micros is comparatively small, not having been much worked," he considered (Nat. Journal 1898, 37). He was presented in 1864 to the College of Cläre living at Guestling near Hastings, which he held for exactly a half-century, dwelling more in the great garden than the delightful old rectory, adequately maintained by six sisters who vied in love for the Bachelor. There he broke new ground and, with Mr. E. A. Butler, published in 1876 the nucleus of a ' Natural History of Hastings,' which ran to six Parts (now rare) and is yet continued as the Hastings and ESussex Naturalist. And there, at Guestling Rectory on 29 April, 1914, he died in his eighty-seventh year, a span surprising us all at the time, for he had the female trick of suppressing age, well supported by a small frame and great physical and mental activity. On his labours the present Memoir is broad-based.



INTRODUCTION. i. PHYSICAL. IT is a sound maxim that the newer the strata the more numerous is their fauna, though certain species may be confined to the older ones. Here in East Anglia we are upon the Glacial gravels and Pliocene crag, underlain by London clay and nowhere is any superficial outcrop low er than the chalks of Breckland and the Gipping's Valley. High Suffolk, an indefinite area spreading over nearly all the centre of the County, consists entirely of chalky Boulder-clav that has been brought in ice from the north and north-west by glaciers ; it is probably the finest forest soil in Britain, did they but leave it be. And two other areas produce especial rarities : the Coast Sands, bounding our entire North Sea litoral and running inland for varying distances, though farthest along estuaries ; and the necromantic Breck of our north-west corner, heathland of pure sand that was blown up when the old Fen Sea dried in the Saxon era underlain by sheer chalk : so-called because the whole was ' broken ' by the plough under King Knut's comprehensive tillage laws in the eleventh Century. Also, we yet possess some extensive remnants of those swamps which so broadly flanked our streams, themselves fully five feet higher than now, in mediaeval times; these extend from both the Norfolk Broads system in the north-east and the Cambridge Fens system in the north-west. All south and central Suffolk was under forest of persistently diminishing extent tili comparatively recently: certainly to Queen Elizabeth's four-acres attached to every cottage, and probably to George iii's great agricultural impetus. Here is not the place to bewail the heärtrending and successively intenser destruction wrought during the past Century to the Flora of our Country— timber, shrubs, hedges, herbage and even the lowly wayside growths—wherever cash is thence grabbable, at no matter what expense to Beauty : nor is the end yet. But, as directly affecting Lepidoptera, it is necessary for us to realise how very different an aspect this our Suffolk wears from that of Ray's two, or even Kirby's (well exemplified by Faden's 1783 map of the County) or.e, Century ago : timber, except upon the Breck where it is always incongruous, was then far wider flung ; umbrageous hedges, once the peculiar fascination of England as her hair was woman's, burgeoned along our roads and dissected the much vaster extent of pasture; arable was proportionately sparse tili the greedy



high-farming of the 'eighties ; and the great majority of our hideous black-tarred lanes were grass, e.g. within the fathers' memory of living Monks Soham folk, there was but one metalled way leading from Eye to Ashfleld through that village, for all the rest were green ways. Surely, it must needs be that Changes come ; but woe . . . Enough has been modified in this respect to exstirpate or expel many of our Lepidoptera : hence it were nowadays idle to aver that any given species could never have existed bere, and those recorded no later than a half-century ago are discriminated by an asterisk. ii. HISTORICAL. Various entirely adventitious circumstances have combined to render ours among the earliest, and one of the best, worked counties of Britain. ' SufFolk,' the Compiler of Notts' recent Invertebrate Fauna remarked truly, ' has long had the advantage of many resident Naturalists.' There is no remaining data to show that Conrad Gesner, Dr. Wooton or Dr. Penny, who wrote Mouffet's posthumous Theatrum Insectorum which was sketched in Elizabeth's reign and published, the first exclusively entomological work in England, by the court physician Mazerne during 1634, are associated with our Countv. But, before the end of that Century, John Ray (1627-1705) pretty surely explored our Moths from his home, called Dewlands, in Black Notley : most of his Lepidoptera were taken ' in hortulo meo seu circa Braintriam in Essexia.' though a few are from ' Heveningham [ ? Suffolcia] anno 1695 ' (Historia Insectorum, 1710). None of the eighteenth Century Lepidopterists seem to be local tili, on 19 September 1759, there was born at Witnesbam Rectory William Kirby who took his B.A. in 1774, was ordained eight years later and then held the curacy of Barham,to which living he was inducted on 9 March 1797 upon his rector Nicholas Bacon's resignation the previous year. Kirby was patron of the living and died in the erstwile parsonage facing the church-lane's western end in ' 1 8 5 0 : Aetat ninety, 11 J u l y ' (Register). His presence attracted to SufTolk all or most of the contemporary Lepidopterists : we hear of Hooker coaching from Norwich, Spence, Henry Denny and, e.g. on 13 September 1821, Stephens from London ; here, too, doubtless journeyed Wilkin and the native John Curtis of Covehithe, who continually refers to such association in his ever-modern British Entomology of 1823-40, &c. Also, Kirby has preserved the names of several, otherwise totally forgotten, local Naturalists in those of the Bees that he described (Monographia Apum, Ipswich 1802), though few records survive from those pre-label days ; and under his august influence appeared such works as Acheta Domestica's Episodes and Miss Jermyn's Vade Mecum, Ipswich 1821. Henry Doubleday of Epping had discovered our Bentley Woods by 1837, before he discovered the gentle art of Sugaring.



Within a decade of Kirby's death appeared our first incomplete " L i s t of Lepidoptera Occurring in the County of Suffolk. By the Rev. Joseph Greene, M.A., assisted by the Rev. H. Harpur Crewe, M.A., and C. R. Bree, E s q . " , that ran through Morris' Naturalist from 1857, page 253, to that monthly's cessation in 1858, leaving the Geometers and the Micro's quite untouched. It and Stainton's Intelligencer of 1856-60 reveal how strikingly replete the County then was in workers, by no means all of whom appear in the Annual*. T h e Revd. Joseph, of pupa-digging farae, had already left his happy hunting grounds at Brandeston and Playford ; but there was, also, a foule of equally keen though lesser lights among the workmen of Ipswich. In the course of the next thirty years many excellent collectors lived here ; the Revd. C. T . Cruttwell of Denton and .the Revd. H. Williams of Croxton on our north border, Dr. W. M. Crowfoot of Beccles, Garrett Garrett, Freeman, Collins and Mr. Henry Miller of Ipswich ; Dr. N. F. Hele of Aldeburgh, Mr. H. Lingwood of Needham mill, Frank Norgate of Sandy Downham and Edmund Skepper of Bury, besides numerous active visitors. So that Bloomfield found awaiting him abundant material on our Macro's when he contemplated issuing the first complete catalogue, though the Micro's were then so weak that he distributed a preliminary List of them alone in 1888. And during June 1890 the whole was published by him as ' T h e Lepidoptera of Suffolk ; ' with an ' Additions to Former List ' in 1900 that totalled 1243 kinds. A Second Supplement, embodying all later discoveries, was contributed by the Revd. A. P. Waller to the first 1929 number of our Transactions, page 30, giving 1356 indigenous species at that date. What has since been achieved is entirely due to our Society's efforts in this Order of Insects. iii. T O P I C A L . At the present time Suffolk seems able to boast as many Lepidopterists, nearly all of whom retain private collections, as any British county ; our Society comprises at leastsixty of whom over half are resident. All but three of the latter live in its * F O O T N O T E : T h e Entomologists' Annual for 1860, p. 58, gives the following list under Suffolk :—ALDEBURGH, E d m u n d G a r r e t t ; BECCI.ES, Revd. John F a r r and William Winter who actually was master of the National School at A l d e b y ; BOTESDALE, Samuel Taylor D a w s o n ; BUNGAY, D r . Charles and his son [later Dr. William of Repton] Graneys who sometimes spelled their names Garness ; BURY, Joseph Gedge, M i s s S . G r o o m and the Revd. A. H . Wratislaw, head of the G r a m m e r S c h o o l ; EYE, Richard T y r e r junior, of Hill House ; IPSWICH, F.. W. Berridge o f Buttermarket, Revd. H . Bree of Harkstead Rectory, J. and E. Fison o f Stoke Hill, J . L o n g e of Springfield House ; NEEDHAM, G . A. Clowes o f Ashbocking Vicarage ; SAXMUNDHAM, S . E. Woods of Westleton ; STOWMARKET, D r . Charles Robert Bree of Stricklands ; WANGFORD, R e v d . H . Jodrell of Gisleham Rectorv ; YOXFORD, J. H . White of Middleton Rectory.



eastem division, whence an undue preponderance of modern records consequently emerges. Places now thus represented are Cläre (Krailing), Sudbury (late B. S. Harwood, now partlv in coli. Gilles)," Bentley (Elliott, &c.) and Waldringfield (A. P. & T . N. Waller), near the south border ; Ipswich (the Bishop, Butters, Esam), with adjacent Bricet (Parsons), Hemingstoe (Crisp) and Needham (Platten) ; across central Suffolk are Bury (Allen), Monks Soham (Morley), Framlingham (Vinter) and Sibton (Col. & Mrs. Hawley) ; up the coast run Leiston (H. Waller), Dunwich (Horsfall), Southwold (Collings) and Revdon (Baker), with Haiesworth (Hocken) ; and the north with north-east corner shows Stuston (Gale), Beccles (Goldsmith), Oulton (Whitehead), Lowestoft (Burton, Goddard, Mitton), Herringfleet (Jackson) and Gorleston (Doughty, Moore, Wiltshire). Hence, whatever may have been achieved by our predecessors in the past Century, we are assured that these centres are unlikely to produce further novelties, among at least the Marcolepidoptera. iv. D E T A I L S . T h e present List is termed ' F i n a l ' because firstly it comprises all records that are contained in former ones and secondly the improbability of any subsequent publication of our indigenous Lepidoptera, in so comprehensive a form, is considerable : not because additions to it will be difficult of achievance. After no small discussion of ' futurists ' versus economists, it has been decided to append indications of those species that are still UNrecorded from Suffolk. On the whole it was carried by the majority of our Entomologists in the Society that the advantage of attention, thus directly drawn to outstanding possibilties yet unnoticed, was quite disproportionate to the trifling expense incurred. But, by so doing, we local men trench upon (at least nominal) terra incognita and, among the more obscure Tineas, &c. ground fraught with pitfalls : hence these notes, that are added in Square brackets, must not be too stringently jackalled. Meyrick's 1928 nomenclature has been adopted in accordance with the arrangement of the National Collection in the British Museum. Additions to it are inserted at their respective positions. Determination of critical specimens during the last decade rests upon the authority of our Own M e m b e r s : Dr. Blair, Mr. Coney, Dr. Haines, Mr. Hitchcock, M r . Hovell, Lord Rendlesham, Dr. de Worms and the late Preb. Wickham, besides those enumerated under their localities above ; but especially upon M r . A. R. Hayward, Dr. Whittingham and Mr. Rait-Smith. Earlier ones are sponsored by such good men as Mr. C. G. Barrett, Lord Walsingham and the late Revd. E. N. Bloomfield who was inclined to be even hypercritical. Personally we are inclined to credulity : it is so easy to outcarry scepticism and say, with the English farmer nurtured on none but normal stock, when gazing at his first gi raffe, " I don't believe it ! "



Public collections of the County are those of Edward J. G. Sparke, B.A., F.E.S., of Bury and Tooting, in Moyses Hall Museum at Bury ; the Revd. john H. Hocking, M.A., F.E.S., of Copdock Rectory, in Ipswich Museum ; and Singleton Smith at Lowestoft, now in course of rearrangement. Asterisked species have not been observed in the County for a fĂźll half-century. CLAUDE MORLEY, F.E.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S., Monks Soham House ; Hon. Editor. 1 May 1937.






Adds.—Additional species at pp. 55-6 of ' Lepidoptera of Suffolk,' 1890. Baker of Battisford, William, 1857-99. Baker (Member), 1934 et seqq. Barrett, C. G., F.E.S., ' British Lepidoptera ' and in Trans. Norf. Nat. Soc. 1874. Baylis (Member), 1894-98. Bedwell (Member), Ernest, 1898-1902. Blair, Dr. (Member), 1901-33. Bd. Boyd of Cheshunt, W.C., F.E.S., 1880-90. Bp. Bishop Whittingham (Member), post. B. Bree, Dr., M.E.S., cf. Trans, iii, p. 175 ; 1858. Briggs, C. F., 1895. Brown of Cambridge, T. & J., 1870. Buckell, F. T., 1889. Burrows, The Revd. C. R. N., 1890-1910. Btn. Burton (Member), P. J., 1934 et seqq. Butler, E. A., B.A., F.E.S., 1891. Campbell-Taylor, J. E., F.R.E.S., 1904. Chitty of London, A. J., M.A., F.E.S., 1903-7. Christy, W. M., 1891. Coleman of Bayswater, W. S., 1870. Collings, Dr. (Member), 1916 et seqq. C. Crewe, The Revd. H. Harpur, 1858. Crisp (Member), 1931 et seqq. Crf. Crowfoot of Beccles, Dr. W. M., 1870-1900. Ctw. Cruttwell, The Revd. Canon C. T., M.A., F.E.S., 1885—1910. Curtis, John, F.L.S., M.E.S., in ' British Entomology' and ' Farm Insects,' 1825-60. D. Doughty (Member), 1895 et seqq. Dunning, Joe W m , M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S., M.E.S., 1849. Elliott (late Member), E.A., 1894-1934. Ellis (late Member), 1927-36. Ent. Mag. The Entomological Magazine, 1833-6. Entom. The Entomologist 1840 et seqq. Ent. Ann. The Entomologists' Annual 1855-74. Ent. Wk. Int. The Entomologists' Weekly Intelligenter 1856-60. EMM. The Entomologists' Monthly Mazagine 1864 et seqq. Ent. Ree. The Entomologist's Record 1890, et seqq. Farn, A.B. 1885.




List of Fenland Lepidoptera by Eedle, Lord Walsingham's collector, at p. 591 in S. H. Miller and S. B. J . Skertchly's ' T h e F e n l a n d ' 1878. Fitch of Maldon, E. A , F . L . S . , F . E . S . , 1880-90. Fletcher, W . H. B., M.A., F . E . S . , 1885. Freeman of Ipswich, A.C., 1880. Frost of Ipswich,? 1870. Fryer, J . C. F., O.B.E., M.A., F . R . E . S . , 1924. Garneys of Repton (formerly Garness of Buneav) D r . William, 1857-d. 1881. Garrard of Hoxne, N. B., 1900-25. Garrett Garrett of Ipswich, 1860-d. 1888. Gbs. Gibbs of St. Albans, A. E., F . L . S . , F . E . S . , 1900-16 Gilles (Member), 1930 et seqq. Gd. Goddard (Member), 1932 et seqq. Gls. Goldsmith (Member), 1933 et seqq. Green, J . F., F . E . S . , 1901. Gr. Greene, T h e Revd. Joseph, M.A., F . E . S . 1850-60. Grey, T h e Hon. Beatrice de (Lord Walsingham's sister), 1880. Hkr. Harker, of Liverpool, G. A., 1885. Harwood of Colchester, W. H., 1867-1915. Harwood of Sudburv (late Member) B . S . , 1915-33. Hawley, Col. W . G" B., (Member), 1930-7. Hele of Aldeburgh, Dr. F. N., 1865-80. Henslow, Prof. J . S., M.A., F . L . S . , F . G . S . , 1850-d.l861. Hewitson of York, W . C . , 1829. Hill, Capt. (Member), 1891. Hocken, Dr. (Member), 1936 et seqq. Hkg. Hocking of Copdock, T h e Revd. John, M.A., 1890-d.l903. Hope, G. P., 1905. Hoy of Nayland-Stoke, J . D . , 1797-1839. Jackson (Member), T . R. E., 1935 et seqq. James, R. E., 1891-2. Jermyn of Ipswich, Miss Lastitia, ' T h e Butterfly Collector's Vade Mecum,' 2nd ed. Ipswich, 1827. Kirby of Barham, T h e Ven. William, M.A., F . R . S . , &c. 1785-1850. Kirkby (late Member), Eric, 1933-4. Last, T i m . Trans, ii, 62, 1860-70. Levett, L. Lingwood of Needham Market, Henry. Mn. Mann of Bungav, Mrs., 1900-10. Mathews, Meek, E. Mera, A. Meyrick, 1928.

Paymäster G. F., 1900-10. G.^ 1884. W . 1894-1916. E., ' Revised Handbook of British Lepidoptera,'




Miller, Henry, 1880-1929. Mitton (Member), 1934 et seqq. Mr. Moore (Member), 1920 et seqq. Mly. Morley (Member), 1891 et seqq. Morris, F. O., ' British Butterflies ' 1868. Nat. Naturalist, edited by above Morris 1851-8. Newman, E., ' British Butterflies ' 1868. Norgate of Downham, Frank, 1890-1910. Nurse of Timworth, Col. C. G., F.R.G.S., F.E.S., 1910-20. Paget, Charles J. (M.E.S., 1833-7) and James (F.R.S., &c.), ' Sketch of the Natural History of Yarmouth ' 1834. Peek of Swefling, The Revd. R., 1880. Platten (Member), 1899 et seqq. Postans of Grays Inn, R. B., 1835-55. Pyett of Ipswich, C. A., 1894-1904. Ransom of Sudbury, Edw., 1898 et seqq. Rasor of Woolpit, 1905-6. Rendlesham, Lord (Member), 1895 et seqq. Skepper of Bury 1850-70. Sparke of Tooting, E. G. J., B.A., F.E.S., 1894-d. 1904. Sparshall of Norfolk, Joseph, 1824. Stainton, H. T., F.R.S., &c., ' Manual of British Butterflies and Moths ' 1857. Illus. Stephens, J. F., F. L. S., F.Z.S., ' Illustrations of British Entomology' 1827-31. Subst. Substitute magazine, edited by J. W. Douglas 1856-7. Sudb. Jour. Sudbury Journal, Fulchers, December 1838. Suffolk Institute of Archseology, Quarterly Journal 1869. Suffolk Institute of Archseology (Proceedings) 1870-1. Toms, The Revd. R. S., ' Records of Flixton ' 1915. Trans.Transactions of the Suffolk Naturalists' Society 1929-36. Tuck, of Tostock, W. H., M.A., 1894-1904. Tyrer, of Eye, Richard, 1855-60. Vinter (Member), 1916 et seqq. Vivian of Cambridge, H. W., F.E.S., 1888-9. Wir. Waller, T. N., & The Revd. A. P. (Members), 1894 et seqq. Wrn. Warren of Cambridge, W., F.E.S., 1880-90. Waters, A. H., 1897. Whe. Wheeler of Norwich, Dr. F. D., M.A., F.E.S., 1880-90. Bp. Whittingham, The Rt. Revd. Bishop (Member), 1929 et seqq. Williams of Croxton, The Revd. H., 1890. Wiltshire (Member), 1929 et seqq. Wood, W., ' Index Entomologicus ' 1854. Worms (Member), 1933 et seqq. Wrt. Wratislaw, of Bury, The Revd. A. H., M.A., 1868-78.



Group I, CARADRININA. Family ARCTIIDJE. 1. PELOSIA MUSCERDA, Hufn. Confined to EAnglia, outside central Europe; a fen species with us. Lakenheath, beside the Little Ouse river (Eedle's ' Fenland' 1878, p. 591). Beaten from alder-bushes in Barnby Broad on 11 August 1898 (Mly); one in Bishop's Ipswich house on 5 Aug. 1931 (Whit); at light on Fritton Lake in mid-Aug. 1934 (D) and 1936 (Mr). 2. LITHOSIA COMPLANA, Linn. Generally distributed and not frequent. Brandon, where colour-forms approaching var. molybdeola, Gn. (sericea, Greg.) often occur ; Bentley, Ipswich, Aldeburgh : ante 1890. Ipswich, Foxhall, Monks Soham; common at Blythburgh 1934; Lowestoft (Entom. 1922, 258). 3. L. LURIDEOLA, Zk. (complanula, Bdv.). Common everywhere at dusk and light. 4. L. DEPRESSA, Esp. (helvola, Och.). Stowmarket, once at sugar about 1860 (Bree). A few at Monks Soham light July 1928-31 (Mly), and Dunwich 1933 (Hawley). 5. L. GRISEOLA, HĂźb.

Not uncommon in marshes and on boulder-clay. The colourform fulva (stramineola, Dbld.), less frequent at Brandon, Brandeston, Beccles and Fritton: ante 1890. Ipswich (Miller) and recently at Fritton Lake light. 6. L. SORORCULA, Hufn. (aureola, Hb.). Rare in the few sylvan places where it occurs. Brandon, Woolpit, Stowmarket, Needham, Playford, Bentley: ante 1890. Belstead, one 1899 (Platten); occasionally on undergrowth in woods, Bentley 1894-1933 (Mly, D); and 1936 at Blythburgh (Gd). [TwoL. lutarella, L., were taken by our Member Mr. Wiltshire, 9 miles north of Suffolk at the Horsey coast on 9 July 1936; but L. caniola, Hb., is confined to west coast from Sussex to I. Man.] 7. (EONISTIS QUADRA, Linn. Formerly of occasional occurrence in many of our larger woods: Old Hall Wood in 1858 (Trans, i, 26); Belstead, Playford, Brandon, Bury, Glemham Magna, Aldeburgh, Lowestoft: ante 1890. Aldeburgh in 1892 (Ctw); two at Tuddenham 1900 (Sparke) ; Hardwick (Norgate); Beccles (Adds). Now unrecorded for fully thirty years, but most improbably extinct.






Alieged to have been " generally distributed but not common. Very abundant at Playford " : ante 1890. No later record is known tili 1936, when Col. Hawley found the species in his Sibton garden. 9.



R a r e ; near Ipswich (Harwood), Bentley (Garrett), Beccles ( C r f ) : ante 1890. Beccles, one in 1922 ( G l s ) ; Blythburgh, common (Btn). Larvae frequent under boards on mud, North Cove great carr, April 1935 ; but imago never seen in Suffolk (Mly). 10.



Certainly extremely local, apparently confined to southern half of our coast. " Rare ; bred from larvae at Aldeburgh by Dr. Hele " : ante 1890. Once found abundantly by smoking grass-roots on sandhills at Shingle-Street in Hollesley on 4 June 1906 (Revd. A. P. W i r ) ; and taken there in 1905 ( G . P. Hope). 11.



Very locally common in broad marshes. Needham, Stowmarket, Leiston, Beccles, Lowestoft : ante 1890. Henham in 1936 (Gd) and Ipswich, very rare at light (Pyett, Mly) ; numerous at Hemley in 1902-3 ( W i r ) ; and plentiful at dusk at Beccles (Trans, ii, 292). Dunwich salt-marshes in 1937 (Hawley), 12.




Distinctly local; usually only in woods. Bentley, Freston, Needham, Glemham Magna, Leiston, Lowestoft : ante 1890. Waldringfield (Wir) ; Copdock in 1894-8 ( H k g ) ; Belstead Wood, very common in 1899 (Platten); Bentley Woods rare, and singly at Wenhaston Heath and Barnby Broad ( M l y ) ; Henham ( B t n ) ; Fritton in 1934 (Mr). One yellow form at light at Bungay (Mn). 13.



Anything but common. Recorded from Needham, Blaxhall, Aldeburgh, Beccles and Yarmouth : ante 1890 ; Hemley in 1904 ( W i r ) ; Henham and Wrentham in 1936 (Gd) ; but never seen by me through forty years (Mly). 14.



Suffolk, teste W . C. Hewitson Esq. (Stephens, Illust. ii 1828, p. 90). Always common where ragwort grows on sandy or gravelly soils ; invariably in myriads throughout the Breck District, whence some 120,000 pupae were exported to New Zealand in 1929 alone (Trans, i, 73). Quite rare on the damp Boulder-clay throughout High Suffolk : not seen at Monks Soham from 1904 to 1918, when a batch of fifty larvae appeared gregariously; Haughley Station 1 9 1 9 ; etc. One flirting with P. fuliginosa, Linn, at Fritton Warren on 19 May 1925 (Wiltshire).





Immigrant; isolated specimens have occurred somewhat regularly. Rougham and Finborough Park (Naturalist 1858); Ipswich (Entom. v, 412); Aldeburgh in October 1876 ( E M M . 1876, 138); one on Bawdsey cliff on 25 May 1885 (Entom. 1886, 127); Felixstow on 10 June 1892 (l.c.,xxv, 191); Ipswich, three in September 1871 ; Foxhall Heath and Rickinghall (ante 1890). Sudbury in May 1898 (Ransom) ; [not taken by Nurse near Bury in 1913, as reported : teste Nurse, in lit. ;] a speciman at Aldeburgh in 1922 (Trans, ii, 86). [Coscinia cribrum and striata, Linn.—A very few casual immigrants have occurred in Britain, beyond the former's precarious footing near Ringwood.] 16.



Surprisingly rare; by no means " generally distributed," as Bloomfield states (ante 1890). A single specimen in Bentley Woods during 1893 (Baylis); a second taken there on 17 May 1924 ( M l y ) ; several at Waldringfield light before 1929 (Wir). One at Fritton Warren (see no. 14, supra); two at light, Fritton marshes, July 1935 (Mr). Several larvae at Easton Bavents in 1935 (Baker). 17.



Local and infrequent; commoner in certain years, e.g. 1933. Bentley Woods (Baylis, M l y ) ; Washbrook ( H k g ) ; Bawdsey ( D ) ; occasionally at Hemley and Waldringfield (Wir); Monks Soham garden (Mly); Hepworth (Kirkby); Beccles(Gls); Sotterley ( G d ) ; Gorleston in 1921 (Mr), Bradwell and Hopton (D), in Lothingland : cf. Trans, ii, 184 and 290. 18.



Extremely rare, and found only singly. Tuddenham ( T . & J Brown of Cambridge) ; Beccles (Crf) and Gorleston (Hist. Yarm.^ probably in error): ante 1890. One in Copdock Rectory avenue' c. 1895 (Hkg). One at Kessingland in June 1890 (Ctw). One found floating on Oulton Dyke about 1920 (D). One female bred 21 May 1927 from Beiton larva (Ellis). 19 & 20.



Both occur in profusion, especially at light, from Bentley Woods to Gorleston. 21. D . RUSSULA, Linn. Very local; never seen through forty vears (Mly). Foxhall Heath ; Blaxhall; Mildenhall and Tuddenham in Breck • Herringfleet and Beiton in N E . (ante 1890). Tuddenham, Cavenham



Icklingham (Sparke) and Downham (Norgate), in Breck about 1900. Beiton Heath, very rare in August 1927 (Mr) ; Blythburgh (Btn) and Fritton in 1936 (Gd). Linn. Nearly certainly extinct. Near Ipswich (Bree); Belstead (H. Lingwood); Bentley (Henry Miller, all three ante 1890), whence it has certainly died out. For a possible west Suffolk record, cf Entom. Weekly Intelligencer i, 1856, 151. *22.



A. VILLICA, L i n n .

Suffolk, teste W. C. Hewitson Esq. (Stephens, Illust, ii, 1828, p. 72). Of frequent occurrence, though rarer than forraerly (cp. Ent. Wk. lntell. x, 1861, 27) ; no recent record from west Suffolk, except at Worlington in 1925 et seqq. (Whit). Annually scarce at Waldringfield (Wir); Felixstow and Nacton (Gibbs); Bentley and Barnby (Vinter); Dodnash, Ipswich, Beiton, Gorleston, etc. 24.

A. CAJA, L i n n .

Suffolk, teste W. C. Hewitson Esq. (Stephens, lllus. ii, 1829, p. 198). Woolly Bears are abundant in all gardens, to a less extent on our central clay. Linn. Verv rare, and now probably confined to Barton Mills. Kesgrave, a few' larvae ( G r ) ; Tuddenham (Garrett); Mildenhall, and specimens on the wing at Barton Mills (T. & J. Brown) : ante 1890. Our sole later records are of two taken at Barton Mills in June 1896 by the late E. G. J. Sparke, and now ? in his coli, in Bury Museum; and one at Brandon, 5 July 1937 (Hawley). 25.


[C. Hera, L.—Confined, in Britain, to the vicinities of Exeter and Lewes.] Family 26.




Sparsely distributed in the east & centre. Bentley, Needham, Blaxhall (ante 1890). Bentley Woods in May and June 1894, May 1895 and June 1898 (Hkg); Ipswich in 1896 (Pyett); Hemley at light (Wir); Monks Soham garden, rare, 1908-21 (Mly); Blythburgh Wood, Mav 1937 (Gd, Btn); Wangford Wood and Fritton Lake, May 1937 (Baker). 27.



One at light in Hemley Rectory on 21 July 1904 (Wir. E M M . xl, 236). Elsewhere Kent and I. Wight only, in Britain : probably extinct even there.



28. NOLA CUCULLATELLA, Linn. Abundant everywhere, from Tuddenham Fen to Bentley Woods ; Beiton (Mr); common in Gorleston, larvas at Frostenden (D). 29. URABA STRIGULA, Schff. Stowmarket before 1859 (Stainton, Man. ii, 157); several specimens at Bentley by Garrett and Miller (ante 1890), and one sitting on an oak-trunk there on 11 July 1902 (Mly); Flixton, Bungay (Toms). Five in Bentley Woods, 1937 (Gd). [U. albula, Hb.—Kent to Devon ; & Central Europe to Japan].

Family HYLOPH1LIDJE. 30. EARIAS CHLORANA, Linn. In broad marshes ; rare. Taken at Ipswich by Garrett, and at Beccles by Canon Cruttwell (ante 1890). One on long-leaved willow leaf in fens at Kenny Hill in Mildenhall on 6 July 1920 (Mly).. 31. HYLOPHILA BICOLORANA, Fsl. (quercana, Schf.). Generally scattered sparsely, except SW. Bentley (Harwood) Hacheston (Hkr); Beccles (Crf); Hardwick (Skepper); Brandon (Wrn) ; and " in considerable abundance " in West Stow wood (Wrl, in Suff. Inst, iv, 1870, p. 221) : ante 1890. Corton in 1891 (Butler); one at Waldringfield in 1927 (Wir); Bentley Woods, one in 1896 (Platten) ; Copdock on 7 July 1894 (Hkg); a few larvas near Timworth in 1911 (Nurse); and at Dunwich in 1933 (Trans, ii, 161) ; an imago at light at Fritton Lake in mid-August 1934 (loc. cit., p. clxxxiii). Wangford Wood, bred 1937 (Gd). 32. HALIAS PRASINANA, Linn. Certainly scarcer than thirty years ago, when it was frequent and sometimes even abundant in the Bentley* and Assington woods ; occurring also at Easton, Leiston and Beccles (ante 1890). Belstead wood, somewhat scarce in 1899 (Platten) ; one at Waldringfield in 1929 (Wir); common at Blythburgh (Btn.) ; Tuddenham Fen in 1909 (Mly); a few larvse near Timworth in 1911 (Nurse). Bentley, abundant before 10 a.m. (Crisp). 33. SARROTHRIPUS REVAYANA, Scop. Apparently not very common. Brandon and at West Stow only (ante 1890). On ivy-blossom at Covehithe in September 1935 (Mly) and Bungay in October 1900 (Mn); Bentley in 1934 *The striduJation of this species duringflightis, we believe, well known. At the above locality on 20 June 1894 we took a pair, in juxtapositon though not in cop., on an oak-leaf around which three or possibly four others were Aying : probably the female was assembling, as her abdomen was being elevated, " which motion emits a squeak similar to but louder than that of a bat," our diary notes.-—Ed.



and several bred at Waldringfield in 1907 (Wir); at light inMonks Soham House at the end of April 1932 (Mly); at sallow in Barsham (Gls) and Fritton marshes in 1936 (Mr). Sibton (Hawley). Family CA RA


Subfamily C A R A D R I N I D E S . 34.



Very thinly scattered around Ipswich at Bentley (formerly), one at Hemley (Wir) and one at light in Martlesham (D) ; Aldringham in 1930 (Wiltshire); Beccles (Crf perhaps extinct) ; and in the Breck before 1890 at Tuddenham Fen (Wrt, Suff. Inst. 1870, 220), Downham and Thetford. Larvas singly in Blythburgh Wood, 1936 ( G d & D). 35. A. ALNI, Linn. Apparently rarer than 'in 1890, when it had been found at Woolverstone, (not Ipswich by Bree); Glemham Magna (Bloomfield); Needham ( L ) ; Finburgh (Levett); Culford and West Stow (Wrt). Thence we know it only in a wood near Barham Green (Sparke) and a larva at Bungay (Mn). 36 & 37. A. TRIDENS, Schf. et A. PSI, Linn. The former, which was bred at Falkenham in May 1900 (Mly), is usually considered the rarer; but its British distribution centres here, so in Suffolk they appear equally frequent and wide spread from Ipswich to Gorleston and Bury : no Breck records. 38.



Inunfailingattendanceon urban Lombardy-poplars in Sudbury, Ipswich, Southwold, Beccles and Gorleston; but Seen in the country only at Playford (Greene, Ent. Wk. Intell. i, 1856, 164), and Hemley in 1903 (Wir). No western observations. 39. A. ACERIS, Linn. ' Somewhat scarce, but widely distributed' in 1890, when it was thought too general to merit localising. Later records are merely from Copdock (Hkg) ; and Ipswich (Pyett), where Baylis took it on 27 July 1895 at electric light, then a novelty which attracted many outlying moths. Several at Hemley in 1903 et seqq. (Wir); one at sugar in Gorleston during July 1935 (Mr). 40.



Very thinly scattered throughout the County, except perhaps south-west and Lothingland. Copdock, Bentley (formerly), Playford (Ent. Wk. Intell. i, 1856, 164), Waldringfield (James), Brandeston, Needham, Stowmarket, bred and taken at sugar near Timworth in 1911 (Nurse), on sugar at Tuddenham (Vivian). Aldeburgh, Beccles ; at light in Bungay (Mn).



41. A. RUMICIS, Linn. Of quite frequent occurrence from Brantham to Beccles, and Aldeburgh to Brandon. 42. A. MENYANTHIDIS, View. Two specimens were bred from forced pupas by the Revd. Joseph Greene at the end of March 1857 at Playford near Ipswich (Ent. Weekly Intell. ii, p. 11). Suffolk thus becomes an extension of this species ' ränge southwards. I possess one ancient unlocalised example (Mly). [We cannot hope for the British A. euphorbia, F. (myricae, Gn.), which is not English ; or A. auricoma, F., whose ränge extends only from Kent \ o Hants. But the central-European A. strigosa, F., now probably extinct on the chalk of both Cambs and Norfolk, might conceivably cross the Rubicon to us.] 43. SIMYRA ALBIVENOSA, Göze. (venosa, Bkh.). This marsh insect still continues both local and very rare, though of broader ränge than was known in 1890, when only Captain Chawner had taken the imagines at Lowestoft, where as well as at Fritton Mr. W. C. Boyd of Cheshunt had discovered the yellowish pubescent larvse that feed openly on reeds. Later a few moths were captured at Needham by Lingwood (EMM. 1904, p. 80) ; Mr. E. J. G. Sparke obtained pupa: in reeds at Tuddenham Fen (Norgate); and so recently as 1934 larvffi were found at Brandon (Trans, ii, 292). 44.



Frequently noticed on walls, less commonly on wooden palings, never seen on tree-trunks. Sitting upon only the first in Ipswich, Aldeburgh, Stowmarket, &c. ; on the second in Gorleston, where orange-coloured forms occur. 45. B. MURALIS, Forst, (glandifera, Hb.). So extremely rare as to be most probably extinct. Recorded from Needham Market by the late Mr. Henry Lingwood, and presumably now in his collection at Bury Museum ; and from Gorleston (Entom. 1879, p. 294). No later observations. [The central-southern European B. alga, F., occurs in LancsCheshire only.] 46.



Ranges through our southern counties only as far as EAnglia, and is nowhere commoner than in Suffolk, though even here distinctly local. Examples have occurred near Ipswich during the past year (Stephens 1829, p. 47). " In 1853 I took about one hundred and twenty of this moth at sugar in a wood near Ipswich, and noticed always that they rarely came until between



ten and twelve o'clock, and that they were more abundant when the nights were dark and windy : once I got twenty-seven and once twenty-five, but on unfavourable nights not one. They never fed for any length of time, were very shy, and were easily disturbed by the light of my lantern " (dealer George King of Ipswich, The Substitute or Entom. Exch. 1857, p. 220). This Statement, apparently honest and straightforward, was generally discredited upon publication (cf. Zool. 1857; Nat. 1858, p. 61, 205 et passim post). T o us it seems quite likely that King did discover a spot where the moth was merely in greater plenty than anywhere eise: parrallel cases are quotable. Not found about Playford by Greene; but Dr. Bree, at that time, had no doubt it was a Suffolk species because (only) Crewe had taken the larva [' two full-fed larvas, 25 August 1856, in a wood near Ipswich ' (Crewe)] and his brother, he believed, another at Woolverstone (lib. cit. 206). By 1890 Harwood and Miller had found the species at Bentley; Lingwood at Needham ; and Crewe's locality is entered as Ipswich (Bloomfield). All later records are from the Bentley Woods : in May 1893 (Baylis), 1894 (Ml), 1895 (Frost), annually on trunks as well as sugar during 16 June 1894 to 9 June 1998 (Hkg), 1899 (Platten), on sugar in early June 1931 (Trans, i, 234) and at sugar in 1937 (Btn). 47.



The sole Suffolk example was captured by Lord Rendlesham on a Scots pine-trunk in Tangham Forest about 1915 (Trans, i, 233). 48.

OCHRIA OCHRACEA, H Ăź b . (flavago, E s p . ) .

Very general; larvae in Artemisia at Ipswich, 1934 (Bp). and in thistle-stems much commoner than are the imagines seen. Ipswich, rarely at light; Waldringfield, Foxhall, Needham, Monks Soham, Leiston, Lowestoft, Benacre Broad, Beccles, Oulton church marshes, Hopton and at light in Gorleston. Mildenhall (Gd). 49.



North Cove marshes of the Waveney, at light on 13 September 1932 (Mly) ; Dunwich and Walberswick (Btn), Covehithe in 1936 (Gd). Doubtless much confused with the next kind. 50.




Certainly local, but probably by no means rare in our broader marshes and Broads. Hemley in 1901 (Wir); Bosmere in 1900 (G. F. Mathews) and annually at Needham Market about 1904 ( L ) ; Southwold in July 1924 (J. C. F. Fryer, Entom. 1926, 61) ; Lowestoft (Bd) and four in Oulton Broad during August 1904 (Campbell-Taylor); Fritton Lake at light in August 1934 (Mly). Lakenheath (Fenland); Tuddenham in 1904 (Sparke).






Overlooked. A full-fed larva in stem of Typha latifolia at Waldringfield, bred in August 1897 (Wir); bred near Woodbridge 1899 (South); bred from Beccles marshes in August 1929 (Mr,D); N. Cove in 1935 (Jackson); Dunwich and Walberswick (Btn); Covehithe 1936 (Mr). 52.




Martlesham in 1899 ( D ) ; Hfemley in 1904 (Wir); Needham (Skepper), where larvas were abundant but no imagines observed (L, ante 1890). Fritton in August (Ml), at sugar on oak-trunks close to the Lake in August 1933 (Mr, Mly) ; Barnby marshes in 1935 (Jackson) ; Dunwich and Walberswick (Btn). West Stow, Ampton and Livermere in 1909 (Nurse). 53. N. TYPHJE, Thnb. (arundinis, F.) Somewhat common throughout the County ; larva; in reedstems. Ipswich, at light in 1894 (Pyett); and a few at Hemley (Wir). Tyrer seems to have found it commonly about Eye (cf. Ent. Wk. Intell. vi, 1859, 159 & 184). Bred freely in 1931 from Beccles reed-beds, to north of river (Mr, D). [N. cannce, Ochs., is surely no more than overlooked by us ; it is in the fens of both Norfolk and Cambs.] 54. COENOBIA RUFA, Haw. (despecta, Tr.). Very locally abundant; but rare about Ipswich, at Bixley Decoy (Ml). Henham (1936, Gd), Southwold in 1897 (Ctw), Dunwich and Walberswick (Btn), Lowestoft (Skepper), Beccles (Crf). Tuddenham (Skepper ; no later records from the west). 55. SENTA MARITIMA, Tausch, (ulvae, Hb. ; sericea, Ct.). Taken in a garden in Suffolk, end of June (Curtis fol. cci; Ste. Illust. 1834, 298: probably on the coast at Covehithe about 1825.—Ed.) One at Ipswich by Tim Last (Entom. 1867, p. 189). Hemley in 1902 by Rev. A. P. Waller (EMM. 1902, 247), including the forms Wismarensis and bipunctata, also at Waldringfield up to 1933. Lowestoft in 1903 (I.e. 1904, 80-81) ; Reydon in 1934 (Baker); Walberswick in 1935 (Btn); Herringfleet marshes 1936. 56. PANEMERIA TENEBRATA, Scop. (arbuti, F.). Obviously much neglected ; doubtless frequent in most rough pastures. Noted solely from Bures, Copdock, Bentley Woods, about Ipswich, Hemley ; Ashfield by Deben in 1921, in paddock and fly-trap at Monks Soham during 1915-36 ; Bramford chalk pits, Needham, Stowmarket, Holton. Unrecorded from the north and west; except from Ringsfield in 1933 (Mr).





So prevalent at light as to be a pest from Ipswich to Gorleston. [L. Nicker Ii, Frey, at St. Annes and L. Dumerili, Dup., along our south coast, are little more than immigrants. But Spodoptera exigua, Hb., is well established in the west of England, and a half-dozen occurred at Dovercourt in September 1903 ( E M M . xxxix, p. 302); and Acosmetia caliginosa, Hb., in the New Forest.] 58.



Not much in evidence, since it was considered generally common with us in 1890. Frequent on sugar in Bentley Woods ; Waldringfield ; Fritton ; rarely at light in Monks Soham and Gorleston, in June ; noticed at Town-street in Brandon during July 1924. 59.



Ubiquitous on sugar in autumn. Recently noted at Bentley Woods, Ipswich, Hogs Highland, Martlesham; Lound (Ellis), Fritton and Gorleston. 60.


Everywhere ; odd specimens turn up in all sorts of situations, e.g. under dead ash-bark in Ashfield marshes of the Deben, and even in beached Southwold fishing-boats. 61.



Continues to be local and uncommon ; known here since the time of Kirby, who took it at Barham soon after 1800 (Steph. Illust. iii, 62). Ipswich, one at electric light on 12 July 1895 (Mlv); Combs (C); Brandeston (Gr); Glemham Magna (Bloomfield); Wangford Crf). No recent records tili 1935, when Burton found it at Henham. 62.

C. DIFFINIS, L i n n .

Distinctly scarce, and known from only Bentley, Brandeston, Needham, Stowmarket, Burv, Ickworth ; and Beccles. Henham in August 1924 (Mr). 63.

C . AFFINIS, L i n n .

Levelly distributed, and much more frequent than the last. Copdock at both light and sugar, Hemley, common around Ipswich, Blakenham, occasionally at Monks Soham light, Gorleston, &c. 64.

C . TRAPEZINA, L i n n .

The commonest summer Noctuid. Found in Suffolk by W. C. Hewitson before 1831 (Stephens iii, 325); in literal hundreds on sugar at Bentley, and extending thence to Ashby and Gorleston.





Rather thinly scattered Over the County at Bentley, Brantham, Ipswich street-lamps in August (Baylis), Waldringfield, Playford, Brandeston, Needham and Stowmarket to Thetford. Henham at dusk in August 1924 (Mr). 66.

C . RETUSA, L i n n .

Certainly quite rare, though wide spread.. One specimen at Ipswich before 1890 (Henry Miller); near Thetford, about the same time (Revd. H. Williams) ; one M Henham in July 1924 (Mr). 67. C. oo, Linn. Yet rarer, almost evanescent. A single example at Tuddenham about 1870 (Wrt). One captured at Campion flower in Coddenham during 1928 (Crisp). 68. C. UMBRA, Hufn. (marginata, F.). Widely distributed, but rarely in considerable numbers. Bentley Wood, one in June 1902 ( M l y ) ; Brandeston, Felixstow in 1901 (Gibbs), occasionally at Waldringfield in 1925-35, Leiston; Benacre denes (Btn); on flowers and sugaratKessingland in June 1890 (Ctw), Lowestoft, Beccles in 1930 (Mr), Bungay (Mn), Gorleston (Mr, Wiltshire) and many just north of the Yare there (Trans, ii, p. clxxvii). In the Breck it occurs about both Brandon and Tuddenham, where Sparke found larvse. 69.



Comes copiously to light throughout the County. 70.

C . PETASITXS, D b l d .

Certainly very local, but not so rare as was thought before 1890. Often singly at electric lights in Ipswich town (Mly, Pyett, Baylis, Platten teste W. H. Harwood); Waldringfield, at light in August 1931 (Wir) ; taken several, and found work of larvae at Needham ( L ) ; larvae at Blaxhall believed to be this species (Hkr) ; abundant signs of its work in Butterburr-roots at Bury (Norgate, post 1890). 71.




A great deal commoner than formerly, or was formerly supposed. Copdock Rectory at light, and Belstead (Hkg) ; somewhat common at light in Ipswich (Mly, Baylis, Pyett); Martlesham (D) and Hemley (Wir) ; Southwold, bred from pupa found loose on denes, and Monks Soham at light, Brandon (Mly), Bury (Skepper). Bungay (Mn), Fritton (Mr), Lowestoft (Btn), Gorleston cliff (D). 72.



T h e grass, Elymus arenarius, I.., was known to Hind only from Thorp to Corton. This Noctua was locally common in 1903 at Kessingland ( E M M . 1904, 80), where a few had first been



discovered in Suffolk Aying over flowers in June 1890, with one at light and others sitting at dusk on grasses at Lowestoft denes (Ctw). Gorleston in July 1929 ( M r ) ; and Hopton in both 1929 and 1932 (Trans, ii, 87). 73.



Common enough, though not often noted. Belstead in 1897 ( H k g ) ; Ipswich marshes in 1894 and Foxhall in 1903 ( M l y ) ; Bosmere in Needham Market ( M l ) ; Bury, Tuddenham, Newmarket; Beccles (Crf), Fritton in 1934 (Mr). 74.



Locally abundant in marshes. Brantham in August 1889 (Buckell); a few at light in Ipswich during 1895 (Pyett) ; in some plenty at Hemley in 1901 ( W i r ) ; Southwold (Ctwell); Lowestoft ( B o y d ) ; Fritton (Trans, ii, p. clxxxvii) ; Beccles (I.e., p. 293 ; Crowfoot), Fritton (Wiltshire). Tuddenham in 1900 (Sparke); larvse common at Ampton and West Stow in 1909 (Nurse). 75.


Discovered new to Suffolk at light beside Fritton Lake in August 1933 (Mly, Doughty, Moore : Trans, ii, p. cii). ; again there in 1934 ; and two by Jackson at Barnby in August 1935. Hitherto confined, in the world, to Norfolk Broads ( E M M . 1900, p. 278). 76.


Suffolk to Lincoln in fens, local. Six in Mildenhall marshes on 11 July 1937 (Gd). Larvae in stems of reed, Phragmites, in May (Meyrick). I thought it fed in species of Calamagrostis reeds in damp woods (Wiltshire). 77.



Quite local, but broad spread and by no means rare. Raydon Wood (Baylis); Ipswich (Ml) ; Playford ( G r ) ; singly at Felixstow and Hemley in 1903 ( E M M . 1904, 8 0 ) ; Wangford ( C r f ) ; Bungay (Mn). 78.



T w o males taken, new to Suffolk, at car-light on the Breck near Mildenhall on 18-9 June 1932 (Trans, ii, 86 ; cf also E M M . 1900, p. 116). One male at car-headlights near Worlington a few years ago (Burton 1936). 79.


(cubicularis, Bkh.).

Common at light from Ipswich to Mildenhall and Gorleston; larvas abundant beside the Waveney at Beccles in 1892.

CARADRIN •"DJ?E. 80 & 81.



Hufn. et C . ALSINES, Brah.

Both are sufficiently frequent at light everywhere ; Ipswich, Monks Soham, Gorleston. 82.

C. TARAXACI, Hüb. (blanda, Tr.).

Of but slightly less frequent occurrence than the preceding two species ; Copdock, on one occasion Aying to light in a storm of wind and rain ; Orford ; Sottferly, Monks Soham ; Brandon. 83.

C. TRIGRAMMICA, Hufn. (trilinea, Bkh.).

Broadly distributed, but rarely in considerable numbers. Sometimes common in Bentley Woods; local about Ipswich and Hemley ; rarely seen in High Suffolk, e.g. in Monks Soham garden ; Gorleston cliff, sometimes at light. The form bilinea, Hüb., has been especially noticed in Combs Wood (C) and about Bury (Skepper). 84.

C. MATURA, Hufn. (cytherea, F.).

Ubiquitous, and often common at both sugar and light; of uncertain appearance, and not seen here by me during 1891-1899 (Mly). Recently in Ipswich marshes, Waldringfield, Southwold, abundant at Monks Soham light, Gorleston sugar and Mildenhall. [Five British kinds of this large genus are outstanding from our list. C. ambigna, F., is a recent immigrant to the south coast, where C. Bondi, Knaggs, survives at Lyme Regis and one spot alone in Kent (Wickham, v.v. 1933) ; C. musculosa, Hüb., is similarily immigrant to the west of England, where only is C. paleacea, Esp. (fulvago, Hb.) indigenous. T h e sole kind we may hope to add is C. concolor, Guen., a central European moth, confined to the west Cambs fens that ran continuously into Lakenheath and Mildenhall.] 85.



T h e Old Lady glides sedately into our houses every autumn, and seats herseif serenely on our walls, from Bentley to Gorleston, respected of all* * " CATEPHIA TRIFASCIATA, S t e p h e n s . Illus. Brit. E n t o m . iii, 1830, p . 128 [Sp. nov. ; between Stilbia anomala a n d M o r m o maura]. O n e example of this only has occurred [in Britain] ; it was taken b y t h e Rev. W . K i r b y , at Barham, w h o kindly presented m e with t h e s p e c i m e n :—of its history n o t h i n g is k n o w n " (Stephens, loc. cit. ; n o sex or f i g u r e ) . — " Catephia trifasiata belongs to the genus Mocis [ H ü b . 1816]. H o w t h e t h i n g was f o u n d in Suffolk goodness knows, for it is a F a r Eastern species " (our M e m b e r , Riley, in lit. 1 M a y 1935). T h e V e n . William K i r b y , F . R . S . , possessed extensive collections of foreign insects : doubtless this N o c t u i d became m i x e d . — E d .





Everywhere at light, sugar and ivy-blossom in September. A pupa, dug at Sproughton on 6 February 1894, emerged on 27th of the same month (cp. Ent. Ree. 1894, 71). 87.

H . LUCIPARA, L i n n .

Wide spread, but not very common and usually found singly, with us. At light at Beccles in 1892, about Ipswich, Hemley and at M o n k s Soham ; on sugar at Fritton, &c. Gorleston. 88.

H . ATRIPLICIS, L i n n .

Continues to be very rare, and to occur but singly. Playford (Revd. Joseph Greene) ; Aldeburgh (Dr. H e l e ) ; one in a garden at Stowmarket in 1915 (Platten). Brandon (Dr. Wheeler of Norwich and T . Brown of Cambridge). 89.

H . SCABRIUSCULA, Linn, (pinastri, L . ) .

Generally distributed, but not often frequent. Copdock, Bentley Woods, occasionally on Ipswich palings, Martlesham, rarely abundant at Waldringfield sugar ; quite scarce or absent in High Suffolk ; Burgh Castle (D), Gorleston (Mr). T u d d e n h a m in 1891 (Christy) ; Mildenhall, abundant on sugar in June 1933 (Gd). 90.



H. rectilinea has been taken in Suffolk by Capt. Stanley Smith (Burton, in lit. 21 April 1936): I was very surprised to see one sitting on a Scots pine-trunk when Pine Hawks were being sought on 26 J u n e 1932 near Gobblecock Hall on Sutton Heath (Smith, in lit. 28 April 1936 ; teste D r Cockayne). 91.



By no means uncommon, broadly distributed. Bentley Woods, Ipswich, M o n k s Soham, Needham to T u d d e n h a m ; Aldeburgh, Aldringham, Southwold to Gorleston. 92 & 93.



Both in such numbers as to be pestilent at light and sugar. 94.



M u c h overlooked, hence dearth of records. Bentley W o o d s on sugar in J u n e 1894 (Baylis) unrecorded from the Ipswich district; Aldeburgh ( H e l e ) N e e d h a m ( L ) ; Elmswell (Skepper). Sometimes not uncommon about Yarmouth (Pagets) : unnoted at Gorleston. 9 5 8c 9 6 .

H . RUREA, F a b . e t H . HEPATICA,


T h e s e two species, if distinet, are remarkably similar in the extent of their frequency and distribution. Both are found, no more than occasionally and never gregariously, everywhere ;



on Waldringfield sugar ; distinctly uncommonly around both 1 pswich and Beccles ; neither is noted from Lothingland, now so well-worked. 97.



' Somewhat rare ' at Bentley, five on oaks near Kesgrave Hall (Gr), Needham, Glemham M a g n a and Beccles, ante 1890. Later a good deal rarer, and apparently confined to Bentley Woods (Hkg, Pyett), where this is the sole moth ever beaten from the exotic Spanish chestnut (Mlv). " 98.




T h e records of this species from Ipswich by Henry Miller and Aldeburgh by Dr. Wratislaw (Entom. ii, 340) are both excluded from Bloomfield's 1890 Cat. Suff, as errors (page 55) and admitted as ' probably mistakes ' by him later. But forty years earlier Stainton knew the species from Stowmarket, and is copied by Newman in 1871, nor does sufficient reason for exclusion arise, since it is merely local all over Britain. Recently M r . Crisp has found it at Coddenham. 99.




Submaritime, in salt-marshes : a score or more on the Suffok coast in 1858 (Bree, Ent. Wk. Int. v, 30). Brantham, Bentley, Foxhall heath ; Hemley on sugared thistles ( W i r ) ; not uncommon at Felixstow in 1901-3, and at Orford ( G i b b s ) ; Glemham Magna (Bloomfield); Aldeburgh (Hele 188 and Wratislaw, Suff. Inst, iv, 1870, 2 2 0 ) ; Southwold, var. with light Stigmata (Ctw) ; Lowestoft, B e c c l e s ; Gorleston (Mr). Walberswick, August 1937 (Btn). 100 & 101. H. BASILINEA, Fab. et H. SORDIDA, Bkh. (anceps, Hb.). Both frequent everywhere at dusk, sugar and light in summer. 102.




T h i s superb Noctuid is certainly becoming quite scarce. Before 1890 it was known from Ipswich, Glemham Magna, Leiston, Needham, Stowmarket, Burv railway (Wratislaw, S u f f . Inst, iv, 1870, 221), T u d d e n h a m and one taken at Eye in August 1859 (Tyrer, Ent. Wk. Int. vii, 43). T h e sole later record is that of a few sitting, like the above C. graminis, on Breck flowers at Freckenham and Holywell in Mildenhall on 10-11 August 1928 (Mly). 103.




Not very rare, often mixed with the next kind. Ipswich (Ml), not uncommon at shop lights (Mly, Pyett, Baylis : teste Bloomfield); Needham district (H. L i n g w o o d ) ; Aldeburgh (Wrt) ; Beccles ( C r f ) ; and recently at Gorleston (D).



104. H. DIDYMA, Esp. (oculea, Guen.). A pest at light in July everywhere, especially noted at Ipswich, Needham, Monks Soham, Gorleston. 105. H. PABULATRICULA, Brah. (connexa, Bkh.). Dr. N. F. Hele's record of Apamea connexa is sufficiently explicit (Notes Aldeburgh 1870, p. 188); and now that the species is known to extend southwards as far, at least, as Norfolk little exception can be taken to it, despite Bloomfield's scepticism. Phalaris arundinacea, L., is abundant enough in Suffolk. 106.

H . LEUCOSTIGMA, H Ăź b . (fibrosa, H b . ) .

Local, but wide spread in inland marshes. Copdock, rare on sugar by the Gipping at Ipswich (Mly, Baylis), Bixley, variable at Hemley (Wir), Needham, Tuddenham (Sparke), a nice form at Brandon in 1921 (D), Downham (Norgate), Beccles, Lowestoft, Fritton in 1932, Gorleston in 1930 (Mr). 107.




Generally distributed, but not very frequent. Copdock, Bentley, Ipswich, Needham, Southwold in 1897 (Ctw), larvse abundant in Beccles marshes; Yarmouth denes 1933 (Mly). 108.



Abundant throughout the County, especially on ragwort flowers in August; Tostock by Tuck. 109.




Generally distributed, and usuallyaccountedsomewhatcommon. Playford, Stowmarket, Waldringfield, Kessingland, Gorleston cliff garden. 110






(furuncula, Hb.),




Both quite common kinds at flowers, dusk and sugar, throughout the County. The latter was known here before 1829 (Stephens, iii, 15 ; Wood's Index). 112.




Taken in Suffolk (Stephens 1829); Suffolk (Wood's Index). Common though the last may be, this species far surpasses them in downright ubiquity. [In the large genus Hadena, as it has come to be now understood, Suffolk fails in no less than eight kinds. Five of these ( H. Zollikoferi, Frey ; IL lateritia, Hfn. ; H. CrinanensiS, Burr. H. lucens, Frey, quite possibly mixed among our nictitans;



and H. paludis, Tutt) are but newly-recognised as British species. H. exulis, Lef. and H. capliuncula, Tr. are mainly of northern distribution; but Haworthi, curt., approaches us in Cambs, whence it may be found to impinge into Suffolk.] Subfamily AGROTIDES. *113.



Pretty nearly extinct, do.ibtlfss. Two or three specimens about Brandon by Dr. F. D. vVheeler of Norwich, before 1890. Captured at Needham Market during 1903 by Mr. Henry Lingwood (EMM. xl, 80), and probably in his collection now preserved in Bury Museum. 114. H. PELTIGER, Schf. Quite rare, but more obtainable than the last. Nearly confined to the Breck :—Brandon before 1890 (Wrn) ; Newmarket, taken by Mr. Wagstaff (Fenland); Tuddenham, by G. F. Briggs (EMM p. 223), and one there in June 1897 (Sparke) ; a dozen larvse were found during 1913 in west Suffolk (Nurse in lit.), probably at Ampton. Our sole coast record is from Lowestoft before 1890, taken by W. C. Boyd. 115.




By no means rare ; but confined to the coast with its estuaries and the Breck. Freston on the Orwell; Suffolk coast in 1858 (Bree, Ent. Wk. Intell. v, 30) at Felixstow, Aldeburgh and Kessingland, though not for a half-century. One at Waldringfield about 1879 (T. N. Waller). In the Breck it survives at Brandon, Mildenhall (1936, Gd), Elveden, Lackford ; Worlington, Herringswell and Tuddenham (Sparke, Entom. 1900, 40); the heaths of the last village seem its headquarters, for there were found larvae in August 1884 by Meek (Entom. xvii, 278) and imagines in July 1929 (Harwood, teste Mly). [H. scutosus, Schf., is a mere immigrant to Britain ; and H. delphinii, Linn., quite recently discovered.] 116 & 117. AGROTIS SAUCIA, Hüb. et A . YPSILON, Rott, (suffusa). Quite common on sugar in autumn from Bentley Woods to Gorleston. The former seems hardly less restricted in its ränge now than the latter : they sometimes sit on the tree-trunk cheek by jowl. 118.




Still very rare, occurring singly. Near Ipswich (Harwood, cf. E M M . xiii, 141) ; Bentley (Ml) and Beccles (Crf), alone before 1890. One sitting on a paling in Gorleston on 31 July, 1918 (D). One on a sugared oak-trunk beside Fritton Lake on 16



August 1934 (Mly). One of the light southern form on a Waldringfield gate-post in July 1907 (Wir.) Three sitting on pLnetrees at Aldeburgh, 8 August 1926 ( ). Pakefield in September 1936 (Gd). 119.



Confined to our coast-line in Suffolk ; Barrett's expectation of discovering this species in the Breck appears unfulfilled nor is Salsola Kali, L., on which the larvse feed at Leiston, recorded thence. A good series taken during 1901-2, abundant during 1903, at Felixstow (Gibbs); Southwold (Bkr), Covehithe (Mly), Lowestoft (Crf, L ) ; Gorleston (Mr, Wiltshire), and not rare just north of the Yare (D). 120.



Thnb. (porphyrea, Hb.).

On heaths; becoming scarce. Noticed at Gorleston (Mr) and Martlesham (D) only since 1890, when it was known to occur at Foxhall heath, Blaxhall, Dunwich, Lowestoft, Herringfket; and in the Breck at Tuddenham and Brandon. 121.




A submaritime species, now become very rare on our coast and vet still maintaining a broad distribution in the old Pen Sea district of the Breck. Taken at Dunwich in 1903 (Bloornfield in E M M ) ; three at Kessingland in 1902 (I.e. 1904, 81) ; Lowestoft; Gorleston Cliff on sugar in August 1923, at light & on palings, uncommonly (D). Thetford ; one at Tuddenham in 1900 (Sparke); six speeimens on ragwort at Bamham on 31 August and 1 September 1894 (Norgate); Barton Magna, Bury. Also recorded from Finburgh, Combs and Bury (Naturalist 1858, p. 230). [The western ränge of our two other British Agrotes, A. Ashworthi, Dbld. and A. lucernea, Linn., practically precludes their presence here.] 122.


Rott, (valligera, Hb.).

Like A. prsecox, this occurs throughout the Breck as well as along our more normal east coast and its creeks. The two species' presence at comparatively high points up the Valley of the Gipping doubtless represents their survival there, like the Bee Dasypoda hirtipes, Ltr., since the time that that river was salt; indeed, Barrett, considered (Tr. Norf. Nat. Soc. i, 35) the present Noctuid to have " existed unchanged on the ancient coast sands of Thetford and Brandon from the time of the later postglacial epoch." Felixstow at sugar in 1894 (Mera), in plenty and variable in 1901-3 (Gibbs); Hemley in 1901 (Wir) ; Martlesham (D)<; Aldeburgh; Southwold at light in 1900 (Mly); Covehithe



(Gd), Lowestoft, Beccles ; frequent at Gorleston (Mr). Lakenheath in August 1900 (Mly); Brandon (Barrett), among Echium vulgare in June 1921 ( D ) ; Tuddenham, at light in June-July 1888-9 (Vivian). Also recorded from Needham in the Gipping Valley. 123.



Generally distributed, and by nox means uncommon at light. Noted at Copdock, infrequent at Ipswich and Waldringfield, Monks Soham occasionally most years, Aldeburgh, Fritton, Gorleston ; Bury ; Brandon. 124 & 125. E. SEGETUM, Schf. et E. EXCLAMATIONIS, Linn. Both as common as turnips everywhere, often a pest at light and sugar.—The lands around Barham were much damaged by the larvas of Agrotis segetum devouring the roots, about 1826, and the Rev. W. Kirby told me that several bushels of the larvse were destroyed by M r . Rodwell (Stephens, Illust. ii, 1829, p. 116). A. aqua, Och., at Sudbury in 1836 (Ent. Mag. iv, 233). 126. E. NIGRICANS, Linn. Generally distributed, but not very frequent. Of no more than occasional occurrence about Ipswich, Monks Soham, Southwold, Gorleston, &c. Agrotis hortorum, Steph. MS., at Sudbury in 1836 (Ent. Mag. iv, 233). 127. E. CURSORIA, H u f n . A submaritime species, as locally common in the Breck District (as has not been hitherto noticed) at Brandon and Freckenham (Mly) as it is upon our east coast at Sizewell in 1936, Southwold and Lowestoft. 128.



M r . Burton added this species to our list: it flew to light at Mildenhall in 1934 and May 1936. Capt. Smith, also, has found it at Barton Mills ; and South records it from our County. 129.



Levelly distributed, and anything but rare from (Ransom) to Gorleston (D). 130.




Linn, (aquilina, Hb).

Among the most ubiquitous of the summer Noctuae throughout the length and, from Lowestoft to Worlington, breadth of the County. [Both the only other British kinds, E. trux, H b . (lunigera, Ste.) and E. obelisca, Hb., seem confined to the south and west of our Isles.]


32 131.



Levelly distributed, and quite common on sugar, throughout Suffolk ; Orford (Gibbs); Ipswich, Monks Soham at light; &c. 132.




Frequently discovered on heaths, by day at the roots of heather and at dusk Aying over i t : habitually feigns death in daylight. Foxhall heath and in 1923 at Aldringham (Mly), Waldringfield heath (Wir), three at Stowmarket (B); Covehithe (Gd), common round Blythburgh (Btn), Lowestoft (L). In the Breck at Brandon (Wrn) and Tuddenham (Wrt). 133.




Very generally distributed, not uncommon at light and sugar. Ipswich, Westerfeld, Martlesham, Monks Soham, Needham (Platten), &c., to Gorleston. 134.



Brahm. (ravida, Hb.).

Ranges through EAnglia, but is quite rare with us. Wheeler of Norwich secured three examples in a Single night at Brandon in 1874 " and no more was heard of it tili about 1900, when two turned up on sugar in Norgate's garden, near the west edge of Bury town. No later records tili two came to light at botterley in 1935 (Btn). 135.




Quite a common species at light, and sometimes sugar, from Needham (Platten) to Gorleston ; pupae frequently dug around Ipswich during winter. 136.




Four at sugar and one at light near Timworth in 1909 (Nurse : Entom. 1911, 220). 137 & 138.



Linn, et G.



Suffolk (Stephens, Illust. ii, 1829, p 136) Par excellence the two most prevalent of all autumn Noctuid moths. 139. G. CASTANEA, Esp. (neglecta, Hb.). Among the rarest of our heath moths apparently. Confined to the wĂźd tracts (1) to the east o f l p s w i c h w h e r e T ^ L a s t u s e d to take a deep-red form (Harwood) about 1880 including Rushmere Heath on which a single s p e c i m e n occurred at augured rags on 24 August 1895 (Mly) and (2) the Breck, where Wheeler of Norwich once found it rarely.






Doubtless sufficiently general, though scarce around Ipswich. Waldringfield; annually at light at Monks Soham; Barnby Broad, Gorleston, Southtown. No specific record from western Suffolk. 141. G. RUBI, View. Levelly distributed everywhere, and quite common at both sugar and light, from Ipswich^ to Gorleston. 142.




A ubiquitous sylvan species, persisting in open country long after the timber has been felled e.g. at Monks Soham and Gorleston. Abundant in woods at Bentley, &c. 143.




Very locally abundant on sugar in woods. Bentley, Ipswich,, Needham, Aldeburgh, Beccles and Lowestoft: before 1890, Later records are from onlv Bentley Woods (Mly, Elliott, Mera, Ml, Baylis, Hkg, Pyett, Platten); Waldringfield in 1891 (R. E. James) ; and Bungay in 1902 (Mn). Does not occur in Lothingland. 144.




Never appears in numbers, usually singly on sugar in woods, about Bentley, Ipswich, Waldringfield, Blaxhall, Needham and Hardwick near Bury. 145. G. STIGMATICA, H端b. (rhomoidea, Tr.). No more frequent than the last kind, but oftener noticed ; occurs with it. Copdock (Hocking), Bentley (Gibbs) on sugar, and sparingly on banks of Orwell at Ipswich (Mly), a few at Hemley (Wir); Glemham Magna (Bloomfield), Needham (L), Bury (Skepper); Henham (Btn), Bungay (Mn), Beccles (Crf), Fritton in August (Ml). 146. Suffolk, teste W. 1829, p. 133); Monks be not actually mere with what similarity in Suffolk.

G. TRIANGULUM, Hufn. C. Hewitson Esq. (Stephens, Illust. ii, Soham. If this and the two former species forms of but one, it is most remarkable and interassociation they all three occur

147. G .



Ubiquitous in September, occasional at light, and locally in woods quite frequent on sugar. Bentley Woods, common ; Ipswich, at light; Martlesham (D). Needham, Stowmarket. Downham. Aldeburgh, Leiston, not uncommon at Kessingland (EMM. 1904, 81), Beccles; Fritton (Mr). Abundant round. Southwold in 1935 (Mly).



148. G. TYPICA, Linn. Frequent everywhere, even in the hedge-shorn wilds of High Suffolk at Monks Soham and Dennington, extending to Gorleston. 149. G . COMES, Hüb. (orbona, F.). Abundant about Ipswich, and over all the County to Gorleston. 150. G. ORBONA, Hufn. (subsequa, Hb.). Rare, and usually found singly, but quite widely distributed. Ipswich ( M l ) ; Waldringfield, singly annually but several on sugar in June 1899 (Wir); Bury (Skepper) ; Tuddenham in 1891 <W M . Christy), Barton Mills in 1930 (Wiltshire), Brandon (Barrett). Gorleston in July 1923, 1927 and 1930 ( M r ) ; Henham in early August 1937 (Btn). 151. G. PRONUBA, Linn. Africa, Asia, Europe and Suffolk are blessed by multitudes of this handsome and very variable species, ahvays welcome •despite its ubiquity. [We lack only four of the ' British ' Graphiphorse, of which two G. fennica, Tsch., and G. flammatra, F., seem mere casual immigrants. G. simulans, Hfn. (pyrophlila, F.), is confined to western England ; but G. depuncta, L., might yet turn up with u s since, though very local, it is of broad distribution, not extending to Kent.] 152.



By no means uncommon, though never occurring in great numbers. Sparingly on sugar in Bentley W o o d s ; not rare at Playford ( G r ) ; Glemham M a g n a ; Needham (L), in 1922 (Platten); Hardwick (Norgate); Newmarket. Henham, Bungay, Worlingham, North Cove, Fritton, Gorleston. Larva; always more frequent. 153.



A common species everywhere from Bentley Woods to Gorleston • Suffolk (Wood's Index 1854); Waldringfield (James, Entom. March 1892), frequent there (Wir) and at Monks Soham light ; Henham Park, &c. 154.




Certainly much rarer than half-century ago ; never seen by me in Suffolk (Mly). Recorded before 1890 as " not c o m m o n : Bures, Belstead, Ipswich, Aldeburgh, Leiston; Needham, Bury, Beccles, Lowesto'ft." Later it has been found, only singly, at Copdoc'k on 14 August 1894 ( H k g ) ; Ipswich one in 1893 (Pyett); Hemley, on sugared tansv in 1901 (Wir); Waldringfield in 1891 ( J a m e s ) ; Gorleston (Wiltshire), one (D) and one in August 1920 (Mr).





Termed " common," and not worth localising in our 1890 Catalogue ! Now so infrequent as to be capable of instance solely in the Bentley and Fritton woods, singly on sugar. 156.




Probably quite common, and considered ' rare ' in 1890 merely throueh dearth of April collectors. Certainly frequent enough in Bentley Woods (Mly, Baylis, v Pyett) and at light in lpswich. Recorded elsewhere from Stowmarket (C), Covehithe and Holton (Btn), Barsham (Gls), Beccles (Crowfoot), Fritton (Moore) and Beiton (Wiltshire). 157.




" Very rare. Combs Wood, near Stowmarket (H. H . Crewe) " : but not in Nat. 1858. None later; needs confirmation. 158.

T . PRASINA, Fab. (herbida, Hb.).

Quite a raritv, wide-spread but occurring as a rule only singly. Bentlev (Ml) Woods, one on oak-trunk, 22 June 1894 (Mly) ; Copdock, on sugar (Hkg) ; Needham ( L ) ; Stowmarket (C) ; Aldeburgh (Hele), Sotterley at light 1935 (Btn) & Bungay (Mn). [We cannot possess the three other Triphaenae, for both T. sobrina, Gn. and T. hyperborea, Zett. (carnica, Hrg.) are exclusively Scots ; and T. acctosella, Fab., was first introduced by Meyrick so recentlv as 1927. T h e scarce immigrant from northern Eurooe, Äctinotia polvodon, Clk. (perspicillaris, L . ) , has occurred in Britain solely in Kent, Norwich and at Yarmouth, titillatingly near our boundary.] Subfamily P O L 1 I D E S . 159.

BRACHIONYCHA SPHINX, Hufn. (cassinea, Hb.).

Scarce, though males come copiously to light in one or two densely-timbered districts. Bentley, lpswich ; Lowestoft, Beccles ; Bury änd Tuddenham (ante 1890). lpswich at light in 1895-8 (Baylis, Pvett, Platten); Bungay on 31 October 1900 (Mn) ; Waldringfield in 1923 ( T . N. W a l l e r ) ; Bury in 1931 ( M r ) ; Sotterley in 1935 ( B t n ) ; numerous in mid-November 1933 at Sibton (Trans, ii, 291). [B. nubeculosa, Esp., extends from central Europe to only northern Britain.] 160.



All along our coast, doubtless. Several at Felixstow in 1895 ( L o r d Rendlesham) and in September 1902 (Gibbs). T h r e e at light at T h o r p on 15 September 1930 (Trans, I, 101). Kessingland ( E M M . 1904, 8 1 ) ; several at dusk and light in Benacre Broad during mid-September 1935 (Mr, Mly) and 1936 ( B t n ) . Over thirty on Benacre denes in Sept. 1937.







Discovered, new to Suffolk, by Col. Hawley on sugar Staverton Thicks in Butley during September 1932. 162.




Ipswich, Needham, Leiston and Beccles: ante 1890. Now common, at least locally, at Bentley and Copdock (Hkg); Waldringfield (Wir) ; at light in Ipswich (Mly, Platten) and Bungay (Mn) ; Beccles, Fritton, Burgh Castle and Gorleston (D, Mr). Abundant at ivy round Southwold in Sept. 1935. [A. (Epunda) nigra, Haw., is of western distribution in Britain and unlikely to occur with us ; but Heliophobus hispidus, Gey, though very sparsely sporadic, might appear.] 163 & 164. CONISTRA VACCINII, Linn, et C. LIGULA, Esp. Both abundant throughout the County, the former rather the more prevalent. [Neither of the much-coverted C. rubiginea et erythrocephala, F., occurs : the former might well do so, but the latter is confined to our south litoral counties.] 165.



Levelly distributed ; usually singly, and regarded as a prize. Bury (Wrl, Suff. Inst. 41y Journ. 1869, 23 ; Proc. iv, 1870, 221); Fornham (Norgate) ; Newmarket. Ipswich, Brandeston, Needham, Stowmarket, Beccles (ante 1890). Ipswich, at electric light in September 1894 (Mly), in 1899 (Platten) and pupae dug near that town (Sparke). Hemley and Kessingland (EMM. 1904, 81); Henham in 1934 (Btn); Bungay (Mn). Larvas sometimes plentiful on ash at dusk in late April at Waldringfield (Wir). Two at light in Sotterly on 8 September 1937 (Gd). 166. O. CITRAGO, Linn. Not very rare, but sporadic and occurring singly ; wild limetrees need searching. Copdock in 1895 (Hkg) ; Bentley Woods, in the ' 80's (Ml) and on sugar in September 1893 (Mly); Waldringfield, one in 1893 (Wir); Playford (Gr) ; Martlesham (D); Needham (L); several imagines at Polstead in 1930 (Harwood); larvse commonly near Timworth in 1911 (Nurse); Downham (Norgate); Bungay ( M n ) ; Beccles (Crf); Fritton, on sugar, under lime (Mr). 167.



A great raritv in Suffolk, where beech is not indigenous. Singly on sugar at Copdock in September, 19th 1892 and l l t h 1895 (Hkg). One at Playford ( G r ) ; Henley Hall (Sparte). Two at Needham (L). Between Thetford and Brandon (Williams) ;



one larva beaten at Amptom in 1911 (Nurse). Singly at Mildenhall and Henham (Bth); Bungay, one on sugar in 1897 ( M n ) ; Beccles (Crf, Gls). Never seen in forty years, tili a male flew in to light at Monks Soham House on 2 November 1935 (Mly). Fab. (silago, Hb.) et O. FULVAGO, Linn, (cerago, Fab.). Common on sugar, reed-flower and ivy-blossom everywhere from Bentley to Fritton. â&#x20AC;˘> 168 & 169.







Much commoner since 1890, and now generally distributed. Sudbury, Copdock, Bentley, Woolverstone, Waldringfield, Ipswich ; Playford (Ent. Wk. Intell. 1857, 94); Brandon, Downh a m ; Bury (Skepper); Henham (Btn), Bungay (Mn), Beccles and Barnby (Mr), Lowestoft (Bedwell), Fritton (D), Gorleston (Wiltshire). 171.




Still local; usually found singly. Ipswich, at a shop electric light on 21 September 1893 (Mly) the year it first occurred in Britain ; Waldringfield, on sugar six days later (Wir). Bentley Woods (Mly), Copdock (EMM. 1895, 279) and Ipswich (Entom, 1896, 66). Bungay, two in 1897-8 (Barrett, v 379); Ipswich (Bedwell, EMM. 1902, 263) and Bentley Woods (Mly) in 1898. Now commonest at Barton Mills (Wiltshire) and abundant at Mildenhall (Btn). Several at Sudbury in 1930, and the form intermedia at Mildenhall in 1926 (Trans, i, p. xliv) & 1937. 172. O. CIRCELLARIS, Hfn. (ferruginea, Esp.). Abundant on sugar and ivy-blossom everywhere from Bentley to Burgh Castle. At Fritton on sallow in April 1935. 173.



Linn, (rufina, L.).

Strictly locally common on sugar and ivy-blossom. Bentley, Needham, Brandeston, Swefling, Aldeburgh, Beccles, Lowestoft (ante 1890). Bentley Woods, very numerous on sugar (Mly, Elliott, Baylis); Waldringfield, scarce on ivy (Wir); Gorleston and in 1935 at Frostenden, singly on ivy (Mr). Mildenhall in 1936 (Gd). 174 & 175. O. LITURA, Linn, et O. PISTACINA, Fab. In profusion on sugar and ivy-blossom everywhere from Bentley to Burgh Castle. The latter at Wingfield, and abroad tili 5 November 1932 at Monks Soham ; Mildenhall in 1936. 176.




Much less common than the last kinds. Ipswich, Needham, Bury, Brandeston, Aldeburgh, Leiston (ante 1890). In multitudes on Bentley Woods sugar in September and October 1893, but



none there in 1894-8 (Mly, B a y l i s ) ; C o p d o c k in 1895-6 (Hkg). Waldringfield in plenty on ivy in October 1898 (Wir). Henley (Sparke). H e n h a m c o m m o n in 1935 ( B t n ) ; B u n g a y ( M n ) ; not very rare at Fritton, B u r g h Castle ( D ) , Gorleston and F r o s t enden ( M r ) . 177.



Of uncertain appearance, and rarely c o m m o n . S u d b u r y in 1836 ( E n t . M a g . iv, 133). Always rare a b o u t l p s w i c h and in Bentley W o o d s , L e i s t o n ; a series on ivy-blossom at M o n k s S o h a m in October 1932. N e e d h a m , H e n h a m , Hemley in 1902, Frostenden, Bury ; Beccles, rare at Fritton and B u r g h Castle. 178.

O. FISSIPUNCTA, H a w . (ypsilon, Bkh.).

Apparently m u c h rarer than formerly. Locally c o m m o n about Playford, N e e d h a m , Stowmarket, Aldeburgh, L e i s t o n and Beccles, ante 1890. A solitary specimen on sugar by the G i p p i n g at lpswich on 26 J u l y 1895 (Baylis). N o t rare at Hemley during 1910-29 (Wir). I have never seen it in Suffolk ( M l y ) . 179.

O. SUSPECTA, H i i b .

Extremely local with us, and before 1890 found only " near lpswich ( H a r w o o d ) , " which was surely at Bentley W o o d s where it was common on sugar in early Augusts of 1894-5 (Mly, Baylis) and 1896 (Hkg). One at Belstead in 1901 (Pyett, G i b b s ) . 180.

O. SATELLITIA, L i n n .

Of frequent occurrence on sugar and ivy-blossom everywhere froni Bentley to Gorleston ; Bury (Skepper, M r ) , Mildenhall ( G d ) . [O. croceago, F a b . , seems confined to south and west of our Isles, though for no apparent reason.] 181.



Levelly distributed and c o m m o n throughout the County at sugar, ivy and at light in autumn. [M. bimaculnsa, L . , discovered at Gloucester a Century ago, is extinct in Britain. N o r have either Calophasia lunula, H f n . or C. platyptera, E s p . , occurred with us.] 182.



Very local along our more southern coast. Erwarton ( C ) ; also " M r . Crewe found larvse on Artemisia vulgaris at Shotley near L a n d g u a r d F o r t " ( s i e : H a r w o o d ) ; Orford during 1903 ( G i b b s ) ; Aldeburgh ( L ) , imagines at larkspur flowers (Hele) and larvae there in 1900 ( G . F . Mathews).



183- C. CHAMOMILL^;, Schf. Rare. Ipswich ( M l ) ; Needham ( L ) ; Stowmarket ( B ) : ante 1890. One at Waldringfield on 21 May 1918 (Waller); a larva found at Southwold in July 1897, emerged on 31 May 1898 (Ctw); occasionally on Gorleston palings (Mr, Mly) ; two sitting on reed-fencing in Tuddenham Fen (Sparke). 184.

C . UMBRATICA, L i n n .

Suffolk (Stephens 1829, 88). Not very frequent; about Ipswich, rare. Copdock, Bawdsey Ferry, Waldringfield, Monks Soham, Beccles ; sometimes common in Gorleston gardens and on Hopton palings in late June. 185.



Found only at Aldeburgh by Hele tili September 1933, in which month a male flew to light in the middle of Southwold (Mly) ; larva; occur at Dunwich (Blair), Walberswick (Btn), Southwold (Mr). 186. C. VERBASCI, Linn, (scrophularise, Cap.). Our sole common species of the genus, evervwhere on mullein and figwort. I found the larvse in September 1821 in profusion in Mr. Kirby's garden at Barham, feeding on a Verbascum : also found in Suffolk by W. C. Hewitson Esq. (Stephens iii, 85-6). Wherestead, Martlesham, Southwold ; Bury, Higham, Tuddenham, Barton Mills, Brandon, Lakenheath. 187.



N o records exist since Bloomfield instances it in 1890 as having occurred at Woolpit, sec. the Revd. Harpur Crewe, and Beccles, sec. Dr. W. M . Crowfoot, tili 1934 when Mr. Burton took one at light in Holton. [C. gnaphalii, Hb., confined to Kent and Sussex, and C. lactuca, Esp., are also British.] 188.



Somewhat scarce; usually singly. S u d b u r y ; Copdock, Ipswich, Bixley, Waldringfield; Stowmarket, bred at Monks Soham ; Bury, Tuddenham, Mildenhall; Worlingham, on sugar on Gorleston cliff. 189.



N o rarer than the last ; on ivy-blossom and sugar. Copdock, Ipswich; Waldringfield, Leiston; Needham, Stowmarket; Tuddenham (Sparke); Reydon on 14 Nov. 1936 (Baker); Wrentham (Gd), Bungay (Mn) and Barsham on sallow in April 1892 ( M l y ) ; Burgh Castle (D), Fritton and Gorleston (Mr).



Not a rare British insect. Newmarket, at lamps (T. & J. Brown); Stowmarket (Dr. Bree, c. 1860). Beccles, singly on ivy-blossom on 5 and 18 October 1933 (Trans, ii, 293); two on sugar at Lowestoft in October 1934 (Mitton); four on ivy at Reydon and Wangford, 4 Oct. to 8 Nov. 1935-6 (Baker) ; Henham, several in 1936 (Btn). 191. P. LAMBDA, Fab.

A Single specimen of the var. Zinckeni, Tr., was taken at sugar on an oak-trunk in Copdock Rectory garden in bright moonlight and east wind at 6.45 p.m. on 30 September 1895 by the Revd. j. H. Hocking (EMM. xxxi, 279). None seen since, outside Kent and Middlesex. 192. P. ORNITHOPUS, Rott, (rhizolitha, Fab.). Locally common on oak-trunks in early October. Ipswich (Baylis, Pyett, Platten) ; Rendlesham (Wiltshire), Ashfield, Helmingham Pk, Monks Soham and Cransford (Mly); Gorleston, Beccles & Covehithe (Bkr, Mr) ; Martlesham & Fritton (D). 193. P. AREOLA, Esp. (lithorhiza, Bkh.). By no means an uncommon species about Ipswich, at Bentley Woods, Holbrook, &c; Bury, Stowmarket, Needham; Monks Soham occasionally (Vinter, Mly) ; Worlingham (Gs), Gorleston (Mr), Hopton, Aldeburgh. 194. P. VIMINALIS, Fab.

Surprisingly infrequent; usually singly. Ipswich, Needham, Stowmarket (ante 1890). Belstead in 1895 (Hkg) ; Bentley Woods and two in Ipswich (Baylis); a very few at electric light there in 1893-5 (Mly), and one in 1901 (Pyett). 195. P. PROTEA, Bkh.

Abundant on oaks and sugar in oak-woods, e.g. Bentley and Fritton; Wherstead, Helmingham Pk., Elmham, Covehithe, Sotterly, Gorleston, &c. 196. P. ADUSTA, Esp.

Of sufficiently frequent occurrence on palings, &c. Ipswich, at light (Baylis, Pyett); Playford, Needham, Stowmarket; Newmarket; Monks Soham church (Mly), Bungay (Mn), Beccles ; Aldeburgh. 197. P. APRILINA, Linn. Generally common on sugar in woods, e.g. Bentley and Fritton ; Monks Soham on ivy ; Gorleston, &c.



*198. P. CHI, Linn. Stowmarket about 1850 (B & C). Needs confirmation: c.f. Trans, i, 32. P . FLAVICINCTA,



One of the commonest autumn moths throughout the County : very frequent at Bury (Sparke), where Norgate found the var. meridionalis, Bdv., about as frequent as the typical form (EMM. 1906, p. 139). Letheringham (Vinter); Ipswich, Monks Soham, Southwold, Gorleston, &c. Cf. Entom. xix, 91. [Of the half-dozen species of this genus still unknown with us, four—P. solidaginis, Hb. ; 1\ furcifera, Hfn. (conformis, F.) ; P. lichenea, Hb. ; and P. xanthomista, Hb. (nigricincta, Tr.)— are pretty well confined to the west of Britain ; two—P. socio, Rott, (petrificata, F.) and P. flammea, Esp. (empyrea, Hb. : Ent. Ann. 1856, 30, fig)—are of extreme rarity ; and P. porphyrea, Esp. (satura, Hb.), little more than an occasional immigrant. Dasypolia Templi, Thnb., is a northern and south-western insect; and Valeria oleagina, F., was captured in Pembroke about 1805 !] Subfamily M E L A N C H R I D E S . 200. M E L I A N A FLAMMEA, Curt. " Suflolk and Norfolk to Hunts, local in fens ; central Europe ; June " (Meyrick, 66)—whence is this record ? Not in Bloomfield. Cambs only, sec. Stainton. 201.



One at Lowestoft in 1903 by A. E. Tonge (EMM. 1904, 80). One at Hemley in 1908 (Wir). Tuddenham Fen about 1900, captured by the late E. J. G. Sparke (in coli. Morley). 202.

L . IMPUDENS, H ü b . ( p u d o r i n a , H b . ) .

Very rare at Ipswich (Tim. Last, Entom. 1867, 189). T u d denham St Mary, four (Sparke); Herringswell Fen in early July 1903 (in some numbers : if my memory serves, Elliott, Sparke, Norgate & Burrows, with w h o m l was collecting,tookafew.—CM). 203.



Ipswich : " Timothy Last used to get numbers " (Harwood ; cf. Entom. 1867, 189). A few at Hemley in 1901 and Waldringfield in 1929 (Wir). Dunwich (Btn) ; Lowestoft, and a good series at Needham, in 1903 (EMM. 1904, p. 80). Larvse common at Ampton in 1909 (Nurse, Entom. 1911, 220). Beccles in Augusts of 1930 and 1932 (Mr) ; Fritton at light and on reeds in Octobers of 1932 and 1934 (Mlv).






Doubtless abundant throughout the County, as it certainly is at Ipswich, Monks Soham, Beccles and Gorleston. 205.

L . PALLENS, L i n n .

In profusion at Sudbury in 1836 (Ent. Mag. iv, p. 233) ; and still all over Suffolk from Bentley to Gorleston. 206.




Proved, by Waller's breeding along with typical L. pallens from eggs of a Single female, to be a colour-form of the latter species ; though other broods, reared by him, bred true to parents. Also " I have taken nearly fifty specimens, of red and yellow and other forms. South exhibited the mixed brood before the S. Lond. Ent. Soc. Generally fiavicolor is considered a salt-marsh form of L. pallens " (Wir, in lit. 1935 ; cf. Ent. Ree. 1907, p. 290). One at sugar in Waldringfield garden in July 1929 (Wiltshire). 207 & 208.



Of frequent occurrence throughout the County, from Bentley to Gorleston. 209.



Hemley parsonage garden, a Single example which came to sugar on 5 September 1902: Waller (Barrett E M M . 1902, 263). 210.


Flying in the open, not uncommonly but difficult to catch, at Kessingland in June 1890 ; swarmed at Kessingland in 1903 (Bloomfield in EMM.). Rare at Lowestoft, before 1890 (Skepper,. L). On the shore at Hopton in August 1927 (Mr) and at Easton in 1934 (Baker). *211.

A. UNIPUNCTA, Haw. (extranea, G n . ) .

A Single example of this immigrant at Leiston in 1878 (Hon. B. de Grey). 212.




A single quite fresh speeimen at sugar on the top of Gorleston Cliff on 1 October 1922 (Doughty). None later. 213.

A. COMMA, L i n n .

Locally abundant in marshes. Brantham, Ipswich, Needham, Aldeburgh, Beccles, Tuddenham: ante 1890. Copdock (Hkg); not common about Ipswich in 1895 (Mly), but " abundant among reeds" by the Gipping there in 1898 (Platten). Waldringfield, abundant at sugar in June 1899, though usually scarce (Wir). Burgh Castle and Gorleston (Mr). Cavenham in 1936 (Gd).



[Four other kinds are accounted British, and the woodland A. turca, L., which is merely local all over England, might occur with us ; but the rare Sussex immigrant A. Loreyi, Dup. and the rare Kentish immigrant A. L-album, L., are no more likely to appear than the west-European coastal A. putrescens, Hb., which ranges along Spain, France and Devon to Caermarthen.] 214. M O N I M A INCERTA, Hufn. (instabilis, Esp.). Fairly common ; most usually dug as pupae in winter, and generally distributed. 215.




Somewhat rare, and usually singly ; widely distributed. ' Rare, but now and then visits the apricot blossoms ' (Sudbury Journal). Copdock in April 1900 (Hkg); singly at Bentley Woods and Monks Soham in May (Mly). A few at light in Ipswich, 1893-9 (Mly, Baylis, Pyett, Platten). Needham, Tuddenham. Bungay (Mn), Barsham (Gls), Beccles (Crf); Gorleston ( M r ) ; on sallows at Beiton and Fritton (Wiltsbire, &c.). 216







Excessively abundant on sallow-blossom, at light, throughout Suffolk. 218.



GOTHICA, L i n n .




Apparently rare and local. Raydon and Bentley (Harwood) ; Bentley Woods in 1893 (Mly); Copdock, 1896-8 (Hkg); Ipswich, at light in February 1894 and April 1895 (Baylis, Pyett). Stowmarket (C), Bury (Sparke), Beccles (Crf). No recent captures. 219.




Much confused with the next kind. Singly at Ickworth (Wrt) and Needham (L), before 1890. Flew to elcctric light in Ipswich on 7 April 1894 (Mly) and to sallow at Kessingland in 1936 (Gd). 220.

M . PULVERULENTA, E s p . (cruda, T r . ) .

Abundant, though less so than M. stablis and gothica, with which it frequents sallows everywhere. 221.




Distinctly local, usually rare. Ipswich, at light in Aprils of 1894-8 (Mly, Baylis, Pyett). Comes freely to sugar in some seasons at Waldringfield (Wir) and in 1936 at Benacre (Gd). Taken before 1890 at Needham, Glemham Magna, Aldeburgh,. Beccles, and Bury. [M. opima, Hb., is a west and northern insect in our Isles.],



222. CERAPTERYX GRAMINIS, Linn. Common but restricted to the light lands, where imagines are often conspicuous on ragwort flowers in hot sunshine. Copdock, Bentley Woods, Ipswich occasionally at light, Foxhall, Bixley, Hemlev at light; Friday-street in Rendlesham (Vinter); Glemham Magna, Bungay, Barnby Broad, Beccles, Lowestoft, Fritton, Burgh Castle, Gorleston; Bury, Tuddenham. 223.



Generally distributed, and occasionally quite numerous. DĂźring heavy rain, great numbers came in to light at Copdock Rectory late in the Augusts of both 1881 and 1894 (Hkg); it occurs thence to Fritton. 224. PANOLIS PINIPERDA, Panz. Extremely local, probably becoming extinct. Kesgrave and Flixton before 1890. A few beaten from yew in April 1894-5, in Bentley pine-wood, where Hocking took larvae in the latter year (Mly). Few later records ; and, though it used to occur about Brandon, Mildenhall and Tuddenham (sec. Bloomfield), the Breck seems to harbour it no longer. Singly at Brightwell Woods in April 1904 and later at Waldringfield (Wir); still plentiful in late April at Beiton and Fritton, where larvfe are common on the Warren in June (Wiltshire). 225. HARMODIA NANA, Rott, (conspersa, Esp.). Still quite rare. First discovered in Suffolk at Bramford, where two occurred in May 1898 (Platten) ; and the same year three flew to light at Oulton Broad (Bedwell, Ent. Ree. 1898, 25). Later it has turned up only at Kessingland in 1903 (EMM. 1904, 80); Gorleston where one flew at dusk in June 1932 ( M r ) ; and several at Covehithe to light in 1936 (Gd). Recently common at sugared posts on west Suffolk boundary (Hawley, 1937). 226. H. IRREGULARIS, Hufn. Asia Minor and Central Europe ; in Britain confined to the Breck District of EAnglia, and most frequent in Suffolk part of it. There it was discovered as British at Tuddenham early in July 1868 by the Revd. A. H. Wratislaw, Head of Bury School, who also found the larva (Suff. Inst, iv, 1871, 219), " a b o u t ten miles from Bury St. E d m u n d s " (Suff. Inst. 41y Journ., 1869, 23). There Norgate and other Lepidopterists afterwards took it at Tuddenham where it appeared at light in 1889, Icklingham, Elveden, Eriswell and Brandon: before 1890. Later at Tuddenham, Herringswell and Worlington, sometimes at light (Sparke, Entom. 1900, 40); several flving at dusk in June 1903 Thetford (EMM. xxxix, p. 226) and larva there in



1932-3 ( B p ) ; several in the Breck during 1913 (Nurse), where larvae were taken in 1916 (Harwood) and goodly numbers of imagines in 1931 ( T r a n s , i, 232). T h i s interesting species seems prone to spread, for M r s . M a n n has found it to be not u n c o m m o n at Bladder C a m p i o n flowers in M e t t i n g h a m . 227.



Somewhat thinly sporadic ; certainly rare about Ipswich, where one came to light in 1895 (Pvett). Playford ( G ) ; larvse feeding on Silene maritima at L a n d g ' i a r d on the shore ( M e r a , E n t o m . 1 9 1 6 , 2 8 7 ) ; Aldeburgh. Coddenham, N e e d h a m , Stowmarket, Bury, Brandon and once (Vivian) freely at light in T u d d e n h a m . Gorleston ( M r ) . Abundant on Dunwich beach, 1937 (Hawley). 228.



Perbaps frequent enough, but records are sparse, and it is uncommon about Ipswich. Gorleston ( D , M r ) . 229.

H . CUCUBALI, F u s l .

Scarcely rarer than the last, and as wide-spread. Uncommon about Ipswich (Baylis). Beccles, L o w e s t o f t ; Gorleston ( M r ) . Coddenham, Needham, Stowmarket, Bury, Tuddenham; Brandon in 1899 (Mly). [Of the three other British species one is Irish, H. ccesia, Bkh. ; the fine IL luteago, H b . (Barrett!, D b l d . ) , is purely west-British ; and H. albimacula, Bkh., little more than an immigrant to our south coast.] 230.



A good deal commoner than was thought in 1890, when it had been noted singly at only Playford, Leiston and Lowestoft. Copdock ( H k g ) ; many at street-lamps in Ipswich in A u g u s t s of 1894-5 (Mly, Baylis, Pyett). Hemley in 1902 a n d one on sugar at Waldringfield in 1929 (Wir) ; Aldeburgh (Entom. ii, 340). Bungay, a few at light in 1897 ( M n ) ; Fritton at reed-blossom in S e p t e m b e r 1934 ( T r a n s , ii, p. clxxxvii). 231.

M . RETICULATA, Vill. ( s a p o n a r i a , Bkh.).

A n interesting insect, as frequent in Suffolk as anywhere in Britain. Copdock, at light f r o m M a y to J u l y ; Bentley Woods, rarely on sugar in J u n e ; a few at Felixstow in 1903 (Bloomfield in E M M . 1904, 80) ; Hemley, abundant at sugar and lilacblossom in 1901, and many at Waldringfield sugar in 1929 (Wir). N e e d h a m , Stowmarket, M o n k s S o h a m , Southwold, Brandon and freely at light at T u d d e n h a m . Sotterley, Bungay, M e t t i n g h a m Beccles ; Gorleston in 1924-33 ( M r ) . Brandon, 1937 (Hawley).






Abundant at Sudbury in 1836 (dysodea : Ent. Mag. iv, 2 3 3 ) ; and throughout the entire County, from Bentley Woods to Gorleston (D) and Brandon (Mly) ; especially common on palings in Felixstow during July 1923, and at light in Tuddenham. [Taken on Mediterranean shore at Antibes, 8 April 1931 (Mly).] 233.

M . CHRYSOZONA, Bkh. (dysodea, Hb.).

Regarded as 'not uncommon' throughout the County by Bloomfield, and too general to locate. But our sole records since 1890 are from Bury, where it was taken in 1898 (Tuck) and bred from larvae (Sparke). 234.

M . TRIFOLII, Rott, (chenopodii, F.).

Abundant at light in Ipswich, and extending thence to Gorleston (D) and Tuddenham (Mly). 235.




By no means so ' common ' as Bloomfield would have us believe. Never seen at Monks Soham during thirty years' residence ( M l y ) ; and quite rare at light in Ipswich, 1893-1904 (Baylis, Pyett). No recent records, except near Aldeburgh (Trans, ii, 295), freely at Hemley sugar in 1901 (Wir) ; Covehithe at light in 1936 ( G d ) ; one in Burgh Castle marshes in 1929 (Wiltshire). *236.


No confirmation has arisen during the past the doubtful record at ' Ipswich ' of this species (Bloomfield's Lepid. Suff. 1890, p. 17), who Suffolk is thus its most northerly extension from 237.

half-century of by Mr. Garrett died in 1888. central Europe.


Apparently verv rare indeed. Not taken (Mr. Waller's Waldringfield record proved to be erroneous) since Miller and Garrett found it at ' Bentley,' before 1890 : though said by Harwood to also occur close to the River Stour at Dedham in Essex, i.e. five miles further south. 238.




Generally distributed everywhere: recorded from Bentley, Belstead, Wherstead, Ipswich, Rushmere ( T . N. Waller), Foxhall (D), Hemley and Waldringfield (A. P. Waller), Aldeburgh. Monks Soham, Finburgh, West Stow, Tuddenham, Downham, Brandon ; and Bungay. 239.


Suffolk (Stephens, Illust. ii, 1829, p. 183). Somewhat uncommon, but broad spread. Bentley Woods, Ipswich, Waldringfield, Aldeburgh, Reydon, Monks Soham at light, Needham; Tuddenham (Sparke), Brandon; Bungay, Beccles.



240. M. DISSIMILIS, Knh. (suasa, Bkh.). With us this species is nearly confined to the coast, and similar Breck District. Brantham (F. J. Buckell), Felixstow in 1901 {Gibbs), Hemley in 1901 (Wir); Aldeburgh, " abounds there " (Wrt, Suff. Inst, iv, 1870, 220); common at Lowestoft (EMM. 1904, 81), Beccles, Bungay; and on 26 June 1929 in Burgh Castle marshes (Wiltshire). Stowmarket (C). Brandon (Wheeler). 241. & 242. M. OLERACEA, Linn, et M. PISI, Linn. Both are common and levelly distributed throughout the County. T h e former first noted here at Sudbury in 1836 (Ent. Mag. iv, 223). 243.




Generally distributed, and not rare at light everywhere. Taken in Suffolk before 1829 (Stephens iii, 28). Bentley, Copdock at sugar, common about Ipswich at wild guelder-rose flowers in 1898 (Pyett) but rare at light (Mly), Henley (Sparke), Felixstow (Gibbs), sometimes common at Waldringfield, Aldeburgh, at privet flowers in Yoxford (Pyett), Monks Soham occasionally, Needham (Platten), Coddenham, Stowmarket; Brandon. Sotterley {Burton); Beccles and Gorleston (Mr). 244. M. NEBULOSA, Hufn. Frequent and generally distributed ; but much less numerous than in south of England. On sugar in Bentley Woods; at light from Ipswich to Fritton ; &c. Brandon (D). 245 & 246. M. BRASSICA, Linn, et M. PERSICARUE, Linn. Both at Sudbury in 1836 (Ent. Mag. iv, 223); and still abound throughout the County. Of the later, imagines are sometimes a pest at light in Ipswich and larvse in great profusion (Ransom) at Sudbury. 247.




Confined to the coast, its estuaries, and similar Breck District. Felixstow in 1901 and abundant there in 1903 (Gibbs); Waldringfield at sugar in 1929 (Wir); one at sugar by the Gipping River at Ipswich on 29 June 1895 (Baylis); Aldeburgh, Southwold and scarce at sugar in June 1890 on both Kessingland and Lowestoft denes (Ctw); Gorleston in July 1929 (Mr) and frequent just over the Yare. Brandon (Barrett); and plentiful at light during June 1889 at Tuddenham (Vivian), where the ' Brecksand f o r m ' is consistently darker than the coast type (Entom. 1911, p. 276). Staverton, on sugar in July 1933 (Hawley). 248. M. MYRTILLI, Linn. On heaths ; apparently much rarer than before 1890, when it was recorded from those about Foxhall, Leiston Lowestoft, &c., as well as on the Breck at Brandon and Tuddenham. At



Tuddenham it persists (Sparke); as well as at Hollesley (Wir), Sutton where it was attracted to Cyanothus flowers (D), Beiton and Fritton (Mr). [Of the outstanding six British kinds, we can hope for none here but M. tincta, of which our sole record (Trans. 1, p. 32) is an error. M. cordigera and M. melanopa, Thnb., are exclusively Scots with us, and M. glauca, Hb., extends thence only to Norfolk ; M. leucophcsa, Vw., is confined to Surrey and K e n t ; M. peregrina, Tr., a recently discovered immigrant; and M. Essoni, Hmps., probably no more than a hybrid.]

Family Subfamily 249.




One of our commonest Snout-moths, occurring everywhere in early July; especially noticed at Bentley Woods in 1894-5, at Monks Soham light in 1915-28 (Mly), and at Beccles (Mr). 250.



Fab. (grisealis, Hb.).

By no means scarce, often at light with the last species. Copdock, infrequent about Ipswich, occasionally in Monks Soham garden, Stowmarket, Aldeburgh, Beccles, Bungay. 251.




One old specimen, without data (in coli. Morley). Needs confirmation. [A. emortualis, Schf., extends northwards to Essex and might reach us. But Boletobia fuliginosa, L., seems to ränge from Kent more westerly, and is everywhere very rare], 252.



Confined to our marshiest spots; local or confused withi the next. Ipswich, once (Mly), Bixley Decoy (Ml), Beccles (Crt). One at Tuddenham in 1909 (Nurse). 253.




Our commonest sylvan Snout, frequent among undergrowth in late Mav. Always in Bentley Woods (Garrett, Pyett, Mly), Copdock (Hkg), Holbrook Park (C), Ipswich, Stowmarket. Mildenhall in 'june 1933 (Gd).




Hitherto supposed very rare, noted only at Beccles and Stowmarket. But both-that the species be distinct is most improbableflew to light and sugar at Fritton marshes and those of the Waveney at North Cove in the utmost profusion in September 1932-4 (D, Mr); and the former, which occurs at Barton Mills (Waters), was taken at Blythburgh and Benacre Broad in 1933-6 (Mly). 256. SCHRANKIA TURFOSALIS, Wk.

Beaten from Myrica gale in Barnby Broad during early August 1936 (Mly). Well known in Norfolk (Norf. Nat. Trans, iii, 687). *257. BOMOLOCHA FONTIS, Tbnb. (crassalis, Fab.). The sole Suffolk capture of this conspicuous Snout seems that effected at Brandeston about 1850 by the Revd. Joseph Greene. 258. HYPENA ROSTRALIS, Linn. Sufficiently broad spread and common, though never in considerable numbers. Bentley Woods, Ipswich sparingly,. Monks Soham, Frostenden, Fritton, Gorleston, &c. 259. H. PROBOSCIDALIS, Linn. Abundant everywhere, hovering about nettles and at light,from Bentley to Gorleston. [A Single specimen of H. obsitalis, Hb., from Dorset is the sole British one.] Schf. Known as indigenous through Kent, Surrey and Suffolk only (Meyrick). 261. AVENTIA FLEXULA, Schf. Probably commoner here than elsewhere in Britain. Dodnash Wood (Hkg), Bentley (Pyett), at light in Bishops House at Ipswich 1925 (Bp.), Akenham, occasionally at Waldringfield (Wir).. For the duration of some ten days, about 1849, a dozen were shaken every morning from a hawthorn-hedge at Brandeston by Revd. J. Greene (id., lit. 10 Jan. 1901). Monks Soham, annually at light about 10.15 p.m., 1912-34 (Mly). Swefling ; Sudbourn in 1903 (EMM. 1904, 80); Walberswick and Southwold in 1897 (Ctw). Stowmarket, Hardwick (Norgate), Tuddenham (Sparke), Brandon. Beccles, Bungay (Mn). 260. COLOBOCHYLA SALICALIS,



Subfamily CATOCALIDES. 262.



Yery local, and rarely in considerable numbers; nearly or quite exterminated by agriculture in south Suffolk. Blaxhall (Hkr); Blythburgh in 1934 commonly (Btn); and Beccles (Ctw, ante 1890), where Curtis found it on 10 July circa 1830: still occurs there in 1934 (Trans, ii, 292). Stowmarket (B), Norton (Norgate), common on railway-bank near Elmswell Station in 1899, and found at Tuddenham (Sparke), where it was fairly common in July 1889 (Vivian). At light in Herringswell Fen early in July 1903 (Mly). [O. craccce, F., is confined in Britain to Devon. Telesilla amethystina, Hb., was admitted as British in 1927.] 263.



Scattered throughout the County, but far less profusely than in southern England. Recently noted at Bentley Woods, Melton, occasionally hibernating in Monks Soham House during 1905-30, Beccles, Fritton, Hopton and Gorleston. *264.



An immigrant species from central Europe and the Mediterranean to south Ireland, Hants and Norfolk. Termed ' very r a r e ' by Bloomfield ; but our sole specimen is the female, still preserved in John Curtis' collection at Melbourne Museum, that flew to the Lowestoft lighthouse on the stormy night of 21 June 1832 with the wind south by west, and is Captain Chawner's second great Suffolk record (Entom. 1872, 147 ; E M M . 1904, 193 ; cf. Curtis, Farm Ins. 40). [Catephia alchymista, Schf., is very rare from I. Wight through Sussex to Essex, and might reach our southern border.] 265.



This splendid Noctuid, expanding 100 mm. i.e. nearly four inches, is regarded as indigenous. At least a round dozen examples liave been captured in Suffolk during the past Century. T h e first appeared ' n e a r Lowestoft in September 1828 to G. Waterhouse' (Stph. Illust. iii, 1830, 132). Two were met with at Cläre, and one at Whixoe near that town, in 1868 (E. A. Fitch), a remarkable season wherein a fifth was taken on sugar at Aldeburgh on 21 August (Wrt, Suf. Inst. 41y Journ., Jan. 1869, 2 3 ; Proc. iv, 1870, 220), along with an undated sixth that year (Hele, Aldeb. 190), in the course of which Baiding found a seventh (EMM. v. 128) and Miller eighth both in August at Ipswich, as well as two more there in 1872â&#x20AC;&#x201D;Miller's records from Bramford and Lowestoft (Lep. Suff. 1890, 25) are erroneous, teste Bloom-



field. Not tili 1901 occurred our eleventh specimen, sitting upon a house called Stronsay at Kirkley Cliff in Lowestoft ( E M M . 1904, 256 : two specimens exist in Dr. Hutchinson's Lowestoft collection). A perfect specimen came to sugar in the grounds of Benacre Hall on 24 August 1901 (J. F. Green, Ent. Ree. 1901, 306 ; cf. his paper on ' Mothing in Suffolk,' Knowledge 1901, pp. 231-1) ; and South gives one in 1905. 266.




A grand insect that is luckily still common everywhere, since its first discovery in ' S u f f o l k ' before 1830 (Stephens iii, 133). it is very keen upon assimilating the mottled-grey of its upper wings to its environment, and hence fond of sitting on stonechurch-walls, e.g. at Fressingfield, Cransford and Nettlestead in 1920; another, Aying in Hintlesham chyd on 14 August 1921, was snapped up by a sparrow. Sometimes it flies thus in bright sunshine, as in Orford town on 25 September 1929 ; but is usually taken on sugar, whereat it abounds about Bentley, Ipswich, Hemley, Martlesham, Henham. Oulton, Fritton, Gorleston, &c. L a r v a occurred at Monks Soham on 17 June 1912. M r . Platten took a splendid form, brunnescens of Warren (Entom. liv, 162) with quite dark hind wings, near Needham Market in 1905 (now reposing in Harwood's collection at Sudbury). *267.




An historic species with us. Taken very rarely about 1870 at both Bentley and Holbrook by Garrett and T i m L a s t ; but not recorded later, and now most likely extinet, though the latter locality is well wooded and recently quite unworked. *268.




T h i s beautiful Noctuid, still common in the New Forest, cannot have become totally exstirpated from ' near Ipswich ' (Harwood and Garrett, circa 1870), ' I p s w i c h ' (Long, Entom. 1875, 200), ' Bentley and H o l b r o o k ' (Garrett and T i m Last). Insufficient cause emerges. [Single immigrant specimens of C. electa, Nkh., have turned up in Dorset and Sussex. Grammodes stolida, F., is still doubtfully British.] 269.



In rough ' S u f f o l k ' (Stephens, 1831) pastures; becoming local. Recently noticed at Belstead, Bentley Woods, Hogs Highland ; Waldringfield, Aldeburgh, Monks Soham ; Hopton, Lound, Bradwell, Beiton, Burgh Castle ; Lakenheath sandhills, Brandon and Tuddenham Fen.



270. E. GLYPHICA. Linn. Very local before 1890 at Herringfleet, in Lothingland (Crf) ; and both Tuddenham (Skepper, &c.) and Newmarket heath (Fenland), in the Breck. Never seen since that year (Mly) and no later records. 271. ERASTRIA FASCIANA, Linn, (fuscula, Bkh.). Recorded about 1830 from Wrentham (Curtis) ; Worlingham (Crf). Bentley, Holbrook, Playford, Stowmarket, Newmarket, and fairly common at Tuddenham (Vivian). All these records are before 1890; and extinction was feared, until Mr. Goddard secured a specimen Aying by day at Mildenhall in June 1933 and another in Blythburgh Wood during 1936. 272.



A southern insect, extending only to Norfolk, and with us totally confined to the Breck District, where it is sufficiently frequent and shows no sign of diminution. Brandon (Barrett), sometimes plentiful by day (20 June 1914 Morley) and a few at light in July (Vivian).. Downham (Norgate); Bury (Wrt) ; Tuddenham (Bloomfield), Worlington, Icklingham, &c. (Trans, ii, p. clxxxiv) in August 1934-5. 273.



Confined in England to the fens of Norfolk, Cambs and in plenty at Chippenham &c. so likely to occur with us. But known here only by a very few that were captured in Tuddenham Fen about 1900 by the late E. G. J. Sparke (in coli. Morley and Bury? Mus.). 274.



Clk. (uncajna], L.).

Frequent in marshes, mainly those of the Breck. Brandon in June 1910 (Mly); Tuddenham (Skepper, &c. : Suff. Inst, iv, 1870, 220), not plentiful on edge of fen (Sparke) ; Cavenham (Nurse), Stowmarket (C). One at Blythburgh in 1933 (Btn). Discovered in Lothingland at Bradwell Fen in 1933 (Trans, ii, p. xcvi), and plentifully at Beccles the next year (I.e. 292). 275.



Clk. (senea, Hb.).

With us nearly confined to the Breck, and there both very local and apparently decadent. Newmarket heath (Fenland), Tuddenham (Skepper, Wrt) up to at least 1900 (Sparke). Herringfleet, before 1890 (Crf); several at Bradwell doles in June 1935 (D, Mly). [The sole outstanding species of this genus, E. lucida, Hfn., is probably a mere immigrant to Britain, as also may have been Hübner's three kinds of Eublemma—ostrina, parva, paula— along the south coast.




EMMELIA TRABEALIS, S c o p . (sulphuralis, L . ) .

Confined in Britain to EAnglia ; its distribution is from central and southern Europe through west-central Asia to Turkestan. With us it indicates the shores of ancientlv-salt estuaries, of which (1) that of the Orwell provides the records of this species before 1890 at Ipswich and Needham ; still surviving at Coddenham (Trans, ii, 291). (2) That of the Deben a specimen taken at Waldringfield in 1879 by our Member, T . Naunton Waller. And (3) those of the old Fen Sea, along (a) the Little Ouse, where E. trabealis was ' re-discovered ' as British by the great Joe Dunning, when a school-boy, at Brandon in 1845 (he was adraitted to the Ent. Soc. when but sixteen and founded the Cambs Ent. Soc. when twenty-four : E M M . xxxiii, 282) ; it did not occur the two next years (Stainton, 298) tili 1858 (Ent. Wk. Int. iv, 110) ; at Croxton in 1860 and 1864. About fifty were mopped up in 1868 by Wratislaw, who first found it along ( Ă&#x; ) the Lark River, where Mefek took eight in August 1884 and the Bishop found it plentiful at Worlington in 1925. It was locally quite abundant up to at least 1899 (Sparke, Mly) along both Valleys, and it still persists locally in satisfactory numbers (Doughty 1924; Trans. 1934, 292-5 ; Hawley 1937). Subfamily P L U S I I D E S . 277.



Generally distributed throughout the County, and common though little noticed. Ipswich, frequent at electric light in 1895 ; Barham, in 1933 at Hemley; abundant at Monks Soham light; Tuddenham (Sparke); Shipmeadow (D), Fritton (Mr). 278.



A recent immigrant, rapidly spreading. Two at Battisford before 1917 (Baker); one taken, resting on Phlox, in a Bury garden in July 1918 (Entom. 1933, 6 5 ) ; in Ipswich in 1920 ( M l ) ; annually in Gorleston during 1921-9, larva feeding on Delphinium, also Beccles during 1930 (Mr); Gorleston 1930(Wiltshire). Three on Aconite in Hemingston (Trans, i, p. 232). So plentiful in parts of east Suffolk as to be a pest in flower-gardens in May 1928 (Hughes of Sibton, I.e. p. 32). 279.

P. CHRYSITIS, L i n n .

Abundant at dusk and light from Ipswich to Gorleston. 280. P. CHRYSON, Esp. (orichalcea, F.). An extremely local species everywhere, and most rare with us. One captured at honeysuckle flower at Middleton near Yoxford by Revd. J . H. White about 1857. Mr. Wellman exhibited one ' f r o m Newmarket' ( E M M . 1887, p. 119). Also Col. Nurse records (in lit. 20 October 1913) that several examples had been taken during 1913 in ' west Suffolk.'




P . FESTUC.®, L i n n .

Broadly distributed, but usually singly and never frequent. Bentley, very rare at Ipswich (Mly) and at Waldringfield (Wir), Aldebürgh, ' Leiston; Needham. T u d d e n h a m and Barton Mills (Sparke), Mildenhall. Flying at Eupatorium flower in Thorndon Fen in 1926 (Mly); not uncommon at French marigolds in Bungay ( M n ) ; Beccles (Mr), Fritton on sugar (Trans, ii, 88), Beiton (Wiltshire), Gorleston (D). 282.




Also broadly distributed, and commoner than the next kind. Brantham (Buckell), Bentley, somewhat common at Ipswich (Pyett), Hemley, Aldebürgh, Leiston, Brandeston, Monks Soham rarely at light, Needham, Stowmarket. Bungay, Beccles, Gorleston. 283. P. PULCHRINA, Haw. (V-aureum, Gn.). Somewhat scarce, but wide spread. Twice at Copdock (Hkg); singly at light in Ipswich occasionally (Mly, Baylis) ; Stowmarket ( C ) ; Waldringfield (James), rarely (Wir); Aldebürgh (Wrt) ; Beccles ( C r f ) ; Gorleston (Mr). 284.




This restless animal, said to be the sole one endowed with perpetual motion, is normally abundant everywhere (cf. Trans, ii, 294) though sometimes quite rare. Occasionally on the wing as late as 10 October at Monks Soham ; often at Aster flowers in Easton and Southwold salt-marshes. [No less than six more species are accounted British, none of which we can expect, for P. bractea, F., occurs only in the west and P . interrogationis, L., only in the north of England ; P. chalcites, Eso., is a Kentish a n d P . ni, Hb., a Cornish immigrant; while bothP.illustris, F., a n d P . aurifera, Hb., are recent additions to indigenous fauna.] 285. ABROSTOLA TRIPARTITA, H u f n . (urticae, Hb.). Somewhat frequent with us. Recently noted about Bentley Wood, at light (Mly); common at Martlesham (D), Hemley and Waldringfield ( W i r ) ; Waldringfield (James); Southwold (Ctw); and Tuddenham (Sparke). Abundant at Sibton (Hawley),





Less common than the last kind. Hitherto noted at Ipswich (bred in 1893—Morley), Hacheston, Stowmarket, Bury, T u d d e n ham (Sparke) and Southwold (Ctw). 287.



Extremely abundant on whitethorn ; imagines from Sudbury to Gorleston in October.


Family *288.




Known only from Bentley, where several were assembled by means of a bred female (Garrett and H. A. Powles). Surely survives in our west Fens, if not our east Broads. Not rare in Norfolk marshes. 289.

O. ANTIQUA, L i n n .

Ubiquitous, but not very often Seen; flies wildly before thunder. Recently noted at Barton Mills, Blythburgh Wood Monks Soham, Gorleston. 290. DASYCHIRA FASCELINA, Linn. Correctly regarded by Bloomfield as ' r a r e ' in 1890, when it was known from Bentley, Needham, Stowmarket, Tuddenham, Beccles and Lowestoft. Later have been observed merely a specimen at light in Ipswich ori 23 June 1895 (Mly) and larvae at Burgh Castle (Norf. Nat. Soc. 1899, p. 539). 291.

D . PUDIBUNDA, L i n n .

Frequent throughout the County, though scarce about Ipswich. The beautiful Hop-dog turns up every autumn about Campsea Ash (Lord Ullswater), Monks Soham (Mly), Needham (Platten) and Gorleston (D), usually presented to one in a homely matchbox ! [.Lcelia caenosa, Hb., is now extinct in Britain.] Linn. Somewhat scarce, and doubtless declining with our felled woodlands. L a r v a in tolerable plenty in woods round Ipswich, and in woods near Stowmarket (Crewe, Nat. 1858, 37) ; but at neither Playford nor Brandeston (Gr). Sporadic at Copdock in 1896 (Hkg), Belstead ; Bentley Woods singly in 1893-4 (Mly), 1895 (Baylis) and 1899 (Platten) ; Blaxhall, Needham, Ickworth, Downham (one larva on oak : Norgate); Mildenhall in 1936 (Gd) and Brandon. 292.


293. PORTHESIA CHRYSORRHCEA, Linn. (Gold-tail). In the utmost profusion throughout the County, from Sudbury to Gorleston ; larvae on every whitethorn-hedge, as well as other plants. A pest at light. 294. EUPROCTIS PH^EORRHCEA, Don. (Brown-tail). Rarely quite abundant, but of most erratic emergence. Bentley, Needham, Stowmarket. Eight bred from larvae on bramble in July 1877 at Felixstow (Ent. Ree. 1899, 367), where were many larvae in 1901 (Wir); Ipswich singly at light in 1893 and 1897 (Mly), and in 1899 fourteen at light (Platten) ; bred



from Felixstow larvse in 1929 (Wir) ; one in Aldeburgh, circa 1900 (D) ; one at Dunwich in July 1933 (Trans, ii, 291); Bungay at light (Mn). In mid-July 1929 males alone came in great numbers to light inside Gorleston, where occurred a solitary one on 16 July 1931 ; a brood at Bawdsey in 1935 (Doughty : Trans, i, 24 & iii, 87). 295.



I.ocally abundant in east Suffolk, especially along the coast, where we have heard of drowned imagines being washed up in myriads at Southwold, about 1926. Often at light in Ipswich ; abundant at Beccles ; Gorleston. Unnoted in west Suffolk up to 1890, though actually frequent in the Breck marshes, where it feeds on any Salicinese ; pupae at Rushbrook (Norgate); larvae common on osiers at Sudbury in Spring of 1898 (Ransom). 296.



Broadly distributed, and probably a good deal commoner than is generally supposed in all our larger oak-woods. Copdock and Redhouse Wood (Hkg); not rare in Bentley Woods, on oaktrunks, 1895 (Mly), 1918 (Platten), 1925 ( D ) ; Ipswich, by no means rare about Playford in 1858 (Gr), larvae on fir at Stowmarket (C), West Stow ; larvae on fir at Tuddenham and Brandon (Vivian). Glemham Magna, Henham, Sotterley, Lowestoft, Worlingham, taken at Flixton near Bungay by Sir F. Adair (Tom's Records of Flixton 1915, p. 36); Benacre in 1936 (Gd),and a good number at light in Fritton Woods in Augusts 1933-5 (Tr. ii, ci). *297.

L. DISPAR, Linn.

Has occurred at Stowmarket, but is not found there every year (Stainton's Manual 1857, 130). Aldeburgh (Hele, Notes 1870, 186). One old pair, without data (in coli. Morley). Still needs confirmation, as Bloomfield remarked in 1890, which is now difficult to obtain.



Family 298.



Hufn. (auroraria, Bkh.).

Very local in the north alone. Known before 1890 from only Tuddenham Fen (Skepper, W r t : Suff. Inst, iv, 1870, 220), where Sparke found it locally common on the edge of the Poors' Fen in 1900. Several discovered in July 1898 at Oulton Broad (Mly, Bedwell); and in July 1932 at Bradwell marsh (Doughty : Trans, ii, p. xxxix).





Suffolk is the northern extremity of this species' British ränge ; and here it becomes so attenuated that but two specimens are on record, one secured at Felixstow by the late Mr. Henry Miller and the other at Stowmarket about 1858 by Revd. H. Harpur Crewe. 300.

P. VIRGULARIA, H ü b . (incanaria, H b . ) .

To be noticed sitting everywhere on tree-trunks and palings throughout the County. *301. P. PEROCHRARIA, Fisch. The Revd. A. H. Wratislaw captured one of the two or three known British examples of this north and central European species, at Aldeburgh about 1870. No good reason, beyond extreme rarity, emerges for Bloomfield's supposition in his Additions that " this should probably be' Acidalia ochrata, Scop." 302. P. DILUTARIA, Hüb. (interjectaria, Bois.). Considered generally ' c o m m o n ' here before 1890; but later noticed, in any considerable numbers, only at Felixstow in midJuly 1902 (Miy). 303.



Locally common in sylvan places. Bentley Woods (Baylis); both there and Sproughton in June 1893-1904 (Mly); Ipswich (Ml); Hemley (Wir); Blaxhall (Hkr); Southwold (Ctw); Beccles (Ml). Stowmarket ( C ) ; Creeting Hills in May 1933 (D). Tuddenham (Nurse). 304.



Broadly distributed, but somewhat local. Copdock, Ipswich, Needham ; Southwold, Herringfleet. West Stow, Tuddenham ; and plentiful on sugar at Brandon (Whe). 305.

P. AVERSATA, L i n n .

Abundant everywhere from Bentley Woods to Gorleston; often at Monks Soham light. 306. P. EMARGINATA, Linn. Very local, but common in woods, where it abounds, e.g. at Bentley, Hemley and Fritton. 307. P. DIMIDIATA, Hufn. (scutata, Bkh.). Not so abundant as in Hants, but frequent at light at Monks Soham (Mly) and common on palings at Gorleston (D). Rarely noticed about Ipswich and in Bentley Woods; Thorpness.






Very little rarer than the next kind, but unnoted from the west and north. Copdock (Hkg); Bentley Woods not infrequently (Mly), Ipswich, Baylham and Westerfield (Pyett); Kesgrave (Freeman); Waldringfield, very plentiful at light and sugar (Wir); Brandeston. 309. P. BISETATA, Hufn. Abundant in all the woods around Ipswich in July ; and generally distributed, though little noticed in the north, as at Fritton in 1935, or to the west of Raydon Wood. Sometimes at Monks Soham light. [Another half-dozen species of Ptychopoda are British, though P. herbariata, F., was not admitted tili 1927. Of these P. contiguaria, Hb. and P. staminata, Tr., are purely western in our Isles ; P. humiliata, Hfn., is confined to I. Wight and P. degeneraria, Hb., to Portland : leaving our sole possible addition to be P. fuscivenosa, Gz. (holosericata, Dp.), which is local in the south but extends northwards as far as Norfolk.] 310. STERRHA OCHRATA, Scop. Supposing the above Ptychopoda perochraria correctly named, the present species is new to our County list. Numerous males were captured at Thorpe Ness in mid-July 1934-5 by the Revd. A. P. Waller (Trans, iii, 91). 311.



Common, at times abundant, in most or all woods in the east and probably west of the County: especially about Bentley, Ipswich, Farnham, Yoxford and Parham. Gorleston (D, Mr). 312. L. IMMUTATA, Linn. Locally quite frequent in both east and west. Iklstead, Ipswich, Barham, Coddenham, Brandeston ; not very common at Yoxford, Beccles, Lowestoft, Fritton, Bradwell (D). Tuddenham, Brandon. 313. L. MARGINIPUNCTATA, GĂśze (promutata, Gn.). Considered too general to localise in 1890, but certainly by no means frequent and usually seen near the east coast in August. Ipswich at light, Wherstead, and not uncommon at Felixstow in 1900-35 (Mly); Bawdsey, Aldeburgh, Southwold and occasionally at Gorleston. 314. L. ORNATA, Scop. Curiously rare, considering the extent of our chalk. Brandeston, taken occasionally by beating undergrowth in hedges (Gr, c. 1855). One specimen at Tuddenham (Waters). One at Southwold in 1902 by Lingwood (EMM, 1904, 81). Never seen in Suffolk (Mly).







Of such general occurrence that localities are superfluous. Especially noticed about Henley and Coddenham in 1899 (Sparke);. always common at Monks Soham light in August (Mly). 316.




Quite local, but by no means very rare along the coast. Flying in salt-marshes at Trimley in early July 1932 (Ellis, in coli. D); several years at Hemley (Wir, E M M 1902, 247); Felixstow and in 1903 at Orford (Gibbs); Aldeburgh in July 1889 (Sheldon) and in Slaughden salt-marshes (Ctw) ; Leiston (Hkr) ;. and Southwold. 317. L. RUBIGINATA, Hufn. (rubricata, F.). Sussex, Surrey, Essex, Norfolk and possibly Yorks only, but nowhere so common as in Suffolk. With us the species seems, like Emmelia trabealis above, confined to ancient estuaries» though of recent years it has spread considerably along our coast also. One at light in Ipswich during 1901 (Pyett); one sitting on ragwort flower just before dusk at Martlesham on 5 August 1926 (Mly); Hemley in 1901 and Thorpness in 1934 (Wir). Plentiful in a sandy patch near Orford in August 1933 (Trans, ii, 291); on sandhills to north of Aldeburgh on 9 July 1892 (Ctw : not in Hele) and near Aldeburgh in 1934 (Trans, ii, 295); Leiston before 1890 (Hon. B. de Grey) ; at light in Southwold on 25 July 1900 (Mly).—It is in much greater profusion in the Breck where Wratislaw, who there discovered it, states " above sixty were taken in Suffolk during 1868 " (Suff. Inst. 41y Jour. 1869, 23 ; Proc. iv, 1870, 218) ; abundant at Tuddenham in August 1884 (Meek, Ent. xvii, 278 ; EMM. 1909, 90); but extending to Brandon, Thetford, Bamham heath (Sparke), Eriswell in 1936 (Gd), Worlington, Icklingham (Trans, ii, p. clxxxiv) and surrounding vicinity. [Three other Leptomeres are nearlv confined in Britain to Sussex» L. strigaria, Hb., L. strigilaria, Hb. and L. immorata, L. ; on only the north British heaths in Pylarge fumata, Ste., .to be found.] *318.



So extremely rare is this local species with us that Mr. Edmund Skepper of Bury's old record of "its occurrence at Lowestoft still remains unique. We form the north extremity of its British ränge. 319.



Quite wide spread, but always infrequent. Several at Copdock (Hkg) ; not rare in Bentley Woods in May (Harwood, Pvett) ; Belstead, and Freston (Freeman) ; Playford ( G r ) ; Swefling (Peek). In Blythburgh Wood in 1931 (Mly). Rare at Mildenhall (Sparke).





Scattered, apparently thinly, over all the County excepting the north-east. One at dusk in Bentley Woods on 9 August 1899 (Mly) ; Copdock on 14 May 1896 ( H k g ) ; Ipswich (Stn. M a n u a l ) ; Aldeburgh (Hele); Southwold in 1891 (Ctw). Needham ( C ) ; once at Bury (Norgate); West Stow (Wrt); Mildenhall (Skepper, Sparke). 321.

L . PUNCTARIA, L i n n .

Generally distributed but uncommon everywhere. Bentley Woods, Ipswich, Dennington and Aldeburgh to Beccles, extending north-west through Stowmarket and Bury to Mildenhall. In mixed hedges at Weston and Blythburgh, but unknown in Lothingland. 322. L . LINEARIA, HĂźb. (trilinearia, Bkh.). Broad spread, but usually taken singly. Copdock, Bentley Woods, Bramford, Hacheston, at light in Monks Soham, July 1931, in Bungay in 1903. Brandon (Whe). Dalham (Skepper). 323.

L . ANNULATA, Schlze. (omicronaria, Hb.).

Not infrequent, and presumably generally distributed. But uncommon about Ipswich, where it flew to electric light several times in August 1894; in garden and at light at Monks Soham, where maple abounds; Brampton Wood (Mly) and Beccles (Mr) in 1932. Sibton (Hawley). 324.

CALOTHYSANIS AMATA, L i n n , (amataria, L . ) .

Generally distributed and usually somewhat common, but rather infrequent about Ipswich ; occasionallv in the utmost profusion in Parham Wood, &c. Monks Soham, at light (Mly) ; Gorleston (Mr, D). Family 325.


NEMORIA STRIGATA, M Ăź l l , (thymiaria, G n . ) .

Flying everywhere at dusk commonly, from Bentley Woods to Gorleston. Frequent at Monks Soham light in July. 326.

N . VIRIDATA, L i n n .

This species has been recorded from our County (Bloomfield 1890, p. 56) and, though hitherto rejected, is so likely to occur that it is best reinstated, pending confirmation. 327. EUCHLORIS PUSTULATA, Hufn. (bajularia, Schf.). Distinctly local, but occurring somewhat freely in most of our larger oak-woods, by beating and at light, in July. Bentley Woods (Ml, Mly, Hkg who took five males on 5 July 1894); Ipswich, Needham, Stowmarket, Fornham, &c. Waldringfield, Henham, Easton Bavents.



328. E. VERNARIA, HĂźb.

Distinctly local, common only on chalk strata and not following clematis on the chalky boulder-clay. Sudbury (Ransom); Copdock on 16 July 1896 (Hkg); Bentley (Ml); Ipswich in 1893 (Pyett) ; common at Claydon and Barham (Sparke), many among clematis at Barham Green on 14 July 1899 (Mly) ; Stowmarket; Bury (Wrt, Ent. ii, 340; Sparke) ; Hardwick. Recorded in the east at Aldeburgh and Beccles, but not since 1890. 329. E. LACTEARIA, Linn. Abundant everywhere, especialy in woods, from Bentley to Gorleston. In Monks Soham garden and at light in June. 330. GEOMETRA PAPILIONARIA, Linn. A good deal commoner and broader distributed than was supposed in 1890. Sudbury, Copdock, Belstead, Bentley, Ipswich, Freston, a few at Waldringfield, Brandeston, Stowmarket. Tuddenham (Sparke). Beccles (Crf); Barnby Broad, rare in mid-August 1898 (Mly); Fritton 1935. 331. PSEUDOTERPNA PRUINATA, Hufn. (cytisaria, Schf.). Considered to be too ' widely distributed' to localise in 1890. It may be so, but no later records have come in, excepting its occasional occurrence at electric lights in Ipswich during July, and quite rarely at lamps in Monks Soham. None seem noticed on our broad heathlands during recent years. [Of the two other members of this Family, Euchloris smaragdaria, F., has not spread northwards from Essex coast yet; and Thelerafimbrialis,Sc., was introduced as British quite recently.] Family HYDRIOMENIDJE. 332. TRICHOPTERYX VIRETATA, Hb.

Mildenhall (Btn), Barton (Wrt) and among ivy at Tostock (Norgate), only in the west. Fairly frequent in the east at Copdock, Martlesham, Waldringfield, Shrubland Park, Needham, Finburgh, Leiston, Gorleston-. 333. T. CARPINATA, Bkh. (lobulata, Hb.). Known from only Mildenhall and Ipswich in 1890. Found on Rushmere heath in 1896 (Baylis), at light in Ipswich (Pyett), and often in some numbers on trunks in Bentley Woods (Elliott, Hkg, Platten, Mly). [Our east-central area of England is the only part unpatronised by T. polycommata, which occurs no nearer than Monks Wood


•62 334.



Still scarce and local; perhaps overlooked. Belstead (Pyett, Hkg); singlv at electric light in Ipswich during July 1895 (Mly) ; Playford ( G r ) ; Stowmarket (C); Worlingham Park (Crf). 335. LOBOPHORA HALTERATA, Hufn. (6-apterata, Schf.). Commoner than formerly, though by no means general, and very sparse in the west. Thrice at Copdock in 1894 (Hkg); Bentley (Harwood, Ml) Woods in 1896 (Baylis) and in some numbers on oak-trunks during 1929-33 there, where it probably feeds on aspen (Mly, D). Playford, Needham, Stowmarket. Flying by day at Mildenhall in 1933-37 (Gd). Bungay, (Mn). 336.



By no means so scarce as was thought in 1890. Wherstead, often in Ipswich, Playford (Ent. Wk. Int. ii, 1857, 11), Felixstow (Pyett), often at Monks Soham light, Stowmarket, Mildenhall, Downham; Southwold (Ctw), Beccles, Lowestoft, Gorleston. 337. C. RECTANGULATA, Linn. Quite common, from Bentley to Gorleston and Tuddenham Fen. 338.



The late Henry Miller's specimen from Bentley still remains unique in Suffolk, where Vaccinium myrtillus is, as Bloomfield remarks, unknown ; but V. oxycoccos and other Ericacese occur. 339.



Of frequent occurrence everywhere; formerly overlooked. Bentley, Wherstead, Ipswich, Westerfeld, Playford, Neec.ham, Orford, Aldeburgh, Southwold, Bungay, Gorleston, &c. 340.



Broad spread, but distinctly scarce. Ipswich rarely, Waldringfield; Woodbridge (Major Moor); Needham, Stowmarket, Bury, Tuddenham, Brandon. Bungay (Mn), Beccles ; Gorleston in July 1928 and 1932 (Mr). *341










" I have been fortunate enough to meet with a few larvae of E. denotata and pimpinellata during the last fortnight " (Crewe at Stowmarket, 3 Sept. : Ent. Wk. Int. 1858, 189). The latter only is noticed by Bloomfield, who failed to consult the Intelligencer when compiling his Lep. of Suffolk, and has been found at Ipswich by Miller. 343. E. GOOSSENSIATA, Mab. (minutata, Gn.). Not generally noticed, and perhaps somewhat local. Ipswich at light, and at Felixstow in 1902 (Gibbs) ; Ipswich and Monks Soham, occasionally at light (Mly); Playford (Gr) ; Southwold (Ctw); Beccles (Crf); Tuddenham (Vivian); Brandon (Barrett).





A common species throughout the County from Ipswich (Mly) to Gorleston (Mr). Frequent at light at Monks Soham, Fritton, &c. L a r v a found on mugwort at Aldeburgh (G. F. Mathews), and commonly in Lothingland on ragwort (Wiltshire). 345. E. ASSIMILATA, Dbld. Much scarcer than the last kind, but generally distributed. Ipswich (Freeman, Collins, Mly); Stowmarket (C); Bury (Nurse) ; Tuddenham (Vivian); Gorleston (Mr). 346.



Apparently very local with us. No records emerge since Henry Miller took it at Ipswich before 1890 (Lep. Suff. 31), excepting its occurrence in Bradwell Fen on 16 June 1933—it is abundant just over the Norfolk border, at Caister. 347.




Much overlooked ; probably of frequent occurrence. Bentley (Harwood, Ml), Playford (C); Swefling (Peek) :• before 1890. Occasionally at Monks Soham (Mly) ; Gorleston in 1934 (Mr). 348.




By far the most ubiquitous species of the genus, constantly turning up everywhere from Bentley Woods to Gorleston ; frequent at light in Monks Soham and Sibton. 349. E. OBLONGATA, Thnb. (centaureata, F.). Frequently very numerous, and nowhere absent. Rather sparse around Ipswich; Playford (Ent. Wk. Int. 1857, ii); from Sizewell and Southwold to Tuddenham Fen and Worlington^ where it abounded at light in August 1934 (Mly, D ) ; ßeccles' Hopton and Gorleston (Mr). 350.




Occurs everywhere, but most freely in High Suffolk. Distinctly sparse round Ipswich ; abundant at Monks Soham light in July. Fritton (Wiltshire), Beccles, Ashby, Gorleston (Mr). The Var. cognata, Stn., has been taken rarely at Brandon (Barrett). 351.




This beautiful species is quite rare with us, and infrequent through more southern England. It was found at Stowmarket about 1855 by the Revd. H . Harpur Crewe ; and Mrs. Mann secured a single specimen at light in Bungay during 1900. 352. E. PULCHELLATA, Steph. Overlooked or confused, and (though always abundant in the New Forest) almost unrecorded from Suffolk since 1890, when it was known here solely from Playford (Gr) and Ipswich (Ml). One specimen in Gorleston garden among foxglove in 1933 (Mr).







Broadly distributed, and somewhat common. Bentley Woods in July (Mly, Hkg); Playford; Felixstow in 1903 (EMM. 1904, 80), Stowmarket, Tuddenham, Brandon, Lowestoft. Flew to light in Gorleston on 27 August 1930 (Wiltshire). 354.




By no means rare : among our commoner species of this genus. Copdock, Bentlev, not very frequent at light in Ipswich, Hemley, Felixstow and Needham (EMM. 1904, 80), Brandeston, at Monks Soham light; larvse and not uncommon imagines at Aldeburgh (Ctw), Southwold, Lowestoft, Gorleston, Beccles, Bury ; Tuddenham (Waters). 355.




Certainly generally distributed and perhaps common, but little noticed. Rather rare about Ipswich (Mly, Bavlis) ; Bentley Woods; Monks Soham light; frequent at Weston. Gorleston (D). 356.




Much broader spread than was supposed in 1890, though still mainly western. Orford in July 1902 (Gibbs) ; one at Southwold in 1891 (Barrett). Near Timworth in 1911 (Nurse); Herringswell, and common near the rectory in Tuddenham during May 1898 (Sparke), larvse on larch at Tuddenham (Vivian) ; Brandon (Barrett). 357.




Rare or overlooked. A single example flew to electric light in Ipswich on 12 July 1895 ; none seen since that time (Mly). Gorleston garden in 1931 (Mr). 358.




A species of common occurrence throughout England, yet noted with us only before 1890 from Needham (L) and Stowmarket (C). 359. E. HAWORTHATA, Dbld. (isogrammaria, HS.). Another frequent kind, noted in Suffolk from only Bentley Woods, among clematis at Ipswich (Mly); Stowmarket, Bury, Barton Mills (Waters); Lowestoft (Bd) and annually in Gorleston garden (Mr). 360.



We seem at the extremity of this species' southern ränge, but it is less rare here than was formerly thought to be the case. A few about Ipswich in 1893, rare at Monks Soham light in 1924, and one taken at Barton Mills in June 1900 (Mly); several



netted, and larvse taken, in west Suffolk during 1913 (Nurse, in lit. 20 Oct. 1913). Worlingham Park, before 1890 (Crf); Lothingland (Mr, one). Bentley Woods, 26 May 1932 (D). 361.



Distinctly local but abundant where it occurs, in marshes ; unnoted in the south. Glemham Magna (Bloomfield); Beccles (Crf); Bradwell Fen on 6 June 1933 (and abundant at C-aister : M l y ) ; somewhat common at Bungay (Mn). Stowmarket ( C ) ; near Timworth in 1911 (Nurse). 362.



A species of general, if somewhat local, distribution throughout the southern half of England, feeding on the commonest kinds of Suffolk umbells. Bloomfield excluded our records (Lep. Suff., p. 55); but they may certainly be reinstated, with confidence of future confirmation. t 363.




Of similar distribution to the last kind, though feeding on Coniferse. Bentley in May 1894 (Hkg); Ipswich (Ml). Worlingham (Crf). Brandon (Warren, Vivian); Tuddenham in 1903 (Mly). 364.

E . INTURBATA, H 端 b . (subciliata, G n . ) .

Somewhat local, but doubtless overlooked. Bentley (Harwood) Woods in 1895-6 (Mly); Ipswich in August 1895 (Baylis) and near it (Stainton). Beccles (Crf); Flixton (Crtw). 365.




One found in Belstead road at Ipswich, about 1895 (Baylis) and at Bixley Decoy ( M l : both Suppl. 1900). Abundant among larch at Foxhall, Benhall and a few at Chillesford, in 1933-5 (Mly). 366.

E . ABBREVIATA, S t e p h .

Quite a common species, and broadly distributed in woods. Bentley Woods, somewhat frequent at Ipswich, Playford, Earlsoham, Stowmarket. Beccles, Fritton, Beiton, at Monks Soham light. 367.

E . DODONEATA, G u e n .

Usually a somewhat local kind, but doubtless merely overlooked by us. Playford ( G r ) ; Framlingham (Bloomfield); Coddenham and Combs (C) ; bred and captured near Timworth in 1909 (Nurse, Entom. 1911, 200). 368.




Levelly distributed, and quite common everywhere. freely to light at Monks Soham and Bungay.




Local through the southern half of England ; still considered to be very rare in Suffolk, with but three instances : Needham (L), Bury (Wrt), both before 1890; and one specimen at rest on an oak-trunk near Timworth (Nurse, Entom. 1911, 220). 370. E. INSIGNIATA, Hüb. (consignata, Bkh.). Local and not ranging north of Norfolk: on whitethorn and apple-leaves. Found to be rare in Suffolk during 1853 (Ent. Wk. Intel.). " Considered rare, but I can sometimesfindit easily enough by beating whitethorn at Kennet [Cambs], Brandon, Tuddenham and round Newmarket" (T. Brown, ante 1890); bred in some numbers in west Suffolk during 1913 (Nurse, in lit. 20 Oct. 1913); a score bred from whitethorn, close to Tuddenham church, in 1910 (Hancock of Minehead, v. v. 1931). Bury 1936 (Btn). 371. E. INNOTATA, Hufn. Rejectcd as indigenous by Bloomfield (Lep. Suff., p. 55); confirmed by a specimen bred in June 1901 from larva taken on mugwort near Aldeburgh on 10 September 1900 (Mathews, EMM. 1902, 247). Bred 14 May 1932 from pupa found at Aldringham on 2 August 1931 (Mly). E. fraxinata, Crewe, now synonvmised with this species, is recorded as somewhat scarce at Ipswich in 1893 (Mly), at light (Pyett); Playford, Woodbridge, Lowestoft, Beccles ; Brandeston, Stowmarket. No record from the west. 372. E. SOBRINATA, Hüb.

Common, and levelly distributed, so surely not feeding on Juniper. Bentley Woods and frequent around Ipswich (Mly); Kesgrave, Campsey Ash, Stowmarket. Common about Bury (Wrt); Dalham. 373. E. NANATA, Hüb.

Probably common on heaths, but overlooked (Barrett); feeds on heather and ling. Stowmarket. Foxhall heath, Southwold, Beccles; Fritton at light (Mly), Gorleston (Mr), Lothingland (D). Little noticed in the west, at only Tuddenham and Brandon, ante 1890. [Suffolk seems able to boast all fortv-four British Pugs, but three :—E. distinctaria, HS. (constrictata, Gn.), does not occur in south-east England ; E. Helveticaria, Boisd., is very local, only from Bucks to Aberdeen ; and E. extensaria, Frey., patronises sandhils from Yorks to merely Norfolk, whence Dr. Whittingham has bred it.] 374. EUCYMATOGE SUBNOTATA, Hüb.

A very distinct species, ' usually common on the sea-coast' (Barrett). Ipswich (C, Ml), at light in 1893 (Mly); a half-dozen



at Orford in 1902 ( G i b b s ) ; Aldeburgh ( C r t w ) ; Beccles ( C r f ) ; Gorleston in early July (D). T h i s is another coast insect occurring on the Breck, at Brandon (Whe). *375.

E. SCABIOSATA, Bkh. (subumbrata, G n . ) .

T h o u g h merely a local kind in southern England, this seems one of our rarest Pugs, possibly confused with E. succenturiata, for none are noticed since the Revd. Joseph Greene, of Pupadigging fame, took it at light in Playford about 1856. 376.



Another merely local Pug, known in Suffolk only by Dunning's record of it from Brandon so long ago as 1849 (Entom. 1869, 372), confirmed by one specimen beaten from a hedge by Crutwell at Southwold in 1891 ( E M M . xxvii, 221), at the other extremity of the County. 377.



Widely distributed, locally common among clematis ; usually on chalk, so rare along our coast. Bures, Copdock, uncommon at light in Ipswich ; Whitton (Pyett), Claydon (Sparke), Blakenham, and at light in Monks Soham ( M l y ) ; Needham, Stowmarket, Hardwick, B u r y ; T u d d e n h a m (Mly). Aldeburgh (Hele). 378.



Of frequent occurrence everywhere among clematis from Bures, Belstead and Bramford to Gorleston. Very rare at M o n k s Soham. Unnoted west of Bury. [Ii. aquata, H b . , was added as a British species in 1927.] 379.



T h i s central European species occurs locally up eastern England only from Hants, through Suffolk, Norfolk, C a m b s and York to Cheshire, feeding on Yellow Loosestrife, patchy in Suffolk. 380.



Locally abundant on broom in gravelly places. Copdock and Bentley (Hkg), common at light in Ipswich (Mly), Playford, Needham, Stowmarket. Bury, Icklingham, Brandon. Worlingham (Crf). Blythburgh ( G d ) ; Reydon in 1935 (Baker). 381.

E. RUFATA, Fab. (obliquaria, Bkh.).

Also among broom, but wider spread and less numerous than the last kind. Tattingstone (Bp.), Bentley ( G i b b s ) rare at light in Ipswich (as early as 23 April in 1895), H o g s Highland (as late as 3 August in 1894), Playford, Waldringfield, A l d e b u r g h ; one at light on 18 July 1914 in Monks Soham, where is no broom for miles round (Mly) ; Creeting hills ( D ) , Needham, Stowmarket ; T u d d e n h a m (Bloomfield, Sparke), Downham, Brandon (Barrett, Norf. Nat. Soc. i, p. 27). Unnoted in north-east.



382. E. GRISEATA, Schf. (nivearia, Ste.). A south and central European species, occurring in Britain only in Norfolk and with us, where its ränge curiously coincides with that of E. trabealis, since the late Henry Lingwood dicovered it at Needham Market, where it seems now extinct. Otherwise it exists solely in the Breck :—" A large number of the larvse of Lithostege nivearia, not long included in the British catalogue, taken on Sisymbrium Sophia, which is the commonest cornweed in the Breck District, hence the abundance " of the moths (Wratislaw, Suff. Inst. 41y Journ. Jan. 1869, 23 ; cf. Suff. Inst, iv, 1870, 219). Levelly distributed over the District, where those who want it must come from all Britain (and they do !) : Brandon (Stainton 1859 to Hawley 1937). 383. E. PLAGIATA, Linn. May be noticed in autumn scattered everywhere from Ipswich to Gorleston. 384. E. EFFORMATA, Guen. Doubtless mixed with the last species (NB. ? Gorleston 24 June 1926.—CM.) \Carsia paludata, Thnb. (imbutata, Hb.) is eonfined to northwest England.] 385. CALOCALPE CERTATA, Hüb.

Still very local, though discovered to occur in 1900 quite plentifully in Skepper and Wratislaw's locality at Bury (Suff. Inst, iv, 1870, 220) bv Sparke; a fine series was taken there by our Members, De Worms and Doughtv in May 1934-5 (Ent. lxviii, 81), Needham (L); rare and intermittent in Waldringfield at light there 27 April 1935 (Wir). In Beccles, 1937 (Gls). 386. C. UNDULATA, Linn. Wide spread, frequent in marshes among sallow. Bures; Dodnash (Hkg); Bentley Woods; Ipswich, Brandeston; at Monks Soham light in July 1906, only (Mly); Needham. Worlingham and Fritton (Crf), but not recently in Lothingland. 387. PHILEREME VETULATA, Schf. Quite a rare moth in Suffolk, where Buckthorn is none too common. Recorded from only Aldeburgh (Hele, needs confirmation); Beccles (Crf), Needham and Stowmarket. Unnoticed since 1890. 388. P. RHAMNATA, Schf. Ranges along with the last, excepting at Aldeburgh. Unnoticed since 1890.



69 Linn.

Considered somewhat common in 1890. I have never seen it here (Morley). " Very common in a Sudbury g a r d e n " (Bloomfield's Adds.) ; Copdock in 1896 ( H k g ) ; twelve at Yoxford on 21 August 1895 (Pyett); Beccles, Fritton and Gorleston, 1923-35 (Mr). 390.

E . ASSOCIATA, B k h . (dotata, G n , nec L . ) .

Generally distributed, and usually frequent. Copdock, Ipswich, Swefling, Farnham, Aldeburgh, Beccles, Gorleston; Stowmarket, Bury, Tuddenham. 391.

E . POPULATA, L i n n .

Despite Bloomfield'a scepticism (Lep. Suff., p. 56) of this species' occurrence here, on account of its ' generally northern ' ränge (it was plentiful in Somerset in July 1933 !), that we possess it is confirmed by its recent capture in Blythburgh Wood (Morley). Hence we may reinstate the ante-1890 records from Playford (Greene, the last man likely to mistake such an insect), Stowmarket (Stainton's Manual and Crewe), Bury and Tuddenham (Wratislaw). In Norfolk, cf. Norf. Nat. Trans, i, 1874, 26. 392.


Of frequent occurrence everywhere about heaths, feeding on ling, and woods, on sallow. Recently noticed at Bentley Woods, Brandeston, at Monks Soham light, Beccles, Barnby, North Cove, Fritton and abundantly in Tuddenham Fen. [E. reticulata, F., is now extinct in Westmorland.] 393.

PLEMYRIA BICOLORATA, H u f n . (rubiginata, F . ) .

Pretty well confined to marshes and an alder diet with us, but very wide spread. Not of frequent occurrence about Ipswich ; Coddenham, in Monks Soham paddock, Barnby Broad ( M l y ) ; Beccles ( M r ) ; &c. 394. P. HASTATA, Linn. Essentially a sylvan species. Stowmarket and Bentley (Crewe and other earlier collectors) ; Belstead (Lingwood). This beautiful moth used to flit about the birch bushes in Bentley Woods, as numerously as it does in the New Forest, during at least the decade 1893-1904; then pheasants were introduced, and our eyes are gladdened with its presence no more. U n recorded elsewhere; but seen during 1894 in Holbrook Park (Morley), where we sincerely hope it yet survives. *395.


Fully as local with us as throughout south England, and in need of confirmation. " Recorded in Stainton's Manual, and in more than one list: Stowmarket ( C ) ; Bentley (Garrett). Yet I believe these are errors."â&#x20AC;&#x201D;Bloomfield, Lep. Suff. 1890, p. 56.






More plentiful and general here than, probably, anywhere in England ; not much in evidence along the coast. Bures, Copdock, Bentley Woods (Baylis, Pyett). Ipswich, occasionally at Monks Soham light (Mly), Bramford, Barham oakwood, Bury, Tuddenham. Worlingham (Crf), Beccles in 1933 (Mr). 397.

P. SOCIATA, Bkh. (subtristata, H w . ) .

Abundant everywhere in hedges from Bentley to 398.




Single specimens only ; highly decadent. I have never seen it here (Morlev). One at Bentley in June 1874 (Henry Miller). One at Chelmondiston in 1903 ( E M M . 1904, 80). One at Gorleston on 12 June 1925, but none later (Doughty). 399. MESOTYPE VIRGATA, Rott, (lineolata, Hb.). Local, now in the north only, on sandy heaths and sea-denes ; extinct along the Orwell Valley; and but one found at Hemley, in 1903 (Waller). On the Devil's Ditch and Newmarket Heath by Rev. L. Jenvns (Stephens 1831, 258). Newmarket heath (Brown) ; Thetförd (Williams) ; Icklingham ( W r t ) ; Bamham (Norgate) ; common on Bamham heath (Sparke). Covehithe (Curtis about 1825); Benacre and Kessingland (Crf, probably extinct). Still annually on both the Yarmouth north and south denes (Ellis), but none found south of the border. 400. HYDRIOMENA OCELLATA, Linn. Common and nearly generally distributed from Ipswich to Beccles ; rarer on Boulder-clay. 401.

H . VARIATA, Schif.

Everywhere fairly frequent from Ipswich to Fritton. 402.



Probably general, but much mixed with the last. Fritton (Mly), Beccles in 1933 (Mr), St Olaves in Herringfleet during June 1928 (D). Icklingham (Wiltshire). 403. H . JUNIPERATA, Linn. Extremely rare, perhaps extinct. Juniper now grows at only Dalham and Ixworth Park ; and among the former this Geometer certainlv was taken, before 1890 by Skepper of Bury. T w o specimens, apparentlv belonging here, were captured near Ipswich in 1895 and 1899, perhaps bred from junipers in gardens (Morley). 404.



This picturesque insect, whose British ränge extends u p to only Northants, used to occur quite rarely in marshes near three extremities of the County : to Henry Miller in Bixley decoy near



Ipswich; to Dr. Crowfoot at Beccles; and to the Rev. H . Williams of Croxton at Thetford. No notice since 1890 ; probably extinct, though said to have been recently taken ' near Thetford ' by Mr. F. Sowals, who vouchsafed no replv to our enquiry. 405.

H. FULVATA, Forst.

Of by no raeans the frequent occurrence we know in south England. Very rare about Ipswich, and there only two at Whitton netted in a decade ; uncommon at Monks Soham ; and found really commonly at Yoxford and Holton alone. 406.

H. DOTATA, Linn, (pyraliata, F.).

Generally distributed from Ipswich, where it is frequent, to Gorleston ( M r ) ; Southwold (Crtw); Oulton B r o a d ; at Monks Soham light. 407.



Wide spread in the east, only, of the County ; local. Hadleigh in mid-May 1903 (Harwood, Ent. Ree. 1905, 2 6 7 ) ; Copdock in mid-July 1896 only ( H k g ) ; Bentley (Ml) Woods, one in July 1895 (Bavlis); Freston (Freeman); Hemley in 1906 (Wir); Aide burgh (Wrt). Needham ( L ) and Stowmarket (C). Recently singly at Gorleston (D, Mr). 408.

H. MIATA, Linn.

Generally distributed and common at light in autumn, from Ipswich to Fritton and Gorleston. But rarely Seen after hibernation ; fresh-looking female at Monks Soham on 7 April 1930. *409.

H . SITERATA, Hufn. (psittacata, Schf.).

Rare and very local; probably not mixed with the last kind, than which all the wings are distinctively darker. Woodbridge (Greene). Stowmarket (Crewe); Needham and Bury (Skepper). Unnoticed with us since 1890. 410.

H. SORDIDATA, Fab. (elutata, HĂźb.).

Locally abundant in woods, e.g. Bentley Woods, Henham Park. Monks Soham, uncommon at dusk and light. Bred at Ipswich. 411.

H . TRIFASCIATA, B k h . (impluviata, H b . ) .

By no means common, though perhaps wide spread. Very rarely seen around Ipswich, bred on 2 May 1893 and 14 March 1900 ( M l y ) ; Playford (Gr, Ent. Wk. Int. ii, 1857, 11); recently at Gorleston (Mr), Fritton and Beiton (Wiltsbire). 412.

H . RUBERATA, F r e y .

Apparently rare. Ipswich ( M l ) ; Aldeburgh (Wrt); Stowmarket ( C ) ; Bury (Skepper); one at Tuddenham in 1901 (Sparke).



413 & 4 1 4 .

H . IMMANATA, Haw. e t H . TRUNCATA, Hufn. (russata).

Both of quite frequent and about equally common occurrence, from Bentley Woods to Gorleston and Tuddenham Fen. Many at dusk, but few at light, in Monks Soham ; once or twice on sugar near Ipswich. 415.



Very local, and somewhat rare in certain woods : not at Bentley where is no Circaea. Raydon Wood (Garrett) in 1894 (Baylis) 1933 (Doughty) and 1934, when several occurred in felled Letheringham Park (Mly). Before 1890 at Ipswich, Needham and Stowmarket, as well as Beccles (Crf) and Fritton in 1929 (Wiltshire). 416.

H . CORYLATA, T h n b .

Broadly distributed, but by no means frequent. Bentley Woods, on sugar on 1 October 1898; Ipswich occasionallv; Monks Soham, on lime trunk 25 May 1909 ; Beccles ; &c. 417.



Bentley Woods; locally common round Ipswich and at Monks Soham light in April (Mly). Aldeburgh, Leiston; Needham, Stowmarket, Bury. Wrentham (Gd) ; Beccles (Crf). 418.

H . DUBITATA, L i n n .

Apparently quite a scarce insect with us, but wide spread. Copdock, once at light (Hkg); Ipswich, twice at light, and rarely in Bentley Woods (Mly). Aldeburgh, Needham, Stowmarket, Bury. Lowestoft, Beccles (Crf); Gorleston singly, in September (Mr) and on a wall by the sea 12 December 1926 (D). 419.




Extremely abundant throughout the County in March and April, from Wherstead (Baylis) and Copdock (Hkg) to Bungay (Mn), Gorleston and Lound ( M r ) ; Monks Soham at sallows. Actually recorded from the west at only Bury and Lavenham. 420.

H. NIGRIFASCIARIA, Göze. (derivata, Bkh.).

Quite a local and infrequent species, perhaps commoner at Monks Soham light, in May 1905-37, than elsewhere. Several at Copdock (Hkg); only once at Ipswich street-lamp on 19 April 1893 (Mly). Brandeston, Needham, Stowmarket, Bury ; Beccles (Crf), Shipmeadow (Mr). 421.




No more frequent than the last kind, but distinctly broader spread. Thrice at Copdock ; Ipswich singly in June 1895 (Baylis, Pyett) ; scarce at Waldringfield light (Wir) ; Playford and



Brandeston ( G r ) ; Monks Soham light in June and July (Mly) ; Stowmarket, Hardwick, Bury; Tuddenham, uncommon on Galium at dusk, 1889 (Vivian) ; Beccles (Crf); Shipmeadow. 422.




AmĂśng our most local species, and persisting admirablv. Rare at Beccles (Crf); Brandon (Tr. Norf. Nat. Soc. 1899, 540) ; and elsewhere found only at Bury St Edmunds, where Skepper discovered it in the sixties and Wratislaw knew it (Suff. Inst, iv, 1870, 220), Waller netted several in June 1898, Sparke took larvae not uncommonly in 1902 and our Members, De Worms and Doughty, found many specimens in May 1934-35 (Ent. lxviii, 81). 423. H. CUCULATA, Hufn. (sinuata, Hb.). Confined with us, for no very obvious reason, to the north-west Breck and there local. Thetford; Tuddenham (Vivian), where Meek found three larvae in 1884 (Ent. xvii, 278) ; and Ampton, larvae common in 1909 (Nurse). Brandon, in 1937 (Hawley). 424.


' Not uncommon ' before 1890 at Ipswich, Playford, Stowmarket, Bury, Beccles, &c. Now become much scarcer and noticed hardly more than singly, at only Copdock (Hkg), Bentley Woods in May 1894 (Mly) and Bungay in 1904 (Mn). Gorleston one in 1929 (Wiltshire). 425.




Broadlv distributed, but rarely in considerable numbers. Bentley; Ipswich in 1893 (Pyett) and Barren Heath there in July 1893 (Mly); Blythburgh (Gd), Southwold in 1933 (Wir); abĂźndant at Aldeburgh in 1890 (Crtw) ; Lowestoft; Bradwell (Lockyer, Ent. 1879, 294). Brandeston ; Needham ; Tuddenham Fen in June 1900. 426.



Bkh. (blandiata, Hb.).

Hitherto unrecorded from East Anglia, where it must be of extreme rarity, since the sole known specimen was netted by Mr. Morley during 1894 in the Bentley Woods near Ipswich : now in Iiis coli. *427.

H. MINORATA, T r . (ericetata, Ste.).

A northern species descending to Norfolk and (Bloomfield 1890, p. 55) Stowmarket (Stainton, Man. 81). 428.



Single and very rare specimens alone noted. Ipswich (Stainton, Man. 1859, ii, 8 1 ) ; Brandeston (Revd. Joseph Greene); Tuddenham, since 1890 (Waters).





Doubtless still not uncommon throughout the County, as in 1890 ; but later noted only at Tuddenham (Waters), and light in Ipswich during 1893-5 (Pyett, Mly). 430. H. AFFINI ATATA , Steph. By no means uncommon everywhere in thickets from Bentley Woods to Fritton ; no specific records from the west. 431.




Much less frequent than the last, but distributed everywhere from Wherstead to both Wordwell (Mly) and Gorleston (Mr). 432.

H . ALBULATA, S c h f .

Somewhat local, but often in the utmost profusion in marshes Hacheston ; Battisford ; Aldeburgh , Beccles (Mr) Bungay (Mn), Shipmeadow in 1933 (Mly). Common at Brandon staunch in June 1910 (Elliott) and always in Barton Mills marshes; Mildenhall and Tuddenham Fenn (Sparke). Not noted from Ipswich. 433.




Local; quite common wherever chalk outcrops in mid-south Suffolk; not recorded from the Breck. Sudbury (Ransom) ; Belstead, Ipswich, common among Clematis at Whitton, Barham (Mly) ; Needham, Stowmarket, Hardwick. Our sole record from the coast (Aldeburgh: Hele 1870, 187) is pretty surely erroneous. 434.

H . BILINEATA, L i n n .

In profusion in every hedge of the County ; often at light. 435.

H . FLUVIATA, H Ăź b . (gemmata, H b . ) .

No more than two specimens seem to be known with us. One taken at Bury by Nurse, and misnamed Bolitobia fuliginaria (Ent. 1878, 321); and a second that was attracted to electric light in the middle of Ipswich on 5 September 1893 (Mly). [The purely Scots Hydriomena lapidata, Hb., the very rare II. polygrammata, Bkh. (conjunctaria, Led.) and recently-introduced H. lugubrata, Stgr., occur in Suffolk no more than the northern H.(Emmelesia) tceniata, Ste.]. 436. PELURGA COMITATA, Linn. Widely distributed and not infrequent. Fairly common around Ipswich, sometimes (Baylis, Pyett) at light there; Aldeburgh, Southwold, Beccles, Bungay and frequent at Gorleston. Bury, Tuddenham, Brandon. 437. OPEROPHTERA BRUMATA, Linn. Extremely abundant everywhere from Bentley and Woodbrdge to Beccles and Gorleston ; imago sometimes extends into Februarv, e.g. 1894.





Previously confused here with the last species. Not uncommon at Copdock in 1897 (Hkg) ; frequent at Needham Market in winter of 1929-30 (Platten) ; occasionally at Monks Soham light during 1904-33 (Mly). 439. EUCHCECA LUTEATA, Schf. Occurs in all our larger woodlands and denser thickets. Bures, commonly in Bentley Woods, less about Ipswich ; Henley and Westerfeld (Sparke); Hacheston, Swefling, Needham, Stowmarket, Bury. Yet lingers in deforested areas, e.g. Beccles and Monks Soham (Mly). 440. E. OBLITERARA, Hufn. (heparata, H\v.). Quite locally common, always among alders in marshes. Especially noticed in Bramford rtiarshes, 1895 ; Bixley Decoy, 1904 ; Blythburgh damp wood, 1932 (D) ; Beccles and Fritton. 441.

E. TESTACEATA, D o n . (sylvata, H b . ) .

Not yet recorded ! Surely it is merely overlooked ?—CM. 442.

E. BLOOMERI, C u r t .

This west English moth is said to have occurred in Suffolk (cf. Bloomfield 1890, p. 56) ; its confirmation is likely to prove a Herculean task ! 443. ASTHENA CANDIDATA, Schf. Abundant throughout the County, especially in sylvan places e.g. Bentley, Ipswich, Foxhall, Monks Soham. 444. A. MURINATA, Scop. (euphorbiata, F.). Extremely rare, in contrast to west England. A doubtful specimen near Stowmarket about 1858 (C); confirmed by one taken at Needham Market in 1903 by Lingwood (EMM. 1904, p. 80). Never seen, through forty years, here (Mly). 445.



Abundant throughout the County in October and early November, from Bentley Woods to Gorleston ; Monks Soham. 446.



Not hitherto recorded distinctively from the last; but I have taken it at light at MS. and expect other Members will amply confirm this.—CM. 447. VENUSIA CAMBRICA. Curt. This local species, common about Doncaster,is known to extend south-east as far as Norfolk ; hence small basis seems to exist for Bloomfield's exclusion of it (Lep. 1890, p. 55) from the Suffolk fauna. Mountain-ash is abundant in manv of our woods.





Bkh. (lignata, Hb.).

Frequent among Galium palustre in most marshes. Belstead, sparingly at Ipswich lights, Bramford marshes, Needham, Stowmarket, Glemham Magna, Beccles, at Bungay light; Brandon. 449. X. CERVINATA, Schf. Almost too abundant among mallow in October to localise. Common at Ipswich lights ; Copdock, Waldringfield, Blaxhall, Aldeburgh, Leiston, at Southwold lights, Frostenden, Gorleston, at Monks Soham light, Needham, Stowmarket, Bury. Not plentiful at Tuddenham (Sparke). 450.

X. LIMITATA, Scop. (mensuraria, Schf.)

Ubiquitous in autumn from the Ipswich district to Burgh Castle in north and Freckenham in west: Haughley, Letheringham, Blythburgh, Oulton marshes, &c. 451. X. PLUMBARIA, Fab. (palumbaria, Bkh.). Distinctly local and never common, as in Hants, &c. Noted since 1890 at only Copdock in 1898 (Hkg) ; rarely in Bentley woods (Mly) ; several on Martlesham Heath in 1903 (Wir) ; Aldeburgh (Ctw) ; and Lowestoft (Bloomfield). 452.




Curiously rare, considering our chalk-outcrops. Wratislaw thought that he might have taken it at Tuddenham. It is confirmed for the County by Norgate, who found it on railway-bank near Bury in 1903. It abounds at the Devils Dyke, just over the Cambs border. 453.



Very seldom seen. Rare in Yarmouth gardens before 1834 (Paget); five at sallow-blossom near Ipswich on 23 March 1861 (Ent. Wk. Intell. x, 27); Tuddenham and Aldeburgh (Wrt) ; Bentley (Ml) Woods on 24 April 1893 (Mly); Belstead in March 1894 (Hkg); Waldringfield, one on garden door in March 1933 (Trans, ii, 185). In 1936 at Benacre Wood (Gd); Lowestoft (Btn) and Fritton marshes on 31 March (Mr). 454.

X . DIDYMATA, L i n n .

Extremely abundant at dusk in lanes everywhere, excepting near the coast, e.g. about Gorleston. 455








Constantly beaten. from every hedge in the County, from Nayland to Gorleston.



457. X. DESIGNATA, Rott, (propugnata, F.). Curiously sparse; thinly scattered everywhere, but nearly always taken singly ; very rare around Ipswich. Bentley before 1890 (Ml, none later) ; Copdock (Hkg); Needham, Stowmarket, Bury. Singly at Parham Wood in 1918, Onehouse Wood in 1928, Tuddenham Fen in 1933 and Fritton Lake at light in 1934, only (Mly); Gorleston (Wilt). Abounds in Norfolk Broads. 458.



It has been found in Suffolk (Stephens 1831, 216). Quite common locally here, near the end of its north-east ränge; especially in hedges north of Ipswich. Very local round Sudbury (Harwood) ; Copdock (Hkg) ; Ipswich (Pyett); Barham and Henley (Sparke) ; Orwell Wood in 1901, Felixstow and Orford in 1902 (Gibbs); in plenty on tree-trunk^ at Brandeston (G) ; Monks Soham rare in late Apirl 1933 and at Mildenhall (Mly); common near Burgh Castle (Harwood); Fritton in 1935 (D). Extends to Brandon (Entom. xiv, 230 ; xv, 19). 459.



Not uncommon among pines. Bentley fir wood (Bavlis) ; Copdock in August (Hkg); at Ipswich lights (Pyett); Playford, Needham; Aldeburgh (Ctw). Herringfleet (Crf), Fritton and Beiton (Wiltshire). Brandon in 1896 (Mly). 460.



Among our most ubiquitous moths, from Stanstead Wood (Mly) to Gorleston (D). 461. X. FLUCTUATA, Linn. A pest in gardens. Emerges before the end of April (Platten). 462. X. VIRIDARIA, Fab. (pectinataria, I\n.). Generally distributed, frequent in sylvan places, often at light: from Bentley Woods through Monks Soham at light in August, to Fritton and Gorleston (Mr). [Xanthorhoe munitata, Hb. and X. salicata, Hb., are northern kinds in Britain], 463.



Almost surely absent though it has been recorded (Bloomfield 1890, 56). We are in east-central area of England, where Lythria purpuraria, L., alone is probably not indigenous. *464. RHODOMETRA SACRARIA, Linn. No second example of tbis casual immigrant has appeared here since P. Bouchard took a male in ' S u f f o l k ' during 1863 (Ent. Ann. 1864, 128 ; Zool. 1863, 8784). Our Member, Col. Hawley, has taken one recently on the south Hants coast.


78 Family 465.


ODEZIA ATRATA, L i n n , (chserophyllata, L . ) .

Late confirmation has emerged of the Revd. H . Harpur Crewe's record of this species' occurrence at Battisford, circa 1858: Mr. Goddard securcd one at Mildenhall in 1936. T h e Earthnut flourishes all over our County. [Aplasta ononaria, Fuesl., seems immigrant to Folkstone.J 466.



Common throughout the County in March and April, from Bentley to Gorleston. 467.



T h e patchy distribution is surely owing merely to lack of March observers ; probably common in all birch-woods. T h e collective ' Brepha as the genus is actually spelled by Stephens (Catalog. Brit. Insects 1829, p. 113)—was'a Moth well-known to the Victorian workingmen-collectors of Ipswich. Several about Ipswich on 27 March 1861 ( T i m Last, Ent. Wk. Intell. x, 2 7 ) ; somewhat common outside Bentley Woods in 1899 (Platten), 1936 (Bp. and 1894-5, and on Foxhall heath (Mly). West Stow Wood (Suff. Inst, iv, 1870, 2 2 1 ) ; Mildenhall. Worlingham ( C r f ) ; many at Blythburgh Wood on 22 March 1936 ( B t n ) ; Herringfleet on 22 March 1936 (D, Mr). 468.



Less common than the last species ; apparently confined to clav woods, containing much sallow, in south-centre of the County. Stowmarket (B, Ent. Wk. Intell. ii, 1857, 28) and larva there (C, I.e. iv, 1858, 51). A pair Aying, in cop., about Ipswich on 27 March 1861 (Tim. Last, I.e. x, 27). Abundant in Raydon Wood in 1930 (Trans, ii, 83) and March 1894 (Mly ; cf. Ent. Ree. xi, 135), and then not found about Bentley, whence lt had been ea'rlier recorded and where it recurred in 1934-5 (Trans, n, p. cliv). Needham and Kesgrave before 1890. Family 469.


OPISTHOGRAPTIS LUTEOLATA, L . ( c r a t s e g a t a ,


Abundant in every hedge from Bentley Woods to Gorleston. 470.



Much less ' rare ' than was thought in 1890 and one would expect at the north-east extremity of its English ränge. Bentley before 1890 (Ml) Woods, always plentiful in early June 1893-1903 (Mly, Pyett, Baylis, Platten, Hkg), 1932-3 (Bp.) and in 1934 (Trans, ii, p. clxxvi); Playford ( G r ) ; Beccles ( C r f ) ; Tuddenham.





Broad spread among pine, but rarer than in Hants. Bentley fir wood in July 1894 (Mly, Hkg); Playford (Ent. Wk. Intell. ii, 1857, 11); Brightwell Wood in 1897-9 (Wir) ; several in pine wood at Scots Hall in Westleton on 22 June 1921 (Vinter) ; Aldeburgh and Worlingham before 1890, Fritton in 1935, Blythburgh 1936. Stowmarket. Tuddenham and Mildenhall (Sparke), Brandon. Dalham. 472. S. CLATHRATA, Linn. Very common in upland meadows about I pswich ; frequent throughout the entire County, from Bentley to both Gorleston and Lakenheath ; often at light in May and July. 473. S. WAVARIA, Linn. Quite frequent in all urban and suburban gardens throughout the County ; but, as it certainly does not occur in those of the more rural districts, it might be suspected of new-importation if it did not occur in the depths of the New Forest, as is the case. 474. S. LIMBARIA, Fab. (conspicuata, Schf.). Extinct; its last British home was in Suffolk. First described from Kentish specimens in 1775 (cf. also Substitute 1857, p. 159) ; Stowmarket (Shield's Hints 1855, 78 ; Ent. Ann. 47, &c.) ; Scotland (Stn. Manual 1856, &c); Creeting near Needham in 1865 (EMM. 1866, 208). Barham about 1867 (Bloomfield 1890, 29), and Ipswich (Ent. 1868, 331). Essex in 1867 (Ent. Ann. 119). Barrett's Devon and Meyrick's Norfolk records are erroneous, as also is King's (Naturalist 1858, 61) from Raydon. T h e final specimens were captured ' near Stowmarket' by Mr. Percy C. Reid in 1911 (Gilles, in lit. Jan. 1933 ; cf. E M M . lxix, 32). Probablv a salt-estuarine species, like Leptomeris rubiginata above. [Semiothisa brunneata, Thb., and S. carbonaria, Clk., are exclusively northern in Britain ; and S. alternaria, Hb., is believed to occur nowhere in eastern England, so was excluded from our County by Bloomfield (1890, p. 55), presumably correctly.] *475. BOARMIA ROBORARIA, Schf. " Very rare. Bred and taken at sugar at Ipswich by Mr. C. Long. Ipswich and Bentley (Mr. G. Garrett of Ipswich)." Both this and the two next species were thought in all probability now extinct, for nothing had been heard of them since Bloomfield's records, which all relate to the decade 1855-65 excepting Mr. Miller's record, infra. 476.



" Very rare. Bentley (H. Harpur Crewe). There is some doubt whether these localities are correct, as the two species are



much alike" (Bloomfield). Confirmed by the capture of the present species at light in Wrentham woods on 23 June 1936 by Mr. Jack Goddard. 477. ECTROPIS CONSONARIA, Hüb.

" Very rare. Stowmarket (Crewe). Bentley (Crewe and Henry Miller)."—Bloomfield. 478. E. LURIDATA, Bkh. (extersaria, Hb.). Distinctly local, and rarely common. Holbrook (C, c. 1856) park, on 27 May 1894 (Mly); Bentley (Garrett, Ml) Woods during 1893-6 (Pyett), abundant there in June 1898 (Hkg); Needham (L); Stowmarket (C); Woolpit Wood in 1901 (Pyett). None further west. 479. E. PUNCTULARIA, Hüb.

Quite common on oak-trunks in all sylvan places during May. Bentley Woods, always abundant; Freston, Holbrook park; Worlingham; Fritton. Woolpit Wood (Pyett) ; Tuddenham Fen in 1916, Barton Mills in 1922, Mildenhall in 1934 (Mly). 480. E. BIUNDULARIA, Bkh. (crepuscularia, Hb.). Our most local species; almost unnoticed for thirty years. Apparently confined, for some occult reason, to the Breck: Mildenhall (Wrt) in 1934 (Btn) and 1936 (Gd); Brandon, very plentiful onfirand larch trunks in May, and Tuddenham (Vivian) ; on fir trunks at Tuddenham, in 1900 (Sparke). 481. CLEORA LICHENARIA, Hufn. Regarded as too ' common' to localise in 1890. Now it appears to occur nowhere around Ipswich, and the sole later records are from Beccles on 8 July 1892 and Staverton Thicks in 1918 (Mly), at Covehithe light in August 1936 (Gd). 482. SELIDOSEMA REPANDATA, Linn. Of quite frequent occurrence from Bentley Woods to Gorleston ; occasionally at Monks Soham light in August. *483. S. ANGULARJA, Thnb. (viduaria, Bkh.). Extinc* in Britain. No reason exists, however, why Ilarpur Crewe's record of the species from Holbrook Park, where oak abounds, should not have been correct in 1856. No confirmation is likely to arise in the future, unfortunately. 484. S. GEMMARIA, Brh. (rhomboidaria, Hb.). In profusion everywhere throughout the County ; occasionally at Monks Soham light in July and August. The somewhat unusual ab. finhriaria, Ste., wasfirstdescribed as a good species, ' Alcisfimbriaria,'by Stephens from a single male "taken,I believe, in Suffolk *' (Ste. Illus. Brit. Ent. iii, 1831, p. 188,,fig. 1.) $



[Selidosema contains three other British species, S. ericetaria Vill., S. glabiaria, Hb. and S. cinctaria, Schf., none of which occur anywhere in eastern England. On the contrary, Deileptinia abietaria, Hb., ranges as far north as only Essex ; possibly might affect Coniferse north of the Stour.] . 485. BUPALUS PINIARIUS, Linn. Flies round pine-trees by day, but is merelv locally abundant with us. Both larvse and imagines in profusion at Bentley, before thefir-woodwas destroyed byfirefrom railway in 1911, and now recovering there; bred at Playford (Gr, Ent. Wk. Intell. ii, 1857, 11). Brightwell woods (Wir). Abundant at Scots Hall in Westleton in June 1921 (Vinter). Herringfleet and Gorleston (Mr). West Suffolk distribution unnoted. 486. B. ATOMARIUS, Linn. Frequent on all our heaths, though not often seen on those of Foxhall and Rushmere or elsewhere about Ipswich ; common in 1919 at the Creeting Hills. Lound, Fritton and Beiton (D, Mr). Abounds on the Breck : Tuddenham Fen, Barton Mills, &c. (Mly). 487. SYNOPSIA ABRUPTARIA, Thnb. Almost too common to localise. Records are from Sudbury (Ransom), common at Ipswich light, Playford, Aldeburgh, Monks Soham garden, Needham, Stowmarket, Bury. Homersfield, Bungay (Mn), Gorleston (D, whofindsa splendid dark form). 488. ABRAXAS GROSSULARIATA, Linn. Only too numerous in gardens everywhere, but rarely seen wild in rural districts. 489. A. SYLVATA, Scop. (ulmata, F.). Most interestingly scarce in our County. " Local: Bentley, Needham, Barton, Cavenham, Beccles" before 1890. Later, four specimens were taken at Dodnash Wood, in the three years 1894-6, by Hocking ; the species was reported to have occurred at Belstead, and I secured a single example at electric light in Ipswich on 10 July, 1895 (Mly). Apparently strongly decadent. 490. A. ADUSTATA, Schf. Of such fairly frequent occurrence as to need no localising in 1890. Bentley Woods (Gibbs); not common around Ipswich,. but fairly numerous at Monks Soham light in July (Mly); Sotterly in 1936 (Gd). Almost unknown in Lothingland, and unrecorded of late years from the west. 491. A. MARGINATA, Linn. In profusion about woods everywhere, from Bentley to Gorleston.






(punctata, F.).

Rather sparse in hedges everywhere : Bures, Copdock, Bentley Woods, Ipswich, Blaxhall; Brandeston, occasionally at Monks Soham light, Haughley ; Coddenham, Needham, Stowmarket, Burv; Tuddenham (Waters), Brandon (Mly). A long series at Bungay light ( M n ) ; Beccles. Unnoted in Lothingland. 493.

P . BIMACULATA, F a b . (taminata, H b ) .

No rarer than the last, often occurring in Company. Raydon Wood, Hintlesham, Belstead, Bentley Woods, Ipswich, occasionally at Monks Soham light and in garden. Tuddenham (Sparke), Freckenham (Brown), Brandon (Mly). A long series at Bungay light (Mn), common at Flixton (Crf), Sotterly (Gd), Beccles (Mr), Weston, Gorleston (D). 494.


Occurs in only the south-east of England, extending north to Essex. T h e Revd. J. H. Hocking of Copdock extended its known distribution by the capture at light of one there on 23 April 1896, and two more at Belstead during April 1898 (Bloomfield 1900, Suppl.). None noted later. 495.

P. MACULARIA, L i n n .

Extremely local, but always abundant in a few of our larger woods during June. Constant in Bentley Woods during 18921937. Recorded also before 1890 from Freston, Needham and Stowmarket, where it may still occur. *496.


Surprisingly little known with us, where heather is so wide spread adown the coast as well as in the north-west, with scattered patches elsewhere. No extension of the Revd. A. H. Wratislaw's discovery of this southern species' presence at Aldeburgh, where he took several specimens about 1870, is yet observed. Suffolk iimits its ränge. 497.



Abundant wherever bracken grows, Always in profusion at Bentley in June ; Needham, Stowmarket, Monks park Brandon ; Aldeburgh, Wangford, Beccles,

especially in woods. also noted at Playford, W o o d ; Tuddenham, Herringfleet, Fritton.

[Of Pseudopanthera the remaining three British species are P. obfuscaria, Hb., which is exclusively Scots ; and P. obscuraria, Hb., which is attached to older strata than Ours and, hke P. lineata, Sc., entirely ignores east England]. 498.



No valid cause emerges to prevent this local moth from occurring on our heathland with the above P. hippocastanaria, more



especially upon the Breck. It has been recorded ; and Bloomfield's exclusion of it from his 1890 List (p. 56) appears too arbitrary to be upheld. *499. C. GILVARIA, Fab. Suffolk bounds this species' north-eastern ränge in England ; and here it appears somewhat decadent, for there are no observations since 1890. However, before that period, ' though scarce,' it was noticed about Ipswich (Garrett); Felixstow ( C ) ; Newmarket (J. H . A. Jenner) and T u d d e n h a m (Skepper), whe're the Browns found i t ' very plentiful in clover fields in July.' 500.



Ross. (citraria, Hb.).

Quite frequent in all sandy places near Ipswich, along the coast, and in the Breck. Bentley ( H k g ) ; Ipswich at light, and Felixstow (Baylis) ; Foxhall, Playford, plentiful at Hemley and Waldringfield ; Aldeburgh, Leiston, Sizewell denes, Sotterly, Southwold, Kessingland ; Beiton and Gorleston. Many at Tuddenham light, Mildenhall in 1931, Worlington in 1934, Elveden and Brandon. *501.




Surprisingly local, probably in the decadent category of the above C. belgaria. Not recorded since M r . Bond found it at Newmarket, as is related in ' Fenland ' Never Seen in in the County through forty vears (Morley). 502.




Abundant everywhere from Bentley Woods to Gorleston. Frequently at Monks Soham light in early March. [The pretty little, Tabby-like Psodos coracina, Esp., is British only in Scotland.] 503.




Extremely local, but quite frequent in a few of our larger oakwoods. Stowmarket (B, Ent. Wk. Int eil. ii, 1857, 28) ; Sotterley in 1935 (Btn). Always common at Bentley during March ; Wherstead ( f r a n s , ii, p. cxlii). Several on telegraph-poles by Kessingland road in 1933 (Gd). On oak-trunk, with A. pedaria, in wood near Howards Common at Beiton on 15 March 1931 (Wiltshire, in lit. 10 Jan. 1935). Sibton 1937 (Hawley). 504. H. MARGINARIA, Bkh. (progemmaria, Hb.). Abundant everywhere from Bentley Woods in 1935 to Gorleston. At Monks Soham so early as 16 February in 1933. 505.




Very far from common, perhaps overlooked through its November debut. Since 1890, noted only sparingly at Ipswich lights in 1894 and on oak-trunks at Bentley Woods in 1895 (Morley).






By no means a pest with us : quite uncommon, or overlooked. Since 1890 noted only sparingly in Bentley Woods; Ipswich (Ml); Needham Market in 1903 (Platten). A single specimen at Monks Soham on 23 Nov. 1934 (Mlv). Rare at Gorleston (D). 507.



Much overlooked before 1890, or now a great deal more frequent. Then known from only Bentley (Garret, Ml), Needham (L) and on oak-trunks in Ickworth Park (Suff. Inst, iv, 1870, 221). Later taken at light in Copdock rectory (Hkg), and quite freely both on tree-trunks in Bentley Woods and at light in Ipswich, March. 508. A. PEDARIA, Fab. (pilosaria, Hb.). Common everywhere from Bentley Woods to Beiton and Gorleston, extending from 14 December at Ipswich light in 1894 to 16 February at Monks Soham garden in 1920. [Neither A. zonaria, Schf. nor A. lapponaria, Bois., occur nearly so far south as we are.] 509.



Supposed to be generally distributed, but few records. Common at Ipswich lights in 1893, and bred there as early as 5 Feb. (Mly). Once at Higham near Bury (Norgate). Gorleston (D). 510. B. STRATARIUS, Hufn. (prodomarius, Schf.). By no means uncommon in well-timbered districts. Raydon Wood and frequent at Ipswich lights (Mly) ; Martlesham ( D ) ; Hemley (EMM. 1904, 81); Stowmarket (Ent. Wk. Intell. ii, 1857, 28); common near Lowestoft in 1937 (Btn); &c. 511. B. BETULARIUS, Linn. Common everywhere, from Bentley Woods to Gorleston.â&#x20AC;&#x201D; T h e melanic form, Doubledayaria, used to be rare and was found at Ipswich in 1895 (Mly)and 1898 (Platten), but is rapidly spreading to our rural districts (cf. Trans, i, 97 ; ii, 275, 292); Gorleston. 512. D E I L I N I A PUSARIA, Linn. Abundant .everywhere in sylvan places from Bentley Woods to Gorleston; Blythburgh Wood in 1931. 513.




No less frequent than the last and equally wide spread; sometimes at Monks Soham light in July. 514.



Fairly frequent everywhere throughout the County, at both dusk and light, in July. Recently noticed about Ipswich; Martlesham ( D ) ; Monks Soham (Mly) and Gorleston (Mr).




Linn, (fasciaria, Schf.).

Considered ' somewhat scarce,' though recorded before 1890 from Freston, Playford, Leiston, Southwold and Fritton ; from Brandon, Icklingham and a few during 1888-9 by Vivian at Tuddenham. Certainly rarer now: Never seen by me here through forty years (Morley). .One at light in Belstead (Hkg); larvse beaten in Brightwell woods and bred in 1903 et seqq. ( W i r ) ; Bury (Norgate); Aying by day at Mildenhall in June 1933 ( G d ) . â&#x20AC;&#x201D; T h e var. prasinana was captured at Aldringham in July 1892 by Crutwell ( E M M . 1892, 2 5 4 ) ; both it and the typical form used to be bred at Brandeston by Revd. Joseph Greene. t 516.



Distinctly local, usually inside woods. Often common among birch at Bentley ; Martlesham garden (D) ; Monks Soham garden, one on 25 June 1912 ; a few in Blythburgh Wood among beech annually in 1925-35 (Mly). Probably commoner, but unlocalised, in west of County. 517.

M . PULVERARIA, L i n n .

Used to occur about Stowmarket (C) and Needham (L), as well as at Bentley (Ml). It may do so still; but since 1890 our sole records are within a few miles of the last Woods, where it was not very rare in mid-June during 1894-1900 (Mly, Baylis) : several at Copdock (Hkg). None noticed since 1902. 518.

M . DOLABRARIA, L i n n .

Now much rarer than in last Century, when it was known at Bentley, Ipswich, Brandeston, Stowmarket, Woolpit, Hardwick and West Stow, as well as at Beccles. T h e last fifty years have shown Single examples at Bentley in 1895 (Pyett); Belstead and Copdock (Hkg) ; Barton Mills, beaten bushes on 18 June 1901 (Mly) ; Lowestoft (Campbell-Taylor) ; and sitting on a Barsham tree-trunk on 31 May 1934 (Trans, ii, 292). One bred in April 1935 from autumn larva in Waldringfield garden ( W i r ) ; and one at Reydon (Baker). Henham and Holton at light (Btn), Cavenham (Gd), Fritton (Mr). 519.



Of uncertain appearance, apparently local in woods and olddeforested areas.' Bentley, frequent in odd years; Belstead ; Henley ; Brandeston, occasionally at Monks Soham light during 1908-33, Rendham, Beccles; Needham, Stowmarket, Felsham. 520.

E . PARALLELARIA, S c h i f .

T h i s species was added to the Suffolk List in 1931 by Mr. F. T . Crisp, at Hemingstone on 2 August 1928 (Trans, i, 234).





Not infrequent throughout the whole County. Copdock, Bentley Woods, distinctly scarce around Ipswich, Aldeburgh, somewhat frequent at Monks Soham light in August, Needham and common in Tuddenham Fen during July and September. Thorndon Fen, Bungay, Fritton, Gorleston. 522.

SELENIA BILUNARIA, E s p . ( i l l u n a r i a ,


Of very frequent occurrence everywhere from Bentley Woods to Gorleston ; occasionally at Monks Soham light in both April and July. Martlesham (D), Blythburgh (Gd), Herringfleet (Mr). 523.

S. LUNARIA, Schif.

Less common than the last, but not rare. Bentley Woods (Ml, H k g ) ; Playford and Brandeston (Gr) ; Waldringfield in 1899 and Hemley in 1901 (Wir) ; rarely at Monks Soham light in J a n e ( M l y ) ; Stowmarket ( C ) ; Bury (Skepper, Norgate); Brandon. Bungay. 524.

S. 4-LUNARIA, Hufn. (illustraria, Hb.).

Considered ' rare ' with us in 1890 and little noticed since that time, before which it had been found about Bentley ( M l ) ; Swefling (Peek); Stowmarket ( C ) ; Bury (Wrt) ; and Brandon (Wrn). Taken at Blythburgh in 1935 (Btn) and Covehithe woods in April 1936 (Gd). 525.



Still somewhat scarce but generally distributed, as in 1890. Later noted at light and hovering over flowers at Copdock ( H k g ) ; Bentley Woods in July 1895 (Baylis) not uncommonly, and bred from larva found feeding on Symphoricarpos racemosus on 27 June 1908 in Monks Soham garden ( M l y ) ; Martlesham (D), Waldringfield (Wir) and Rendlesham (Wiltshire). 526.



Frequent everywhere in October, but little noted through the late date. Recently observed at Bentley Woods, freely at Ipswich lights ; Aldeburgh (D), Beiton (Wiltshire); annually at Monks Soham light in November 1907-34. 527.



Scarce, but wide spread. Sudbury (Ransom), Freston, Ipswich, Brandeston, Swefling, Aldeburgh, Lowestoft in August (Ent. 1922, 258), Fritton, Beccles, Flixton, Bungay at light; Needham, West Stow ; Tuddenham Fen in August 1928 (Mly), Brandon. 528.'



Though formerly dubbed ' rare,' and known from a handful of localities, this species suddenly expanded over the entire County in 1895 amazingly. Probably now no remotest hamlet



is without it, in the latter half of August. Even Monks Soham then sports it occasionally at light; and it ranges to the border at Gorleston. For a larva in 1857, cf. Ent. Wk. Intell. iii, 4. 529. E. ALNIARIA, Linn, (tiliaria, Bkh.). This has always been a quite common species throughout the County in August, extending to Gorleston ; not frequent at Monks Soham light. 530. E. QUERCINARIA, Hufn. (angularia, Bkh.). Not a common moth, especially in the west of the County. Copdock at light in 1897 ( Hkg); distinctly rare at Ipswich in August 1893 (Mly) ; Waldringfield; Swefling, Aldeburgh, Beccles, Fritton in 1934, Flixton; Bungay at light in 1903 (Mn). Stowmarket and Bury before 1890. 531.

& 532.



Both quite frequent from Bentley Woods to Gorleston, occurring occasionally at Monks Soham light in summer. [No more than two of the British ' Thorn ' Moths are lacking in Suffolk: Cepphis advenaria, Hb., extends from south-west England only to Cambs ; and Ennomos autumnaria, Wern., is so rare as to be doubtfully indigenous.] Family POL 533.




Generally distributed from Copdock to Gorleston and doubtless quite common, though records since 1890 are sparse. Frequent to the west of Ipswich in 1893-5 (Pyett, Baylis) ; Martlesham (D) ; Waldringfield (James, W i r ) ; rarely seen at Monks Soham, but sometimes eaten there by bats (Mly). 534.



Far scarcer than in south-west England, but scattered all over the County, except perhaps on the Breck. Sparingly at sugar in Bentley Woods (Ml, Pyett, Baylis); occasionally at Waldringfield (Wir) ; Henham in 1936 ( G d ) ; several at light in Bungay (Mn) ; on sugar at Fritton as late as 28 August in 1932. *535.



' Stowmarket' (Stainton's Manual 1857, 175); ' my specimens have come from Huddersfield and Ipswich ' (Newman's Moths 1871, 240). " Recorded in Stainton's Manual as occurring at Stowmarket, and by Newman as having been received from Ipswich, these latter were probably not Suffolk specimens" (Bloomfield 1890, 55) in which case they lose all point in having the locality thus quoted by Newman ; and, further, if they were not, we still häve the 1857 record to rely upon. Pretty surely extinct with us now, thanks to early dealers' greed.





Local in woods and marshes. Bentley, Easton, Needham, bred at Stowmarket (C), Monks-park Wood in Whelnetham ; Lakenheath ; Beccles : before 1890. Later noted only in Bentley Woods, where it was fairlv frequently beaten from trees during June-July 1893-7 (Mly) ; Blythburgh'Wood (Gd). It is sure to occur at Fritton. 537.

P. OR, Fab.

Local in most of our larger woods, which abound in poplar : 'Larva not at all uncommon on aspen in the woods round Ipswich and Stowmarket' (C). Recorded before 1890 from Bentley, Ipswich, Needham and Stowmarket only. Later it has been taken at light in Ipswich (Mly), in Old Hall Wood (Hkg) and Bentley Woods (Baylis, Pyett,' Gibbs, &c) in 1937 (Btn). 538.

P. 8-GESIMA, HĂźb. (ocularis, Gn.).

T h i s local moth, which extends no further north than Norfolk, was among the plums of the old Ipswich dealers, who failed to exstirpate it. Our earliest records are from Stowmarket (Ent. Wk. Intell. ii, 1857, 115) and Woolverstone by Dr. Bree (I.e. v, 1858, 3 0 ) ; next it was found at Aldeburgh (Hele 1870, 188), where Wratislaw discovered it ' in considerable quantity ' (Suff. Inst, iv, 1870, 220). Before 1890, it had been further noted at Bixley decoy, Brandeston, Needham, Bury, Brandon and at Beccles. Later records show it at Copdock in 1896 (Hkg) ; at sugar ( M l ) and rest in Ipswich (Baylis) ; single speeimens in most years at Waldringfield ( W i r ) ; near Bury and at Tuddenham St. Martin (Sparke); a few pupas annually before 1911 at Timworth ( N u r s e ) ; on sugar at Gorleston in 1923 and Hopton (Mr). Yarmouth ( T r . Norf. Soc. 1899, 540). One on sugar at Mights bridge in Southwold, June 1935 (Baker); Sotterley, Lowestoft and Mildenhall that year (Btn). 539.



Very local, but by no means rare in only a few of our larger woods among oak and birch. Stowmarket ( B ) ; Needham ( L ) ; and Bentley (Ml)> where it is always quite abundant on sugar in early September (Mly, Baylis, Platten, Hkg, Elliott, &c). At light at Henham ( M r , Gd), in Benacre Wood in September 1935-6 (Btn), and at Sotteily in Sept. 1937 (Gd). 540.


Occasionally taken .in Suffolk (Gr). T h i s species' apparent rarity may be in part owing to its early d e b u t : 26 February in 1897 at Copdock, where it was annually found in March (Hkg). It is, perhaps, more often bred from the J u n e larva on birch. Scattered sparsely across the County from Downham (Norgate)



and Tuddenham (Wrt, Wrn) to Holbrook Park (Garrett) and Bentley Woods (Harwood), wherein it certainly persists (Baylis, Pyett) to 1936 (Bp.) though rarely seen. Sometimes Aying in midday sun, e.g. at Blythburgh Wood on 22 March 1936 (Btn). 541.



Another early species, but a good deal more frequent than the last, vvith a broad distribution from Nayland on our southern border (Harwood), through Copdock in April (Hkg), Ipswich in 1902 (Platten) where it occurs rarely at lights by the Belsteadroad in mid-April (Mly), Playford, Brandeston, Needham and Bury to West Stow. In the north-east it is observed only at the extremities of Lothingland, at' Beccles (Crf) and Gorleston. Family 542.




Unaccountably and excessively local. Rare about Stowmarket, and taken bv Mr. W. Baker at Ringshall ( The Naturalist, vii, 1857, 274);" Raydon (Bloomfield, in errore ?); Tuddenham (Wrt, Brown), where the larvae are often quite common on scabious (Sparke, 1904). Several to south of Thetford in 1936 (Btn). 543. H. FUCIFORMIS, Linn. Sylvan places in late May ; scattered throughout the County and gregarious, but never common. Rare in Assington Thicks (Ransom). Bentley Woods (Harwood, Hkg), sometimes not very uncommon at Scylla-flowers, e.g. five taken on 27 May and two on 5 June 1901 (Platten), at bĂźgle and pink-campion whereat five were hovering on 9 June 1926 (Vinter), in which and the preceding year it was in greater numbers there than since 1893 (Mly). Hollesley (D); Aldeburgh (Hele, 1870, 185); Dunwich (Hkr) ; singly at Fritton in May 1933-4 (Gd). Ringshall by Baker, and a larva at Stowmarket on 30 June 1856 (Nat. vii, 274) ; three hovering round Ajuga reptans in Fakenham Wood in early June, 1857 (W. H. Tillett, Ent. Wk. Intell. ii, 93); Monks-park Wood in Whelnetham (Wrt) and two in May 1935 (D). Larvae found on honeysuckle at Tuddenham (Norgate). Newmarket (Brown); Eriswell in 1936 (Gd). 544. MACROGLOSSA STELLATARUM, Linn. Occasionally observed hovering at flowers from August to late October, everywhere throughout the County from Stratford Mary (Miss Bradley) to Gorleston (D), but nearly always singly ; especially common" in certain favourable years, e.g. 1893, 1899, 1911 and 1926. Localities are superfluous : Bentley, Ipswich, Easton, Monks Soham, Framlingham (Vinter) Aldeburgh, Dun wich in 1933, Southwold (E. R. Cooper), Lowestoft, Beccles, &c. No rarer inland ; and Dr. Bree terms it frequent about Stowmarket (Nat. 1857).



545. DEILEPHILA PORCELLUS, Linn. Sometimes not uncommon in sandy districts, but always very uncertain in appearance. One in an Ipswich garden (Ml), around which town it is of extreme rarity ; nor does it occur anywhere on the clay of High Suffolk. Occasionally in Waldringfield gardens (Wir); Staverton Thicks in June 1929 (T. G. Powell); Aldeburgh (Hele, 1870); Haiesworth in 1936 (Hocken). Many at flowers at dusk during June 1934 in Gorleston (Mr, Trans, ii, 294) and at Herringfleet Hall (Lady Jackson). Bungay ( C r f ) ; fairly common at Needham in 1922 (Platten) ; not uncommon about Stowmarket (Nat, 1857). Bury, Tuddenham and Brandon, before 1890. T h e Devil's Dyke on June 12th 1827, by Rev. L. Jenyns (Stephens i, 132). Brandon in 1937.

546. D. ELPENOR, Linn. This Hawk's Suffolk headquarters are, or were before their recent contamination, the broad marshes of the Gipping Valley ; here Baylis found many larvae at Ipswich, Crewe 'oncetook about thirty on a small patch of Galium palustre ' at Stowmarket (Nat. 1857), and it was quite abundant on t.hat plant at Bramford in 1894 (Mly) and mid-August 1917 (Vinter). Larvae plentiful at Sudbury in 1898-9 (Ransom). Martlesham (D). Common at Bury in 1897 (Sparke). Hoxne (N. B. Garrard); Beccles (Hockey,. M r ) ; Oulton marshes in July 1932 (Ellis). Linn. Suffolk has been favoured by this casual immigrant from southern and west-central Europe as often during the half-century from 1854 as, probably, any part of Britain : in all some fifteen examples are enumerated in September and October during those fifty years. Two specimens have been taken in Stowmarket; they feil into the possession of the late Mr. Peck (Nat. 1857, 275 ;. Stn. Manual, 96). Several timcs at Beccles (Bloomfield): one at light in a Beccles chemist's shop on 15 October 1860 (Winter in Ent. Wk. Intell. ix, 26). Larvae were found, feeding on the vine, at Newmarket in 1865 (Bloomfield's Adds.) ; also at Orford that year, at Ipswich in 1867, and Woodbridge in Octber 1878. One at Felixstow on 14 September (Ml, Ent. 1885, 262); one at Honington on 19 September by Hind (Ent. 1886, 42); and two at Aldeburgh during October (Cooper, I.e. 15), all in 1885. Finally another was found at rest at the base of a Nicotiana affinis plant in Mr. J. G. Franklin's Saxmundham garden on 15-16 October 1903 (Carter, I.e. 1904, 44). 547.



548. D. N E R I I , Linn. This immigrant from central Europe is, not unnaturally, " V e r y rare. One at Southtown, Yarmouth, in August 1872, by the Rev. J. W. Colville " (Bloomfield). T h e late W. H. Tuck



told M r . Morley that during the summer of 1918 specimes were taken at Bury, Fornham, Yarmouth and Norwich, ' chiefly at tobacco-flowers ' (in lit. 14 Oct. 1 9 1 8 ) ; adding on his eightieth birthday that " a young friend had again taken the Oleander upon a bed of tobacco-plants at Hardwicke " (in lit. 3 Oct. 1920). One at Ipswich on 13 Sept. 1936 (Trans, iii, p. 191). Adjacent records are of a female on heliotrope in Aldeby parsonage garden on 26 October 1858 (Ent. Wk. Intell. v, 42) ; and an example at H e m s b y on 8 September 1926 ( T r . Norf. Nat. Soc. xii, 260) quite close to the coast.* 549.



Fab. (livornica, Esp.).

N o t supposed to reside permanently in Britain, but to here migrate from southern and west-central E u r o p e : which goes to account for the half-Century's hiatus between our two earlier records. ' One specimen taken by M r . Garness, Jun., at T h e t f o r d ' (B, Nat.. 1857, 2 7 5 ) ; a specimen taken at Felixstow on 1 September 1904 by G . R. Hope, Havering Grange, Romford ( E M M . 1904, 256). T h e great influx of 1931 seems to have flown across Suffolk without pausing : one dead and quite fresh male at Gorleston on 28 M a y ( D ) and a possible second at Waldringfield on 3 J u n e (Wir) alone were noted (Trans, i, 230). *550.

D . EUPHORBIA, L i n n .

Usually on coast-sandhills, mainly in south-west England. With us it is " very rare. Bred from a larva taken near L a n d guard Fort about 1865 ; the food-plant, Euphorbia paralias, was then abundant there but is now lost ( M r . Garrett Garrett of Ipswich). M r Higgins recorded several l a r v a as taken near Harwich, perhaps the same spot (Ent. 1872, p. 4 6 ) . " — B l o o m field, 1890. Nothing has later been added to our knowledge. 551.

D . GALII, Rott.

Immigrants from the Continent occasionally establish themselves among the Galium of our coast as in 1888, in addition to our Breck-sands as in 1859 ; but are now almost unobserved in the County for a half-century. A male on lawn of Stricklands in Stowmarket on 2 September 1857, and a female on gravel walk * " It has long been my opinion that the appearance of rare insects in this country is owing to their being brought over, guided by instinct and favourable circumstances : indeed, in some instances there cannot be a doubt of it. Numbers of Daphms Nern were several years migrating from Africa to North France, and at last reached England where the insect had probablv never been Seen alive before. Moths « n known as inhabitants of these islands have been caught at night at the N orth Lowestoft lighthouse, to which common species are attracted m such multitudes that the attendant, I have been informed by Captam Chawner and Mr. C. J. Paget [ante 1857], is obliged to brush them off in humid summer night?, on account of their obscuring the revolving light. —John Curtis, Farm Insects, ed. 1883, 40.



of garden a quarter-mile away two days later. Previously known in Suffolk onlv ' at Felixstow, where the larva was found by Professor Henslow some years ago ' (B, who kept both specimens Ent. Wk. Intel, ii, 1857, 187-8; Nat. vii, 275). Plentiful at Higham, Barton Mills, Newmarket, &c. [doubtless then all open Breck] up to 1859 (T. & J. Brown). One in a Suffolk Bungay garden on 5 July 1859 (Garneys, Ent. Wk. Int. vi, 131) ; and one at Gillingham, over the Waveney, during the following month (I.e., 187). Ipswich and Glemham Magna in 1870; five at Aldeburgh (Hele 1870, 185). Rendham and Aldeburgh during 1888, in which year the larvae were ' very a b u n d a n t ' at the latter town, and also occurred at both Tuddenham and Newmarket. One female at light in Lowestoft on 25 July 1935 (Trans, iii, 86). 552. S P H I N X PINASTRI, Linn. Though cited from elsewhere in England as a British insect by Stephens, Stainton in 1857 knew nothing of it as such ; and Greene, who seems cognisant of only vague rumours of capture in Suffolk, scouts it from our List the next year (Nat. 1858, 182), nor does Hele refer to the species in 1870. Not tili the capture of males at Waldringfield in 1875 and 1877 (Waller) and at T u d denham Martin in the latter year was it aeeepted as British (EMM. 1877, 67 and 136). Its expansion from Waldringfield in 1879 was rapid : Saxmundham 1879 and Ipswich asylum 1881 (Entom. xiv, 210; xvi, 187), in which year it appeared in Aldeburgh vicarage garden, where forty examples were secured during 1882. Now this Hawk ranges over quite a broad area, bounded by Easton Broad on the north and the Deben on the south Cf. Entom. 1881, 210; 1883, 187; 1886, 14; 1893, 224; Sept. 1900; 1906, 210; 1917, 258; 1922, 236; Ent. Ree. 1898, xi and xii, 95 ; 1905, 212; Nat. Journal, Dec. 1901 ; Trans, i, 72, 143, 231 ; ii, 291, 295, clxxv. 553. S. LIGUSTRI, Linn. With this great Hawk we return to the genuine British article : it has ever been like ' the poor ' ! Astonishingly rare in our County, though in 1857 Greene considered the larvae not uncommon on privet and ash about Playford ; and four were taken at Ipswich on 18 September 1892. The imago occasionally flies to light in that town and has been bred at Martlesham (D), but does not occur in High Suffolk. In general, its occurrence is well illustrated by Bury where " it used to be plentiful near the town, and larvae appeared in even our own garden at Northgate, but I never see it now " (Horace Barker, in lit. 22 May 1935). 554. S. CONVOLVULI, Linn. T h e species is periodical and sometimes common during September and late August, just like the above M. stellatarum though it flies to flowers at dusk and not by day ; it is regarded as usually



migrating from the Continent for no very apparent reason, while the latter Hawk is cuddled a3 indigenous. An interesting point emphasised by our records is the small proportion of coast localities, which hardly supports the immigrant theory. Three in Stowmarket garden during 1847 and none through next decade (B) ; rather plentiful around Ipswich and two in Aldeburgh during 1859 (Fison, Ent. Wk. Int. vi, 194-5 ; cf. 187); abundant in Bury during 1868 (Suff. Inst, 41y J. 1869, 23) and one in cemetery (Ent. 1885, 295); Brandon, Stutton, Westerfeld and common at Henley in 1898 (Ă&#x2013;parke); frequent at Stutton and Ipswich in 1901 (Ent., Nov.); Waldringfield in 1906 (Wir); Framlingham (Vinter, Ent. 1 9 1 7 / 2 6 0 ) ; a score at Benhall in 1920 (Gray); two at Gorleston in twenty years ( D ) ; fairly common at Needham in 1922 (Platten) ; one at Monks Soham in 1930 (in coli. Mly); Southwoldin 1918,1922,1930 and 1931 (Collings). Unobserved occurrences are doubtless innumerable. 555.



Another periodical and sometimes frequent Hawk, whose potato-feeding larvae are as often seen as imagines. Found almost annually at Stowmarket around 1856 (Nat. vii, 276); two occurred at Woolverstone in 1858 (Ent. Wk. Int. v, 3 0 ) ; one at Hollesley (Hkg) and two at Ipswich (Ager) in 1898; very plentiful at Aldeburgh in 1885 (Ent. 1886, p. 15) ; one at Bramfield and several about Ipswich in 1894-6 (Pyett, Platten); one at Woodbridge in 1910 (Rope); one at Needham in 1922 (Platten); one at Bradwell in 1928 (Mr). For the great influx of 1933 cf. Trans, ii, 183 ; it then occurred also at Copdock on 25 October, Hemley and in Beccles. 556.



By no means infrequent about poplars throughout the County, from Felixstow to Gorleston and Brandon staunch. 557.

S . OCELLATUS, L i n n .

A good deal less common than the last Hawk, but very generally distributed, from Ipswich to Gorleston, usually found Aying to light. Several larvae in Stowmarket, feeding on Ontario poplar (C, Ent. Wk. Int. vii, 116); rare in rural districts, e.g. Monks Soham on only 8 June 1915 in thirty years. 558.



Rarely seen outside towns, where it flies to light: fairly common in Ipswich, Stowmarket, Beccles, (undersized) Gorleston, &c. Only once, in 1906, at Monks Soham through thirty years. Sometimes feeds on birch (C., Ent. Wk. Intell. vii, 116). [Thus we claim all the British Sphingidae.]





559. PYGIERA PIGRA, Hufn. (reclusa, F.). Not very scarce and widely distributed, preferring a diet of our common aspen in woods, whereon the larva was taken at Raydon in mid-August 1894 (Mly.) Not uncommon at Brandeston, but not found at Playford (Gr, 1857); taken at Ringshall by W. Baker (C : Nat. 1858, 135). Subsequently it was discovered at Bentley where it would seem now extinct for forty years, Needham, Aldeburgh (Hele, 188) and as far west as Tuddenham, though never taken there by Sparke. 560.

P. CURTULA, L i n n .

Now certainly a good deal commoner than the last kind, though not considered to be so by Bloomfield in 1890. Copdock at light in May 1896 (Hkg); Bentley about 1870 (Garrett) and bred thence in 1932-3 (Bp); occasionally at light in Ipswich, e.s. in April 1894 (Mly). Playford and Brandeston (Gr), and larva beaten at Stowmarket (C, Nat. 1858, 134). Needham (L), in 1922 (Platten). Aldeburgh (Hele). Norton Wood (Norgate) ; and near Newmarket (Ent. Wk. Int. i, 155). Gorleston in 1925 ( M r ) ; Lowestoft (Mitton) and Mildenhall (Gd.) in 1937. 561. NOTODONTA ZICZAC, Linn. Not very frequent. Bred at Stowmarket in 1854 (C) ; occasionally at both Playford and Brandeston ( G r : Nat. 1858, 111). Ipswich, Leiston, Lound ; Needham and Tuddenham: before 1890. At light at Copdock in May 1896 (Hkg) and at electric light in Ipswich (Mly, Baylis, Pyett); Martlesham (D), recently at at Blythburgh (Mly), Beccles and Gorleston (Mr), Hopton. 562.

N . DROMEDARIA, L i n n .

Bred at Playford in April 1857 (Gr, Ent. Wk. Int. ii, 11 ; not in Nat.). Fifty larvse at Tuddenham (Entom. ii, 340) Fen, feeding on birch (Wrt, Suff. Inst, iv, 1870, 220) and pupÂŽ there in 1900 (Sparke); Brandon (Wrn). Uncommon and usually found singly elsewhere : Bentley (Ml), in Old Hall wood (Hkg) Blythburgh in 1936 (Gd); Beccles (Mr) and Oulton Broad (Trans ii, 297) ; rare at Lound (Paget), Fritton, Beiton (Wiltshire). *563.

N . TRILOPHA, E s p .

This central European Prominent is of extreme rarity throughout Britain. Of the few indigenous specimens recorded, we boast two. An example was taken at a gas-lamp at Ipswich about 1867 (Exhibited before Entom. Soc. Lond. in April 1877); and a male similarly flew to light in a shop-window at Southwold, 1884 (E. G. Meek, Entom. 1884, 253). None later recorded.





Scattered sparingly over the entire County. Playford (Nat vin 110; Ent. Wk. Int. i, 1856, 196). Ipswich (Garrett Ml) and at electnc lights there (Mly, Baylis); Blythburgh (Btn) • Lowestoft in August (Entom. 1922, 258); Worlingham ( C r f ) : x A m P t o n a n d W e s t S tow (Wrt); Tuddenham before 1890 Kurse), rare there in 1900 (Sparke); and again in west Suffolk dunng 1911 (Nurse). 565. D. TREMULA, Clk. (dictaea, Esp.). His 'Notodonta T r e m u l a ' is considered to be rare about Yarmouth by Paget in 1834 ; though actually this species is a good deal commoner with us and its pupa more frequently dug than the last one, especially at Ipswich lights in August. Copdock Waldrmgfield ; Playford (Ent. Wk. Intell. i, 1856,164); uncommon about Stowmarket in 1857 (C) ; Martlesham ; Yoxford Blythbro' Aldeburgh, Lowestoft, Gorleston. Tuddenham (Sparke)-' a half-dozen at light near Barton Mills in May 1934 (Ent. 1935. 81).' 566.




Eggs and pupse ' tolerably plentiful ' at Playford (Gr Nat - \ 1 3 1 ; Ent. Wk. Int. ii, 1857, 11); Woolverstone (li'b. dt. in, 1857, 22) ; larvas and pupae found sparingly round Stowmarket (B & C 1858). Nayland ; Co P doek at light, and egas o d s ( H k g ) ; 011 o a ,y k-trunks there in mid-May 1925 (Mly). Bramford and Helmingham in 1900 (Sparke)Needham i L ) ; Henham, Sotterley; Flixton and Worlingham'. 567. D. TRIMACULA, Esp. (dodonsea, Hb.). Very plentiful in pupa State, two hundred dug in one week at Playford (Gr, Ent. Wk. Intel, i ,1856, pp. 164 ,173 • ii p 11) • Woolverstone (I.e. iii, 1857, 2 2 ; v, 30). Larva; and p u p a sparingly near Stowmarket (Nat. 1858, 133 and 183). Nayland Bentlev . C o p d o c k in early June 1893 (Hkg) ; Ipswich before 1890; Martlesham about 1920 (D). Henham and Sotterley ™ A 9 3 5 ( B t n ) ; B e c c l e s ( C r f ) ; F r i t t o n i n 1 9 0 3 (Mn) and 1936 (Mr). West Stow; Tuddenham; a few at light near Barton Mills on 20 May 1934 (Ent. 1935, 81). Wangford 1937 (Baker). 568.




In Mr. Kirby's garden at Barham (Sparhall in Steph. Illust. ii, 1828, p. 30). Larva and some pupa; at Playford (Ent. Wk Int. 1857, 11); a few larvae annually 1852-8 near Stowmarket (Nat. 1858, 132); Brandeston by Greene (Bloomfield) Apparently somewhat local in Suffolk, mainly around Ipswich where a few came to light in mid-April 1894 (Mly, Pyett) • a pair at Copdock at light in mid-May 1895 and 1898 (Hkg) •' Bentley before 1890 (Garrett, Ml). Elsewhere it is known before 1890 at only Bury (Wrt), and Beccles (Crf). Sotterly and Cavenham, many at light in June 1936 (Gd).





Wide spread, but quite rare with us, occurring nearly always singly: unknown here in 1858. Holbrook (Garrett); Bentley ( M l ) ; Ipswich (Entom. 1871, 452) ; larva once beaten by Lingwood in Shrubland Park (Platten). Two at Mildenhall in 1935 (Btn) ; one in sandy lane at Tuddenham St. Mary in 1901 (Blair); I beat a single larva in 1911 at West Stow, where Mr. Wratislaw obtained the species forty years ago, but the insect must be very rare in west Suffolk (Nurse). At light in woods during 1937 : Belstead (Btn) and Sotterly (Mitton). 570.



By no means infrequent at light in August, through at least Copdock by way of Ipswich (since September 1891, Mly). Playford (Ent. Wk. Int. 1856, 164), Martlesham (D), Monks Soham where it is attracted by light annually, Wangford in 1937 (Baker) and Beccles, to Beiton and Gorleston. 571.



Wide spread, in at least the east, and not rare ; usually taken by casual beating hedges. Sudbury in 1898, Copdock, occasionally at Ipswich lights, Playford (Ent. Wk. Int. 1857, 11), Martlesham, Needham, larva; on lime at Monks Soham, Aldeburgh, Corton cliffs in 1898, Fritton 1933; Lound (Paget). 572.

O . CUCULLA, E s p .

(cucullina, H b . ) .

This rare central European Prominent ranges northward from southern England to only Leieester and Norfolk. With us it occurs but singly, at long intervals. One bred at Playford m March 1857 (Ent. Wk. Intell. ii, 11). Six or seven taken during the last few years by W. Baker, and two larvae beaten in 1857, within a few miles of Stowmarket (C, Nat. viii, 109 and 183). Aldeburgh (Wrt, Ent. ii, 1870, 340). Needham (L). One beautiful example taken bv myself on nettles close beside the river Deben's creek at Martlesham in 1900 (C. G. Doughty). *573.




This central European Prominent is as rare in Britain as the last one, but ranges northward to the Clyde. With us it has not been observed since the Revd. Joseph Greene wrote of it at Playford : â&#x20AC;&#x201D; " One larva, which however unhappily died. It is curious that, though generally successful in finding the pupae of this genus, I never succeeded in meeting with one of this species " (The Naturalist viii, 1858, p. 110), whence its actual raritv in our County may be argued. 574. CERURA VINULA, Linn. Sufficiently frequent everywhere throughout east Suffolk on poplar and sallow, from Felixstow and Ipswich where it is occasionally



97 seen at light, through Monks Soham and Beccles to Gorleston. Remarkably, in west Suffolk, it would seem ' not met with in any stage' (Nurse, in lit. 1911). NOTODONTIDJE.

575. C. BIFIDA, HĂźb.

Over the whole County, and not much rarer than the last kind on the same plants. Sudbury, scarce (Ransom) ; Bentley (Garrett); Waldringfield (Ent., March 1892) ; Martlesham, at Ipswich electric lights (Mly, Baylis, Pyett); Witnesham (Sparke); Monks Soham ; Needham (L); Barsham; Lowestoft in August (Ent. 1922, 258); Gorleston (Mr). Ddwnham (Norgate); Brandon (Wrn); Tuddenham (Wrt); Timworth in 1911 (Nurse). 576. C. FURCULA, Linn. Scarcer than the last Kitten, but equally wide spread excepting in the north-east, whence are few records since Paget's from Yarmouth in 1834; Sotterley in 1935 (Mr). Bentley (Harwood); Waldringfield (James, Ent. March 1892); bred at Ipswich in 1899 (Platten) and 1902 (Pyett), occasionally at light there, but imagines rarely seen (Mly); Needham (L); larvae on wilow in Monks Soham garden during 1906. Bury (Wrt); Elveden (Wrn); Timworth in 1911 (Nurse). *577. C. BICUSPIS, Bkh. Our sole record of this scarce and local Kitten, which ranges' north to York, is its capture in the unworked vilage of Elmsett near Hadleigh by the Revd. H. Marriott, attested by Wratislaw before 1890. 578. PHALERA BUCEPHALA, Linn. Very common in Suffolk, teste W. C. Hewitson Esq. (Stephens, Illus. ii, 1829, p. 197). Frequent here, as throughout southern England to Ross. Most usually feeding on lime; but imagines were taken amidst Raydon Wood in 1934, where is no lime (D). Rarelyfliesto light in Ipswich, Monks Soham, Aldeburgh, Blythburgh and Beccles. Lothingland (Wiltshire). Little noticed in west Suffolk: Woolpit in 1906 (Rasor), &c. [Of the British Notodontidse,fivespecies are lacking in our list:â&#x20AC;&#x201D;the first three march with Suffolk boundaries and might traverse them. Pygesra anachoreta, Hb., now naturalised, perhap temporarily only, and the extremely rare Notodonta torva, Hb., known nowhere eise in Britain, from Norfolk; and Gluphisia crenata, Esp., from Essex where and in Bucks alone it has occurred. The other two, Ptilophora plumigera, Esp. and Hieropha bicoloria, Schf., are confined to south-west England ; of the last Mr. Doughty has captured a beautiful example].





579. SATURNIA PAVONIA, Linn, (carpini, Schf.). Not uncommon here up to 1890, larvae abundant in Beiton bog before 1834 (Paget); now a good deal scarcer, though still widely distributed ; not often seen Aying, though the splendid larva occurs on many heaths and, in marshes, feeds on Epilobium. Scarce at Sudbury (Ransom); larvae at Copdock in Aprils 1897-8 (Hkg); male Aying in Felixstowe Avenue, 5 May 1894 (Mly); Ipswich in 1893 ; male at Needham in 1929 (Platten); Aldeburgh (Hele), larvae on Blythburgh heath in July 1922 ( D M ) ; rare at Beccles, Aying on 4 May 1936, &c. (Gls); Gorleston and Beiton heath in June 1925 (Mr) and female at latter in early May 1933 (Rumbelow). Cocoons in Brandon staunch osier-carr in June 1903 (Chitty); &c., in west Suffolk.

Group DREPANINA. Family


580. C I L I X GLAUCATA, Scop. (spinula, Schf.). Abundant throughout the entire County, in both April and August, from Bentley Woods to Beiton (Mr) and Gorleston (D). Larva, which pupated on 31 August 1893, emerged on 23 April 1894. Always freely at light in Monks Soham; & Wangford (Gd).

581. FALCARIA LACERTINARIA, Linn, (lacertula, Schf.). Certainly local and uncommon, but hardly rare. A few specimens taken by beating at Playford (Gr, Ent. Wk. Int. ii, 1857, 11); larvae in woods near both Ipswich and Stowmarket (C, Nat. viii, 1858, 81). Bentley in May 1894 and July 1896 (Hkg); in the woods there upon rare occasions in May, up to 1903 (Mly). Blythburgh in 1936 (Gd). Found at both West Stow and Tuddenham, before 1890 (Wrt); not observed later in west Suffolk. 582. F. FALCATARIA, Linn, (falcula, Schf.). By no means an infrequent Hooktip in most of our birch woods during both late May and August. Always fairly numerous in Bentley Woods ; Martlesham ( D ) ; Needham in 1929 (Platten); Stowmarket (C); Aldeburgh (Hele); bred from larvae on alder at Southwold and Reydon in September 1928 ; Blythburgh Wood ; Barnby Broad; Fritton in 1935. Tuddenham Fen in September 1910-15 (Elliott). *583. D R E P A N A HARPAGULA, Esp. (sicula, Hb.). T h e unique Suffolk representative was unrecognised for many years after its capture here, where Tilia parvifolia is local. That careful collector, " Dr. Bree had a specimen in his collection



which he said he took at Stowmarket: we all thought it a variety of P. falcula until Mr. Meek detected it, when he purchased Dr. Bree's collection. I think it was then supposed to be the third British specimen."â&#x20AC;&#x201D;W. H. Harwood of Colchester, in lit. (Bloomfield's Adds). 584.

D. BINARIA, Hufn. (hamula, Esp.).

Somewhat rare in 1890 and decreasing in numbers in ratio to the felling of our oak-woods; but still scattered Over the whole county, not excepting the Breck where Goddard took it at Mildenhall in 1935. Brantham (Buckell); Bentley, Belstead in May (Baylis, Hkg); rare at electric lights and Aying by day in Ipswich (Mly, Baylis); Aldeburgh (Hele); Leiston (B. de Grey); Lowestoft in August (Ent. 1922, 258); Worlingham and Flixton (Crf); Fritton Lake at light in 1934-6 (Trans, ii, p. clxxxiii). Needham (L) ; at Ringshall and Battisford by Baker with one at Playford in 1857 (Gr, Nat. viii, 81); Honington. Westleton Heath. 585.

D . CULTRARIA, F a b . (unguicula, H b . ) .

Decidedly local, as beech is not indigenous to SufFolk. Ipswich many years ago (Freeman, 1890); Needham (Skepper); taken by Mr. W. Baker at Ringshall and Battisford before 1858 (C, Nat. viii, 81); Tostock in 1902 (Tuck); Hardwick and Ampton (Wrt); Dalham (Skepper) ; Brandon (Wrn). Recently found by no one but Mr. Goddard, who beat it from bushes in Blythburgh Wood in 1936.

Group LASIOCAMPINA. Family *586.




This is one of the vanished Suffolk Glories, and a flagrant example of dealers' exstirpation. Formerly abundant over all our south-east birch-woods in April; extinct for sixty years. First recorded by the Revd. William Kirby of Barham as occurring " near Ipswich in April l a s t " (Steph. Illust. 1829, 35 ; copied by Wood, Stainton, &c.; cf. Ent. 1878, 174). Forty specimens about Woolverstone by dealer King (Nat. 1858, 206); five near Ipswich in 1867 (Tim Last, Ent. 1868, 189). At Holbrook Park and Bentlev, formerly ; the final specimen was " taken near Ipswich on 13 Apr"il 1875 by T. L a s t " (Garrett, 1890). Extinct in both Holbrook Park and Old Hall Wood, where it used to occur (Henry Miller, v.v. 21 July 1921).



Family LASIOCAMPIDM. 587. LASIOCAMPA QUERCUS, Linn, (callunse, Palm.). Quite a common species everywhere, from Felixstow (Mly 1894) to Bradwell, Hopton and Gorleston (Mr, Doughty 1933). A great assembler ; frequent in some years at light, especialy so in 1925 at Monks Soham. The form callunse, which lies over the winter as pupa, has also occurred in the County. *588. L. TRIFOLII, Esp. Dr. N. F. Hele states in his Jottings about Aldeburgh 1870, p. 186, that he has there found this central and southern European Egger, which is known to ränge throughout both southern and north-west England, so his Statement may be accepted, though no later confirmation of its presence in our midst has emerged. 589. ERIOGASTER POPULI, Linn. Comes tapping at one's lighted window everywhere in early November. Recent observations are from Copdock, where a dozen flew in on 17 November 1897 ; Ipswich street-lamps ; Waldringfield; not rare at Needham ; Bury; Monks Soham, Thorndon in 1922, Hoxne in Dec. 1924 (N. B. Garrard); Barnby Broad; Fritton Lake in late October 1932. 590. E. LANESTRIS, Linn. A most abnormal animal! Erroneously termed ' common ' here by Bloomfield, probably because Greene once found it " very abundant about Brandeston, the hedges being quite füll of the large, tough, glutinous webs spun by the larvse ; " but unknown at Stowmarket then (Nat. 1858, 57). No other record emerges ; and Mr. Morley never saw or heard of it in the County from 1891 tili 1917, when in June extremely numerous gregarious larvalnests appeared in hedges at Monks Soham, Worlingworth, Bedingfield, Framlingham and Debenham in High Suffolk, which were commonest near Kenton railway-station; many imagines bred the following February and that succeeding by him and Dr. Vinter. The apparition has not yet been repeated. 591. E. RUBI, Linn. Very general on our heathlands, but a good deal scarcer than formerly. Extremely common on Kesgrave Heath (Gr, Nat. 1858, 58) ; no later records around Ipswich. Melton and Thorpe (D); Aldeburgh (Hele); Aldeburgh in 1892 and Southwold in 1891 (Ctw); Dunwich heath in 1929 (Vinter) and larvse abundant at Blythburgh (Gd), not rare in that district in 1933 (Blair); Westleton heath (Platten); Bulchamp heath in 1914 (Mly). Larva at Lowestoft north denes on 17 September 1894; near Beccles (Winter, Ent. Wk. Int. 1859, 199). Probably common on the Breck:—Barton Mills heath in June 1924 (Mly).



592. E. CRATJEGI, Linn. Broadly distributed inland ; utterly lacking along our entire coast-line. Usually taken at light, though it is one of the few Bombyces that come to sugar. Bentley, Copdock (Hkg); Ipswich at electric light in September 1893 (Mly), there in 1898 and at Needham in 1918 (Platten); a few larvas at Playford (Nat. 1858, 57 ; Ent. Wk. Int. 1856, 164). Beccles (Crf); several bred from Bungay garden larvse (Mn 1903). Bury (Skepper), two there (Norgate, 1900) ; Tuddenham. 593. CLISIOCAMPA NEUSTRIA, Linn. Suffolk, teste W. C. Hewitson Esq. (Stephens, Illust. ii, 1828, 50). So abundant as to be quite a nuisance at light in July : described in 1858 as occurring 'in immense profusion' here. 594. C. CASTRENSIS, Linn. This north-west European Lackey is restricted in Britain to maritime salterns in Yorks, Sheppey and our own coast, where it was " bred from larvse taken on or near the salt-marshes north of Aldeburgh, but neither this species nor Setina irrorella have been met with the last few years " (Hele in lit., sine dat. sed ante 1890: Bloomfield, 12). Rediscovered to be locally abundant at Aldeburgh in 1905 (Moss, Ent. Ree. 1905, 213); at Bawdsey and Shingle-street in Hollesley, whence many were bred in 1905, and still occurs tili at least 1928 (Waller, May 1935), 1930-4 (Bp.). 595. ODONESTIS POTATORIA, Linn. The Drinker Caterpilar is among our most conspicuous kinds on low herbage from Bentley Woods to Gorleston ; indeed, probably throughout the County, since it occurs certainly at Woolpit (Rasor) and Pakenham Fen (Mly), despite Col. Nurse's assertion of 1911 that it is ' not found in west Suffolk ' by him. Imagines frequent at light in July at Monks Soham, &c. 596. GASTROPACHA QUERCIFOLIA, Linn. Not known to be indigenous in 1858, though very widely distributed and in small numbers in all our less harrowed vilages : not in High Suffolk. Local and scarce about Sudbury (Ransom), East Bergholt, occasionally at Ipswich lights, Copdock, Needham, scarce at Waldringfield; Martlesham, Blaxhall in 1919, Swefling, Aldeburgh, both sexes at Henham in July 1924; Reydon 1935 (Baker), Wrentham in July 1933 (R. S. Girling); Lowestoft,fiveat Bungay in 1903 ; Lound, Fritton; Gorleston in 1932 and 1933. Higham, Kennet; Tuddenham (Norgate) and bred there (Sparke) ; Brandon in 1934 (Doughty). [G Uicifolia, L., is the sole British Lasiocampid unrepresented in Suffolk ; it seems never to have occurred here, and has now become scarce and restricted to Stafford and Yorks.]




Family NYMPHALIDJE. 597. ANOSIA PLEXIPPUS, Linn. A mere visitant,firstseen in Britain during 1876, with increasing influx. One Aying in the Avenue at Felixstow in September 1906 (S. T. Barratt, Country Side 1906, 275). One hovering atflowersin a Framlingham garden in June 1931 (Vinter, Trans, ii, 104). Rushmere, one, 6 Aug. 1937 (Miss King). 598. ARGYNNIS PAPHIA, Linn. Old Hall, Hull and Dodnash Woods, and Bentley in July (Lcetitia Jermyn's 1827, 2nd ed., Butterfly Collector's Vade Mecum, Ipswich, p. 66); Suffolk (Stephens' 1827 Illustrations British Entomology, p. 39); one at Bradwell (Paget's 1834 Nat. Hist. Yarmouth, p. 35). Common in Suffolk (Nat. 1857, 256). Numerous in Assingtom Woods (Sudbury Journal 1838 ; Ransom 1898). Formerly frequent around Ipswich, but now horribly depleted:—Singly in Bentley Woods in only July, 1893 and August 1895 ; laterfinallyexstirpated by pheasants (Mly). Rare at Needham, Saxham and Redisham, before 1890. Not seen by me in EAnglia (Kirkby, in lit. 1933). Probably extinct. 599. A. ADIPPE, Linn. Hintlesham, Old Hall, Hull and Dodnash Woods in July (Jermyn 1827); Suffolk (Stephens 1827). Common about Stowmarket (B, Nat. 1857, 256); Sudbury (Newman 1868). Now become very local and confined to the Ipswich district, excepting Assington (Ransom 1898). Wherstead, Belstead and abundant on thistle-heads at Bentley Woods, up to at least 1935 (Vinter, Mly); Fakenham Wood in 1933 (Kirkby). An unusual form was ' taken by Mr. Seaman of Ipswich.—Rev. W. Kirby ' (Stephens 1828, i, 147). 600. A. AGLAJA, Linn. Nacton Heath, and Bixley Decoy ; Birch Wood near Dedham in July (Jermyn 1827); common at Lound heath (Paget 1834). Stowmarket and Sudbury (Newman 1868). Bentley (Garrett) Woods, where it lingered sparingly tili pheasants were introduced in 1910 (Mly) ; Copdock on 3 July 1895 (Hkg). One near Snape in 1868 (Hele). Tuddenham (Wrt, Brown) before 1890. Not seen by me in E. Anglia (Kirkby, in lit. 1933). Probably extinct. 601. A. LATHONIA, Linn. On Dandelion in dry pastures by a Wood in Stoke by Nayland [added in MS*:—middle of September near Ipswich 1826] * These MS. insertions are probably made by John Davey Hoy of Nayland Stoke Priory, 1797-1839, and this copy doubtless devolved upon his decease (Trans, ii, 103) to his younger brother : it bears a printed label ' William Hoy.'—Ed.



(Jermyn 1827); one near Caister in Norfolk on 2 August 1834 (Paget). Seven taken in a clover field near Ipswich by Mr. Garrod, a most respectable tradesman of that town, who showed me a pair (Bree, Nat. 1857, 256). ' The lane, near Lavenham, where Mr. Gaze took Lathonia' (Ent. Wk. Int. 1857, 50); one at Lavenham on dandelion on 3 September, n.d. ; seven at Lavenham in August 1859 (teste Henslow); one in clover field near Ipswich and one at Stowmarket, both in August 1868 (Newman). Five close to Aldeburgh ' at different times,' and one near Hazelwood in early August 1868 (Hele, 184): by Mr. Hele at Aldeburgh on 3 August, several other specimens have been taken in the county during 1868 (Wrt, Suff. Inst. 41y Journ., Jan. 1869, p. 23). Combs in 1868 and one at Battisford in August 1900 (W. Baker). Eight specimens in one year, near Ipswich (Garrett). Aldeburgh and Bury (Entom. ii, 340). Icklingham and Aldeburgh, shortly before 1870 ; Lavenham, ' a noted locality' (Wrt, Suff. Inst. 1870, 22). At Ipswich in 1871 (Ent. Annual 1872, 108). Five at Aldeburgh in August 1886 (Brown of Cambridge). Also Bloomfield instances Bradwell as a locality, sine ref. 602.


Several dozen in Fakenham Wood in June 1857 (Ent. Wk. Intell. ii, 93). Common in Suffolk (Nat. 1857, 256). Abundant in Sudbourn Woods (Hele). Abundant in woods (Sudbury Jour. 1838). Monks-park Wood in Whelnetham (Wrt); Needham, and many localities near Ipswich (Bloomfield, 1890). Raydon in 1900 (Hkg); Fakenham Wood in 1933 (Kirkby); and still quite common in Bentley Woods. 603.

A. SELENE, Schiff.

Common in Suffolk (Nat. 1857). Rare, Lound Wood & heath in May and June (Paget 1834). Not uncommon in local woods (Sudb. Jour.); Sudbury, Bentley, Playford, Brandeston, Combs (Newman 1868). Still continues to be quite frequent in Bentley Woods, though less so than the last Fritillary. *604.

A. NIOBE, Linn.

A single undoubted (teste Barrett et Mus. Brit.: not a var. of Adippe) example of this species, of the Var. Ens, was captured certainly in Monks-park Wood near Bury, in or about 1879 by our Member, Mr. Thomas Naunton Waller (Cottam, EMM, 1900, pp. 41 and 89); it exists in the collection of his brother, the Revd. A. P. Waller at Waldringfield, and is mounted to display the characteristic underside. The species has as good right to figure in our List as many a casual immigrant moth. The locality, a wood of 360 acres, has been little worked since Wratislaw's time, sixty



years ago ; it is only partly on heavy boulder-clay, at one of the Gipping's sources. A. Niobe used to be considered British by Stewart, &c. and is described as indigenous by Stephens in 1827 ; lack of labelling is reprehensible, and rendered Dr. Abbot of Bedford' s specimen of unknown origin (cf. Trans, iii, p. 6). 605.


Rott, (artemis, Hb.).

Eriswell and Mildenhall (Jermyn, copied by Stephens, 1827). Taken in Stowmarket in May 1857 (Bree, Nat. 1857, 257); in the greatest abundance in marshes close to Bungay by my father a few years since, but we have never seen one there later (Garness, I.e. p. 273). Playford, Brandeston and Haverhill (Newman 1868). Tuddenham Fen (Skepper, Wrt in Suff. Inst, iv, 1870, 220 and Entom. iii or v). Near Beccles (Crf). Its final locality was the marshy meadow beside the mill in Tuddenham village, where it occurred annually up to at least 1904 (Sparke who took two, and saw more which he refrained from slaying, in May 1898): none were there in May 1929. Doubtless extinet, but for no obvious reason. *606.




Known to the early collectors as Dictynna, Haw. Woods to south of Ipswich in 1836 (Ent. Mag. iv, 231). I have seen a series taken by dealer King near Ipswich (Bree, Nat. 1857, 256); Stowmarket (Stainton, Coleman); Playford and Brandeston by Greene (Newman 1868). This species pretty surely occurred in many of our heaths and heathy woods up to about 1870, despite the scepticism from which it suffered ; this is borne out by its known frequency in Hartley and Dedham Birch woods in Essex, a county yet sustaining the species plentifully. T h e last seem to have been captured at Bentley by Mr. Coleman (Garrett); an old Ipswich collector teils me he used to take it at Old Hall Wood near Bentley, where other collectors used also to take it, thirty years ago (Henry Miller, 1890). Now extinet, probably through over-collecting. 607.



Though we have a good many individual observations, the Comma appears always to be a mere passenger through our County. Campsey-Ash, Offton and Ipswich [added in MS.:â&#x20AC;&#x201D;Stoke Nayland] (Jermyn 1827). One seen at Eye in the autumn of 1859 (Tyrer, Ent. Wk. Intell. vii, 76); and one taken at Westleton circa 1858 (in coli. Waller, ex coli. T . M. Spalding). In our own garden in Bungay I have taken the only one seen about here for many years (Garness, Nat. 1857, 273). B u r y ( W r t ) ; Needham (L). One Aying at Ipswich near the Gipping on 19 September 1892; one in Thorndon rectory garden in 1912 (Mly). See Trans. 1936, p. 190, for its eastward advance to Felixstow.



608. V. U R T I C A , Linn. Always extremely common, as it was about Yarmouth in 1834 (Paget) and Stowmarket in 1857 (Gr). Hibernates, but rarely flies in winter. In Suffolk it is not known as the Emperor, Devil or Witch (Newman), but as ' King George' from long before King George the Fifth's accession. 609. V. POLYCHLOROS, Linn. Bentley (Jermyn 1827); rathe; rare about Yarmouth (Paget 1834); common both in spring and close of summer, larvae in profusion on elms (Nat. 1857, 256), generally distributed in Suffolk (Newman 1868) and common (Bloomfield 1890), often seen Aying in Ipswich streets in 1891 (Mly). Fortunately we have not shared a diminution in the numbers of this fine species with the south of England; it is still frequent, though never in its former considerable plenty (cf. Entom. 1906, 118). Later it has been noted at Brantham 1931 (Bp), in Ipswich, August 1891 (Mly), at Raydon Wood, Bentley Woods, Wherstead; Claydon, Barham, Coddenham, Badley, frequent about Needham; Ashfield-Thorp, Thorndon ; Waldringfield in March 1935 (Wir); Staverton Thicks (Vinter), Friston, Snape, Aldeburgh ; Wenhaston ; Beccles; Ashby (Mr, 1923) and in Gorleston (D, 1928). Sometimes common in spring about the Frostenden Woods, e.g. in 1922 (Baker); Brampton Wood on 4 April 1936. Apparently no recent observations in the west. 610. V. io, Linn. Always fairly common, as it was about Yarmouth (in 1834 Paget) and Stowmarket in 1857 (Gr). Hibernates and flies freely upon any sunny winter's day, even after night-frost in January. 611. V. ANTIOPA, Linn. In 1819 a few were taken in Suffolk frequenting woods in early August (Curtis 1825, pl. xcvi). Beccles (Jermyn 1827); Suffolk (Stephens 1827, 45). One at Yarmouth in Norfolk on 27 August 1834 (Paget). One near Nayland-Stoke, c. 1840; three at Stowmarket in Sept. 1846, of which two were on mulberry in vicarage garden; two near Ipswich in Augusts of 1851 and 52 by Charles Eaton (Morris 1868, 75). At least two were captured in and near Ipswich in 1846 (Trans, i, 25-6). DĂźring the decade 1847-57 there occurred one at Erwarton, one at Needham, two at Stowmarket, one at Hitcham to Henslow and one at Elmswell (Bree, Nat. vii, 256 and Ent. Wk. Int. ii, 189 ; Trans, ii, 85). One at Westleton in 1857 (Garness). A score were netted in as many days in late August to early September 1872 at Sudbury, five close to Ipswich, Glemham, Crowfield, Stowmarket, Bury, Chedburgh, five at west Tuddenham, Bungay and Bradwell (Trans, ii, 85): local detail of which is one in Glemham Parva rectory garden in



1871 and one on 23 August 1872 with five more taken there and ' many s e e n ' during the next month, one at east Tuddenham vicarage on 24th, and one at Bungay on 25th (EMM. ix, 138). At Assington Park in 1873 (Harwood). Near Beccles about 1875 (Crf). During 1880 specimens were noted at Blaxhall (Hkr), Ipswich, Alderton (Ml), in September at Belstead (Ipswich Mus.) and Risby near Bury (Norgate). Two were taken in Eyke marshes about 1885 by Ă&#x201E;rchdeacon Darling (Henry Groome). Gorleston in 1896 (A. Waters). It was seen at Risbygate in Bury and at Rushbrook in 1900 (Norgate) and at Alderton [? Oulton] Hall near Lowestoft on 30 August (Ent. Oct. 1900 and E M M . p. 237). One in London-road Ipswich during 1905 (v.v. Mly) ; two taken by Spalding at Hinton in Blythburgh circa 1885 and at Waldringfield on 29 September 1905 (in coli. Waller). One frequented my Southgate garden in Bury for a week in September 1914 and then wintered in an outhouse here (W. H. Tuck, in lit. 26 Oct. 1914). One taken in a park near Bury during August 1917 (H. R. Barker). One for some days in a Benhall garden during summer of 1923 (Vinter). One Aying in Needham on 19 August 1930 (Trans, i, 101). One at Brambleflowers at Hoxne on 31 August 1931 (I.e., p. 230). Singly in Yarmouth and at Corton lightship in August 1934 (I.e. ii, 290). It was not Suffolk collectors who renamed the 1748 Camberwell Beauty as ' The Great Surprise ' ! 612.

V . ATALANTA, L i n n .

Common in the County (Gr 1857) and about Yarmouth (Paget 1834), with no suggestion of periodicity. However, their numbers certainly do fluetuate to no inconsiderable extent, e.g. in 1914, 1920, 1923 and 1928 they abounded not only along the coast from Orford to Gorleston, but inland as far as at least Debenham. Frequently bred. Once found hibernating in a disused water-mill in the Beccles marshes. 613.

V. CARDUI, L i n n .

Thought sufficiently uncommon to localise at Campsey Ash (Jermyn 1827), but ' more or less abundant in different years' in north Suffolk (Paget 1834); and not common, taken in my Stowmarket garden on 6 September 1857 by Bree (Nat. viii, 256), though"' generally a b u n d a n t ' at Aldeburgh (Hele 1870). None, or practically so, were seen throughout Suffolk from June 1894 to September 1903, when they penetrated to at least Bury which is an unusual depth, for throughout the decade preceding 1914 none appeared at Monks Soham. 1920 showed an influx; and in September 1923 the species was frequent along the coast from Benacre to Gorleston and perhaps further south : later too common an object to note.



614. LIMENITIS SIBYLLA, Linn. Unknown to Miss Jermyn here ; a few were taken last season, I believe, near Ipswich (Stephens 1827, 53). Profuse in woods near Ipswich during 1836 (Ent. Mag. iv, 231). Common in woods near Ipswich and Stowmarket (Bree, Nat. 1857), at Bentley and Combs (Crewe in Newman 1868). Yery rare in Assington Thicks (Ransom). What Bloomfield says of the species in 1890—" Local, sometimes abundant: Stoke by Nayland, Stowmarket, Bentley and various places near Ipswich "—is pretty surely exact at that period, when it certainl/was most local in ränge. The Bentley Woods afforded a truly inexhaustablelode,thoroughly tested by dealers' slaughter of fully 464 specimens in the year 1900 alone ! Yet from 1859 (Fison, Ent. Wk. Int. vi, 133 ; cf. Ent. iv, 120) to the present hour, it persists there nobly ; the Assington colony may have propagated and spread, but we hear of no stragglers thence. From Combs, however, doubtless come the examples that have wafted to Needham street in both 1919 and 1933. In the latter year it was found to be not infrequent in two woods in the quite novel districts of mid-north Suffolk (Trans, ii, 183) and of Dunwich in the mid-east (I.e., 291) ; from the former it seems to have strayed beyond Bungay the next year (I.e., 311), wherein it was reported from both Fakenham Wood, a good deal further north-west (I.e., p. clxxv), and the new locality of Hemingston, where our Member, Mr. Crisp, observed a speeimen during July. Blythburgh (Mr) and Fritton (Rumbelow) in 1936. 615. APATURA IRIS, Linn. Prevalence of Purple Emperors here over other counties was an early feature of Suffolk, probably one of the first notices recoverable is in woods to south of Ipswich during 1836 (Ent. Mag. iv, 231). John Davey Hoy discovered thirteen larvas in a single day at Raydon Wood at some uninstanced time before his 1839 decease (Nat. viii, 258). 'Woods, on the O a k : Hull, Old Hall, Dodnash and Raydon Woods, and Badley' (Jermyn 1827, 69), hence ' it is found in several parts of Suffolk ' (Stephens), though mainly then in the south-centre, where it continued ' common in oak woods ' to at least 1857 (Nat. vii, 256). Abundant in woods near Stoke-Nayland, Badly, Dodnash and Raydon ; at the first R. B. Postans Esq. captured six in 1851, and reared one (Morris, Brit. Butt. 1868, 86). Needham ( L ) ; Stowmarket (Stainton, cf. Ent. Wk. Int. vi, 133). Haverhill, Assington Wood, Bentley, Combs, Redisham and Worlingham Parks, and very rare in Old-hall Wood, but ' s o common near Ipswich in 1868 that many of our collectors have taken eight or ten dozen each ' (Newman 1868, p. 77). The species seems never to have recovered (cf. Entom. iv, 120) so merciless an onslaught, and none were noted anywhere for a quarter-century: excepting Waldringfield where one was captured in 1878 (in coli. Wir). But it did just contrive to survive : single examples appeared in the



Bentley Woods in 1893 and succeeding years (Mly); it was definitely recorded thence in 1933 (Trans, ii, 290) and 1935, Harwood bred two males from Raydon Wood larvae in 1919 (I.e. 289), and in August 1933 a female occurred in Ipswich (I.e. 104). Nothing is later heard from our other localities; but long may " the varying lustres of its purple plumes " flaunt at Raydon and Bentley. Family


*616. MELANARGIA GALATEA, Linn. The Marbled White prefers limestone, whereon it abounds in many places, like Helpstone in Northants, less favoured than Suffolk, to chalk; when its somewhat precarious existence upon the latter is further harrowed by cultivation, it quits. Such seems the story here, where it was first known in the great chalk pits of Blakenham Parva (Jermyn 1827, 71), but has not been found there since. Just across the Gipping Valley, however, it is ' reported to have been taken on the chalk hills about Coddenham a few years ago ' (Nat. 1857, p. 258); and also it occurred in the neighbouring Needham before 1850 (L). Our latest and quite distinet locality is ' Beccles, C. G. Barrett' (Newman 1868); for the last seventy years it has certainly been extinet in Suffolk. [Very plentiful every year at Ellingham in Norfolk, about three miles from Bungay (Garness, Nat. 1857, p. 273); and it also used to occur in the Stour and Hartley Woods of northern Essex.] *617. PARARGE ^EGERIA, Linn. Woods near Baylham Hall and in the Lanes near the RaceGround, Ipswich, in April and June and August (Jermyn 1827, 71): I presume that this species is found throughout Britain (Stephens). Common in Lound Wood (Paget 1834); 'very abundant' in general over Suffolk (Nat. 1857); I believe it occurs more or less abundantly in every English county (Newman 1868), and Bloomfield had no doubt it was still frequent here when he dismissed the species with a curt " generally common " in his 1890 Suffolk Lepidoptera. Later he asserted that it used to be quite frequent in shady parts of our garden at Otley sixty years ago, i.e. circa 1847. But none of our collectors—Morley, Nurse, Baylis, Pyett, Norgate, Platten, &c— have seen a speeimen since 1890 ; for such curious extinetion, cf. E M M . 1890, p. 297 ; Entom. Ree. 1916, p. 122 : its causes quite escape us. One, preserved in Woodbridge, was taken near there many years ago (Rope); and the last authentic capture seems that made in Waldringfield during 1879 by T. N. Waller. The two examples in Gorleston town during 1918 were probably mere escapes (Trans, ii, 85). Norfolk's desertion by the Speckled Wood is nearly as complete, but there a few speeimens were seen Aying in Holkham Park so recently as 28 September 1932 and later elsewhere.



618. P. M E G ^ R A , Linn. Woods and Way-sides (Jermyn 1827) ; still just as ' very abundant' as it was in 1857 (Nat. vii, 255), from Assington Thicks (Mly) to Gorleston (Mr). For its larva at Stowmarket, cf. Ent. Wk. Int. iv, 1858, 51. 619. SATYRUS SEMEI.E, Linn. Landguard Common, Rushmere and Martlesham and Nacton heaths (Jermyn 1827, 71); extremely abundant on Newmarket heath in 1827 (Stephens i, 57 ; cf. Ent. Wk. Int. 1856, 151); common at Lound (Paget 1834): not uncommon throughout Suffolk (Nat. 1857). Still frequent on Martlesham (D), Rushmere and Foxhall heaths to east of Ipswich, but becomes rare at Gosbeck; Bentley Woods 1935 (Mly); Staverton Thicks (Vinter); Blaxhall (Rope), Farnham, Aldringham; Dunwich, Blythburgh, Wenhaston and South Cove heaths ; Southwold and Covehithe (Baker), Blundeston in 1936 (Mly). Abundant all over the Breck District, e.g. at Tuddenham and Icklingham in August 1935. 620 & 621.





Both are, and have been since at least 1827, ubiquitous. 622. E. HYPERANTHUS, Linn. Not noted in Suffolk by Miss Jermyn, but doubtless then quite common, as it is definitely stated to be in the County in 1857 (Nat. vii, 255) and as Paget had found it around Yarmouth in 1834. Though by no means rare now, its numbers have appreciably decreased through the last forty years, with a tendency to localisation in shady woods, e.g. at Monks Soham it occurs annually in one shady garden and nowhere eise. Larvse are found on grass in wood-ridings after dark in early June. 623. CCENONYMPHA PAMPHILUS, Linn. Still ' very common' everywhere throughout the County, as it was in 1857.



624. NEMEOBIUS LUCINA, Linn. Hintlesham [added in MS.â&#x20AC;&#x201D;Raydon Wood and Dedham Birch Wood, middle of May] (Jermyn 1827, 65). In various Suffolk woods, not very common (Nat, 1857, 257): taken at Playford and Brandeston by Greene, and near Stowmarket by Crewe (Newman 1868). So dark did the dealers keep this species' occurrence in Bentley Woods that it never emerged in print: even Bloomfield in 1890 instances merely Raydon (Harwood), Freston (Freeman) and Needham (L). Obviously Dukes of Burgundy were very



local then, later they have become localer : and Bentley certainly was their headquarters, collected by Morley, Baylis, Platten and Harry Eaton, up to at least 1899. At Raydon Wood they were still ' plentiful' in May 1898 (Hkg), and persist (Trans, ii, 83). Family 625.




Unnoted here by either Jermyn or Paget, but known to Greene in 1857 to be very abundant in Suffolk (Nat. vii, 257). Still generally distributed all over the County and commoner than formerly at Hemley; recently observed at:—Bentley Woods, Ipswich, Martlesham, Aldeburgh where Hele notices it as very plentiful in 1869 after previous scarcity, Snape (N.B. Garrard), Monks Soham, Ashfield and Framlingham; Letheringham Park; Parham Wood, Westleton Heath (Vinter); Beccles. Tuddenham and Brandon. *626.




Gardens and Hedges at Wrabness in Essex [added in MS :— Hedges at Layham near Hadleigh on Blackthorn and Bramble] (Jermyn 1827, 73). " Taken, I believe, near Ipswich during the past season; the entomologists of this town, Mr. Kirby informs me, do not esteem it a scarce insect " (Stephens 1827, 77). I captured a female at Brandeston hovering over blackthorn, and fully expected to meet with it the following summer ; but had to change residence (Gr, Nat. 1857, 257): Brandeston and Playford by Rev. Joseph Greene (Newman 1868). All which leaves us with nasty taste in the mouth respecting the above soi-disant " entomologists." As certainly extinct as it can be in such a case. 627.




A species unrecognised by Jermyn and Stephens (tili vol. iv, 382); but recorded about -1830 from Bungay (Curtis), and taken in 1836 near Sudbury (Ent. Mag. iv, 231). It was found in 1857 to be generally distributed over our County where the larvse, of which Crewe bred over sixty and Greene over a hundred, were in great profusion on wych-elm (Nat. vii, 257). Morris and Newman in 1868 give it as occurring at Haverhill (W. Gaze), Sudbury (W. D. King), Dodnash Wood (W. H. Harwood of Colchester), Ipswich, Playford and Brandeston ( G r ; cf. Ent. Wk. Int. ii, 94) and one example in Worlingham Park (Crf). To these in 1890 Bloomfield adds Bures, Bentley, Needham, very common at Easton in 1883 (Hkr), Glemham Magna, Flixton and Bury. Later it is joyful to find it distinctly increasing both in profusion and ränge; for, though strictly local and certainly exterminated in Bentley Woods where we know White



Hairstreaks occurred only by tbe 1858 note at Tians. i, 26, it has resettled there in 1935 and been recently observed several times in north-west Ipswich, at Martlesham (D), Waldringfield, Hemley, Ramsholt in 1933 (Wir), in Parham, Farnham, Holton, Beccles and abundantly at both Bury and Hardwick. But its metropolis is certainly near Needham, where Dr. Vinter has found it in great quantities in mid-July. Sibton in 1937 (Hawley). *628. T. BETUL.®, Linn. Birch Woods near Ipswich, in Raydon Wood on low Blackthorns in mid-August [added in M S :—on old Blackthorn hedges mid-August and end of ditto, Higham] (Jermyn 1827, 73); occurs in Raydon-wood near Ipswich (Stephens 1827, 76). Taken by Miss Berners in woods near I p s w i c h . . . T h e whole of the genus Thecla, except Betulae, has fallen under my own notice in Suffolk (Gr, Nat. 1857, 257). Haverhill and not common in Dodnash Wood (Newman 1868). Only thrice observed later, obviously decadent: Raydon (Garrett); Bentley (Harwood); Saxham (Wrt), all before 1890. As certainly extinct as it can be in such a case. 629.

T . QUERCUS, L i n n .

Tops of Oak and Ash Trees [added in M S :—Old Hall Wood, Raydon Woods, Dedham Birch Wood] (Jermyn 1827). Common, and distributed over apparently the whole county (Gr, Nat. 1857). Still quite abundant in all or most of our larger oak-woods. Recently observed in Bentley Woods (Gibbs, &c), Martlesham (D), Staverton Thicks (Vinter), Winston marshes (E. A. Elliott), Haughley in 1934, Badley (Platten), Henham Park in 1936 (Gd), in Barton Mills woods during 1915 and .Brandon in 1935 (Mly). 630.



T h e metallic Small Copper is very frequent through the whole County from Bentley, Lakenheath and Haverhill through Lavenham to Gorleston. Larva: on common kinds of dock. Pale forms are recorded from near Ipswich ' in the Rev. W. Kirby's cabinet' (Stephens 1828) and from Erwarton in 1857 (Crewe). *631.

C. DISPAR, Haw. (hippothoe, Lew.).

" Lycaena Hippothoe, Large Copper, Caterpillar unknown. Reedy Marshes: Bardolph Fen in Norfolk and Whittlesea Mere in Cambridgeshire, Benacre in Suffolk, beginning of July, expanse 1 3" [added in M S . : — L a r v a : beginning and middle of June on the Water Dock in the fens near Holme in Hunts.] (Lcetitia Jermyn's Butt. Collect. Vade Mecum 1827, 2nd ed., p. 72, in extenso). " Suffolk, at Benacre" (Curtis' MS. register: cf. E M M . 1904, 192). " This splendid insect is stated to occur on the coast of Suffolk, at Benacre, but that locality



may belong to the next insect," i.e. the synonymousL. Hippothoe (Stephens 1828, 82). " Marshes in Suffolk, July " (Woods' Index, 1854). It seems obvious that Miss Jermyn of Ipswich either had herseif taken this exclusively fen butterfly at Benacre Broad, still persisting in subprimseval conditions, or well knew of its occurrence there (cf. Trans, i, 31). No later reference emerges.* 632.


Fuesl. (alsus, F.).

Fields at Brandon Warren in Suffolk (Jermyn 1827 ; copied by Stephens 1828, and Curtis). Unknown in Suffolk to Greene (Nat. 1857). Now becoming scarce and confined to at most three of our chalk areas : Taken at Gorleston in 1921 (Ellis, Trans, ii, 8 4 ; probably an error). One specimen between Ipswich and Needham before 1890 ( L ) ; not uncommon, especially in 1920, on the Creeting Hills and Coddenham chalk-pit (Platten). And the Breck : Tuddenham (Wn) ; taken annually at Worlington about 1900 (Sparke); seven seen amongst its food-plant Anthyllis vulneraria, in a chalk-pit at Worlington in late June 1890 (Norgate). In east Cambs it occurs at Fulborn (Ent. Wk. Int. ii, 171); is common in the Devils Dyke at Newmarket (Bloomfield); and frequent in the Fleam Dyke in 1918 (Mly). It seems to maintain a somewhat precarious continuity with us : a single example at the Bishop's Ipswich garden in August 1933. *633.

P. SEMIARGUS, Rott, (acis, Schf.).

The Mazarine Blue was long ago ' found in chalky districts in Norfolk, Cambridge,' &c. (Stephens 1828, 87), and became common in the latter County before 1858 (Newman). Hence it seemed pretty sure to turn up in, or fly across to, Suffolk. Kere, however, it is of extreme rarity:—One specimen was captured at Foxhall Heath to the east of Ipswich on 24 June 1861 by Mr. Garrett Garrett of Ipswich (Bloomfield : cf. E M M . 1902, p. 78); and " one of the last authentic localities for P. acis is Gorleston, where two were taken in 1900 and three in 1901 and later ; these speeimens, like the rare Hawk-moths, were probably blown from the Continent or are descendants of such (Country Side Mag. 1908, 101). Quite doubtless extinet. *Our Member, Mr. W. Rait-Smith, is good enough to call attention to the misstatement by Barrett (Brit. Lep. i, 60) that 'in 1860 the Rev. Joseph Greene records one in 'Suffolk', adding " The fact that a few have been taken at Benacre is recorded in several places ; but I do not think it at all likely that Dispar has ever been taken anywhere eise in Suffolk. I have no faith in Greene's record, twelve years after the last (five) speeimens in this country had been secured by Stretton in 1847-48 " (in lit. 26 Jan. 1936).—By the end of 1859 Greene had left Brandeston and taken the Cubley living in Derby (Ent. Ann. 1860, 17 & 49), whence he wrote in Jan. 1860 that a correspondent had sent him a " Dispar taken in Essex " (Ent. Wk. Intell. vii, p. 140), outside our scope.—Ed.




P. ASTRARCHE, Berg, (agestis, Hb.).

T h e Brown Argus, termed P. Idas, is noted in 1827 from Blakenham Parva, Bixley Decoy, around Ipswich, and ' near the Shore from Landguard Fort to Sir S. Fludyer's, Suffolk ' (Jermyn) ; termed P. Argus, very common on Lound Heath in 1834 (Paget); termed P. agestis, scarce and local in Suffolk (Nat. 1 8 5 7 ) ; actually, though not very common, it is wide spread from Bentley (Mly) and Bramford (Ml) to Beiton (D). T h e most southern record of the northern form, var. Artaxerxes, Fab., is its not uncommon occurrence on Lakenheath Warren (Trans, i, 31). 635.



T h e purely immigrant Long-tailed Blue was first noticed in Britain on the coast of Hants and Sussex in August 1859. T h e late keen Lepidopterist, Mr. C. A. Pyett of Ipswich, saw a specimen of this Andalusian butterfly quite distinctly, certainly and closely, in the garden of the Bath Hotel at Felixstow in August 1897 (teste Morley). 636.

L . ARGIOLUS, L i n n .

Brandon Warren, Suffolk (Jermyn 1 8 2 7 ) ; Suffolk (Stephens1 8 2 8 ) ; taken in Finborough Park by M r . Levett in 1855 (Bree, Nat. 1857). Generally distributed and somewhat local, the first brood usually much the more numerous. It has been observed ' v e r y commonly in spring' (Sudbury Journ, 1838), often in abundance about holly in Bentley Woods; Wherstead, in Ipswich gardens, Martlesham; both broods always common in Monks Soham garden on ivy, no holly present; Needham, Bury, Leiston, Sotterley; Syleham chyd, as early as 31 March 1920 ; Beccles,. B radwell, Beiton, Burgh Castle, Gorleston. Distinctly more plentiful than formerly about Hemley (Waller). 637.

L . CORYDON, Poda.

" T h e Chalk-hill Blue in Chalk-pits at Blakenham Parva, Moulton, and E r i s w e l l " (Jermyn 1 8 2 7 ; quoted by Stephens 1828, who adds that it w a s : â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ) 'Abundant on the Devils Dyke in July.' Common on the Fleam Dyke in 1933-4 (Mly : cf. Ent. Wk, Int. i, 151). Taken by me on Creeting Hills on 14 August 1856 (Dr. Bree Nat vii 2 5 8 ) : its final survival there. Blakenham Parva chalk-pits, early in August 1891 (Capt. Hill) and in 1895 (Platten): its final survival there. T h e species has been instanced also at Felixstow and Lowestoft on the coast; Dalham in the southwest; Tuddenham and Newmarket on the Breck, where it doubtless penetrates from Cambs and its footing is precarious. *638.



Rott. (Adonis, Hb.).

" T h e Clifden Blue on Chalky Soils : Dover Cliffs in Kent r Moulton and Dalham in Suffolk at end of May and middle o f A u g u s t " (Jermyn 1927, 7 4 ; quoted in 1828 by Stephens, who



also found it at Dover). " Several specimens were taken at Newmarket many years ago by Mr. Wagstaff" (Fenland). Now practically confined to south of the Thames. 639. L. IEGON, Schiff. The Silver-studded Blue, termed Argus, was found about ' Commons, Fields and Marshes at Bixley Decoy in Nacton ' (Jermyn 1827); at Herringfleet by Dr. Crowfoot and Sudbury by W. D. King (Newman 1868). It used to occur on Foxhall and other heaths near Ipswich, but is extinct in that locality. Discovered to occur freely at Dunwich by Mr. Henry Lingwood in 1903 ( E M M . xl, 79). Its headquarters with us, however, are upon the Breck where it abounds from Brandon to Tuddenham as freely as in the New Forest or at Oxshott. 640.

L. ICARUS, Rott. (Alexis, Hb.).

The Common Blue, termed Dorylas, was noted in 1827 by Miss Jermyn at only Eriswell; Paget found it in 1834 to be common round Yarmouth ; and it was known to be generally distributed, and the larvae freely bred, in 1857 (Nat. vii, 258). It occurs everywhere. Family 641.




This species, of which C. Europome, Haw., is the male, was known to occur near Ipswich [ added in M S :â&#x20AC;&#x201D;Numerous in the autumn of 1826] (Jermyn 1827), and in some years not uncommonly round Yarmouth (Paget 1835); later at Stowmarket, Battisford, Old Newton and taken by Prof. Henslow at Felixstow (Nat. 1857); and was more or less abundant about Aldeburgh in 1870 (Hele). Ever since that time it has been periodical and generally rare, with certain years of peculiar influx, such as the above 1826, 1856 when it abounded on our coast (Ent. Wk. Int. v, 30), 1858 when Joseph Gedge took ten near Burv (I.e. iv, 187), 1892 when it appeared in profusion far inland and ( E M M . xxviii, 287) abounded round Southwold, 1900 when it was sporadic only ( E M M . 1900, 238), 1906 when it was sparse (Ent. 1906, 234), 1917 when a few penetrated to Darmsden and Baylham (I.e. 1917, 259), 1921 when it occurred at Saxstead, &c (Vinter), with a small immigration during 1922 and much larger one in 1928. Among all these were mixed a good many examples of the Var. Heiice, Hb., noted at Copdock, Felixstow; Ipswich in 1827; Orford, Woodbridge, Southwold, Lowestoft, Bury and Thetford. 642.

C . HYALE, L i n n .

Unknown here to Miss Jermyn, though captured at Wrentham in August 1811 by C. M. Curtis and preserved in the collection of his celebrated brother, John of the ' accurate pencil' (Stephens




1827, 14). Observed at Beiton in 1834 (Paget); Westleton in 1855 and by Henslow at Felixstow about that time (Nat. vii, 255, 273). Nineteen at Aldeburgh on 15-16 August 1868, a most remarkably prolific year for this, the last, and numerous other butterflies throughout Suffolk. Localities are misplaced for such strong fliers ; this species occurs usuallv along with the last one and is of rather more than double its rarity : probably no village, of our five hundred, has been ignored by one or other of them (cf. Entom. Wk. Intell. ' 1858, 187 ; Suff. Inst. 41y Journ. 1869, 2 3 ; Entom. 1842, 1892, 220; 1917, 259; E M M . 1892, 287 ; 1900, 238). 643.



In the Meadows near Bramford Church (Jermyn 1827) and uncommon round Yarmouth (Paget 1834). Very regulär in its appearance in late Summer and early spring, but now hardly a common butterfly (cf. Trans, ii, 182) and rarest with us in High Suffolk. 644.



Woods and lanes at Helmingham (Jermyn 1827) and rather rare at Bradwell, &c (Paget 1834) . An abundant species everywhere from Stanstead Wood to Bradwell still, sometimes in copula though the female flies much less freely. 645.



Stour and Hartley Woods [added in M S :—Raydon Wood, Suffolk] (Jermyn 1827), in the last of which the larvas were once taken abundantly before 1839 by John Davey Hoy (Nat. viii, 359). Unknown to Paget; and by 1857 so local as to occur in only one wood near Stowmarket (I.e. vii, 255), at Brandeston, Playford and Bentley. Nothing later was heard of the species, beyond rather vague and probably Single observations at Needham before 1860 and Wherstead by a Mr. H. Haward about 1880, when it was supposed to be ' almost extinet,' tili one was taken at Yarmouth south of Breydon in 1890 (Nat. Gazette iii, 13). That we may hope Wood Whites yet survive with us is shown by the presence of one a mile or two from Haiesworth so recentlv as 19 May 1932 (Trans, ii, 84). *646.



Merely an occasional immigrant to southern England, whose northern ränge is limited by our County. " On the 12th instant a speeimen of this insect was taken on the high road near Newmarket Heath, and was shown to me alive by the captor, Mr. Jobson late of London.—Thomas Brown, Kings Parade, Cambridge; 25 August 1858 (Ent. Wk. lntelligencer iv, 178).



Two other individuals occurred at Felixstow, for one of which Mr. Henrv Miller vouched, and Aldeburgh respectively during September 1872 (Entomologist 1872, pp. 215 and 235). 647 & 648.

P . NAPI, L i n n , e t P . RAPJE, L i n n .

These two and the next kind are described in 1834 as common and in 1857 as abundant in Suffolk, where they still continue to be so. 649.



Butterflies in general are scarcer in numbers on the cold clay of High Suffolk than in any other part of the County. Yet on a bright though not very hot'day, 12 August 1912, there were disporting themselves at Monks Soham Pieris brassicce, napi, rapa, a couple of male Colias Edusa,. Vanessa Urtica and Io in plenty with one or two cardui, Epinephele Tithonus and janira with Pararge Megcera in dozens at a time. and few Polyommatus Icarus with Lyccena phlceas : nothing very interesting among them, but the whole an excellent illustration of the County's present production in its least favourable location, amid cereal crops, roots, razed hedges and felled timber. At an earlier season, 14 May 1917, present were Euchloe cardarnines in great numbers, a few Pieris rapce and brassicce, several Polyommatus argiolus, with hibernated Vanessa urticce, Io and a male Gonepteryx rhamni to vary the colour-scheme.—CM. *650.



Gardens and Thickets : New Forest [Added in MS. :—Monks Wood in Hunts near Stilton, middle of June] (Jermyn 1827, who does not seem to know it in our County). However, it is definitely asserted to have occurred in ' Suffolk ' by John Curtis (Brit. Entom.: quoted at E M M . 1887, p. 39), who was a Wrentham man collecting a good deal about Covehithe in 1825 ; so there can be no ground for Bloomfield's supposition that the record is an error*. One ancient example, reputed local, of a Blackveined White, yet existing in the collection of the late Dr. Donald Hutchinson of Lowestoft, adds but little weight to the argument. * J o h n C u r t i s is entirely reliable, a n d u p o n his word we m a y well d e p e n d f o r t h e species ' erstwhile occurrence in o u r C o u n t y . T h a t such was u n k n o w n t o M i s s L . J e r m y n in 1827 is compatible with a n o t e in L o u d o n ' s M a g . N a t . H i s t . iii, p. 247 "1826. Papilla cratcegata is rather a local insect. I n t h e previous s u m m e r I m e t a scientific tourist f r o m Suffolk [?Kirbv], w h o m f o r m e d m e that h e had visited H a n t s to p r o c u r e this insect, w h i c h h e u n d e r s t o o d was plentitul. W e searched for several days to n o p u r p o s e , b u t this year they w e r e m o r e n u m e r o u s t h a n even t h e c o m m o n C a b b a g e W h i t e , a b o u n d i n g in every field S i n c e t h e n very scarce." T h e inference is that it was already extinct in Suffolk b y 1 8 2 5 . — C . M .



Family PAPILIONIDJE. 651. PAPILIO MACHAON, Linn. Our essential records of the resplendent Swallow-tail, must be confined to places bordering the Fens in the north-west, whereto the Lark directly flows. Along this sluggish river's Valley specimens were captured ' between Tuddenham and Mildenhall ' about 1880 (T. & J. Brown). " A young friend of mine saw two in Tuddenham Fen and I cäüght one in 1901, but let it go again : they once flew all along the stream to Mildenhall, according to old accounts " (Sparke). One, captured in an out house in Fakenham during August 1933, had also probably flown east from the Fens (Trans, ii, 181). Our sole associatiön with Norfolk seems an individual taken in Aldeby marshes, immediately across the Waveney River, by Dr. Crowfoot before 1868 (Newman). All other records deal with merely windblown stragglers or liberated home-bred individuals:—One in Erwarton Rectorv garden during 1855 (Crewe, Nat. vii, 254). Three, each captured by a different man, at Haverhill in 1841 (Ent. 1842, 307 and 340). Three taken, and others seen, near Cläre Priory in 1867-9 (E. A. Fitch). One about a mile from Ipswich on 25 August 1870 by Mr. Garrett (Ent. v, 17), and one soon after taken in Waldringfield (Waller in lit. 1935) ; two or three specimens at Ipswich formerly, Playford in 1877 and Wherstead in 1879 (Bloomfield ; cf. E M M . 1902, 38). One Aying against motor-car in Parham marshes on 15 August 1918 (Vinter). 652. PARNASSIUS APOLLO, Linn. A mere migratory visitant from northern Europe, several times noticed in Britain. One specimen was captured on our coast at Thorp, just north of Aldeburgh, on 10 September 1928 by Mrs. Webb (teste Dr. Vinter, Trans, i, 13). Family HESPER1IDJE. 653. HESPERIA MAI.V/E, Linn, (alveolus, Hb.). Dry Banks, Woods and Commons [Added in M S :— Raydon Wood] (Jermyn 1827); considered common in the County, but local, by Greene in 1857 (Nat. vii, 258). Nowadays, there can be no doubt that every extensive piece of waste pasture possess its Grizzled Skippers in spring. Recently noted at Monks-park and Norton Woods, Tuddenham Fen, Lavenham, Assington, Raydon and Bentley Woods. Certainly rare in the north-east: Worlingham on 5 June 1933 (Gls) but unknown in Lothingland. 654. H. TAGES, Linn. Dry Heaths, Banks, Woods and Commons: Hintlesham [Added in M S :—Raydon Wood] (Jermyn 1927; copied by Stephens, 99); considered common in the County, but local, by



Greene in 1857 (Nat. vii, 258). Nowadays it is far more local than the last kind, pretty well confined to open spaces within and upon the skirts of woods, throughout nearly the whole County. Recently noted at Bentley Woods (Vinter), Raydon Wood (Hkg), Monks-park and Norton Woods (Norgate), Dunwich in 1910 (L), Tuddenham Fen, Freckenham and Lavenham (Mly). 655. PAMPHILA THAUMAS, Hufn. (linea, F.). Margins of Woods in mid-July [Added in M S :â&#x20AC;&#x201D;Raydon Wood] (Jermyn 1827); clay-pit in " Beiton, common (Paget 1834). Common throughout the County in 1847 (Nat. vii, 285), as it continues to be and, indeed, locally abundant in rough-grassy places, from Bures to Bradwell. 656.

P. LINEOLA, O c h s .

The Essex Skipper traverses the boundary into Suffolk, and is probably a good deal wider distributed to the north of it than has been yet ascertained. At present it is certified as occurring with us at only (1) Bures near Sudbury, where its capture was effected by Mr. V. Gerrard ; (2) Felixstow, where it was abundant on waste ground in 1914 near the pier Station, taken by L. Fison and Rev. A. P. Waller ; and (3) our coast at East Lane in Bawdsey, where it abounded in Augusts 1935-7 (Morley). T h e species was not recognised tili 1888 as being British. *657.

P. COMMA, Linn.

The Silver-spotted Skipper is restricted to chalky soil, according to Miss Jermyn, who did not find it in Suffolk ; though it was " discovered in considerable abundance towards the middle of August 1825 on the Devil's Ditch, between the running gap and the turnpike " (Stephens i, 1828, 104), which was obviously just over our border in Cambs. It is an extremely local species, and has been confirmed in Suffolk by M M . T . and B. Brown, who certify its presence upon Newmarket Heath about 1880. It should occur all over the chalky Breck. 658.



Woods [Added in MS:â&#x20AC;&#x201D;Raydon Wood] (Jermyn 1827); rather rare in small wood near Lowestoft (Paget 1834); abundant throughout the County generally in 1857 (Gr), and continues to be so, from Bures to Hopton. [OBS. T h u s we see that, among the sixty-eight species that are now usually accounted indigenous Butterflies, no more than eight are here unrepresented. Three of these Melitaa Cinxia, L., Pamphila Actaon, Esp. and the Bloxworth Blue, Polyommatus argiades, Pal., occur on only the south English coast; P. Arion, L., is confined to two spots in west England ; three, Coenonympha Tiphon,Rtt., Erebia athiops, Esp. and epiphron, Knch., are con-



fined to north Britain ; and the Chequered Skipper, Carterocephalus Palcemon, Pal., is restricted to oolitic-limestone districts. Both the first and last have been erroneously recorded from Suffolk; and the latter mistake, despite Dr. Bree's categoric denial (Naturalist 1857, vii, 258), has persisted in literature down to Meyrick's work.—Onthe other hand at least two Suffolk captures, A. Niobe, L. and P. Apollo, L., do not figure in the British list.] /



Family 659.




Quite a local and uncommon species with us. Restricted on the east to the coast-sands at Felixstow cliffs (Mly), Hemley in 1904 (Wir), Aldeburgh in 1892 (Ctw), Kessingland, Lowestoft, &c, to Yarmouth denes in 1933. Sotterly at light in June 1936 (Gd). And in the north-west to the Breck at Tuddenham, Brandon sandhills, &c. Sizewell shore in 1937 (Mly). *660. GYMNANCYLA CANELLA, Hüb. Local on our coast in June and July, and apparently very rare for none have occurred since the species was first discovered here among Salsola Kali at Leiston before 1890 by the Hon. Beatrice de Grey. It extends no further north in England. 661. PEMPELIA DILUTELLA, Hüb. (subornatella, Dup.). Probably not uncommon among thyme, though unknown here in 1890. Taken at Bungay light in 1906 (Mn). Framlingham butts in July 1922 (Mly); Gorleston in 1932, and not rare at light beside Fritton Lake in early August 1934 (D.). 662.



Occurs throughout the east half of the County at Bentley (Harwood), Ipswich lights (Pyett), in Orwell woods (Gibbs), Bawdsey (EMM. 1904, 80), Hemley in 1904 (Wir), at Monks Soham light in July 1921-35 (Mly), Aldeburgh (Ctw), Reydon (Baker), Southwold in 1891-7 (Ctw, Barrett), Beccles (Crf), Gorleston (D). 663. S. FUSCA, Haw. (carbonariel la, Fisch.). Curiously sparse with us. Tuddenham in the Breck (Wrn); Bixley Heath before 1890 (Freeman); rare during August, both at electric lights in Ipswich in 1895 and at light beside Fritton Lake in 1934 (Mly). 664.

S. BKTUL/E, Göze.

Taken at Copdock by the Revd. J. H. Hocking (Bloomfield's Supplement).





Doubtless abundant on heaths at dusk in July, but rarely noticed: Southwold in 1897 (Ctw) and Worlingham (Crf) in the east; and at both Brandon (Barrett) and Tuddenham (Wrn). 666. EPISCHNIA FARRELLA, Curt. A coast-sandhills species, extending north only to Norfolk. Of extreme rarity with us, apparently ; not re-discovered here since two or three examples, including Curtis' type, were captured by Mr. H. F. Farr at the Lowestoft north lighthouse during early June 1840 (Ann. Nat. Hist. ii, vol. v, p. 110), tili 1934 when the Bishop bred a specimen from pea-pods collected recently on the Shingle-street beach at Hollesley: cf. E M M . 1882,217. 667.



Confined to the dry and grassy banks of the Breck at Tuddenham (Wrt) and Brandon (Barrett). It also occurs at the Fleam Dyke in Cambs (Mly). 668.


Very local and sparse in Britain. Six specimens were taken in hedges and near the sea, far from any pines, at Southwold one day in June 1891 by Crutwell and Barrett (EMM. xxvii, 221). None have been seen later. 669.



Frequenting the flowers of scabious in good night close to fir trees at Brandon (Barrett). 670.




Fab. (roborella, Zk.).

Very frequent: Bentley (Harwood), at Ipswich electric lights (Mly, Pyett), Sproughton (Pyett), Hemley (Wir), Stowmarket (B), Flixton (Ctw), Bungay (Mn), Southwold ; Ampton and West Stow (Nurse), Tuddenham (Wrt). A back-garden Phycitid. 671.



Lowestoft before 1890 (Crf); and in great numbers there, along with the next kind, during 1933-36 in a baker's shop of high temperature in the town (Gd, Trans, ii, 186). 672.



At light in towns, to which it is attracted from grocers' warehouses everywhere (Trans, ii, 296):—Ipswich in great numbers (Pyett), and at electric light during 1895-8 (Mly); Felixstow in July 1902 (Gibbs); Hemley (Wir); Monks Soham (Mly); Lowestoft (I.e. ii, 186; Crf), Beccles (Ctw).



673. E. KUHNELLA, Zell. Found to be abundant in a flour-mill at Homersfield during July-August 1888 (Ctw). Taken singly at electric light in Ipswich, August 1895 (Mly) and 1898 (Pyett); Southwold in 1932 (Wir). 674.



Stowmarket about 1860 (B) ; at light in Ipswich in 1901 (Pyett) and Bungay in July 1900 (Mn). Rarely in Monks Soham at light in August and September (Mly). [A large proportion of the above injurious Phycitid genera have been imported to Britain by commerce, and Suffolk is fortunate in possessing no Ephestia semirufa, Stn., ficulella Brr., cautella, Wik. or calidelea, Gn. Our other absentees are Heterographis oblitella, ZU., immigrant to I. Wight; Alispa angustella, Hb., Epischnia Bankesella, Reh., and the three Nephopteryx species, all five confined to south-west England ; leaving only Pempelia ornatella, Schf., Salebria semirubella, Sc. (cf. Trans, ii, p.c.) and Euzophera cinerosella, Zll. which three occur in Norfolk, along with Cateremna terebrella, Zk]. 675.



Very broadly distributed. Felixstow and one in Belstead Wood during July 1901 (Pyett); Hemley in 1902 and commonly at Waldringfield in 1906 (Wir); Aldeburgh and Southwold (Ctw); Lowestoft (Bd). Fairly common near Timworth in 1911 (Nurse); particularly plentiful on the Breck sands at Brandon in July 1926 (Mly), Thetford, Tuddenham, Worlington and Freckenham in 1930-33 (Bp.), Cavenham 1936 (Gd). 676. H. BINIEVELLA, HĂźb. (eluviella, Dbld.). By no means rare, in east or west. Felixstow, Bawdsey and near Hemley (EMM. 1904, 80); Orford in July 1902 (Gibbs), Aldeburgh (Ctw) and Southwold in 1933 (Wir), Benacre 1936 (Gd). Near Timworth in 1911 (Nurse); Tuddenham (Wrt), two speeimens in July 1903 (Sparke); Brandon (Barrett). At Monks Soham light in August 1935 (Mly). 677. H. CRETACELLA, Rossl. (senecionis, Vgn.). An apparently scarce coast species, but feeding on common ragwort: Observed at Southwold in both 1891 and 1897 by Canon C. T. Crutwell of Denton in Norfolk; and before 1890 at Lowestoft by Dr. Crowfoot. 678.


Usually considered a local coast kind, and so taken at both Southwold in June 1889 and Kessingland by Crutwell, as well as at Lowestoft in August 1922 (Ent. 1922, 258), but it was quite common at light inland, beside Fritton Lake during midAugust 1934 (Mly).





By no means rare, on both the coast and Breck: Several at light in Ipswich during July 1895-1901 (Mlv, Pye«) ; bred at Waldringfield in 1933 (Wir); Blaxhall (Hkr); Southwold and one at Aldeburgh (Ctw). Near Timworth in 1911 (Nurse), Tuddenham (Crf), Brandon (Barrett), Cavenham 1936 (Gd). 680.



Occurs sparingly along most, if not the whole, of our coast from Felixstow in 1901, 1902 and 1903 (Gibbs), through the Southwold southern s a n d h i l l s ( i n July 1901, Mly), to both Benacre and Kessingland (before 1890, Crf). Dunwich beach, 1937 (Mly). 681. M Y E L O I S CRIBRELLA, Hüb. (cribrum). Locally quite common on large thistles. Copdock and Belstead at light (Hkg) ; Wherstead and Ipswich in July (Mly), Freston, Bealings ; common at Aldeburgh in 1892 (Ctw) and Southwold in 1933-4 (Wir); Hemley, Leiston, Needham ; at light in Beccles 1935. Frequent among thistles at Tuddenham (Sparke), Cavenham (Gd), Thetford (Barrett), Bamham Common in 1932 (D), Barton Mills, Brandon. 682.

M . NEOPHANES, D u r r .

A male beaten from buckthorn in Shipmeadow marshes on 19 August 1935 (Proc. S N S . iii, p. lviii). 683.



Hemley in 1904 (Wir) and not uncommon at Aldeburgh in 1892 (Ctw, E M M . 1892, 254); rarely at Monks Soham light in August 1919-37 (Mly). 684.


By no means rare. Felixstow in 1903 (Gibbs, E M M . 1904, 8 0 ) ; at Monks Soham light in July 1920-35 (Morley); Aldeburgh by Ctw ( E M M . 1892, 2 5 4 ) ; Lowestoft in August (Ent. 1922, 258); three at Bungay in 1899 ( M n ) ; Fritton at light (D). A dark form bred at Timworth in 1911 (Nurse); Brandon (Barrett). 685.

E . SUAVELLA, Zinck.

Still apparently rare here ; local in Britain. Taken at Felixstow in 1903 by Gibbs ( E M M . 1904, 80); by beating hedges in Gorleston lanes during August 1933 ( M l y ) ; at Sweflmg by the Revd. R. Peek; and Brandon by Barrett. 686.



Not very rare; distinctly local in marshes. Taken at Woolpit in early Julv by the Revd. H. C. Marriott (Ent. Annual 1866, 158); and in some profusion at a brilliant light close beside Fritton Lake during early August 1934-6 (Mly).






In the Breck, and of frequent occurrence up our coast. One flew to light at Ipswich in 1894 (Mly), and a dark form was taken near there in 1901 (Pyett); bred at Bentley (Bp.). Aldeburgh (Ctw) ; Lowestoft in August (Ent. 1922, 258). Brandon before 1890 (Dr. Wheeler of Norwich). Sibton light, 1937 (Hawley). 688. A. ZELLERI, Rag. (tumidella, Zk.). Not infrequent about oaks. Bentley Woods in July 1900 (Mly), bred thence in 1935 (Bp.) and common there in 1901 (Pyett); Ipswich (Ml); Orford in July 1902 Gibbs); Fritton Lake at light in early August 1935 (Mly, D.). Beaten from whitethorn hedges at Higham and Newmarket (Brown). 689. A. TUMIDANA, Schf. (rubritibiella). Very local; three examples taken, with the last kind, at a brilliant light in woods close beside Fritton Lake on 7 and 14 August 1934 (Mly); two at Brandon before 1890 (Whe). [A. sodalella, Z1L, a central European species known with us only in Pembroke.and three equally local kinds of Myelois, complete the eighteen British Phycitidae unknown in Suffolk.] Family


6 9 0 . M E L I P H O R A GRISELLA, Fab. (alvearia, F.). In old comb in bee-hives at Great Glemham (Bloomfield); Burv (Skepper); Ipswich in 1933 (Bp). It destroyed honeycombs at Thetford (Barrett) and Tuddenham in July 1903 (Sparke). Never seen in Suffolk tili late July 1935, when it flew to light and at dusk in Monks Soham; Benacre Broad (Mly). 6 9 1 . MELTSSOBLAPTES ANELLUS, Schf. Mr. A. E. Gibbs of St. Albans was so fortunate as to take a series of this genus, under the above specific name, at Felixstow in 1901, and more in 1903 (Trans. 1, 33). All British specimens are referred by Meyrick in 1927, p. 401, to M. bipunctanus, Zell.; if that be correct in the present instance, Corcyra cephalonica, Stn., is the sole indigenous Galleriid unknown in Suffolk.

692. A P H O M I A SOCIELLA, Linn. An extremely frequent species, everywhere but perhaps around Ipswich where it comes but sparingly to light. Common at Copdock (Hkg), Bentley Woods in 1935 ; Aldeburgh, Leiston, Hacheston, Waldringfield; at Monks Soham light constantly in July-August 1908-36, Stowmarket, Fritton, Brandon. 693. A. GULARIS, Zell. A series of this introduced insect has been bred at Waldringfield (S.N. Proc. 1936, p. xcviii ahd Entom. 1892, 286).



694. GALLERIA MELLONELLA, Linn, (cereana, L.). Local and uncommon with us. Copdock in September 1897 (Hkg); Glemham Magna (Bloomfield); Aldeburgh; one only at Monks Soham, sitting on widow-sill on 20 August 1919 (Mly); one only at Needham, on 5 August 1905 (Platten); Stowmarket. Also found in the Breck district, the larvse in plenty feeding in old comb in bee-hives (Barrett); Bury.

Family 695.




This central European species, of obviously generic distinction from the following ones, occurs rarely among the British marshes of Devon and East Anglia alone, though feeding on the ubiquitous Typha latifolia. With us it has been detected only in the north : in the extreme west at Lakenheath (Fenland), and in the east a single male flew to the light of a brilliant lamp close beside Fritton Lake on 7 August 1934 (Mly). 696.



At present almost confined with us to the Breck : Santon Downham before 1890 (Norgate): near Thetford (Harwood); at light in Tuddenham Hall, in that village, during late August 1902 (Mly). Several at Minsmere in Sept. 1928, and one on Sutton Heath in Aug. 1933 (Bp.). 697.




Apparently local; noticed in the east at only Aldeburgh saltmarshes where it was scarce in 1892 (Ctw); Lowestoft (Bd); Beccles (Ctw); and in the west at Tuddenham before 1890 (Wrn). 698.




An abundant species throughout the county and 699.




A south British species, extending north to only Norfolk. Hitherto overlooked: taken in Greenacres Lane at Gorleston on 5 June 1931 (Mly). 700.


Merely local in England. 701,


& 703.

C. &








it occurs?—Ed.



All abundant species throughout the County and Britain.








A south English species, extending north to only Norfolk. Excepting a single individual that was captured at Ipswich in 1896 (Pyett), this moth occurs here solely on the chalk-sands of the Breck (Bernard Harwood) where it is abundant in late May at Freckenham, Eriswell (Mly), Elveden (Williams), Tuddenham (Wrn), Brandon (Barrett), &c. , 705.


Quite a common kind here. Ipswich (Garrett, Pyett), Felixstow ( E M M . 1904, 80), Clopton in 1898 and in profusion at Waldringfield (Wir) and Monks Soham light during 1910-37 (Mly); Glemham Magna (Bloomfield), Stowmarket, (B), Aldeburgh (Ctw), Lowestoft (Chawner), at light at Bungay (Mn). In the west at Tuddenham (Waters) and Brandon (Barrett). 706.

C. PINELLUS, Linn, (pinetellus, L.).

Local, and never seen at Monks Soham through thirty years tili 1935. Common about Ipswich (Mly), at Felixstow (Pyett), a few at Waldringfield in 1929 (Wir), Blaxhall, Dunwich, Yoxford, Bungay, Flixton, Gorleston, Beccles; at Brandon and Thetford. 707.



Certainly infrequent here. Waldringfield at light in 1931-2 (Wir); Fritton before 1890 (Bd); Lowestoft in August (Ent. 1922, 258); at Thetford (Mly) and near Thetford (Harwood); Brandon (Barrett), Worlington 1906-10-24 (Bp.) ; and close to the Tuddenham windmill (Waters), which is now demolished. 708 & 709.

C . INQUINATELLUS, S c h f . et C.


Both abundant species throughout the County and 710.





Occurs on the Breck near Thetford (Harwood), at Brandon (Barrett) and Cavenham (Mly). Unnoticed on other heaths where it is likely to be locally abundant. 711.



On the coast at Felixstow in July 1902 (Gibbs, Pyett). Previously known in Britain only from the coast north of Yarmouth. 712.




By no means infrequent; recently observed at such diverse localities as Ipswich (Pvett), at electric light in August (Mly); Flixton near Bungay (Ctw) and Fritton. Tuddenham (Sparke, Doughty) and Brandon (Barrett).






A local species, apparently confined to t h e coast with us : Plentiful at Felixstow in 1901 ( P y e t t ) ; H e m l e y in 1902 ( W i r ) ; L o w e s t o f t before 1890 (Bd) a n d later (Ent. 1922, 258). 714.

C . SALINELLUS, T u t t .

T h i s salt-marsh species was f o u n d to occur in limited n u m b e r s at A l d e b u r g h in 1891 ( E M M . 1892, 254). 715.



A b u n d a n t t h r o u g h o u t b o t h t h e C o u n t y and all Britain. Bentley W o o d to Gorleston. 716.



Local in marshy flats: Blaxhall ( H k r ) ; scarce in 1892 at A l d e b u r g h salt-marshes and f o u n d also at S o u t h w o l d in 1897 ( C t w ) ; L o w e s t o f t ( B d ) ; Fritton at light in 1935 ( M l y ) ; Beccles ( C t w ) ; Bungay ( M n ) . PLATYTES ALPINELLA,



T h i s very local sandy-coast species was discovered at H e m l e y in 1903 (Wir) a n d L o w e s t o f t in 1922 (Ent. 1922, 258). S u t t o n H e a t h in 1934 (Bp.). 718.

P . CERUSSELLA, S c h i f f .

By n o m e a n s rare : At Ipswich lights in J u n e 1902 ( M l y ) ; Felixstow and O r f o r d in July 1902 ( G i b b s ) , S u t t o n H e a t h in 1935 (Bp), a b u n d a n t at A l d e b u r g h in 1892 ( C t w ) ; L o w e s t o f t , a b u n d a n t at F r i t t o n in 1930 (D). T u d d e n h a m , B r a n d o n ; C a v e n h a m 1936 ( G d ) . 719.



Locally q u i t e c o m m o n in marshes. F r e s t o n ( F r e e m a n ) ; N e e d h a m ( L ) ; H e m l e y in 1901-7 ( W i r ) ; Leiston (Hkr), Benacre (Mly), C o v e h i t h e ( G d ) , L o w e s t o f t ( B d ) ; rare in Beiton b o g in July (Paget 1 8 3 4 ) ; flew a b u n d a n t l y to light at Fritton L a k e in August 1833-7 ( M l y , D ) . O n e at light in T u d d e n h a m ( V i v i a n ) ; occurs in all t h e r e e d - b e d s near T i m w o r t h ( N u r s e 1911). [Of t h e nine British kinds of Crambidae yet o u t s t a n d i n g f r o m Suffolk, w e can hardly expect m o r e than t w o to occur here : Both are extremelv local, b u t C. margaritellus, H b . , IS k n o w n f r o m N o r f o l k &c, a n d C. verellus, Zk., f r o m K e n t and C a m b s , on o u r borders. Of t h e rest C. ericellus, H b . , C. myellus, H b . and C. furcatellus, Ztt., are exclusively n o r t h e r n s p e c i e s ; G. craterellus, Sc., is confined to t h e south of E n g l a n d ; a n d b o t h C. poliellus, T r . a n d lithargyrellus, H b . , to Deal. Euchromtus oceileui, H a w . , is a m e r e importation.]



Family P YRA 720.




Apparently local, but certainly very widely distributed, at least in the e a s t : At electric lights in Ipswich during 1895 (Pyett); Aldeburgh (Wrt) ; Dunwich ( H k r ) ; Southwold (Ctw) ; Easton Broad in late July 1900 (Mly); Lowestoft (Bd) ; at light in Bungay during 1903 (Mn). Brandon (Barrett). 721.



By no means frequent: Rare about Ipswich at both dusk and light in 1895 (Pyett); Southwold (Ctw), Covehithe ( G d ) ; very local at Beccles (Crf) ; one at dusk in Burgh Castle marshes on on 5 August 1935 (Ellis). Brandon (Barrett) and two at Bamham in 1911 (Nurse). 722.


Pretty well confined in Britain to East Anglia and York. With us it seems extremely local: Pupac are abundant in marshes round Needham, where the imago is sometimes taken at light and probably much commoner than is generally supposed ( L , before 1890). One netted at Ampton in 1911 (Nurse); and one or two at Downham (Norgate). Diss (Leech 1886, p. 72). Rare at light, Fritton Lake in Aug. 1935 (Mly). 723.



Certainly uncommon ; usually taken singly : Ipswich (Ml), one at dusk and one at light in 1895 (Pyett) ; Hemley in 1908 ( W i r ) ; Southwold ( C t w ) ; Beccles (Crf). Two taken at" Bamham in 1911 (Nurse). 724.



Abundant in the County, and Britain ; sometimes at Monks Soham light. 725 & 726.

N Y M P H U L A STAGNATA, D o n . e t N . STRATIOTATA, L i n n .

Both common in all our marshes, and occasionally at light. 727.



Slightly less frequent than the last species from Ipswich marshes to Fritton Lake, where it is taken at both dusk and sugar ; females frequent at Monks Soham light from surrounding moat-weeds. 728.



N o explanation or confirmation has been later forthcoming of the Revd. Harpur Crewe's capture of one specimen of this local south-west English species at Stowmarket about 1860.










Both abundant throughout the whole County, and England. The former was recorded hence by Stephens in 1834. 731.


Verv much scarcer than in south England. Ipswich, Playford, Stowmarket, Glemham Magna and Beccles, all before 1S9U; no later records. Never seen here (Morley). 732 & 733.



Both quite common everywhere in July all over the County ; at light at Monks Soham. 734.

P . I-ERRUGALIS, H ü b .

Of distinctly uncommon occurrence, especially in the west. Hardly rare at Ipswich, at light in September 1894-5, &c. (Mly); Finbrough ( C ) ; Aldeburgh in July 1892 (Ctw) ; Southwold salterns (Mly); Kessingland (Crf); at light at Bungay in September 1900 (Mn). Lakenheath (Fenland). [Biot near Antibes, S. France, April 1931 (Mly).] 735 &









Both quite common everywhere, and at Monks Soham light; latter mainly in marshes. 737.


By no means general with us. Certainly uncommon round Ipswich, at light in July 1896; also both bred in 1934 (Trans ii 296) and taken rarely at light in Monks Soham; Southwold during July 1901 (Mly); Gorleston (D). Unnoted elsewhere since 1890. 738.

NOMOPHILA NOCTUELLA, Schiff, (hybridalis, H b . ) .

An abundant, back-garden insect everywhere : Ipswich at light and Bentley Woods ; Alderton to Gorleston, and in July 190Z Aying over both beach and sea at Southwold. *739.


Recorded from Thetford in 1874 by Barrett (Trans. Norf. Nat. Soc. i, p. 46). *740.


Supposed to be rare: One at Stowmarket about 1860 (C). The Bishop considers this old specimen probably a wind-borne example, or misnamed. ' Suffolk' (Barrett, Lep. Bnt. ix, 182). 741. P. NIGRATA, Scop. (anguinalis, Hb.). Noticed at only Tuddenham during July 1896 (A. Waters, Entom. March 1897).




P. CINGUI.ATA, L i n n .

Much overlooked in the east: Lowestoft (Skepper) ; quite common in both Letheringham Park and Parham Wood in August (Mly). Ickworth (Wrt); Elveden (Williams); and quite common between Elveden and Bamham (Nurse, Ent. 1911, 221). 743.

P. PURPURALIS, L i n n . /

The commonest of the group, but much scarcer than in south England. Rare at Ipswich lights 1895, infrequent at Blakenham Parva and Parham Wood (Mly) ; Dunwich, Lowestoft. Tuddenham and Elveden. 744. P. AURATA, Scop. (punicealis, Schf.). No less common than the last kind. Bentley and Parham Woods in May and August (Mly); Lowestoft (Skepper) ; Beccles (Crf). Ickworth (Wrt); Elveden (Williams); Icklingham Plains in May 1922 (Mly). 745.

P. CiESPiTALis, Schiff.

Very frequent on rough, dry grassy places by day everywhere, especially the Breck ; Monks Soham rarely at light. 746.

P. OLIVALIS, Schiff.

Suffolk (Steph. Illust. 1834, p. 59). Abundant at light and by hedge-beating in the County, and England. 747. P. STACHYDALIS, Zinck. A local species ; rare on both sides of the County : Bentlev before 1890 (Henry Miller); Tuddenham after 1890 (Ä. Waters). 748. P. VERBASCALIS, Schiff. Also local, but a great deal more generallv distributed than the last kind : Bentley Wood in June 1899 (Mly)'and 1901 (Gibbs); Copdock (Hkg); Ipswich ( M l ) ; Holbrook Park and Woolpit (Crewe); Fritton (Crf). Brandon (Barrett). 749.



A specimen of the pale form of this very rare species was taken at Felixstow during the summer of 1903 by Mr. A. E. Gibbs of St. Albans (Barrett, E M M . 1904, 89). Probably merelv immigrant. *750. MICROSTEGA PANDALIS, Hüb. The apparent rarity,or even possible absence, of this merelysomewhat local species, in Suffolk is remarkable : Teucrium and Solidago abound. Yet we possess but one old record of its capture at Shelland by Crewe about 1860, regarded as doubtful by Bloomfield.





Of this casual immigrant to Britain from central Europe, the late Revd. A. H. Wratislaw had the good fortune to capture a specimen on the railway-bank close to Bury St. Edmunds in 1869 (Suff. Inst, iv, 1870, p. 221). Easily mistaken for a delicate Yellow-underwing Noctuid. 752.



A very local kind. One taken on the Suffolk coast in 1858 (Bree, Ent. Wk. Intell. v, 1858, p. 30) ; Finborough (teste Bloomfield, presumably by either Bree or Crewe). All our other records are from the Breck : Brandon and Thetford (cf. Wrt, Suff. Inst, iv, 1870, 2 1 8 ) ; in swarms at ligbt, and a few by day, at Brandon during 1888-9 (Vivian) ; several at Tuddenham in August 1884 {Meek, Ent. xvii, 278), by Sparke in 1900 and constantly found there since that year. Icklingham, Worlington, &c., August 1934 (Mly, D ) ; Mildenhall 1936 (Gd). 753.

L. VERTICALIS, Linn, (cinctalis, Tr.).

Not general, but locally common. Noticed since 1890 at only : Bentley Woods in September, obviously a second brood in 1895, and Ipswich electric lights (Mly); Aldeburgh and Southwold {Ctw). Abundant in clover-fields at Brandon in mid-June 1899. 754.

L . PALEAUS, Schiff.

Quite infrequent. Bentley Woods in August 1899 (Mly); Felixstow (Ml), two specimens there in 1901 (Gibbs) ; one at Lowestoft in August (Ent. 1922, 258). Bury, Thetford and Brandon ( W r t ) ; several at Bamham (Mr) and at Monks Soham light (Mly) in July 1935. 755.



Taken at Bungay in 1902, probably at light, by Mrs. Mann (Trans, i, 32). 756.

S . LINEOLA, Curt.

Rather local. Felixstow in July of both 1901-2 (Gibbs); a few at Aldeburgh in 1892 (Ctw); Kessingland (Bd) ; at Monks Soham light, early Sept. 1936 (Mly). Brandon (Barrett). 757.




Recorded solely from Monks Soham, where it flew in to light on 19 July 1933 (teste Bp.). Probably not very rare. 758.

S. FREQUENTELLA. Staint. (mercurella).

Quite a common species round Ipswich and Gorleston, at Dennington, light at Monks Soham, and sometimes at sugar. Barrett has taken the Var. phceoleuca, Stn,. at Brandon before 1890. /







Rather local: Copdock (Hkg); Waldringfield in 1903-7 (Wir: E M M . 1904, 80); at Monks Soham light (Mly); Lowestoft (Bd); Gorleston (D). Common at Brandon (Barrett). 760.




Local: Felixstow in July 1902 (Gibbs) ; common on fir trunks at Waldringfield (Wir) ; at light in Bungay (Mn) and Blythbro Wood (Mly) Brandon (Barrett, Wrn). 761.

S . PALLIDA, Steph.

Broad spread, but somewhat local in marshes during July. At Ipswich electric light (Pyett) ; Felixstow in 1902 (Gibbs) ; Southwold, and abundant in Aldeburgh salt-marshes (Ctw); Lowestoft (Bd); Beccles (Crf); Fritton Lake, at light, 1935-7 (Mly). Brandon (Barrett). 762. S. CEMBRiE, Haw. No more than rather local. Occasionally at Ipswich lights in 1896 (Pyett, Mly) ; Felixstow in July 1902 (Gibbs) ; Aldringham, Blythburgh Wood and at Monks Soham light (Mly.), Stowmarket (B) ; Dunwich (Gd), Beccles (Crf), Barnby Broad in August (Mly). Brandon (Barrett). 763.



Abundant on tree-trunks, &c, throughout the County ; Monks Soham light. The Var. ingralella, Kngs., occurs very rarely at Brandon (Barrett). 764.


By no means uncommon. Ipswich and Monks Soham at light in June (Mly); Nacton in July 1902 (Gibbs); Waldringfield (EMM. 1904, 80); Glemham Magna (Bloomfield); Flixton (Ctw). Brandon (Whe). 765.



Quite common on tree-trunks from Bentley and Raydon woods to Gorleston and Mildenhall. 766. S. ANGUSTEA, Steph. (coarctata, ZU.). A frequent species with us, at least in the north-east. Hemley in 1906 (Wir); Monks Soham garden in September 1931, Southwold in August 1900, Lowestoft and Oulton Broad on tree-trunks in 1898, Fritton in 1932 and on Gorleston palings (Mly). 767.




Local in southern half of England, and especially so with us though not rare. Stowmarket ( C ) ; Brandeston (Gr); Homersfield (Ctw); Beccles (Crf). Since 1890 it has occurred only at light in Monks Soham, where it is distinctly periodical, in 1914 and common in 1933 (Mly).



768. E. FxriMALis, Scop. (margaritalis, Schf.). Found at Tuddenham in 1898 by Sparke, in 1900 by Norgate and him, subsequently common there (Ent. Oct. 1901) ; also there by Nurse (I.e. 1911, 2 2 1 ) ; Thetford in August 1931. 769.



Abundant everywhere in the County, and England ; especially in gardens and at light. Family 770.




Sufficiently frequent, though somewhat local; little observed in the west. Assington, not uncommon in Bentley Woods (to 1935), Ipswich, Foxhall, Felixstow, Brightwell Wood in 1898, Staverton, Blaxhall, Westleton, Southwold, Lowestoft, Herringfleet; Gorleston. Barton Mills (Mly). 771.



Distinctly local, but not uncommon. Since 1890 observed at Ipswich where it is frequent (Pyett, Bp.), and abundantly at Monks Soham light during July and August 1904-37 (Mly). Cavenham in 1936 (Gd). 772. P. COSTALIS, Fab. (fimbrialis, Schf.). Generally distributed and anything but rare in the e a s t ; no west records. Bures, Copdock, Bentley Woods, common at Ipswich lights, Sproughton, Bramford, Felixstow, Playford, Hacheston, occasi'onally at Monks Soham light, Aldeburgh, Leiston, in an Eye stable, on sugar at Bungay, and in September 1932 on sugar at Fritton ; Gorleston. 773.

P. FARINALIS, L i n n .

Generally distributed and not uncommon among com debris, in pigeon-cotes, stables, &c. Ipswich, Monks Soham light, Debenham, &c, to Gorleston ; not noticed in the west. [P. Lienigalis, ZU., the sole British Pyralis that Suffolk does not now possess, is doubtless a mere casual introduction from Finland to Bucks, &c.] 774.



Generally distributed and frequent among hay-refuse, from Wixhoe and Clare-Stoke through Ipswich, Monks Soham and Dennington at light, to Gorleston in September 1931. 775.



Extremely locally common only, among chaff and maize. Whitton and Bramford (Garrett, before 1890). Common in one stable at Wixhoe and in another at Clare-Stoke (Fitch, Trans. Ent. Soc., Dec. 1883).



776. SYNAPHE ANGUSTALIS, Schiff. Local with us and not a coast-species, though it runs here only up our shore. Locally plentiful at Felixstow in July 1901 (Pyett) ; common on the salt river-bank at Hemley in 1907 (Wir) ; Orford, Aldeburgh, Leiston, Southwold in 1897 (Ctw), Lowestoft; several at light in Fritton marshes, July 1936 (D). Unrecorded from anywhere inland or the Breck. fSeventeen species of Pyraustidae, that are usually accounted to be British, have not yet been noted in Suffolk. Of these thirteen cannot be reasonably expected here on account of their restricted ränge in northern England or solely Scotland (Phlyctcenia terrealis, Tr. ; Pyrausta sanguinalis, L., alpinalis, Schf. and decrepitalis, HS., Scoparia alpina, Stn. and vafra, Meyr.) or in Devon only (Pyrausta repandalis, Schf.) or immigrant in Kent only (Antigastra catalaunalis, Dup.) or confined to the Cambs fens only (Phlyctcenia cilialis, Hb.) or known to occur in only the south coast-counties (Diasemia ramburialis, Dup. ; Agrotera nemoralis, Sc. ; Pyrausta asinalis, Hb. and Cynceda dentalis, Schf.). But some southern kinds extend northerly to Norfolk, and these we may confidently expect (Stenia punctalis, Schf. ; Psammotis pulveralis, Hb. ; Pyrausta flavalis, Schf.), as well as the overlooked Scoparia ulmella, Knaggs.] Family III.




Known in Cambs. N O T yet recorded, but very fairly SURE to occur among Drosera in swamps. Trans, ii, p. clxv.—CM. 778.


Zell, (laetus, ZU.).

A local south-English species, confined to sandhills and nowhere so common as upon our Breck, where it was discovered on south side of the river at Thetford and Brandon by Lord Walsingham in July 1868 (Trans. Norf. Soc. i, Suppl. 77). " Almost confined to the Breck sand district and one or two localities in Kent. Tuddenham (Vivian) ; Elveden (Williams) ; Brandon (Barrett), &c."—Bloomfield 1890. More than forty examples were captured at Tuddenham in August 1884 (Meek, Ent. xvii, 278). I have taken a few larvas from a species of Crepis, and occasional imagines in widely separated localities in west Suffolk (Nurse, Ent. 1911, 221). Worlington and Freckenham in 1932 (Gilles). Many Aying just before dusk and by dav at Icklingham, Worlington, &c., in August 1934 (Mly, D). 779.



Certainly very local, if not actually rare, with us. (Garrett); Beccles (Crf): both before 1890.




780. O. HETERODACTYLUS, Vill. (teucrii, Grn.) Bentley during 1934 (Bp). Found to be local at Brandon, the larvae feeding on young shoots of Teucrium scorodonia (South, Barrett). 781.



Local by the sea and in the Breck ; probably common on our coast. Aldeburgh in 1892 (Ctw) ; Leiston (Grey) ; Monks Soham garden on ivy-flower on 12 October 1931, Southwold in August 1898 (Mly); Lowestoft (Bd, G d ) ; Bungay (Mn). Tuddenham (A. Waters). 782. P. GONODACTYLA, Schiff. Quite frequent, though known from only Hacheston (Hkr) before 1890. Abundant among Tussilago in Somerleyton Brick-field in both June and August ( D ) ; at light in Fritton and Monks Soham, &c. (Mly). Bawdsey in 1932 (Wir). 783. P. ISODACTYLA, Zell. Local in southern England, below Pembroke and Norfolk. Meyrick specifically records it from ' Suffolk.' 784. P. PALLIDIDACTYLA, Haw. (Bertrami, Rsl.). Somewhat local among Achillea ptarmica, L., all over the County. Assington Thicks and Ipswich (Mlv) ; Hemley (Wir) and Orford (Gibbs) in 1903 (EMM. 1904, 80);' not uncommon at Aldeburgh in 1892 and Southwold in 1897 (Ctw) ; Yoxford and elsewhere inland (Pyett); Kessingland and Lowestoft (Ctw), north denes at Gunton in 1898 (Mly). Brandon (South, Barrett). 7 8 5 . ALUCITA 4-DACTYLA, Linn. Discovered among thyme at Barton Mills in July 1896 (A. Waters, Entom. March 1897); one in Suffolk on Newmarket Heath (Nurse, Ent. 1911, 221).


A. 5-DACTYLA, L i n n .

Abundant among convolvulus everywhere, from Shotley to Gorleston ; bred at Ipswich in 1894 ; frequent at Monks Soham light in July. 787.




Common at Dodnash Wood in Bentley (Harwood) ; larvae at Glemham Magna, below burdock leaves, rolling up the white down as they feed (Bloomfield). Larvae common on burdock at Timworth in 1911 (Nurse); taken at Tuddenham (Waters). 788. A. SPILODACTYI.A, Curt. A local southern kind, extending northwards to only Worcester and ' Suffolk ' (Meyrick). Has occurred in Suffolk (Sttph. Illust. iv, 1835, p. 371): Taken by Mr. Sparshall in



some abundance upon undergrowth upon a heath near Mildenhall on 8 July 1824 (Curtis, Brit. Ent. iv, pl. clxi). One on Mulleinleaf on open heath of Wangford warren, Lakenheath, at 3 p.m. on 26 July 1937 (Mly). 789.



So inattentively have our Plumes been worked that this ubiquitous Restharrow-feeder had not been noticed in the County tili 1903 when Gibbs found it at Felixstow ( E M M . 1904, 80). 790.



Not found since the larvas were discovered on Eupatorium at Blaxhall before 1890 (G. A. Harker of Liverpool). 791.



A single example was captured at lignt in Ipswich during August 1901 (C. A. Pyett). 792.


One of the most frequent Suffolk Plumes, but no western record. Bentley (Harwood); bred at Ipswich in 1934 ( B p ) ; Felixstow by Gibbs ( E M M . 1904, 8 0 ) ; not uncommon at Aldeburgh in 1891 and Southwold in 1897 ( C t w ) ; Lowestoft ( B d ) ; Beccles (Crf) ; and Fritton, the larvas on the underside of Artemisia vulgaris leaves (Barrett). 793.


Abundant among convolvulus everywhere : Common round Ipswich, sometimes on sugar in 1895 ; Claydon, Gosbeck Wood, Blaxhall Common, at light and on ivy-flower up to early October in 1933 at Monks Soham, Yoxford, Blythburgh Wood, Reydon, Southwold, Covehithe Broad, and on Gorleston palings. Tuddenham (Sparke), Mildenhall, Worlington, Brandon in July. 794.



Bred at Hemley 1932 ( B p ) ; local among Inula et Pulicaria at Campsey-ash ( H k r ) ; Leiston ( G r e y ) ; and Flixton near Bungay (Ctw). Elveden (Williams). 795.


T h e most frequent Plume in the County, occurring everywhere among Veronica Speedwell. Often at August light in Monks Soham, where it occurs on ivy-flowers in mid-October and hibernates tili the sallow attracts it in the last week of March. *796.


T h i s local species has not been observed here since it was bred before 1890 from Erythrasa centaurium by Prof. Henslow. T h e record is italicised by Bloomfield as doubtful because the larvae may not have originated at Hitcham.






Probably common everywhere among scabious in July. Monks Soham, occasionally at light, and not uncommon in Blythburgh Wood in September (Mly) ; Lowestoft (Bd). Taken at Brandon by Barrett, who also there found the Var. plagiodactyla, Stn., which Williams records further from Elveden. 798. AGDISTIS BENNETI, Curt. First found in Suffolk at lpswich electric lights on 16 August 1895 (Mly); and subsequently no nearer than Hemley at light in July and September (Wir, E M M . 1902, 247), where it is abundant in August among sea-lavender, on which plant the larva was found beside the Blyth River at Walberswick in September 1933 (Blair). Common at Southwold in 1897 (Ctw).



799. ORNEODES HEXADACTYLA, Linn The twenty Plume occurs everywhere among honeysuckle and is always present at Monks Soham and lpswich lights ; frequently found hibernating indoors. [Of the thirty-five British Plumes a round dozen has not yet been found in our inadequately worked County, where fully half that dozen are very likely to occur. Such all-England species as Platyptilia cosmodactyla, Hb., on woundwort, P. ochrodactyla on tansy and Pterophorus tephradactylus, Hb., on goldenrod, surely are in our midst; with quite likely, the northernPselnophorus brachydactylus, Tr., which comes south to Norfolk, and the southern Oxyptilus pilosellce, ZU, which comes north to Cambs. Some of the new British 1927 kinds (Platyptilia tesseradactyla, L., Pterophorus carphodactylus, Hb., Stenoptilia graphodactyla, Tr. and Agdistis clivicola, Meyk.) also are sufficiently probable here. But we are unlikely to possess the outstanding three : Platyptilia calodactyla, Schf., of south-west England, P. rhododactyla, Fab. and Alucita baliodactyla, ZU., which hardly extend north to our side of the Thames.]

Group PSYCHINA. Family


800. PACHYTHELIA VILLOSELLA, Ochs. Doubtless merely overlooked. Bred from case found on oaktrunk in Bentley Woods on 23 May 1934 (Mly). [The other two or three species of this Family, P. opacella, HS. and Sterropteryx hirsutella, Hb., &c, will probably be found in Suffolk also. Case-bearers are in the Tinpidae Nos. 1432-43 post.]





801. ZENZERA PYRINA, Linn, (assculi, L.). Taken near Ipswich by Rev. W. Kirby (Stephens, Illust. ii, 1828, p. 8) and near Southwold by W. C. Hewitson, Esq. (I.e. 1829, p. 197). Doubtless generali^ distributed now, but imago rarely observed and mainly in the south : Two at Sudbury in July 1898 (Ransom) ; one on roof of Wenham Parva Castle in July 1899 (Mly) ; Bentley in 1935 (Bp) and Copdock (Hkg) ; very rare at Ipswich lights in 1893-5 (Pyett, Mly) ; several at Needham during 1922 (Platten) ; Tostock (Norgate) ; one at Haiesworth in 1936 (Hocken).

802. TRYPANUS COSSUS, Linn, (ligniperda, F.). Larvse are only too frequent everywhere in various trees, mainly willow ; imagines much less commonly seen a t : Copdock on sugar, Bentley Woods, at Ipswich lights, Bramford, Playford, Felixstow, Martlesham, bred at Monks Soham in 1905, Fressingfield, twice on sugar at Eye (Tyrer, Ent. Wk. Intell. viii, 1860, 147), on sugar at Beccles ; Gorleston. Bury (Norgate) ; bred at Mildenhall in July 1900. [One other kind, Phragmatcecia castanea, Hb., is British, but restricted to the fens of Cambs and Norfolk.] Family 803.




Pastures are now so rarely allowed to be rough that this species can no longer be termed ' common,' as in 1890. Along the coast it is enabled to persist upon the cliff-slopes at Felixstow, Dunwich, Burgh Castle, &c. ; but inland it is become very local indeed, lately taken by only Norton Garrard in two pastures at Wissett, where it was common so late as 19 August in 1922, and Dr. Vinter at Badley Walk. 804.



Distinctly rare ; unnoticed since 1890, when it was known from Foxhall Heath (Ml), where it is certainly extinet; Beccles (Crf) ; and, in the west, at Tuddenham (]. H. A. Jenner), where innumerable collectors have worked recently. 805.



Local at Ipswich, Felixstow, Beccles, Herringfleet and Tuddenham in 1890. Still abundant in restricted areas in at least Oulton Broad (Bedwell); Barnby Broad ; Shipmeadow ; Burgh Castle (Mr), Bradwell Doles and Blythburgh Wood.





' Common ' just bevond Yarmouth in 1834 (Paget), but annually being driven to smaller areas by agriculture. ' S w a r m i n g ' on our west border at Isleham in 1841 (Entom. xxv, p. 196). In 1890 it was recorded from Kesgrave, Needham, Leiston, Worlingham ; Tuddenham, Barton Mills and Mildenhall. N o later observations come from the west, and it seems restricted now to the north-east corner of our County : Oulton Broad on flowers in 1898 (Bedwell) ; Barnby Broad ; and several in Bradwell marsh during June 1933. [Both the remaining Procres occur onlv upon strata older than ours ; and of the other Zygcente, three are Scots and the fourth extinct from the New Forest.] Family 807.


APODA I.IMACODES, H u f n . ( t e s t u d o ,


Rare and local in oak woods : we have none of beech. It has been taken within this twelve month near Ipswich (Stephens, Illust. ii, 1829, 86). Recorded from five divergent localities: Belstead ( L ) , Bentley (Ml), Playford ( G r ) ; Beccles ( C r f ) ; and near Euston, in the west, before 1890. Later it appears almost restricted to the Bentley Woods, where it has occasionally been beaten from bushes (Mly, Gibbs, & c ) ; here numbers of the larvse, found on oak during September and on 6 October 1897, began to emerge on 28 May 1898 (Hkg). Two in Brightwell Woods, 1924 (Wir). [This family's sole other British species, Heterogenea asella, Schf., is almost confined to the New Forest now though it ranged to Essex.]

Group TORTRICINA. Family 808.




Noticed only along our coast-line, where it is frequent: Orford in July 1902 ( G b s ) ; Aldeburgh in 1892 ( C t w ) ; Leiston (B. de G r e y ) ; Dunwich ( C t w ) ; on Conium maculatum at Southwold in July'l903 ( M l y ) ; and larva: in wild carrot at Lowestoft (Bd). 809.



T w o specimens on yarrow on the cliffs at Felixstow in 1901 (Pyett); on the Breck at Mildenhall in mid-August 1934 and at Blakenham chalk-pits in July 1935 (Mly). 810.



Discovered by the Hon. Beatrice de Grey, later Mrs. Carpenter, at Leiston where she bred it during 1879-80 ( E M M . 1898, p. 75). Reared from Conium at Ipswich in 1934 and Darsham in 1935 (Whit); Southwold and Dunwich in 1936 W i r ) .





Taken at Felixstow during July 1902 (Gibbs of St. Albans). 812.



Ipswich during June 1895 (C. A. Pyett). 813.




Occasionallv at light in Monks Soham during July 1917-35 (Mly) ; not uncommon among burdock at Brandon (Barrett) • Bentley Woods in 1901 (Pyett), Orford in 1903 (EMM 1904' 80), bred at Hollesley in 1933 (Whit). 814. P. CNICANA, Dbld. Found among thistles at Benacre and Kessingland Gorleston in May 1934 ( D ) ; Thetford (Williams). 815.




Quite a common species on all our coast-denes throughout June Felixstow in July 1902-3 (Gbs); Dunwich and Southwold ( U w ) ; Lowestoft (Bd), up to Yarmouth denes in 1933 (Mlv) Brandon (Barrett). 816. P. VECTISANA, Westw. Abundant in all our coast salterns in mid-May; imagines often on flowers of scurvy-grass. In profusion in Hemley saltmarshes among sea-lavender in 1934 (Wir, Mly); Aldeburgh flats in plenty (Ctw, Mly); Southwold during 1891-7 by Crutwell and Barrett (EMM. xxvii, 221) ; Lowestoft (Bd). 817. P. AFFINITANA, Dougl. By no means so frequent as the last kind ; confined to small patches of plantago in coast salterns at Hemley, Hollesley Orford in 1932-5 (Whit.), Aldeburgh and Southwold in 1891-7 (Ctw Barrett); Lowestoft salt-marshes (Bd). 818. P. MANNIANA, Meyr. Netted, Aying freely at dusk, in a ditch of the Breydon marshes at Burgh Castle, on 16 August 1935 (Morley, Proc. SNS in, p. lviii). 819. P. ALISMANA, Rag. (undana, Gn.). Recorded from only Benacre, before 1890 (Crutwell). 820. P. NOTULANA, Zell, (luridana, Grg.). Found to be local among mint at Lowestoft before 1890 (Bd) * and at Hemley in 1933-4 (Wir, Whit). ' 821. P. RUPICOLA, Curt. Local among hemp-agrimony at Beccles (Crutwell).





I have found no Roseana in teasel-heads in Suffolk (Whit, 1936). Apparantly quite rare with us : galleries in teasel-heads at Old Newton in 1937 (Mly); Mildenhall, one in 1937 (Gd). 823.

P. DEGREIANA, M c L a c h .

Very local on both coast and Breck. Lowestoft during August (Entom. 1922, 258). Elveden (Williams) ; Brandon (Barrett; cf. Ent. Annual, 1868). Thetford, and bred at both Euston 1933 and Barton Mills 1935 (Whit). 824.




Flying before dusk in my Monks Soham paddock, where primrose abounds, in mid-May 1936 (Morley). 825.

P. SABULICOLA, Wlsm. (anthemidana, Wilk.)

An especial Breck species, occurring also on our coast. Lowestoft in August ( E M M . 1922, 258). Larva feeding in flowers of Erigeron acre at Elveden (Williams), and Brandon ; Eupaecilia erigerana, Wlsm., doubtless occurs all over the Breck district (Barrett, Trans. Norf. Nat. Soc. 1899, 5 4 6 ) : Worlington in 1925 (Whit, Trans, i, 35). 826.



Local on birch at Tuddenham and Brandon ( W r n ) ; Mildenhall and Darsham in May 1935, and at light by Fritton Lake in May 1937 (Mly). 827.

P. ATRICAPITANA, S t e p h .

By no means unconlmon among ragwort. At light in during 1901 (Pyett); Bentley in 1934 (Whit.), Aldeburgh (Ctw), Newbourn, and common on Sizewell denes in 1932 ( M l y ) ; Southwold, Benacre, Lowestoft. Euston, and Brandon. 828.

Ipswich in 1892 August Elveden


' Suffolk,' &c. (Meyrick, 489). 829.



Apparently confxned to the Breck with us. Tuddenham (Wrn), often in chalk-pits (Barrett); Brandon in May 1930 (Mly); common on Breck-sands, 1885 (Farren, Ent. 1886, 110). 830.



Common among wild-hyacinth. Copdock (Hkg); Bentley Woods on birch in May 1932 (D), Ipswich, and Creeting on broom in 1933 (Mly); Lowestoft ( B d ) ; Shipmeadow (Ctw); Ashby and Barton Mills (Mly).



141 Hüb.

Chelmondiston during July 1902 (Gibbs) ; Felixstow the next year (EMM. 1904, 80) ; Aldeburgh in 1892 (Ctw). Larva at Ramsholt in August 1935 (Wir). I have found larvse plentiful wherever sought in the County: Bentley, Ipswich, Hemley, Lackford, 1933-5 (Whit.). ' 832. P. SODALIANA, Haw. (amandana, HS.). One specimen captured at Tuddenham in July 1903 ; larva; feed in buckthom fruit (E. G. J. Sparke). *833. P. SCHREIBERSANA, Fröl. Rare, local and confined in Britain to mid-east England. One specimen was taken at Icklingham about 1870 (Revd. A H Wratislaw). Larvas said to feed in elm-bark. 834.



Quite common, but not much observed. Frequent at Monks Soham in paddock, on cypresses and at light during July (Mly) • Leiston (B. de Grey); Dunwich (Ctw); Lowestoft (Bd) Tuddenham and Brandon (Wrn). 835.



Frequent everywhere among knapweed. Copdock (Hkg) • Bentley Woods in June (Mly); Bramford and Westerfeld (Pvett); Hemley in 1902 (Wir) ; Monks Soham, at light in August 1905-32 (Mly); Leiston (Grey); Kessingland (Ctw) in 1935 (Mly). 836. E. ZCEGANA, Linn. Not rare. Ipswich in 1895 (Pyett), Hemley (Whit.); occasionally at Monks Soham light during 1912-34, and at Covehithe in July 1897 (Mly); Blaxhall (Hkr), Leiston (Grey), Sotterly (Gd), Lowestoft (Bd); Fritton (D). Tuddenham (Waters). 837. E. HAMANA, Linn. Abundant everywhere among thistles in dry pastures in July. 838.



Apparently quite a local species, though feeding on fleabane Taken at Hemley (EMM. 1904, 80), again at dusk and bred in 1935 (Wir); Sotterly at light, 1936 ( G d ) ; Orford in July 1902 (Gbs); and Lowestoft (Bd). [Of P H A L O N I I D / E , 15 species are not on record. The typical genus withholds nearly a dozen, of which one is confined to Juniper and two or three are western, but the odd half-dozen (maritimana on Sea Holly, flavkiliana on Knautia with subroseana and imphcttana on Solidago, are known in Essex and curvistrigana in Cambs) are probably merely overlooked with us. Euxanthis alternana, ceneana and Clysia ambiguella all occur in Essex; Chelidonia Baumannana should be found on Scabious.]



Family 839.




Quite frequent throughout the County. Copdock, Bentley Woods, common round Ipswich, Nacton, Felixstow, Orford, Aldeburgh on Scots-pine, Darsham, in Monks Soham garden but never flies to light. Gorleston (D). Bred from Scots-pine at Brandon in 1936 (Mly). 840.



Doubtless frequent on hornbeam, but very rarely observed. Copdock (Hkg) ; Bentley (Pyett); Southwold (Ctw), all since 1890. Monk-park and Belstead Woods in May (Mly). 841.



Very local, and not observed by us since 1890, when it was recorded from Lowestoft (Boyd) and as not uncommon at Brandon (Barrett, Tr. Norf. Soc. i, 52). 842. CACCECIA PODANA, Scop. An abundant June species in all our woods, on oak; Mildenhall (E. A. Elliott), Gorleston (D). Sometimes at sugar. 843.



Quite a local insect here, noticed at only Wherstead in July 1899 (Mly) and in Bentley Woods during July 1901-2 (Gibbs), 844. C. XYLOSTEANA, Linn. Not very frequent in July, unusually on elm. Bentley Woods, and bred in July 1899.from pupae under oak-bark at Wherstead. Shrubland, Ipswich, Staverton, (Whit). 845. C. ROSANA, Linn. By no means general; never seen alive here (Mly). Bentley, Shrubland, Ipswich in 1931-4 (Whit), Hemley in 1906 (Wir); occasionally at Gorleston (D). 846.



Usually common on oak and birch, but not here. Suffolk about 1870 (Wrt); in Bentley Wood during July 1902 (Gbs). 847. C. LECHEANA, Linn. Not very frequent in woods on oak and sallow. Only occasionally in Bentley Woods in June, Ipswich, Beccles, Flixton near Bungay; singly at Ringsfield and Gorleston (D). 848.



By no means general with us. Rarely at electric lights in Ipswich during July; Bentley, Glemham Magna, Leiston, Blythbro Wood in 1936, Beccles and Flixton.





Very general throughout the County in July. Bentley Woods, Staverton Thicks, at Monks Soham light, &c. Gorleston (D). 850. P. HEPARANA, Schif. Our most abundant Tortrix, flitting everywhere along hedges at dusk. Assington to Gorleston. 851. TORTRIX LCEFLINGANA, Linn. Quite a common kind among oaks, in and out of woods, in late June. Dodnash and Bentley Woods, at Ipswich lights, &c. 852. T. VIRIDANA, Linn. Often in clouds in woods ; especially destructive to oak-foliaee S in 1918. 853.




By no means frequent with us, feeding on low plants. Observed before 1890 at only Lowestoft (Bd),' Beccles (Crf), and Tuddenham (Wrn). Gorleston in June 1933 (D). 854.




Much scarcer than in southern England. Hemley during 1902 (Wir), common in salt-marshes there during August 1932 (Mly); abundant in Aldeburgh salt-marshes and Southwold (Ctw, E M M . xxvii, 50); Gorleston (D). Wordwell in May 1929 (Mly). 855.




A local species, feeding on Vaccinium which does not grow in Suffolk and Myrica which is rare here. Not observed since before 1890, when it was taken at Tuddenham in the Breck fens (Wrn). 856.




By no means frequently seen ; not among ivy at Monks Soham. Occasionally at Ipswich in June and July; Walberswick (Ctw); Beccles ( C r f ) ; Lowestoft (Bd); Gorleston (D). Taken, doubtless near Bury, by Wratislaw. 857.




A marsh species, on Willow herb, rarely seen wild. Occasionally at Ipswich electric lights in 1895-9; in Monks Soham garden and light in July and August (Mly); Beccles ( C r f ) ; in all Brandon marshes (Barrett). T h e form latiorana, Stn., occurred in Aldeburgh salt-marshes on 14 July 1890 (Ctw. E M M . xxvii, 50); and a dark form at Hemley in 1930-4 (Whit).



Occurs with, and is not scarcer than Pandemis heparana, everywhere from Bentley Woods to Gorleston palings ; Monks Soham. 859. T. DIVERSANA, Hüb.

Local and polyphagous. Taken at Hemley during 1903 by the Revd. A. P. Waller (EMM. 1904, 80). 860. T. MUSCULANA, Hüb.

Frequent by wood-beating. Bentley Woods on poplar in Mav Dodnash Wood, Ipswich ; Letheringham Park ; at Monks Soham light in June ; Blythburgh Wood, Southwold, Weston ; Gorleston palings. Unnoticed in the west, excepting Monkspark Wood in 1935. 861. EULIA MINISTRANA, Linn. Common in woods everywhere, Monks-park Wood ; not infrequent at light in Ipswich and Monks Soham. Bentley Woods, Blythburgh Wood, Hopton and Gorleston (D). 862. E. POLITANA, Haw. (lepidana, HS.). Extremely local on heaths with us. Found to be common at Tuddenham in July (Wrn). 863. TORTRICODES TORTRICELLA, Hüb. (hyemana, Hb.). In great profusion in all the larger oak-woods from Bentley to Fritton in Februarv and March. 864. CNEPHASIA INCANANA, Steph. (sinuana, Ste.). Two specimens of this local species, feeding on bluebells, were captured at Orford in July 1902 (Gbs). 865. C. CHRYSANTHEMANA, Dup.

Ouite general with us ; sometimes on sugar. Ipswich (Baylis); Felixstow (Gbs); Waldringfield (Wir)- frequent at Monks Soham light in July (Mly); Southwold (Ctw); Gorleston (D). Brandon on Scots-fir. 866. C. VIRGAUREANA, Tr.

Very common everywhere from Monks Sohamfly-trap(Mly) to Tuddenham on plantain (Sparke). Gorleston (D). 867. C. COMMUNANA, HS.

Two examples of ' a rare form ' (Barrett) of this species were taken at Copdock about 1900 (Hkg). Thetford in 1932 (Wlut). 868. C. INCERTANA, Tr. (subjectana, Gn.). A very frequent species everywhere from Ipswich to Gorleston palings ; at light by Fritton Lake and often at Monks Soham in July. On 20 June 1933 one was being devoured by the Wollfly, Empis livida, Linn.




Common about hawthorn in July. Flixton, &c. 870.


145 Hüb.

Bentley, Ipswich, Blaxhall,



Polyphagous and generally distributed. Ipswich (Pyett) ; Felixstow and Orford (Gbs) ; Aldeburgh and Southwold (Ctw); Gorleston (D). Brandon (Barrett). 871.



Known here only in the first brood of late May, when it was captured in Shakers Lane at Bury in 1935 by Mr. Doughty. 872. C. CONSPERSANA, Dougl. Occurs along with Cneph. pascuana at Felixstow, Orford and Aldeburgh to Gorleston ; also at Creeting Hills on broom, Monks Soham at light, in Parham Wood in July, See. 873. C. LONGANA, Haw. (ictericana, Hw.). Much most prevalent on the coast-sands with us Felixstow (Gbs), Aldeburgh and Southwold (Ctw. E M M . xxvii, 50), abundant at both Thorpe and Sizewell (Mly), Leiston (Hkr), Lowestoft (Bd) and rare on Gorleston palings (D). Also common on the Breck sands in 1885 (Farren, Ent. 1886, 108). Sometimes rarely inland : Bentley Woods in 1896 and Ipswich in 1901 (Pyett); a single female only at Monks Soham light, on 13 August. 874. C. OSSEANA, Scop. (pratana, Hb.). A downs species. Thetford Warren (Curtis); rare on Southwold beach in July and September 1910-2 (Mly : Poverlooked by Crutwell) ; common at Newmarket, in Suffolk, during 1910 (Nurse, Ent. 1911, 221). Sizewell in 1937 (Hawley). 875. ISOTRIAS RECTIFASCIANA, Haw. (hybridana, Wik. nec Hb.). Frequent by hedge-beating. Copdock, Bentley, Ipswich, Felixstow in July, Monks Soham garden in June, Campseaash, abundant at Aldeburgh, Southwold, Flixton; Timworth. 876.



This lesser-celandine feeder should abound. Quite scarce, and observed at only Bentley in 1901, Nacton in July 1902 (Gbs), Shrubland in 1930 (Whit) and Blaxhall before 1890 (Hkr). Linn. Common and variable at Westerfeld (Pyett); Ipswich, Shrubland, Glemham Magna, Leiston, Beccles, Flixton and not rare under maples on Gorleston palings in August. 877.




878. A. BERGMANNANA, Linn. In profusion among wild and cultivated roses in every garden ; frequently bred and at light in Monks Soham. 879.




Abundant among ash in June from Wherstead to Ringsfield. 880.



Frequently beaten from sallow in autumn, not Seen in spring. Not uncommon round Ipswich ; Monks Soham garden in very late October 1914 ; common in Blythburgh Wood (Mly) and Herringfleet ( D ) ; Leiston, Frostenden, Beccles. Tuddenham Fen. 881.




Near the north-east limit of its ränge. Not noted here since recorded from near Ipswich about 1890 (Miller). 882.




Quite rarely noticed, in sallow-shoots. A few at Hemley in 1903 by Wir (EMM. 1904, 80); one on Gorleston palings in Sept. 1930 ( D ) ; Brandon (Barrett). 883.




Locally not uncommon, but beech is not indigenous here. Bentley Woods, where is no beech, in August 1895 ; Ipswich, Shrubland, Walberswick (Whit); rarely in Monks Soham garden, where is beech (Mly); Waldrihgfield in 1902 (Wir); Leiston (Grey); Flixton near Bungay (Ctw); several beaten in Blythburgh Wood during August to October, Ashby at light, and Gorleston. 884.




Very rare, sitting quiescently on oak-trunks. Benacre Woods on 19 March 1933 ( G d ) ; Bentley Woods, first seen on 10 May 1933 (Mly), found in some numbers and bred (Whit) and in early August 1934 (Wir, Trans, ii, 296 and lxxxix); new to Suffolk at Bungay in 1903 (Mrs. Mann ; I.e. i, 33). 885.




Rare and taken before 1890 singly only, in both east and west, doubtless among ling on heaths. Leiston (Lord Walsingham); Tuddenham on the Breck (Wrn). Rediscovered in Blythbro Wood on 26 March 1936 by Mr. Goddard. 886. P. VARIEGANA, Schif. Frequent everywhere in hedges and on palings. Common round Ipswich, at dusk and light in Monks Soham from July to early October (Mly); always on Gorleston palings (D).







Surprisingly scarce, among sallow. A few in Bentley Woods in August 1895, and a few specimens at Monks Soham light in August 1928-37 ( M l y ) ; Ipswich (Freeman); Hemley in 1905 (Wir) ; Leiston (Grey) ; Blythburgh )Vood in early September (D and Gd), Southwold (Ctw) ; Lowestoft (Bd). Unnoted in west. Form latifasciana, Haw., has occurred at Beccles (Crf). 888.



Observed nowhere but at Nayland, on our south border, in 1896 (C. A. Pye«), 889. P. COMARIANA, Zell. A very local species in Britain, feeding on Comarum and strawberry. Found at only Orford during 1902 (Gibbs). 890.




Taken in Suffolk (Steph. Illust. 1834, p. 169). An interesting, polyphagous species, first seen on 6 August here, but commonest all through September when it flies to Monks Soham light up to 17 October ; never seen in the next month, but obviously hibernates as it has been beaten from conifers in Bentley Woods on 3 December, on 16 February, and right up to the very late 6 Aoril in 1898 (Mly). Ipswich and near Thetford (Whit). Mildenhall. 891. P. SHEPHERDANA, Steph. Hardly known in Britain outside EAnglia ; feeding on common meadowsweet in marshes. It was found to be " very abundant on both sides of the River Little Ouse below Thetford " by the Revd. H . Williams of Croxton in Norfolk, about 1890. Not noted later. 892. P. FERRUGANA, Schif. A common birch-feeder, frequent about Ipswich, Aldringham, at Monks Soham light in July, Beccles; and Brandon. It hibernates : Bentley Woods u p to 28 October and again on both 11 and 23 March "l896 (Mly). 893.



Doubtless frequent on Potentilla. T w o at Newmarket Suffolk, in 1910 (Nurse, Ent. 1911, 221). Fleam Dyke, Cambs' in mid-July 1933 (Mly). 894. P. HOLMANA. Linn. A common and polyphagous species. Ipswich in 1930-4 (Whit), Westerfeld in 1895 (Pyett), Hacheston, Aldeburgh, Leiston, Southwold, Lowestoft, Beccles; Gorleston palings in August 1931-4 (D). Brandon.



[Among the TORTRICID/E we lack 26 species. Both the Philedone occur only on moors ; the four outstanding Caccecia are very local and pronubana was not discovered tili 1905, though two of the kinds are Norfolcian. Eulia cinctana is confined to Dover ; but both Tortrices might turn up : semialbana occurs in Essex, and dumetana in Cambs. Cnephasia argentana seems mer overlooked; though bellana, Colquhounana and genitalana beyond our orbit, as is Sparganothis ; but the Essex Spatalistis and general Exapate should be found here. We lack 11 Peronec of which we can expect only logiana, rufana, the Essex umbran and Norfolk Lorquinana : 4 others are purely northern and a fifth nearly confined to the west.] Family EUCOSM1DJE. 895. SPILONOTA OCELLANA, Fab.

An abundant species on palings and at light, from at least Bentley Woods to Burgh Castle and Gorleston. 896. S. LARICANA, Zell. Probably distinct from the last kind, and a much rarer form. Not noticed with us since 1890, when it had been taken at only Flixton near Bungay (Ctw); and was sometimes found freely among larches round Brandon (Barrett, Tr. Norf. Soc. i, 54). 897. ACROCLITA NJBVANA, HĂźb.

Not rare among holly, but far scarcer than in southern England. Ipswich in 1898 (Pyett) and 1928-35 (Whit); Aldeburgh (Ctw); Glemham Magna (Bloomfield); Lowestoft, Flixton. 898. EVETRIA PINICOLANA, Dbld. Plentiful among Scots pine at Orford in July 1902 (Gbs), Aldeburgh and Southwold in 1897 (Ctw) and Sutton Heath 1927-35, as well as near Thetford (Whit). In great numbers at Ampton in 1910 (Nurse, Ent. 1911, 221); beaten from Scots pine at Mildenhall in August 1931 (Mly). 899. E. BUOLIANA, Schiff. Our most frequent kind of the genus on Pinus sylvestris; unrecorded in the south. On pines in Monks Soham garden (Mly); Sutton Heath, 1933-5 (Whit); Orford in July (Gbs); Aldeburgh and Southwold (Ctw); Leiston, Herringfleet. Thetford in 1932, Tuddenham, Brandon. 900. E. PINIVORANA, Zell. Also on Scots pine, taken by Gibbs and Crutwell with the last kind, as well as at Flixton by the latter ; Aldringham in 1929 (Whit). Icklingham and Tuddenham (Wrt).





Bred in 1934 from larvse found on Sutton Heath (Whittingham). 902.



T w o bred and one netted, new to Suffolk, at Ampton in 1910 (Nurse, Entom. 1911, p. 221). / 903.


T h i s interesting species, first noted at Folkestone in 1911 by Purdey and at Holkham in 1912 by Whittingham, is annually common on Austrian pines in Waldringfield rectory (Wir) and the Bishop's Ipswich (Whit) gardens, See. Abundant in pines on Bawdsey cliff in 1935 and several beaten at Mildenhall in early August 1931 (Mly). 904.




Sure to occur among Buckthorn ? — C M . 905.



T h i s beautiful insect is fairly frequent everywhere. Lately noted at Bentley Woods, Hemley, Leiston, Letheringham Park, Monks Soham garden, Needham, Yoxford, Weston ; and (D) common in May at Gorleston. 906.



Not very common on rushes among Epilobium in the middle of Raydon Wood in May 1933-4 (Mly, Whit). *907.


T h i s local kind, on Potentilla, has not been found since it turned up at Leiston, before 1890 (Grey). 908.


Used to occur locally about Brandon (Wrn), but not noticed for many years. 909.



Certainly very uncommon with us. ( H k g ) ; taken near Ipswich CPyett). 910.







Occurs locally on the Breck among dwarf-sallow at Tuddenham (Wrn), in which Fen this plant abounds. Cavenham in 1932 ( T r . S N S . ii, p. clxxxiv). 911.



T h e sole Suffolk speeimen was beaten from alder in Fritton marshes on 2 June 1935 (Morley, Proc. S N S . iii, p. xliii), tili M r . Goddard took one at Dunwich the following June.



912. A. MITTERBACHERANA, Schif. Infrequent during May in the Bentley Woods: from 1895 (Baylis) to 1934 (Trans, ii, p. clxvii). Bred thence in 1935 ; Thetford in 1933 : not uncommon (Whit). 913.



Rare in the same Bentley Woods, where it was taken before 1890 (Harwood) and again on poplar in May 1933 (Trans, ii, p. xci). 914.



Bv no means uncommon in many of our larger woods on aspen. Assington Thicks in June (Mly); Bentley (Pyett); Bentley Woods in May (D, W h i t ) ; Ramsholt, &c. Local at Brandon (Wrn). 915.



Pretty surely frequent, but rarely observed. First taken at Hemley in 1903 by Waller ( E M M . 1904, 8 0 ) ; close beside Covehithe Broad in July 1912 ; and only once at Monks Soham light, on 24 July 1921 (Mly). 916. GYPSONOMA DEALBANA, Fröl. Very common, though not in the south English profusion. Bentley, Staverton Thicks, on lime trunks at Monks Soham garden and Glemham Magna to Gorleston and Brandon. 917.




Quite rarely observed. No localities recorded between Felixstow in July 1902 (Gbs) and Beccles after 1890 (Ctw); Gorleston in July 1932 (D). Now as common as Acerana in poplars about Ipswich, Horham and Debenham (Whit). 918.




Somewhat frequent, on poplar. Ipswich in 1902 (Pyett) and 1929—35 (Whit); Lowestoft ( B d ) ; Brandon (Wrn). A mce series Aying at dusk round poplar in Covehithe lane in 1934 (Wir). 919.




Fairly common among poplar, and on tree-trunks in woods. Frequent in Bentley Woods (Hkg, Pyett); Ipswich in 1930-1 (Whit); Leiston (Grey); Lowestoft ( B d ) ; Brandon (Barrett). 920.




Ipswich in 1932-4, bred from larvae on poplar; Thorpness in 1933 (Whittingham). 921. NOTOCELIA UDDMANNANA, Linn. By no means as ubiquitous as in south England. ' It occurs in Suffolk ' (Steph. Illust. 1834, p. 138). Ipswich uncommonly, Levington in 1899 (Mly) and 1902 (Gibbs), freely at Monks Soham light during July 1908-33, Leiston, Lowestoft and, in the west, at Tuddenham.



922. N. ROSICOLANA, Dbld. Quite a common kind on cultivated roses ; unnoticed in the west. Frequent in Ipswich (Pyett, Mly); Felixstow in July (Gbs); Aldeburgh (Ctw); Hacheston (Hkr); common in Monks Soham garden but never seen at lieht there, Fritton (Mly); Lowestoft (Bd); Gorleston (D). 923. N. TRIMACULANA, Haw. (suffusana, Kol.). An abundant hawthorn species. Bentley Woods, Ipswich, Bramford, at Monks Soham light in July, Aldeburgh, Thorpe denes, Blythburgh Wood, Lowestoft, Gorleston. Brandon. 924.



Unrecorded from the County in 1890 ! In profusion among roses : Copdock (Hkg); Ipswich (Pyett); Barham, Gosbeck, in Monks Soham garden on roses and frequent at light there in July (Mly). Linn. Nominally common among sallow ; but here r oted only before 1890 at Blaxhall (Hkr); and Flixton near Bungay (Ctw). Gorleston in July 1932 (D). 925.





T h e sole Suffolk example was captured at Tuddenham during 1910 (Nurse, Ent. 1911, 221). 927.



Locally quite common on spruce-firs. Annually in my Ipswich garden to 1936 (Whit); Orford in July 1902 (Gbs); Leiston (Grey); Southwold, and plentiful among Scots-firs at Aldeburgh in 1892, also found at Flixton (Ctw). Brandon (Barrett); beaten freely from spruces at Barton Mills in early June 1916 (Elliott, Mly). 928.



Common at Troston, and also occurs less freely among sprucefirs at other places in the same neighbourhood, in 1909 (Nurse, Ent. 1911, 221); Elveden, 1934 (Whit). 929. E. DINIANA, Guen. (occultana, Dgl.). Discovered at Orford in July 1902, and at Felixstow the next year, by Gibbs (EMM. 1904, 80). Bentley Woods in 1933 (Mly). 930. E . RATZEBURGANA, Ratz. Certainly quite uncommon among Scots-firs. Shrubland during 1931-2 (Whit); Orford in July 1902 (Gbs). Tuddenham in July 1896 (Waters); Brandon (Wrn).






In profusion on oak-trunks and palings everywhere about woods ; unnoted in the west. Bentley in abundance, Parham, Letheringham, Glemham Magna, Aldeburgh, Leiston, Flixton, Fritton, Gorleston. 932.



Abundant everywhere on elm ; unnoted in the west. Copdock, Bramford, Nacton, Hacheston and Mariesford, Aldeburgh, Leiston, Yoxford, Blythbro Wood, &c. 933.



One example captured in Shrubland Park at Barham on 4 May 1900 (Morley). 934.



Scarce and not recorded with us since it was taken on the south side of the river at Brandon before 1890 (Barrett, T r . Norf. Soc. i, 55), tili the Bishop found it in 1930 at Worlington. 935.



Apparently much rarer with us than in south England. Ipswich at light in 1894, Monks Soham (Mly); Aldeburgh on ragwort in 1892 (Ctw); Gorleston (D). Elveden (Williams); Brandon (Barrett); and in 1930 at Icklingham (Whit). 936.




Widely distributed in both east and west. Bawdsey cliff in 1933 (Wir); Orford in July 1902 (Gbs); Leiston (Grey); Aldeburgh in plenty, Thorp and Southwold (Ctw). Brandon (Barrett); Elveden (Williams); Tuddenham (Wrt), where Meek found it abundantly in August 1884 (Ent. xvii, 278 & xix, 106). 937. E. MARITIMA, Westw. (candidulana, Nlk.). This maritime species occurs sparingly in the salt-marshes of the Deben at Waldringfield (Wir); Hemley in 1929-35 (Whit); and Southwold in 1897 (Ctw). 938.

E. ,/EMULANA, Schil. (tripoliana, Barr.).

A hundred times as plentiful as the last kind in the saltmarshes of Waldringfield and Shingle-street in Holleslev, 1928-35 (Whit, W i r ) ; Southwold in 1897 (Ctw). 939.



Another frequent rose-species ; unnoted in the west. Monks Soham garden occasionally in May (Mly); Swefling (Bloomfield); Southwold (Ctw); Beccles, Lowestoft, Yarmouth.




E . SUBOCELLANA, D o n . (campoliliana, T r . ) .

Surely neglected only; usually in profusion. No records since before 1890, when it was found at Leiston (Hon. Beatrice de Grey), tili June 1935 when it abounded on sallows in Fritton marshes (Morley). , 941.




Frequent, feeding on hazel and alder. Beaten from poplar in Bentley Woods in May and June ; common round Ipswich ; on Monks Soham windows ; Glemham Magna, Aldeburgh (Ctw), Leiston, beaten from birch in Blythburgh Wood in August and in Wangford Wood in September, Lowestoft, at light beside Fritton Lake, on Gorleston palings. Mildenhall heath in M a y ; near Thetford. 942.




Not uncommon among sallows ; almost unnoted in the west. Bentley Woods in August 1895 (Baylis); Ipswich ; Leiston (Grey); common on aspens by the River Aide at Farnham during July and in Blythburgh Wood during September (Mly); Lowestoft ( B d ) ; Gorleston in June (D). Five on Black Poplar at Mildenhall in 1933 (Whit). 943.




Bentley, on aspen and bred in 1930-5. A perfectly good species, sec. Pierce, confirming its distinct appearance from the last (Whittingham). 944.




(' Wallerana,' CGD.).

Somewhat local among birch. Sutton (Whit) and Hollesley heaths (Wir) in 1934; Leiston (Grey); Beccles ( C r f ) ; Bury (Wrt). Always common in Blythburgh Wood in September and late August (D), the spotted typical form about double as frequent as the suffused one, which alone occurs on alder in Bentley Woods and in mid-September at Foxhall, where on 10 September 1904 one totally suffused was captured (Mly). *945.

E . CRENANA, H Ăź b .

" Phlseodes Crenana : Of this insect I have captured only one at present, though I have visited the locality regularly since " 23 March, when it occurred at sallow-flowers " in Suffolk."â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Tim. Last, 43 Rope Walk, Ipswich ; 15 April 1861 (Ent. Wk. Intell. x, 27). Typical of the secretive and very personal Victorian dealer. 946.

E . IMMUNDANA, F i s c h .

Rarely noted with us since taken at Leiston before 1890 (Grey). A local species feeding on alder, among which it is common at



Catfield and Caister, just over the Norfolk border. Bentley Woods in 1934 (Whit), in May 1933 and at light by Fritton Lake in August 1934 (D) and June 1935 (Mly); Blythbro and Wangford woods (Cd). 947. E. DEMARNANA, Rosl. One beaten from birch at Foxhall plateau on 8 June None seen later (MlyJ. 948.




Doubtless abundant on birch everywhere. Both sexes observed only about Ipswich (Freeman) in Bentley Woods during May 1898-1934 & Foxhall; in Blythburgh Wood in June (Mly); and at Southwold (Ctw). 949. E. NIGRICANA, HS. (nec Steph.). Known in Essex A N D Norfolk. I can't find any records of this : IS it recorded ? Pinus picea is common enough.—CM. 950. E. T7EDELLA, Linn. Copdock (Baylis); Bentley Woods (Pyett); Staverton Thicks in June 1904 (Mly); Leiston (Grey); Aldeburgh, Southwold and Flixton near Bungay (Ctw); Beccles ( C r f ) ; several about Fritton in 1930 (Gdj. Usually common among spruce : and yet unnoted on the Breck tili taken near Thetford in 1933 by the Bishop. 951. E. SIMILANA, Hüb. (bimaculana, Don.). A somewhat local species, on birch. Bentley Woods in September, Foxhall and Bradwell in June (Mly); also at Barton Mills in August (Trans, ii, p. cii) and Tuddenham (Wrn). _ „ , , 952. E. PFLUGANA, Haw. (cirsiana, ZU.). T S WS u . itftf. Quite a Irequent kind among thistles. Copdock, Bentley Woods in June, Trimley marshes, Staverton Thicks in August, Parham Wood in May, Aldeburgh, Leiston, Henham, Lowestoft, Ringsfield, Gorleston. Brandon in July, and Tuddenham. 953. E. TRIGEMINANA, Steph. Local, and little observed here. Flixton near Bungay before 1890, and later in swarms at Aldeburgh (Ctw). Gorleston ( D ) ; Monks Soham light (Mly); common on ragwort at Bentley in 1932 and Euston in 1933 (Whit). 954. E. BRUNNICHANA, Fröl. In profusion almost wherever coltsfoot abounds. Copdock (Hkg); Ipswich in June 1896 (Pyett); Coddenham chalk-pits (Mly); Felixstow ( G b s ) ; Lowestoft and Somerleyton brickfields.




E . FCENELLA, L i n n .

This handsome species, on Artemisia vulgaris, is frequent in our east. Ipswich (Garrett, Ml), at light in 1901 (Pyett); Hemley in 1902, and bred at Waldringfield (Wir); Butley in 1931-5 (Whit), Aldeburgh (Hele, Ctw), Leiston (Grey), Reydon in 1935 (Baker), Beccles (Crf); at light'in Gorleston on 4 August 1933 (Moore), but not to be found among mugwort then. 956.




First found at light at Mildenhai!, on 21 September 1936, by Mr. Burton (teste Hayward). Two there by him in Sept. 1937. 957.



Found in 'Suffolk' on birch about 1870 (Wrt). Confirmed by Ipswich captures in both 1897-8 (Pyett) and Gorleston in late June (D). Common on birch at Bentley, Foxhall, Sutton Heath, Icklingham (Whit); Dodnash Wood 1936 (Gd). 958.

E . SOLANDRANA, L i n n .

This polyphagous species is far from common. Bentley Woods in August 1896 ; Ipswich ; Blythburgh Wood in September 1931. 959.

E . SORDIDANA, H i i b .

Extremely local with us, among alder. Barsham, after 1890 (Crowfoot). 960.

Recorded solely from

E . SEMIFUSCANA, S t e p h .

Apparently rare, or overlooked, among sallow. A Single example at Tuddenham, in the Breck fens, during 1910 (Nurse, Entom. 1911, 221) and one female at Monks Soham light in mid-August 1935 (Mly). 961.




Very little noticed here, though feeding in sowthistle-heads. Found to occur at Felixstow (Gbs, EMM. 1904, 8 0 ) ; Tuddenham (Wrt about 1870). 962.

E . FULVANA, S t e p h .

Widely distributed with us. Southwold (Ctw), Beccles ( C r f ) ; Elveden (Williams), Brandon (Barrett), and in 1933 at Worlington (Whit). 963.




In profusion wherever it occurs, but we have few records. Ipswich in 1900 (Pyett); Bramford marshes, and always abundant at Monks Soham light in July and August, Slaughden (Mly); Hemley and Covehithe (Wir), Aldeburgh (Ctw), Sotterley (Gd), Beccles (Crf). Swilland, Kersey and Euston in 1933-4 (Whit).





Common among thistles. Bentley Woods (Pyett); Ipswich, Hollesley, Southwold, Beccles ; Tuddenham, Brandon. 965.



In profusion everywhere about St. John-wort near Ipswich in June and August (Mly); Tuddenham (Wrn). 966.



Of frequent occurrence in swamps everywhere from Bentley to Shipmeadow ; sometimes at Monks Soham light; especially abundant in Blythburgh Wood, among rushes. *967. B. FURFURANA. Haw. A local species, feeding in Juncus-stems. Lowestoft before 1890 (Boyd). 968. POLYCHROSIS LITTORALIS, Curt. Abundant in our salt-marshes on Armeria maritima during June and August; curiously little noted. In profusion beside the Deben at" Hemley in 1932-4 (Wir, Mly, &c.); taken by Wratislaw, probably at Aldeburgh ; on several occasions at Southwold by Crutwell and Barrett (EMM. xxvü, 221); there in Sept. 1937 and on Gorleston pales in May 1936 (Mly). 969. P. FULIGANA, Haw. (abscissana, Dbld.). Added to the Suffolk List from Ampton, where he found it to be not uncommon, by Nurse (Ent. 1913, 195), and from Waldringfield during 1930 by Dr. Whittingham (Trans, i, 108). 970. P. EUPHORBIANA, Frey. NOT RECORDED ! Sure to occur ? Euphorbia amygdaloides abounds in all our woods. 971. LOBESIA PERMIXTANA, Hüb. (reliquana, Wik.). Taken Aying among birch in Bentley Woods during 1896 (Baylis, Pyett). In west Tuddenham village in May 1935 (Mly). 972. ENDOTHENIA OBLONGANA, Haw. (marginana, Hw.). This species, usually frequent among Stachys, seems peculiarly rare with us ; unnoted in the east. Found in the Breck at Tuddenham (A. Waters) and in 1922 south of Thetford (Whit). 973.




" Barham, Rev: W. Kirby, to whom I am indebted for specimens " of Antithesia gentianasnana, Hb. (Stephens, Illust. iv, 1834). Not noted here later tili after 1890, when ' I once



took a great number of the larvae in Dodnash Wood ' (Harwood); beaten at Newton Wood in Needham on 30 May 1933 and bred from teasel-heads in Monks-park wood 1936 (Mly). 974.




Scarce and local, though feeding in knapweed-heads. One at Aldeburgh in 1892 (Ctw); a few at Southwold in 1932 (Wir). Tuddenham in the Breck (Wrn) and 1925 at Worlington (Whit.). 975.




A single example of this local kind, that feeds in rootstocks of bügle, was taken at Aldeburgh during 1892 (Ctw). 976.



Much overlooked, a generally abundant species. Hitherto known here from the vicinity of Hemley, among Stachys in 1933 (Wir) and Beccles (Crf); and two captured at Ampton in 1911-2 (Nurse, Ent. 1913, 195). But actually common and found wherever looked for : Redgrave, Hemley and all round Ipswich. 977. E. ERICETANA, Westw. Also a good deal neglected, doubtless frequent. Orford in July 1902 (Gbs); at Monks Soham light in July 1912-35, and quite common at a lantern beside Fritton Lake in August 1934. 978.



Suffolk (Curtis, Brit. Entom.). Conspicuous, and by no means rare. Felixstow by Gibbs (EMM. 1904, 80); annually at Monks Soham light in July 1904-34 (Mly); Leiston (Grey); Flixton (Ctw); at light by Fritton Lake in August 1934 (D). Linn. Found to occur rarely in Bentley Woods during 1893 (Mly); a few at both Felixstow and Hemley in 1902, and a series beaten near willow at Waldringfield in 1930 (Wir). Ampton and West Stow in 1910 (Nurse, Ent. 1911, 221); on sallow at Kenny Hill in the Mildenhall fens during July 1920 (Mly). Lackford, Elveden and Ipswich (Whit). Fritton at light in 1936 (D). 979.






Local on Salix : three captured on trunks of old willows near Bury during 1911-12 (Nurse, Ent. 1913, 195). 981. A. CORTICANA, Hüb. (picana, Frl.). Occurs sparingly among birch in Bentley Woods in June and July 1901 (Pyett), July 1902 (Gbs) and 1934-5, as well as on Sutton Heath (Whit).







Much overlooked by us, and doubtless not uncommon. Blythburgh Wood ( D ) ; Bentley Woods in August 1895, in the utmost profusion at light beside Fritton Lake in 1932-4; Tuddenham in 1902, and at dusk at Barton Mills in 1933 (Mly). Bentley, Sutton Heath and Minsmere in 1933-5 (Whit). 983.




Local among osiers. Several taken at Tuddenham 1911-12 (Nurse, Ent. 1913, 195).


984. A. SORORCULANA, Zett. (prselongana, Gm.). Captured at Copdock about 1898 (Hocking). 985. A. VARIEGANA, Hiib. (cynosbana, Wik.). Very common everywhere from Ipswich, where it is sometimes found on umbel-flowers by day in mid-June, to Weston and Gorleston ; at Monks Soham light. 986.




Frequent everywhere among roses. Southwold and Flixton (Ctw); quite common at Monks Soham light in July. 987.




Commoner than the last, among various kinds of plum, from Ipswich to Lowestoft and Gorleston ; at Monks Soham light. 988.




Apparently somewhat scarce, among oak ; hardly noticed since 1890. Glemham Magna (Bloomfield); Flixton near Bungay (Ctw). One beaten in a Darsham lane, 1935 (Mly). 989.



Assington Thicks and Ipswich woods in June 1894 and 1933 (Mly); Bentley Woods in July 1902 (Gbs); common at both Bentley and Freston (Freeman); Belstead in June 1936 (Gd). 990.




Certainly quite a rare species with us. Found only by Gibbs in Bentley Woods during 1901, among Taraxacum, no rare plant! 991. A. MYGINDANA, Schiff. Taken by Colonel Nurse near Timworth Bloomfield).


1909 (teste

*992. A. RIVULANA, Scop. (conchana, Hb.). Found nowhere with us but in Breck at Tuddenham before 1890. Genista tinctoria is very local in Suffolk.





A. MICANA, F r ö l .

A fen species, common at Horning ; very local with us. Fritton Lake (Barrett); Beccles (Ctw). Thetford (Williams). 994.



Common through the County, and Britain ; infrequent at Monks Soham light. 995.



More abundant than the last kind from Bentley to Tuddenham and rare at Monks Soham light.

Ashby ;

996. A. ciESPiTANA, Hüb. Very local here. Southwold in 1897, and Beccles (Ctw); rather plentiful on the Breck round Brandon (Barrett) and in 1934 at Euston (Whit). 997.



Usually uncommon, among Scots pines. Aldeburgh in 1892, and Flixton near Bungay (Ctw); Fritton marsh at light (Mly); not rare round Brandon (Barrett). Abundant in Austrian pi'nes at Waldringfield (Wir) and Sutton Heath (Whit) in 1935. 998.

A. BRANDERANA, L i n n .

The first Suffolk example was beaten from aspen bushes in Bentley Woods on 6 July 1897 : none seen since that time (Mly). Frequently bred from aspens there, 1929-35 (Whit). 999.

A. STRIANA, Schiff.

Rarely seen, though doubtless common. Felixstow in July 1902 ( G b s ) ; Hemley (Wir, E M M . 1904, 8 0 ) ; Shrubland in 1930 (Whit); Flixton, and a few at Aldeburgh (Ctw); Glemham Magna (Bloomfield); Hacheston (Hkr); Lowestoft (Crf). One sitting on Freckenham church, near Mildenhall, in June 1915 (Mly). 1000.


T r . (politana, Gn. nec Hüb.)

Locally in profusion on millefoil. Orford, Aldeburgh, Leiston, Southwold, Kessingland, Lowestoft; Brandon. 1001.

H . FI.AVIDORSANA, K g g s .

Hemley in 1934 and bred from tansy at 1931-4 (Whittingham).


1002. H. QU.FFISTIONANA, Zell. Taken at East Bergholt (Whit, Trans, i, 3 4 ) ; 1931 (Mly); Covehithe among tansy (Wir). 1003.





Blythburgh in


Euston in 1933 and bred from yarrow at both Boyton and Snape in 1931-2 (Whittingham).




H . PETIVERELLA, L i n n .

Ubiquitous in July. Bentley Woods, all round Ipswich, Wickham Market, Leiston, Southwold, Lowestoft; Brandon. 1005.



Bred at E. Bergholt from tansy in 1931-4 (Whit) and Waldringfield in 1933 (Trans, ii, 185); Copdock (Hkg); common among coltsfoot in Somerleyton brickfields (Mly). 1006.



Quite a common kind excepting on the heavy boulder-clay. Only once at Monks Soham light, on 20 August 1929 (Mly); Ipswich, Hemley, Butley (Whit), frequent at Orford (Gbs), Aldeburgh (Ctw), Leiston (Grey); Southwold, Blythburgh heronry, Lowestoft; and in August at Gorleston, both on palings and among its mugwort food-plant. 1007.

H . CONSORTANA, W i l k .

Noticed only at Southwold in 1888 (Ctw), though doubtless not rare among oxeye-daisies. 1008.



Everywhere among millefoil. Ipswich electric lights (Pyett), Foxhall, in Monks Soham fly-trap in 1915, Southwold Somerleyton brick-field. Mildenhall (Mly), Brandon, Tuddenham and common on the Breck at Icklingham in August 1934. 1009.



E Bergholt, Hemley and Ipswich in 1931-4 (Whit), at Ipswich in 1900 (Pyett); Southwold before and after 1890, and a pale form at Aldeburgh in 1892 (Ctw): local among tansy. 1010.


One of our commonest Tortricina. Mildenhall, Bramford and Blaxhall in May ; sitting on Heracleum flower on 24 July 1908, and very frequent in fly-trap at Monks Soham. Attacks yarrow and oxeye-daisy. 1011.



Taken during July 1902 in Bentley Woods (Gbs), where its usual food-plant, the beech, does not grow. 1012.

P. NITIDANA, F a b . (redimitana, G n . ) .

Much overlooked; probably abundant on oaks in Bentley Woods, where it was taken (Pyett) on 29 June 1901 ; unobserved elsewhere with us.





First found in Suffolk about Dodnash Wood in Bentley on 7 June 1936 by Mr. Jack Goddard : only some five miles north from Essex. /





This seems a local kind, pretty well confined to EAnglia in Britain. One example at Butley on 21 May 1934 (Mly); rare at Brandon (Wrn). 1015.

P. RHEDELLA, Clerck.

Not noted here tili taken near Ipswich in 1894 (Mly), but quite a frequent and gregarious species, Aying in sun above whitethorn hedges at Waldringfield (Wir) & Higham (Whit), on may blossom in Bentley Woods, at Shottisham in May 1934, Southwold in 1926 ; Flixton by Crutwell. Icklingham and Brandon. 1016.


Local at Copdock (Hkg); Bentley (Harwood); Bentley Woods, where it seems quite rare on oaks, in May 1933 (Mly); Hacheston (Hkr). Unnoted in the west. 1017.



Rare and local everywhere in Britain. Hacheston CHkr); West Stow (Wrt); Brandon (Wrn). Not observed here since 1890 tili taken on oak-trunk in Bentley Woods on 24 March 1934 (Mly, Trans, ii, p. clii) and bred thence in 1934-5 (Whit). 1018.



Frequent everywhere among oak. Copdock, common on oak-trunks and beaten from birch in Bentley Woods during April and May, not uncommon all round Ipswich, Nacton, Shrubland Park, Redlingfield, Monks Soham ; Brandon. 1019.

P. JULIANA, Curt. (nimbana, H.S).

A local kind among oak ; said to feed on Spanish-chestnut fruit, but not in Bentley Woods, where that tree is only too numerous. Suffolk (Curtis, Brit. F n t . ; W r t ) ; Ipswich, Foxhall, Bealings in 1934-5 (Whit.); several taken sitting on elm-trunks at Campseyash on 23 June 1896 (Pyett); Aldeburgh in Julv 1889 (W. G . Sheldon); Tuddenham in the Breck (Nurse, who records nimbana) from West Stow and Livermere singly in 1910 (Ent. 1911, 221). In plenty in acorns, Hemley and Waldringfield in 1935 (Wir). 1020.



Beaton from sallow at Fritton on 13 August 1936 (Morley).



1021. P. REGTANA, Zell. Locally common, feeding under sycamore bark. Bergholt East (Harwood); Ipswich (Ml) in early June 1901 (Platten); abundant at Felixstow in 1903 (EMM. 1904, p. 80); Aldeburgh in 1892 (Ctw); Lowestoft (Bd); usually common annually on Gorleston palings in late May (D). 1022. LASPEYRESIA ROSETJCOLANA, Zell. Local among wild hedge-roses at Bentley (Harwood), and bred thence in 1934-5 (Whit.); since 1890 noted elsewhere at only Bramford in July 1898 (Pyett). 1023.



The unlocalised Suffolk record of larvae in fruit of plums (1890, p. 44) is confirmed by Mr. Gibbs' capture of the perfect insect at Orford during June 1903 (EMM. 1904, 80). Occurred so commonly as to be a pest on plum and bullace at Waldringfield in 1935 (Wir); Ipswich and Chattisham (Whit). 1024.



Doubtless abundant in haw-berries. E. Bergholt, Hadleigh, Ipswich and Bentley, 1932-5 (Whit.); beaten in Bentley Woods from poplar and in Letheringham Park during May 1933-4 (Mlv); Felixstow by Gibbs (EMM. 1904, 80) ; Brandon (Barrett). 1025.

L . WCEBERANA, Schiff.

A pest in gardens, feeding in bark of cherry, plum and apple. Common about Yarmouth (Paget 1834, p. 40); Copdock, Ipswich, Blaxhall, Monks Soham ; Gorleston ; never flies to light. 1026.


Abundant in the seeds of carrot, and probably angelica. Hadleigh in 1934 (Whit.); Felixstow in July 1902-3 ( G b s ) ; Clavdon bridge on angelica-flower in August 1899, and rarely at Monks Soham light in July 1912 (Mly); Lowestoft (Bd). Tuddenham Fen in August 1928 (Mly) 1027.

L . AURANA, F a b . (mediana, F.).

Observed commonly sitting by day on Heracleum flowers in June, July and September. Quite frequent about Ipswich at Kersey, Bentley Woods, Wherstead, Bramford where it once occurred in profusion on Conium maculatum, and Foxhall (Mly); Hemley (EMM. 1904, 80); Kenton and Monks Soham paddock on umbel-flowers, Wetheringset, Dennington ; Blaxhall (Hkr); Walberswick and Southwold (Ctw). Unnoted in north orwest. 1028.




Recorded from รถnly Flixton near Bungay (Ctw), where it doubtless fed in the mast of planted beeches ; and Fritton at light on 16 August 1934 (D).



1029. L. POMONELLA, Linn. Cider is made to only a small extent in Suffolk, so this pest is much less feit than in apple counties. Bred from stored apples at Monks Soham ; and in Ipswich from larvse found in a Spanish walnut, July 1900 (cf. Ent. 1896, pp. 2 and 28). Gorleston (D). 1030.




Common, feeding in acorns; unnoted in the west. Bentley Woods in July 1902 (Gbs); Glemham Magna (Bloomfield); Southwold in 1897 (Ctw); Sotterley in 1936 (Gd), Ipswich, Bealings, Foxhall; Flixton, Beccles, Fritton. 1031.




Causes swellings in willow-shoots; imagines rarely observed. Beaten from bushes in Raydon Wood during May 1933, only once flew to light at Monks Soham (Mly); one example taken at Ampton during 1911-2 (Nurse, Ent. 1913, 195). 1032.




Blythburgh and Bentley woods and Nacton on broom sparingly in May 1932 ; Aying by day in the utmost profusion over Lathyrus macrorrhizus by the Lark at Barton Mills in mid-May 1934; also at Letheringham and the Devils Dyke by Newmarket in 1930 (Mly); at Ampton and Timworth in 1909 (Nurse, Ent. 1911, 221). 1033.




Local among gorse, feeding in the pods. Waldringfield in 1930 (Wir), Southwold (Ctw); Tuddenham, (Wrn), Thetford in 1932 (Whit.). 1034.




Taken at only Bentley Woods, sititng on an umbellifer, on 23 May 1896 (Morley). 1035.




Abundant during May to August; in pods of Trifolium. Tattingstone, Bentley Woods, common round Ipswich, on Heracleum flowers by day in Monks Soham paddock, Southwold ; Tuddenham, Brandon. 1036.




Rarely seen on the wing; in pods of Vicia. Eriswell on 7 August 1931 (Morley). 1037.



In profusion at


Sure to be common in Suffolk, in pods of Lathyrus. In profusion on oak trunks just north of the River Waveney at Aldeby brick-fields on 12 May 1928 (Mly).


164 1038.




Frequent everywhere, in pea-pods. Bentley Woods, abundant on butter-burr at Monks Soham but never flies to light ; Ipswich, Hollesley, Hacheston, Leiston, Walberswick, Yarmouth. 1039.




Local, and with us found mainly on the Breck ; in spruce-cones. Santon Downham, Brandon (Wrn), Culford and near Thetford. Shrubland and Staverton, bred in 1932-4 (Whit.). 1040.




Quite certainly occurs in Suffolk ; in bark of Scots-firs. Taken just beyond Yarmouth, at West Caister on 6 June 1931 (Mly). Confirmed by Whittingham, who bred it from Sutton Heath, 1935. 1041.




Found commonly on Lowestoft denes in 1890, and later among restharrow at Kessingland in June (Ctw). 1042.



Conspicuous everywhere Aying in clouds round gorse-bushes, in the pods of which the larvae feed. On sugar at Fritton on 29 September 1932 ; never flies to light. [In the diffieult and considerable family EUCOSMID/E no less than 64 species are at present denied us. At once 1 8 o f t h e m may be eliminated by their ränge north from York and 3 more by their restriction to the Vaccinium, lacking in Suffolk; similarly 12 are distributed only south of the Thames or in western England, L. scopariana is very rare, and 6, including Eucosma turbidana, quite unknown anywhere in EAnglia. There remain 25 species likely to yet occur here, whereof at least Essex boasts E. pauperana, pupillana, cacimaculana, Hemimene alpestrana, Pammene gallicolana and L. leguminana; Norfolk has Eucosma latiorana, conterminana, obscurana, proximana ; and Cambs shows P. trauniana. Ancylis paludana and Argyroploce Doubledaiana are loeally common in Norfolk and Cambs fens; E. rufimetrana is known in both and Essex. A. siculana should be found among our roses, with Notocelia incarnatana and 4-gonana; Eucosma albersana on our Lonicera, and signatana on P r u n u s ; Endothenia carbonana on Bßgle, Hemimene acuminatana on Oxeyes and Argyroploce \-fasciana on sallow. A. latifasciana is merely uncommon and Pammene spiniana hitherto overlooked.]



Group TINEINA. Tribe


Family GELECjHIIDJE. 1043. METZNERIA CARLINELLA, Staint. A local species, feeding in seed-heads of carline thistles. at Orford by Gibbs in 1903 (Trans, i, 36).


1044. M. LAPPELLA, Linn. Common in Arctia lappa at I pswich, Eyke and Glemham during 1930-5 (mit.). 1045. M. METZNERELLA, Staint. A single example bred from seed-heads of knapweed at Timworth about 1910 (Nurse). 1046. PALTODORA CYTISELLA, Curt. Taken at Ipswich and Hollesley in 1931-5 (Whit.). Among bracken at Lowestoft in July (Barrett); and at Southwold in 1897 (Ctw). Gorleston in August 1935 (Mly).

1047. SITOTROGA CEREALELLA, Oliv. An introduction, on stored wheat, &c. A specimen found in Ipswich on 23 July 1898 (Pyett). 1048. ARISTOTELIA BIFRACTELLA, Dougl. In fleabane-heads. West Stow in 1911-12 (Nurse, Ent. 1913, 195); Hemley in 1929-33 (Whit.). Larva; abundant in Inulaheads at Waldringfield in 1933 (Wir). 1049. A. INOPELLA, Zell. In fleabane-heads. Taken at Southwold before 1890 (Ctw); bred from Inula at Hemley in August 1936 (Wir). 1050.



In Hypericum-stems. Found among St. Hacheston (Hkr); Hemley in 1929 (Whit). 1051.





In root-stalks of Sheeps-sorrel. Found among Rumex acetosella at Brandon (Barrett); and in 1892 at Aldeburgh (Ctw). 1052. A. PALUSTRELLA, Dougl. Very local in marshes of only eastern England. Found in Suffolk at Beccles (Ctw), as well as on the Norfolk side of Waveney (Tr. Norf. Soc. 1899, 547). Dunwich salt-marsh at light on 29 July 1937 (Mly).


166 1053.


Another very local kind in July. 1890 by A. B. Farn (Wrn). 1054.

Taken at Thetford before


One of the light specialities of the New Forest in July. Captured at light in Bungay during 1903 (Mrs. Mann). 1055.



Abundant on all our heaths in July and August: Foxhall, Staverton Thicks ; Tuddenham heath in 1906, Brandon in 1929 (Mly). On the borders of Breck sands (Farrer, Ent. 1886, 80). 1056.



Frequent in salt-marshes of the Deben at Hemley (Wir, Trans, i, 108 & ii, 89) and many in August 1932 (Mly); Hollesley (Whit). 1057.


Local on Cerastium along sandy coasts ; also on our Breck. Orford in July 1902 (Gibbs); Aldeburgh in 1892 and Thorp (Ctw); Lowestoft (Bd). Very local at Brandon (Barrett). 1058.



On Atriplex and Chenopodium; not rare with us. Beaten from bushes in the Bramford chalk-pits on 8 July 1904 (Mly); one at Waldringfield in 1930 (Wir); plentiful all round Ipswich (Whit). Brandon (Wrn). 1059.

A. STIPELLA, H ü b . (naeviferella, ZU.).

A general frequent species, sometimes occurring with the last one. Leiston (Grey); Brandon (Barrett). Unnoted since 1890, tili larv® were found abundantlv in Atriplex-leaves at Hemley, Waldringfield and Sutton in 1932-5 (Wir), and Ipswich (Whit). 1060!



Taken at Culford by the late Col. Charles Nurse about 1910 (Ent. 1911, p. 221). Bentley Woods in August 1934 (Wir, Whit). 1061.


First found by Dr. Whittingham about Ipswich during 1935. 1062.



On pears or pear-lichens in July. Captured at Ipswich on 22 July 1898 (Pvett), again in 1930 and at Lackford during 1928 (Whit). 1063.


Elsewhere usually abundant bv beating apple-orchards in July. Uncommon with us : Ipswich "(Pyett, Whit). Waldringfield in 1930 ( W i r ) ; Flixton near Bungay (Ctw).



1064. EXOTEI.EIA DODECELLA, Linn. A common kind, feeding in shoots of Scots-pine, imagines on trunks. Orford in July 1902 (Gibbs); Thorp and Southwold (Ctw); Leiston (Grey). Brandon (Barrett); Tuddenham. 1065. EPITHECTIS MOUFFETELLA, Schiff. Feeds on honeysuckle. Found at Lowestoft in July (Bd) and at light beside Fritton Lake in August 1935 (Mly). 1066.


Local and uncommon, hibernates. Thetford (W.H.B. Fletcher).

Zell. (Lyellella, Dbdl.). Aldeburgh in 1892 (Ctw) ;

1067. T . NOTATELLA, Hiib. On sallows. Bentley, Ipswich, Hemley, in 1933-5 (Whit.); Leiston before 1890 (Grey); and at light beside Fritton Lake in August 1935 (Mly). 1068.




Beaten from birch in Bentley Woods in May 1930 (Mly), common there on oak-trunks and round Ipswich in 1897-1902 (Pyett); Foxhall and Staverton, 1930-5 (Whit.); Leiston (Grey); at Fritton light in 1936. Brandon, on pine railing 1918 (Mly). 1069. T. FUGITIVELLA, Zell. Framsden and common in Ipswich, 1932-5 (Whit.); Sproughton, and abundant on elm-trunks at Ipswich in June 1896 (Pyett); Orford, July 1902 (Gibbs); Aldeburgh & Flixton (Ctw). 1070.




Fairly frequent everywhere on hawthorn. Ipswich in 1896 (Pyett) and in 1930, Bentley (Whit.); Grundisburgh in July 1898 (Mly); Blaxhall (Hkr); Flixton (Ctw). 1071.

Occurs on maple.




Copdock (Hkg); Flixton nr Bungay (Ctw).





Very common about oaks. Copdock (Hkg); Bentley Woods (Pyett) in June 1896 to May 1935 and often indoors at Monks Soham during April 1934 and May 1916. Brandon (Wrn), in June 1918 (Mly). 1073.




Taken in woods by the Orwell at Nacton in 1903 (Gibbs ; Trans, i, 36). Perhaps from cultivated Helianthemum. 1074.



Found in Ipswich during 1896-7 (Pyett) and commonly during 1930-5 (Whit.); rare at Monks Soham light in July, August 1934-6 (Mly); Aldeburgh in 1892 (Ctw); Lowestoft (Bd).



G . UMBROSELLA, Z e l l .

Foxhall in May 1896 ; and on lime in Monks Soham garden in May 1913 (Mly); Brandon (Wrn), on the open Breck in June 1903-9 ; and Tuddenham in July 1903 (Mly, E M M . 1904, 80). 1076.



Two in an Ipswich house in 1896 (Pyett); Felixstow in July (Gibbs); frequent at light in Monks Soham during 1910-33 (Mly); Aldeburgh in 1892 (Ctw). Brandon, many (Barrett). 1077.

G. SIMILIS, Staint.

Rarely taken at light in Monks Soham during 1912-31 (Mly); on the commons round Aldeburgh in 1892 (Ctw); Brandon (Wrn). 1078-79.

G. species?

" Mr. Crutwell has sent me two species of Gelechia, from Aldeburgh, which are, I think, new to this country."—C. G. Barrett (Bloomfield's Additions). [We seem to hear no more of these two N E W B R I T I S H insects.—Ed.] 1080.



In an Ipswich house on 19 June 1900 ( M l y ) ; Southwold and Flixton (Ctw); Lowestoft (J. Sang); Fritton, at light in 1936 (Mly). Brandon (Barrett). 1081.



One of our most profuse kinds. Everywhere on heaths in June at Foxhall, Wortham. & c ; and on the coast denes in August at Sizewell, Southwold, &c., up to Yarmouth denes. Abundant throughout the Breck at Wangford warren, Brandon staunch, Eriswell, and Tuddenham (Mly). 1082.

G . POLITELLA, Staint.

Foxhall heath in mid-May 1903 (Mly); on sandy ground at both Aldeburgh and Kessingland (Ctw). At Brandon in early June 1903 (Mly). 1083.


Meyrick's sole record for Britain i s : Suffolk, on coast, local. First found in Britain ( E M M . 1893, p. 158) in coast salt-marshes at Aldeburgh in mid-July 1892 by Canon Crutwell. 1084.



In the utmost profusion everywhere among dry grasses from Foxhall to both Lowestoft and Brandon. At Monks Soham light.






A common inland, coast, and Breck species. Copdock (Hkg), Bentley (Whit), Foxhall in May 1907 (Mly), Blaxhall (Hkr). Aldeburgh, Leiston, Southwold (Ctw). Brandon, and abundant on Icklingham Plains in June (Mly). Benacre denes, Sept. 1937. 1086. G. MULINELLA, Zell. Frequent among gorse in August. Bred at Ipswich in 1933 (Whit.); Aldeburgh, Leiston, Southwold (Ctw); Lowestoft (J. Sang); in Mr. Doughty's Gorleston house in 1933 (Mly). Tuddenham in the Breck (Waters). 1087.




Common on all our heaths. Flying at noon on the sandy Foxhall plateau and Sutton Heath in May and June (Mly); Southwold (Ctw), Blythbro Heath, &c. On the Breck sands (Entom. 1886, 80). 1088.




Bentley Woods on gravel in May 1930 (Mly); Leiston (Grey) ; Southwold (Ctw); Lowestoft (Bd). Frequently seen on the Breck at Freckenham, Brandon, &c. (Mly). *1089. G. RHOMBELLA, Schiff. Apparently somewhat rare with us. Among apple-trees at Leiston before 1890 (Grey). 1090. G. DISTINCTELLA, Zell. Quite a frequent species. On the coast at Felixstow, Aldeburgh, Southwold and Lowestoft; on the Breck at Brandon (Barrett) and Tuddenham (Farren) Fen in August 1905 (Mly). 1091. G. CELERELLA, Staint. One example, captured by Bloomfield at Lowestoft denes on 28 July 1871 and in Stainton's collection, was erroneously recorded (Ent. Annual 1872, p. 123 and E M M . 1893, pp. 213, 237) as Gelechia Strelicella, HS. (Suff. List 1890, 49). Several on sugar at Felixstow during both 1901-2 (Gibbs). 1092.




Many flying among herbage on the butts at Felixstowe on 18 July 1923 (Mly). 1093. G. CUNEATELLA, Dougl. Taken at Beccles in 1905 by Crowfoot (Trans, i, 36). 1094.




A local kind, extending north to only Norfolk ; on poplar. Discovered with us at Orford during July 1902 CGibbs). Barton Mills in 1933 (Whit).





HASN'T SOMEONE RECORDED THIS ? is sufficiently common. Can't find it.—C.M. 1096.



A local species among mallow. Southwold (Ctw); Brandon (Lord Walsingham) : both records before 1890. 1097.



Discovered in salt-marshes at both Hemley and Shingle-street in Hollesley duirng 1929-35 by Dr. Whittingham. 1098.


An abundant species in the Aldeburgh salt-marshes during 1892 (Ctw); Lowestoft (J. Sang). 1099.


Discovered to occur at Southwold (Crutwell). 1100.


Shingle-street in Hollesley at the beginning of June (Whittingham). 1101.


P. OBSOLETELLA, F i s c h .

Not in salt-marshes ; larvse in stems of Atriplex and Chenopodium. Aldeburgh in 1892 and Southwold (Ctw), Martlesham (Waller); probably mixed with the next. 1102.


A species new to Science, mixed with the last one (cf. Trans. 1934, p. cxcvi), occurring in the salt-marshes of the River Deben at Waldringfield, &c. (Waller); larva; in spun galleries among seeds of Chenopodium and Suaeda (Whittingham ; cf. Entom. 1935, 97). 1103.

P. INSTABILELLA, F i s c h .

Found among Atriplex, in 1897 (Crutwell). • 1104.

whose leaves it




Occurs with the last kind at Blaxhall (Hkr); Aldeburgh in 1892 and Southwold in 1897 (Ctw); Hollesley in 1933-4 (Whti). 1105.

P . COSTELLA, Westw.

A local species, on Solanum dulcamara ; doubtless frequent with us. One flew to Monks Soham light in August 1934 and many followed it during the next August-28 October (Mly). Ipswich 1933-5, and bred there (Whit).



1106. P. ACUMINATELLA, SirC. Local among thistles. Leiston (Grey); Southwold ( C t w ) ; many Aying in Monks Soham paddock on 14 May 1933 (Mly). Cavenham in June 1936 (Gd). , 1107.



Taken at Navland in 1897 (Pyett); common and bred at Washbrook, Ipswich, &c., in 1932-5 (Whit.); Leiston ( G r e y ) ; Southwold and Flixton on tree-trunks among stitchwort (Ctw). 1108. P. FRATERNELLA, Dougl. Also attached to Cerastium. Hemley salt-marshes in 1931 ( W i r ) ; Leiston ( G r e y ) ; Lowestoft (Bd); and flew to light at Bungay in 1903 ( M a n n ; Trans, i, 36). Brandon (Wrn). 1109.



Quite a frequent species. Washbrook, Ipswich, Framsden, Leiston, Southwold, Lowestoft; and in the utmost profusion at light beside Fritton Lake in early August 1934. T u d d e n h a m village on the Breck in June 1903 (Mly). 1110. P. MACULIFERELLA, Dougl. A very local kind, in July. It is thought by Bloomiield possible that the record from Leiston before 1890 (Grey) may actually refer to the next species. Not noted later. [The present species was erroneously recorded from Ipswich, two or three examples a day in August 1930, as P. junctella (Trans. SNS. i, 108).] 1111. P. J-DECANDRELLA, Threl. (1) Leiston ( H k r ) ; Aldeburgh, T h o r p and Kessingland (Ctw). (2) Bred at Orford by the Bishop and J. W . Metcalfe in 1932. 1112.



Very abundant along the coast at Felixstow in July 1902 (Mly), &c ; and no less frequent on the Breck, where Farren found it t o be rare in 1885 (Ent. 1886, 80), at Brandon, Friswell, Elveden, &c. 1113. P. LEUCOMELANELLA, Zell. Suffolk (Meyrick, 637). 1114. P. VICINELLA, Dougl. This appears a good species, though opinions differ upon the point. Taken at Southwold by Crutwell, before and after 1890. 1115.



Very local and confined in Britain to EAnglia; larvae in web on Verbascum. No records emerge since Frank Norgate found the species about 1899 " a b u n d a n t in my garden at Bury St. Edmunds," which was near the Abbot's West-gate Cross (Mly).



1116. SOPHRONIA I-COSTELLA, Hüb. (parenthesella). Local, on the Breck. Recorded from Bamham, hy Col. Chas. Nurse (Trans.-i, 36); Tuddenham (Wrn); Brandon (R. South). Taken also at Hemley in 1929 (Whit.). 1117.



Aldeburgh in 1892 (Ctw); Leiston (Grey); Lowestoft (Bd). Brandon (Barrett), and in the utmost profusion on the Breck there in May 1929 and June 1903 (Mly). 1118. S. VORTICELLA, Scop. Added to the Suffolk List at Hemley in 1930 (Whit, Trans, i, 108) and Bentley in 1935. Among Lotus major in the Brandon fens (Norf. Nat. Trans. 1874, p. 68); Fritton marshes at light, 10 August 1936 (Mly). 1119. S. T7ENIOLELLA, Zell. Astonishingly scarce with us. Known here solely by single specimens captured at Tuddenham and Barton Mills respectively, on the Breck (A. Waters, Entom. March 1897). 1120. COMPSOI-ECHIA TEMERELLA, Zell. So common on dwarf sallow that it ought to turn up, surely ? N O T yet recorded.—CM. 1121.



Certainly widely distributed, at least from Copdock (Hkg) to light beside Fritton Lake in August 1934 (Mly), though rarely observed. Once common at Southwold (Wir). 1122. ANACAMPSIS POPULELLA, Clerck. On salix and Lombardy-poplars only here. Rare round Bentley, Ipswich, Felixstow, Blaxhall, rarely at light and sitting on willow-leaves at Monks Soham in July, Orford, Aldeburgh, Leiston, Lowestoft; sitting commonly in Blundeston marshes and on Gorleston palings up to 16 September. Brandon and taken by the Bishop at Euston. 1123. ACOMPSIA CINERELLA, Clerck. Local at Hemley by Waller (EMM. 1904, 80); Leiston (Grey); and in 1897 at Southwold (Ctw). 1124. ANARSIA SPARTIELLA, Sehr. Aldeburgh in 1892 and Southwold upon several occasions (Ctw); Lowestoft (Bd). Southwold in 1934 (Wir). Among broom on the Breck-sands (Farren, Ent. 1886, 81). 1125. CHELARIA GIBBOSELLA, Zell. Bentley Woods in August 1934; but the Bishop took it before I did (Waller) there first in 1933.






Extremely local with us : discovered in Bentley Woods during August 1895 (Mly) ; later found there by Whittingham, and in 1934 Waller (Trans, ii, 296); Hamley in 1904 (Wir). His C. ' rhomboidella, L.,' is said by Stephens (Illust. 1834, p. 219) to be ' found in Suffolk.' 1127. DICHOMERIS JUNIPERELLA, Linn. Said to have been 'found in Suffolk' (Steph. Illust. 1834, iv, p. 205), as may well have been the case a Century ago when junipers were commoner. 1128.



A local species, on blackthorn. A single example taken at Tuddenham during June 1889 (Vivian). Unnoted later. 1129.



Distinctly local in late July at Leiston (Grey); Aldeburgh in 1892, later at both Walberswick and Southwold (Ctw). Ipswich in 1932-5 (Whit). 1130. BRACHMIA GERRONELLA, Zell. Found at Leiston (Grey); Aldeburgh in 1892 and Southwold in 1897 (Ctw). Singly at Southwold in 1934 and 1937 (Wir). 1131.



Common along our whole coast-line in July. Copdock (Hkg); rare at Monks Soham light during 1915-36 (Mly); Orford (Gibbs); Aldeburgh, Flixton and Southwold (Ctw), at the last in 1903 (Mly); Lowestoft (Bd). Tuddenham, on Breck (Wrn). [Few purely Macrolepidopterists realise that the Tineina comprise well over a third of our indigenous Lepidoptera and more than double the Noctuae, Tortricina or any other group : they are, in fact, by so far the most specifically numerous and puzzling of all British Moths. Their first family, the G E L E C H I I M - , contains over 130 kinds, of which 54 are still unknown in Suffolk. Of these 10 are found only north of Derby, 9 south of the Thames, 2 are confined to Wales and Worcester, 1 is introduced to London docks, Sophronia humerella of extreme rarity, Metzneria nenropterella and Gelechia suppeliella are unknown in all EAnglia. Of the 32 that might occur here Psamathocrita osseella, Aristotelia servella and the salt-marsh quadrigonella, Telephila Schmidella, Dichomeris marginella and Gelechia mundella are found in Norfolk ; G. basaltinella and pinguinella, Isophrictis lanacetella, Telphusa scalella and Brachmia inornatella in Cambs, to whose Wicken Fen Aristotelia morosa and quastionella are restricted in Britain ; A. arundinetella, divüella, sujfusella, subdecurtella, Fpithectis lathyri and G. muscosella occur in both those counties, with



Stomopteryx albipalpella in Essex. Generally local kinds are Parachronistis albiceps, Telphusa athiops, G. Scotinella and the coast fumaiella, Platyedra malvella, and Thiotricha subocellea. Commoner and probably merely overlooked with us are Aristotelia unicolorella, Telphusa triparella, G. lentiginosella and P. artemisiella.] Family COSMOPTER 1132.



A verv local species among hops. near Bungay (Ctw): both records 1133.



Leiston (Grey); Flixton before 1890.



A very resplendent and local species through the southern half of England in late June ; ' Suffolk' is one of the counties it patronises (Meyrick). 1134. LIMNCECIA PHRAGMITELLA, Staint. An especial fens species, abounding at Horning, &c. Not found to occur with us tili 1933, when and the next year it flew freely to light beside Fritton Lake in early August (Mly). Bred at Witnesham in 1935 (Whit.). 1135.





Usually common on hawthorn. Aldeburgh (Ctw); Lowestoft (Bd). Monks Soham at light in 1935 (Mly). 1136. C. AURIFRONTELLA, HĂźb. (flavicaput, Haw.). An interesting insect that occurs somewhat freely in many of our larger woods in late M a y : Foxhall in 1896, Bentley Woods in 1931, Parham Wood, Fritton and Bradwell Doles (Mly); Gorleston palings (D). Brandon (Barrett); Newmarket (Wrn). 1137.



Taken at Bentley during 1933-5, and bred thence (Whittingham). 1138.




Hemley in 1932 -(Whit.); single example flew in to Monks Soham light during October 1933 (Mly); Timworth (Nurse). 1139. M . LACTELLA, Steph. Unobserved with us since before 1890, when the Hon. Beatrice de Grey found it at Leiston, tili taken by Dr. Whittingham at Raydon Wood in 1933. 1140. M. DECORELLA, Steph. Leiston before 1890, larvae in stem-swellings of Epilobium palustre (Grey); at Monks Soham light and on windows in March 1921-36 (Mly).




Very local with us on Rediscovered in Raydon sequently occurred freely Soham window on only 1142.


rosebay. Leiston before 1890 (Grey). Wood in 1932 (Mly, D), where it subin m i d - M a / (Whit., Wir, &c.). Monks 22 March 1936. M . FULVESCENS,


An abundant kind on the common Willowherb everywhere. Noted at Ipswich, Foxhall, Felixstow, freely at Monks Soham light, Hacheston, Leiston, Blythburgh Wood, Lowestoft. Frostenden 1936 (H. F. Allen). 1143. M. OCHRACELLA, Curt. Not often observed. Beaten bushes at Foxhall in July 1904, and occasionally at Monks Soham light during 1914-33 (Mly); Orford (Gibbs) and Bungay (Mn) in 1904. Lackford (Whit.). 1144.



Abundant everywhere. Round Ipswich, at Aldeburgh, Lowestoft, Blundeston marshes, and in profusion on Gorleston palings beside both black and Lombardy poplars in August. Brandeston and Monks Soham on willows, and once sitting on Heracleum flower in orchard, in July; never at light. Brandon (Barrett). 1145.



Very local among Scot-firs. Common on pine in the Bishop's Ipswich garden since 1929 (Whit.); once at Monks Soham light only, on 19 August 1932 (Mly); Flixton Park (Ctw). Brandon. [The 27 British COSMOPTERYGIDJE show us 14 desiderata, of which half are merely local species, though Mompha nodicolella and Chrysoclista rhamnella hardly extend north of the Thames. We have probably overlooked the Cambs C. Linneella, Cosmopteryx lienigella which occurs in both Cambs and Norfolk fens, the Essex Mompha Stephensi and M. miscella, generally a common kind on Helianthemum; though the western M. Schrankella is unlikely to occur here.—Neither of the introduced BLASTOBASIDÄ; has been noticed.] Family 1146.




Quite a local, but abundant, species here. Not uncommon in Bentley Woods (Mly); occasionally in Ipswich (Pyett); Southwold (Ctw); in profusion by hedge-beating in Greenacres Lane at Gorleston in early June (D).


176 1147.



Plentiful about rotted wood everywhere. Very common about Yarmouth in 1834 (Paget). Recently noted at lpswich, Parham Wood, frequent in Monks Soham stable, Gorleston hedges, Woolpit and Brandon, in May to mid-June only. 1148.




Much rarer than the last, in dead oak-wood. Stratford Mary in "August 1897 (Pyett); Bentley in 1934 (Whit.); Felixstow in 1901 (Gibbs). 1149.


Found at Hemlev in Fritton in 1935 (Gd). 1150.


1902 (Wir; Trans, i, 36).


One at


Added to our list by Dr. Whittingham, who discovered it to the south of Thetford in 1932. 1151.



Distinctly local. Common at lpswich during 1898-1901 (Pvett) and 1921-35, also at Bentley, Hemley and near Ihetiord W h i t ) • Felixstow in 1901 and Orford in 1902 (Gibbs) - Leiston (Grey); Beccles in 1906 (Crf). One at Monks Soham light on 2 August 1935 (Mly). 1152.




Flies over the dead gorse stems and twigs in which its larvae feed Aldeburgh in 1892 and Southwold in 1897 (Ctw); first discovered here at Leiston during 1873-5 (Grey). One at Southwold in June 1937 (Wir). 1153. ENDROSIS LACTELLA, Schiff, (fenestrella, Stn.). Ubiquitous in houses, feeding on all kinds of dry refuse but never cloths. Emerges on 14 March and is little seen after July. 1154. AMPHISBATIS INCONGRUELLA, Staint. Found to occur at Beccles during 1906 (Crf, E M M . 1908, 35). 1155.



In profusion about country houses; larvae attached to dead leaves lpswich fPyett); verv common at Monks Soham light and in stables in July and August only ; Aldeburgh (Ctw), Leiston (Grey), Southwold sandhills and frequent on Gorleston palings (Mly);' Brandon (Barrett). 1156. B. MINUTELLA, Linn. Larvae on dry seeds. lpswich palings in 1903 ; very numerous at Monks Soham light, in garden and stables 10 May to 24 July only (Mly); Glemham Magna (Bloomf.); Leiston (Grey); Southwold (Ctw). In neither north nor west.





A svlvan species, larvae said to live in dead wood. Taken only at Ipswich in 1900 (Pyett); Fritton in 1936 ( G d ) ; and at Brandon (Wrn). 1158. B. UNITELLA, Hüb. (fusciaurella, Hw.). Local, larvae in dead wood. Not infrequent at Ipswich in mid-July in garden and at light during 1902-4 (Mly); Leiston (Grey). Waldringfield garden, July 1937 (Wrl). Brandon (Barrett). 1159. B. PSEUDISPRETELLA, Staint. Among the curses introduced from U.S.A. about 1840, not Europe ; omnivorous on clothes, skins and dried insects in £11— fitting cabinets. Too ubiquitous with us. 1160.



One male captured at Lowestoft on 27 March 1935 (Goddard Proc. SNS. iii, p. lxii); doubtless overlooked. 1161.



Abundantly sitting on trunks of oaks and occasionally other trees from late March to 10 May at Bentley Woods, Ipswich, Nacton, Henley, Hemingston, Braiseworth, Stuston, Beccles; and Brandon (Wrn). On sallow blossom at Fritton on 3 April 1936. Females quite rare. 1162.




Very local in oak-woods. Ipswich, Aying on 1 November 1895 ; common on oak-trunks in Bentley Woods from 27 October to 10 November only (Mly). Ampton in 1911 (Nurse). 1163. PLEUROTA BICOSTELLA, Clerck. Confined to heaths ; far scarcer than in southern England, unnoted since 1890. Fritton (Barrett); Newmarket Heath. 1164.



Frequent on oak in woods and apple in orchards throughout the County in July and August. Bentley Woods, somewhat common round Ipswich, at light and sitting on oak-trunks in garden at Monks Soham. Hacheston, Blaxhall, Southwold, Gorleston. Barton Mills. 1165.



A rather local species, taken at Orford during 1903 (Gibbs). 1166. D. C H ^ R O P H Y L I , Zell. Rare at Ipswich electric lights in 1900 (Pyett); Leiston ( G r e y ) ; Somerleyton (Bd); Benacre Broad at light in 1935 (Mly).




*1167. D. WEIRELLA, Staint. Found at Brandon by Barrett (Trans. Norf. Soc. 1874, 66). 1168.




Very common about Yarmouth in 1834 (Paget) and fairly frequent still throughout the County. Flew to sugar in Bentley Woods on 28 September 1892 ; Butley in 1934 ; at Monks Soham light, before and after Hibernation ; Gorleston (D). Thetford. 1169.




At light in Bungay by Mrs. Mann about 1903 (Trans, i. 36). 1170.




Rather a local species. Found near Barham once in September (Steph. Illust. 1834, p. 199). Southwold, in 1897 (Ctw.) ; Felixstow, at sugar (Gibbs). 1171.




Unrecorded but surely abdt in carrot ?—CM. 1172.




Found at Kessingland by Mrs. H. E. Mann (Trans, i, 36). 1173.




Usually a common species on GEnanthe ; but known here only from Homersfield before 1890 (Crutwell). 1174.




Common among gorse ; unnoted in the west, except at Brandon. Ipswich district not rare in July (Pyett, Whit.), Orford (Whit.), Leiston (Grey), Blythburgh Wood (Mly), Southwold (Ctw), Lowestoft (J. Sang), Oulton May 1931 and Gorleston (D). 1175.




Rarer than the last among gorse ; unnoted in the west. Abundant on Rushmere Heath about 1898 (Baylis, Pyett); Foxhall in October 1899, and in the Gisleham sand-pit in 1928 (Mly); plentiful at Southwold during 1897 (Ctw). Benacre denes. 1176.




A frequent knapweed-feeder. Beside the Gipping at Ipswich (Pyett), rarely at Monks Soham light during August (Mly), Southwold (Bloomf.), Homersfield (Ctw). On the Breck at Worlington. 1177.




Usually common enough among broom ; but here noted at on:y Brandon (Barrett) and on sugar at Staverton in 1937 (Mly).






Schiff, (scopariella, Hein).

Also attached to broom. Known with us from Brandon before 1890, as bred in 1929-30 at Ipswich (Whit., Trans, i, 36), and once at Fritton light in 1936 (Mcrley). 1179.




Distributed Over all the County. Copdock, Ipswich, Bramford ; at Monks Soham light from 9 August through Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. and March up to 18 April (Mly); Southwold, Lowestoft, Gorleston. Mildenhall in 1931 (E. A. Elliott). 1180.




Considered to be distinct from the last kind by Bloomfield. Southwold in 1897 (Ctw). 1181.




Abundant everywhere from Bentley Woods to Gorleston. On sugar at Fritton. Frequently at Monks Soham light in every month of the year excepting only June. Staverton, on sugar. 1182.




Not very frequent, for a thistle-feeder. Rarely in Bentley Woods during March, and at Monks Soham light in Feb.—March 1921-36 ( M l y ) ; Leiston (Grey). 1183.




Very rarely seen, possibly general. Beaten from thatch of a Monks Soham arbour in March 1905 (Mly). 1184.



H ü b . (granulosella, Stn.).

Among (Barrett);

sheeps-parsley. Taken at Brandon very and at Southwold after 1890 (Ctw).

Attached along much where later and pupae

to sea-holly Eryngium maritimum, which is common of our coast. A pupa swept before 1890 at Southwold, about a score were bred from fair numbers of larvae (Ctw, Barrett). Suffolk is the limit of its ränge.










UNrecorded but surely common on Angelica ?—CM. 1187.


Another Angelica-feeder. Homersfield in 1897 (Ctw). 1188.











T h e most frequent species of the genus, everywhere during winter. Suffolk (Steph. Illust. 1834, p. 2 0 1 : his ' D. gilvella,



Hb.,' cannot be synonymised now). At sugar at Browston and ivy-blossom at Fritton, Frostenden, &c, in late September; constantly at Monks Soham light. Fifty in a small shed at Parham Wood in August 1931. 1189.




Quite rare with us ; feeding on Anthriscus. Taken at Fritton before 1890 (Bd); later at Copdock (Hkg), Monks Soham light in 1934 (Trans, ii, p. clxxxv), and Bungay (Crf). T o south of Thetford in 1934 (Whit.). 1190.



On hemlock, so wanting on the boulder-clay. Not infrequent in the e a s t : Bentley Woods, scarce round Ipswich (Pyett); at light there in November and April, Foxhall ( M l y ) ; Sotterly in April 1936 (Od), Leiston, Southwold, Lowestoft, Gorleston. 1191.



A common sallow-feeder; ' Suffolk' (Steph. Illust. 1834, p. 201) but little noted since 1890, when it was known from Leiston (Grey) and Homersfield (Ctw). Herringfleet marshes in April. 1192.



Taken quite commonly in the marshes at Brandon (Barrett) and at Bungay by Mrs. Mann (Trans, i, 36), about 1903. 1193.



A few bred from St. Johi.s-wort at Timworth in 1910 (Nurse, Ent. 1911, 221). Shrubland in 1931 (Whit). 1194.




A sallow-feeder, termed common in England though recorded with us from only Flixton (Crutwell). 1195.



Not supposed to be rare on hawthorn and rowan. Taken at Bungay in 1903 by Mrs. Mann (Trans, i, 35), probably at light; and on 2 June 1935 in Fritton marshes (Mly). 1196.



Somewhat common among blackthorn at Southwold in June, and taken at Aldeburgh on 18 July 1892 (Ctw). [The (Ec0PH0Rin/E has 75 species in Britain, of which we still lack 27. Half of these pertain to the puzzling genus Depressana, wherein hepatarella and ciniflonella are northern kinds, like CEcophora bractella, Mulleria Woodella, Borkhausenia similella and subcequilea. D. olerella seems confined to south of the Thames and D. Douglasella to western England, like M. grandis and Parocystola acroxantha ; D. rotundella is unknown anywhere



in EAnglia, Hypercallia Christiernana is rare on Milkwort and D. emeritella of excessive rarity. Quite likely we possess the Norfolk Exceretia alliseUa and B. unitella, the Cambs B. Panzerella, the Essex Mulleria formosella, D. depressella and putridella, Aplota palpella: along with the merely local Semioscopis aveilanella, Mulleria augustella, D. pimpinellce, pallorella, nanatella and capreolella ; but the local rarity of (Enanthe crocata precludes the probability of finding D. nervosa here.] Family 1197.




The rarest of the Suffolk species, feeding in Lotus-roots. Crowfoot found it to occur at Beccles in 1900, W. H. Tuck took a specimen sitting upon flowerhead on the outskirts of Norton Wood on 18 July 1899 (Trans. Norf. Nat. Soc. vii, 14); and Barrett vouches for its presence at Brandon before 1890. 1198.




Bloomfield's sole record of this sallow-feeder is taken from t h e ' Nat.' (sans rtf.) presumably of about 1860, showing it to have then occurred pretty freely at Nayland Stoke. It is a fens species and has later been noted only at Brandon staunch among osiers, where a dozen males were sunning themselves upon the midrib of nettle-leaves, Aying to and fro, on 22 June 1928 (Elliott, Mly). Also it occurs at Horning, Norfolk. 1199. JE. CULICIFORMIS, Linn. One specimen was given me by Mr. Garrod of Ipswich, taken in a wood near that town in 1856 (Bree, Nat. vii, 273). Bentley before 1890 (Harwood). Four examples in Bentley Woods on 14 May 1894 (Baylis), and two the next day Aying round stumps of birch whence their pupae were protruding, the undergrowth having been cleared a year or so earlier: none seen there later (Mly). Larvae common at Monks-park Wood in 1909 (Nurse; cf. Ent. 1911, 219). 1200. JE. MYOPIFORMIS, Brkh. A somewhat rare kind, injurious to the bark of apple and peartrees. Recorded before 1890 from Ipswich (Ml), two in a Battisford orchard by W. Baker (Nat. 1857, 273), Needham (L), Beccles (Crf) and Bury (Wrt). Later we have heard of it only as common in Mr. Platten's Needham garden, close to the main street, whence a half-dozen were reared from apple-wood in late June 1930 and more subsequently (Trans, i, 142 and ii, 183), tili at least 1936. It is, of course, in many gardens but ignored. 1201. JE. VESPIFORMIS, Linn, (cynipiformis, Esp.). Breeds in the bark of felled oak-stools, emerging the second vear. Rarely seen, but doubtless commoner than is thought: present taxation is affording it a splendid number of suchtombstone



stools ! One taken at Buxhall by Mr. Levett (Crewe, Nat. 1857, 273). Bentley (Harwocd) ; Glemham Magna (Bloomf.). A few were Aying round old oak-stools in Parham Wood during both 1917-18 in mid-August; and about a dozen in all occurred on osiers in Thorndon Fen during June, July and August 1923-6 (Mly). Common at Ampton and Timworth in 1909 (Nurse: cf. Entom. 1911, p. 94). 1202.




By no means frequent, even in gardens containing ancient currant-bushes. Common on black-currant, Yarmouth (Paget, 1934). Known at Ipswich, Needham, Hacheston, Bury and Beccles before 1890. Later taken very sparingly in Brantham (Buckle) ; Ipswich in 1894 (Pyett) and 1896-1902, as well as at Reydon in July 1900 (Mly); Gorleston garden (Mr). 1203. T R O C H I L I U M APIFORME, Clerck. Joseph Greene's Observation that ' the larvae must do great injury, as the poplars round Playford were quite honey-combed by t h e m ' (Nat. 1857, 274; cf. Ent. Wk. Ir.t. ii, 18) holds good throughout the whole of high Suffolk, where the bases of the best-grown black-poplars display their ravages. Rushmere, Henley, Hardwick and Barton Mills (Sparke); in grey poplar at Bury (Norgate); Southwold (D), in plenty during 1900-15 and at Easton Bavents (Mly). 1204. T . CRABRONIFORME, Lew. (bembeciformis, Hb). Widely distributed in sallow-stumps, but much less prevalent than the last kind. L a r v a common round Stowmarket (Bree, Nat. 1857, 274). Recorded before 1890 from Assington, Needham, Aldeburgh, Beccles and Mildenhall. Larvae are common in stumps of salix at Elmswell (Sparke, 1900). [Few of the seven other British species of the Clearwings are likely to bother us here. Paranthrene tabaniformis, Rott., is immigrant from the Continent to Essex : three British examples alone are known. JE. flaviventris, Stgr., was not recognised as indigenous tili c. 1930 ; JE. scoltiformis, Brhk., is solely Scots ; JE. chrysidiformis, Esp.,musciformis, Vw., and andeniformis, Lsp., are confined to the south or west ot England, wherein JE. spheciformis, Gem., which feeds in alder-stems, is merely local and the sole kind addable to our list.J Family 1205.





Doubtless much overlooked in oak-woods. Beaten from birch-bushes among oak in Bentley Woods on only 5 May 1900 (Mly); Blaxhall (Hkr) and Leiston (Grey) before 1890.






One beaten from undergrowth in Bentley Woods on 18 May 1935 (Morley); first found there in, 1930 (Whit). 1207. H. RESPLENDELLA, Staint. Feeds quite commonly in midrib of alder-leaves ; rarelv observed. Lowestoft (Boyd) and Brandon (Wrn) before 189Ö. Family


Linn. Confined to south-east England in Britain ; on alder. Leiston (Grey) ; Brandon f j . W. Dunning) and probably from the same place in ' Suffolk' (South). Unnoted since 1890 tili a larva occurred among alder-fruit at Bromeswell in 1935 (Wir, Whit). 1208.


1209. AUGASMA /ERATELLUM, Zell. Hitherto overlooked. On Monks Soham house-windows and on breck at Barton Mills in late May, and Staverton Thicks in late June 1923 (Morley). [The small families HET.IOZELID/E and H E L I O D I N ; D / E , each with 6 British kinds, show 7 yet lacking here. Hsliozela betulce occurs in Norfolk, both species of Antispila may turn up on Dogwood, the common S. festaliella on Rubus and Pancalia Leuwenhokella among Violets ; but both P. Latreillella and Heliodines Roesella seem lost to Britain.]

Family GL YPHIPTER YGID/E. 1210. SIMJETHIS FABRICIANA, Linn. ' Suffolk' (Steph. Illust. 1834, p. 29). In profusion throughout the County, and Britain to Ultima Thüle, about nettles in both spring and autumn. The familiar Nettle-Tap. 1211. S. PARIANA, Clerck. Feeds on hawthorn and apple ; probably common with us. Hitherto mixed with the last kind : taken at Ipswich on 9 July 1895, &c. (Mly) and once there in 1934 (Whit). 1212.



A few on skull-cap in Blundeston marshes during early August 1936 (Morley). Abounds in Norfolk broads. 1213.



Bentley (Pyett) and extremely abundant everywhere in grassy places, e.g. roadsides on the Breck around Mildenhall. 1214. G. THRASONELLA, Scop. Always in myriads on rushes in all marshes during high summer. Staverton Thicks, Brandon &c; sometimes on sugar.





Very common on low plants, feeding on Dactylis-seeds. Nacton, Foxhall, Monks Soham, Hacheston, Southwold, & c ; often sitting in flowers during June. 1216.

G . EQUITELLA, S c o p .

Feeds in shoots of yellow-stonecrop, among which it has been noticed at only Brandon (Barrett). 1217.

G . SCHCENICOLELLA, S t a i n t .

Discovered by the Bishop, who gave me a series, in numbers among Schcenus-rushes at Redgrave in 1932-4 (Waller). [Among the dozen British species of GLYPHIPTERYGID/E we still lack 5. Simeethis Diana is solely Scots ; but the rest might turn up, for Choreutis Bjerkandrella of the basally-spotted wings, and Glyphipteryx Forsterella have occurred in Cambs, and G. Haworthana is generally merely local in seedheads of that Cotton Grass which flourishes along our northern border from Brandon to Worlingham.J Family *1218.




Blotches honeysuckle-leaves; probably frequent. at only Copdock by L o r d Walsingham, about 1885. 1219.




Rarely observed ; on the common wild-basil. Beaten from oak in Bentley Woods in mid-August (Morley); Leiston ( G r e y ) ; Brandon (Barrett). 1220.'



Not a rare species, in Carex. Much overlooked ; beaten trees at Foxhall in July (Mly), Hemley in 1930 (Whit), Leiston (Grey). 1221.



Common on the leaves of various grasses. Flew to Monks Soham light in July 1933, and was beaten from bushes at Eriswell in late J u n e 1914 (Mly). Hemley in 1932 (Whit.). 1222.

E . APICIPUNCTELLA, S t a i n t .

Added from Hemley in 1930 by Dr. Whittingham. 1223.


Taken at Raydon in 1933 (Whit.), Aldeburgh in 1892 and Southwold in 1897 ( C t w ) ; on the grass Dactylis.



1224. E. ATRICOMELLA, Staint. A common kind on the same food-plant. Aldeburgh after 1890 (Ctw); Monks Soham garden, in June 1933, and Barnby Broad in August (Mly). 1225. E. ALPINELLA, Staint. (monticola, Wk.). Suffolk is the north-east limit of this Carex-feeder's ränge. Found near Thetford (Revd. H. Williams of Croxton). 1226. E. POJE, Staint. Local ai.d nearly confined to south England. staunch in late May 1932 (Morley).

Taken at Brandon

1227. E. STABILEI ,LA, Frey. Local and mainly southern. Southwold in 1897 (Crutwell). 1228.




A quite common kind ; on grasses. Hemley (Whit.) ; Leiston (Grey); Mildenhali and occasionally on lawns in Monks Soham garden during mid-May (Mly). 1229. E. OBSCURELLA, Staint. Frequent about hedges. Flying by day at Belstead in 1898 (Pyett); Southwold (Ctw). 1230. E. MEGERLELLA, Staint. Beaten from bushes at Raydon Wood in late May 1933 (Morley), usually a common kind among Aira, &c. 1231. E. PALUDUM, Frey. Local in England, on Carex in marshes. Lowestoft (Bd); Beccles (Winter of Aldeby); Brandon (Barrett), Lakenheath Warren marshes, swept on 25 July 1937 (Mly). 1232. E. BIATOMELLA, Staint. Rather a common species in leaves of Carex glauca. Lowestoft before 1890 (Bd) and also there on 17 June (EMM. 1900, 188). 1233. E. RHYNCHOSPORELLA, Staint. Occurred among Carex at Southwold in late June, 1933, to Mr. Waller (Trans, ii, 185). 1234.




Often in profusion among reeds. Belstead (Pyett); Lowestoft (Bd); Thetford (Williams). Breydon marshes at Burgh Castle in 1935 (Mly). 1235.


Local and rare, about Festuca-grass. and Southwold (Crutwell).


Aldeburgh in






Discovered to occur with the last species at Aldeburgh (Ctw). 1237.



Rather common throughout England. (Ctw); Leistor (Grey). 1238.


Aldeburgh in



T h e larvae of this extremely profuse kind feed on the leaves of Holcus mollis. Ubiquitous in all pastures where Harker had found it at Hacheston. Blythbro and Bentley woods, Cransford, Weston and on the Gorleston palings ; in Monks Soham paddock it flies in late April and the first half of May immediately before dusk in great numbers just over the grass-tops (Mly). 1239.



Common on grasses everywhere in May and July. Noted at Bentley Woods, Ipswich, Hemley salterns, Aldeburgh, Dunwich, Southwold, Beiton, Bradwell, on Gorleston palings ; Tuddenham and Brandon. Especially common, sitting on grasses, in Monks Soham paddock on 11 June 1932. 1240.




Abundant in the Southwold salt-marshes on 1 June 1905, named by Barrett; and taken in Monks Soham lanes in early June 1917, named by South (Mly). [In ELACHISTID/E, the 17 that we lack of its 38 British species all pertain to the typical genus. 2, Elachista serricornis and collitella, seem exclusively western in England ; 3, i.e. trapeziella and perplexella and subalbidella. are quite unknown in EAnglia ; but here might occur the 5 merelv local einereipunctella, magnificella, subnigrella, tceniatella and very local Holdenella. The 4 common Gangabella, zonariella and subocellea are n early sure to have been overlooked, with Bedellella among Avena-grass on such commons as Stuston and Bamham. E. eleochariella is known in Cambs, scirpi and Kilmunella in Norfolk.]

Family 1241.




Not observed since 1890, when it was sometimes found to swarm around plants of vipers-bugloss at Brandon in July (Barrett), tili 1925 at Worlington when it was plentiful, as also it was in 1933 at Euston (Whit).



Family 1242.




Apparently scarcer than on soutfi English heaths. Larvse making large webs among broom and furze on Breck-sands (Farren, Ent. 1886, 81); Tuddenham (Wrn). 1243.



Surprisingly abundant at light and on windows at Monks Soham in all months from 23 May to 25 August 1908-32 ; certainly not on Helianthemum here (Mly). 1244.




Among thyme, rather local. Odd specimens at Felixstow as late as August (Mly) ; Tuddenham (A. Waters) ; among broom and furze on the Breck-sands (Ent. 1886, 81). *1245. S. CHENOPODIELLA, HĂźb. One presented to me by my friend the Rev. W. Kirby, who found it at Barham (Steph. Illust. 1834, iv, p. 351). 1246. S. CICADELLA, Zell. Very rare in Suffolk, which is the species' northern limit in Britain. Taken merely singly in the Breck at Brandon (Joe Dunnir.g) and Tuddenham (W. Farren), where larvae form sand-tubes in May amongst stems and roots of Scleranthus perennis, a small perennial confined to that district. [We lack only 3 of the small SCYTHRID^E and all these might turn up here, as we possess their food-plants: in fact Scythris Fletcheri is known in Cambs, and both siccella and variella are little more than local with a broad distribution in southern England.] Family


1247. OCNEROSTOMA PINIARELLA, Zell. A common kind among Scots-fir, but unnoted here for many years. Before 1890 it was taken about Leiston (Grey); Flixton near Bungay (Ctw) ; and Brandon (Barrett). Rediscovered on Sutton Heath in 1935 (Whit.); at Herringfleet Woods in early April, and West Stow in May, 1936 (Mly). 1248.



Occurs on Ars with the last, and is no rarer. Aldeburgh, Southwold and Flixton (Ctw); Brandon (Wrn). Ramsholt in 1932 and Sutton Heath in 1933 (Whit).


188 1249.



Another wide spread pine-species. Sutton Heath in 1935 (Whit.); Orford in July 1902 (Gibbs); Flixton near Bungay (Ctw); between 1890 and 1900 ' this insect has become abundant on the Breck sand at Merton, See.' (Barrett). 1250. ARGYRESTHTA GLABRATELLA, Zell. Discovered to south of Thetford in 1932 (Whittingham). 1251.



Ubiquitous on birch. Copdock, Bentley Woods, Ipswich, Sproughton, Waldringfield, Leiston, Flixton, Lound, Fritton Lake at light, common on Gorleston palings ; beaten from oak at Mildenhall. Never found at Monks Soham, where is no birch. 1252. A. GCEDARTELLA, Linn. Ubiquitous on alder. Ipswich, Wherstead, Orford, Aldringham, Leiston, abundant in Blythburgh Wood, Lowestoft, Barnby Broad, Shipmeadow, Fritton light, Gorleston palings, Flixton ; Tuddenham Fen. 1253.



A common kind on sallow. Bentley Woods in June 1904; Aldeburgh in 1892 CCtw); common in Southwold salt-marshes in July 1908 and at'light beside Fritton Lake in August 1934, Blythburgh Wood (Mly). 1254.



Very local on rowan ; none on that tree in Bentley Woods. Rarely taken on Gorleston palings in September 1932 (Mly). 1255.


Frequent on birch and, perhaps, other trees. Copdock (Hkg); always abundant on birch in Bentley Woods (Pyett, W h i t ) ; Sutton Heath (Whit.); Aldeburgh (Ctw); sitting on lime-leaf in Monks Soham garden in 1910 (Mly). 1256.



A general blackthorn-feeder. Cutlers Wood in Freston and Barham oak-wood in 1904 (Morley); Hemley in 1930 (Whit); Bungay (Mn), probablv at light. 1257.



An exclusively English species. Found a Century ago at Wrentham (Curtis, Brit. Ent.); on a gatepost in Henstead marsh on 7 Sptember 1910 (Mly); Lowestoft (Bd). Occurs uncommonly at Bentley, 1932-4 (Whit).





Monks Soham ; and always in utmost profusion about rowan trees, and sometimes beaten from oak, Bentley Woods during May and early June 1898-1934 (Mly, Pyett), bred thence (Whit). 1259.


Rarely in my Ipswich garden, 1930-2 (Whit); Beccles (Crf). 1260. A. CORNELLA, Fab. (curvella, Stn.). A frequent species on apple during June-July. Taken at Bungay in 1903 by Mrs. Man i (Trans, i, 36); Ipswich (Whit). 1261.



Common on prunus. Holbrook and very frequent at Ipswich (Whit) ; many beaten from wild-cherry in Bentley Woods in August; Monks Soham garden in July (Mly); Orford in Julv 1902 (Gibbs); Lowestoft (Bd). 1262.



Abundant among hawthorn. Bentley Woods, Wherstead, Foxhall, Monks Soham garden, Darsham; common at Gorleston. 1263.



Another frequent blackthorn-feeder. Copdock, Bentley Woods, Orford, Monks Soham garden, Aldeburgh, Leiston, Southwold, Lowestoft and palings at Gorleston. 1264.


Common on beech, which tree is rare with us. Blaxhall (Hkr); Leiston (Grey); Branden (Barrett): unnoted since 1890. *1265.


Very rare and local with us ; on ash. taken at Leiston before 1890 (Grey). 1266.

Unobserved since it was

SWAMMERDAMIA COMBINELLA, H ü b . ( c o m p t e l l a ,


T h e least frequent of the genus with u s ; on blackthorn. Leiston (Grey) and Southwold (Ctw), both before 1890. At Fritton light in Aug. 1934 (Mly). 1267. S. HEROLDELLA, Hüb. (griseicapitella, Stn.). By no means common, on birch. Bentley Woods in late April 1895 (Mlv); Ipswich 1931 (Whit); Orford in July 1902 (Gibbs); Aldeburgh in 1892 (Ctw) ; Leiston (Grey), Blythbro Wood. 1268.



Frequent in the south of the County on rowan and, perhaps, hawthorn. E. Bergholt in 1934 (Whit.); Bentley Woods in 1896 (Baylis); often beaten there from aspen, birch and rowan



in May and late April 1929-34, as well as in Assington Thicks and at Tuddenham near Ipswich (Mly); Hemley by Waller (EMM. 1904, 80). Blythbro Wood, Monks Soham. 1269. S. CIESIELLA, Hüb.

Our commonest species, on blackthorn. Bentley Woods (Pyett); Wherstead in June, often at Monks Soham light in July-August 1929-34, and at Fritton Lake light in August. 1270. S. PYRELLA, Vill. Polyphagous, and sometimes in profusion. Copdock (Hkg) ; abundant at Ipswich in 1896 (Pyett); very rare at Monks Soham light in May and July 1910-31 (Mly); Leiston (Grey); Bradwell church lane (D). 1271. PRAYS CURTISELLUS, Don.

Much scarcer than in western or southern England ; among ash. Copdock, Bentley Woods, ipswich, Leiston, &c. The Var. rustica, Haw., was found in Ipswich during August 1895 (Pyett). 1272. HYPONOMEUTA 20-PUNCTATA, Retz. This local species in Norfolk was certain to turn up among the very abundant Sedum telephium in Parham and other woods. Mrs. Mann took it at Bungay in 1903 (Trans, i, 35); and several at light beside Fritton Lake in August 1934-5 (Mly). 1273. H. PLUMBELLA, Schif. Taken on Euonymus at Ipswich in 1895 (Pyett); Glemham Magna (Bloomf.). 1274. H. RORELLA, Hüb.

Suddenlv appeared in vast quantities on the Wavenev at Beccles in 1936, and defoliated White Wilows from Shipmeadow to Barnby (Trans, iii, p. 117). The larvac make no individual cocoons, and the pupse are attached to the common web by only their anal apices (cf. EMM. 1883, p. 137). 1275. H. PADELLA, Linn. A common and polyphagous kind, by no means rare at Lowestoft, as well as at light in Ipswich, Monks Soham and beside Fritton Lake. 1276. H. COGNATELLA, Hüb.

Not very frequently seen about Euonymus round Ipswich (Mly, Pyett), but common in Bishop's garden, c. 1930 (Whit.); Örford (Gibbs), Glemham Magna (Bloomf.) and Gorleston. 1277. H. EVONYMELLA, Linn, (padi, Zell.). Abundant on Prunus padus. Not uncommön round Ipswich ; Orford, Thorp ; bred from Prunus at Monks Soham, where it alsofliesto light, and at Creeting ; common on Gorleston palings ; Syleham, Brandon.



191 Hüb.

Recorded from ' Suffolk ' by Meyrick in 1927, p. 742. /

*1279. E. BIPUNCTELLA, Fab. (echiella, Hb.). Taken in a chalk-pit at Chelsworth, Suffolk, in the summer ol 1861 by Captain Russell (Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1862, p. 63). *1280.

E . FUNERELLA, F a b .

A very local Fen species, on Symphytum. Taken at Brandon by Lord Walsingham (Tr. Norf. Soc. 1874, p. 64). 1281.



This lime-feeder was captured in Ipswich on 22 July 1898 (Pyett). [Of the 53 British HYPONOMRUTID/E, we cannot yet claim 19 species. Half these are puzzling Argyresthice, of which 5 Juniper-feeders are at once ruled out, with 5 kinds of Zelleria Atemelia, Hyponomeuta Stannella and Ethmia pyrausta which occur only northwards from Derby. Almost as unlikely in buffolk are the 4 exclusively Kent E. pusiella, Sussex Argyresthia illuminatella, Surrey Hyponomeuta irrorella and the very rare Roslerstammia pronubella. We might have the 3 merely local Scythropia craUegella, A. Andereggella and glaucinella, with the l -Norfolk A. Atmorella and glabratella that is especially common in Wicken fen.]

Family 1282.







' y P " y generally distributed; on stitchwort. Copdock in 1932 ( W h i t 0 ; Ipswich in 1900 (Mly) V y • Aldeburgh in 1890 (Ctw). '' Bentley

1283. GONIODOMA LIMONIELLA, Staint. Bred and captured plentifully in Statice limonium at Hemley and Shingle-street in Hollesley during 1931-5 (Whit.). 1284. COLEOPHORA SPISSICORNIS, Haw. (Fabriciella, V I . ) . Taken at Bungay about 1903 by Mrs. Mann (Trans, i, 36) probably at light. Hemley in 1930 (Whit.).

1285. C. ALBIDITARSELLA, Zell. Found among ground-ivy at Swefling and Orford (Bloomfield). 1286. C. ALCYONIPENNELLA, Koll. Occurs among black-knapweed at Tuddenham (Wrn). trom Carduus arvensis at Bentley (Whit).




1287. C. NIGRICELLA, Steph. Bred plentifully from larval cases beaten from hawthorn at both Bentley Woods and Monks Soham in 1931 (Mly); bred at Ipswich (Whit.); Southwold (Ctw), Blythbro Wood ; Tuddenham (Wrn). 1288.


Taken at Lowestoft after 1890 (W. C. Boyd). 1289.


Occasionally on Monks Soham windows in June 1908-34 (Mly); Glemham Magna among wild-rose (Bloomf.); Flixton near Bungay (Ctw). 1290.


Found somwehat rarely among sallow at Tuddenham on the Breck (Warren); and near Cavenham late in 1936 (Whit). 1291.


An abundant and polyphagous kind. Copdock (Hkg); Bentley Woods in July, Gorleston and Fritton marshes (Mly); Campsey-ash ; Lowestoft. 1292.



Copdock (Hkg); Ipswich in 1904 (Mly) and bred freely from larvae on Bentley Woods' oaks in 1934 (Trans, u, p. clxxvi); Brandon (Barrett). 1293.




Bentley Woods in July 1901 (Pyett); Leiston (Grey); Southwold (Ctw); Lowestoft and Fritton (Bd); bred in June 1929 from case found in Greenacres Lane at Gorleston (Mly). 1294.


Common on stitchwort; bred at Waldringfield in 1934 (Trans, ii, clxviii); Nayland-Stoke, Ipswich and Framsden, bred (Whit). 1295.




A frequent species among larch, where it occurs in Bentley Woods (Pyett); Martlesham (Whit.); Hacheston ( H k r ) ; and Brandon (Barrett). 1296. C. JUNCICOLEI.LA, Staint. Herringfleet (' Ent. Week. Intel. 1860, p. 1 7 2 : ' s i c - m i s referenced by Bloomfield). Taken by sweeping on the Brecksands in 1885 (Farren, Ent. 1886, 8 2 ) ; Sutton Heath in 1935. 1297. C. HEMEROBIELLA, Scop. Many larvse in long, dark-brown cases, pretty surely of this species^ feeding on leaves of bird-cherry in Bentley Woods on 18 May 1935 (Morley, Doughty).




C. SALICORNÜE, W c k e .

Larvae of this species were first discovered at Shingle-street in Hollesley during October 1935 by' Dr. Whittingham. *1299.




Found among Cerastium, Brandon ( T r . Norf.Soc. 1874, 72). 1300.


Doubtless quite common. on 23 July 1931 (Morley). 1301.


Flew to light at Monks Soham



Pistol-shaped larval-cases often frequent on sallow in marshes. Bentley Woods in both 1894 and 1901 (Pyett); Aldeburgh (Ctw). Bred from Monks-park Wood ( M l y ) ; Worlington in 1925 and Ipswich in 1936 (Whit). 1302.




First discovered at Bentley on 8 June 1936 (Whittingham). 1303.




Local on oak and perhaps sallow. Observed with us at only Copdock (Hkg), Bentley 1935 bred, and Barton Mills in 1934. 1304. C. CURRUCIPENNELLA, Zell. Also local on the same trees. Observed with us at only Aldeburgh in 1892 (Crutwell). 1305.




A very frequent heath kind. Observed with us at only Newmarket by M r . Bond (Fenland); bred from Sutton in 1933-5 (Whit). 1306.



A very local kind among broom at Brandon (Barrett). 1307.


Abundant everywhere on Lotus corniculatus, sure to be numerous in Suffolk though recorded only from Brandon by Barrett. I have looked for it without avail (Whit). 1308.



Abundant everywhere among gorse. M u c h overlooked: Newmarket (Fenland); Brandon (Barrett); near Thetford. 1309.

C. ONOSMELLA, B r h m .

The limit of its north-east ränge is Suffolk, where it is common among vipers-bugloss at Brandon (Barrett). Worlington in 1925 and Tuddenham in 1933 (Whit). ' O n the Breck sands' (F.ntom. 1886, 82).




1310. C. NUTANTELLA, Mühl, (inflatae, Stn.). A local-species in south-east England, on Silene. Hitherto found with us in only the Breck : one specimen a t T u d d e n h a m in 1911-2 (Nurse, Ent. 1913, 195); Brandon (Lord Walsingham); Burv in 1935 (Whit.); Cavenham 1936 (Gd). 1311.




Quite an uncommon kind, on Stellaria. T h e 1890 localities (Swefling, Leisten, Southwold, Lowestoft) may refer to the next. 1312. C. CROCOGRAMMA, Zell, (lineolea, Stn. nec Haw.) Very numerous on black-horehound plants at Hemley in May 1934 (Trans, ii, p. clxviii); all over the county at Bentley, Ipswich, &c. (Whit); occasionally at Monks Soham light. 1313.



Frequent among flea-bane. Swefling (Bloomfield); Aldeburgh in 1892 (Crutwell). 1314. C. THERINELLA, TgSt. Rather a local species, feeding on thistles. Taken at Becdes after 1890 (Crf) and at Bentley in 1935 (Whit). 1315. C. TRIPOLIELLA, Hdgks. A local kind on sea-aster seeds in coast salt-marshes. Found on the beds of Aster tripolium in Aldeburgh salterns C t w ) ; bred at Shingle-street in 1932-4 (Whit); Southwold (Mly) and beside the River Aide (Wir) in 1935. 1316. C. ARGENTULA, Zell. Not uncommon among yarrow. Ipswich, Bealings, Boyton, bred in 1932-5 (Whit.); Swefling (Bloomf.); Leiston (Grey). 1317. C. LARIPENNELLA, Zett. Occurs among Atriplex. Aldeburgh in 1892 (Ctw); Leiston, Lowestoft, Brandon. Monks Soham at light ,n August 1935. 1318.




Bred at Shingle-street in Hollesley durmg l933-5 (Whit.); on Chenopodium by the River Aide in 1935 (Wir). 1319.




Found in Fritton marshes on alder in early June 1935 (Morley, Proc. S N S . iii, p. xliii). 1320. C. ATRIPLICIS, Durr. Bred at both Shingle-street in H o l l e s l e y and Hemley in 1933-5 ty Dr. Whittingham and Revd. A. P. Waller (Trans. .., 296). 1321 C. S U ^ D I V O R A , Durr. (flavaginella, ZU.). Occurs along our coast on S u * d a maritimaM„, sakerns Kessingland after 1890 ( C t w ) ; bred at Hemley in 1933-5 (Whit).



1322. C. SALINELLA, Staint. thc Bishop at Shingle-street in Hollesley, 1932. i 1323. C. ARTEMISIEI.LA, Scott. Larval-cases fĂźrst found on seeds of Artemisia maritima in Dunwich salt-marshes by Dr. Blair, and in Hemley salterns bv Dr. Whittingham and Revd. A. P. Waller, all in September 1933 (Trans, ii, 161 and 296). Also at Hemley in 1935. By





Bred at Butley throughout 1932-5 by Dr. Whittingham. 1325. C. APICELLA, Staint. Rarely on Stellaria graminea, Bentley Woods in June (Mly); Aldeburgh in 1892 and Flixton (Ctw); Tuddenham (Wrn). 1326. C. GLAUCICOLELLA, Wood. Hemley, discovered by the Bishop who bred it in 1327.





Abundant among rushes with us. Everywhere (Ctw): Blakenham, Leiston, Fritton, Monks Soham, Thetford, &c. 1328. C. ADJUNCTELLA, Hdgks. Local in salt-marshes, on Juncus compressus. Taken on rushes in salterns at Aldeburgh on 22 June 1904 only (Morley). [The numerous genus Coleophora is still a thorn in the side of our best Lepidopterists, for many species are distinguishable by only a knowledge of their pabulum. In 1890 Bloomfield could instance here no more than 21 of the 81 British kinds ; but later we have had such excellent workers as Cruttwell and Boyd, Whittingham and Hayward, with the result that those 60 blanks have been reduced to 37. And these will shrink yet further when individual attention is paid our species, for leucipennella, tricolor and grammicolella are known in Norfolk ; Frischella in Cambs ; potentillce, vibicigerella and agrammella in Essex, and genistce on G. anglica in east England. Other merely local kinds, possibly present with us, are deauratella, Juscicuprella, orbitella, binderella, badiipennella, olivacella, Wockella, Itxella, ochrea, betulella, vibicella on Genista tinctoria, niveicostella, virgaureae, salinella, obtusella and the generally common discordella. But we are not likely to possess trigeminella, conspicuella, vulneraria, conyzce, squamosella, or antennariella which seem confined to south of the Thames; Ahenella, inulce or artemisicolella to south-west England; sylvaticella to the west. And our dearth of Vaccinium excludes vttisella, Glitzella or marginatella. Nowhere is work more needed than among our COLEOPHORIOÂŽ:.]



Family 1329.




Bentley (Pyett), ahundant on oaks in the woods there in both May and July, as well as in Assington Thicks, Parham, Darsham," Rendham, Henstead, Blythbro, Aspall (Mly) ; Aldeburgh in 1928 and Flixton (Ctw); Leiston (Grey). Monks-park wood and West Stow (Mly). 1330. L. TENELLA, Zell. At Holbrook in 1931 and bred from Shrublands 1932-3 (Whit). 1331. L. MESSANELI.A, Zell. Very commonly beaten from birch and oak in Bentley Woods during May and June 1897-1934 (Mly); Holbrook and plentiful about Ipswich, bred at Shrubland from Spanish chestnut in 1934 (Whit.); common in ilex at Glemham Magna and Leiston (Bloomf.); Mildenhall in 1934 (Mly). 1332. L. QUERCIFOLIELLA, Zell. Frequent in Bentley Woods (Pyett), Frostenden, Foxhall, Aspall (Mly), Bramford and elsewhere round Ipswich ; Fritton, on Gorleston palings, &c. On oak, bred Thetford, &c. (Whit). 1333.




Common about alders. Belstead, Ipswich, Sproughton, Bromeswell, bred (Whit.); Hacheston (Hkr); Leiston (Grey); Lowestoft (Bd). West Stow (Mly). 1334.

L . ULicicoLEiXA, Staint.

Always found among gorse.

Lowestoft (Boyd), &c.

1335. L. SCOPARIELLA, Zell. Local about broom, doubtless through the whole County from Ipswich (Pyett) to Brandon (Barrett). 1336. L. CARPINICOLELLA, Staint. Holbrook in 1933'and Wetheringset in 1934; bred 1337.




Usually a common kind among hazel. Holbrook and bred at Bentley, 1931-3 (Whit.) ; Belstead (Mly); Glemham (Bloomf.). 1338. L. FAGINELLA, Zell. Very frequent with us wherever copper or ordinary beech occurs. Tattingstone, Ipswich, Bramford (Mly); Dunwich, Minsmere, &c bred (Whit.); Glemham Magna (Bloomf.); Leiston (Grey).



1339. L. SPINICOLELLA, Stair,t. Locally abundant among Prunus. Hemlev in 1932, bred Whit.); Monks Soham paddock' (Mly). 1340.



Holbrook, Ipswich and Hasketon, bred in 1930-34 (Whit.). 1341.

L . SORBI, Frey.

Bred by Dr. Whittingham in 1935 at Bentley. 1342. L. CONCOMITELLA, Bnks. A few specimens sitting outside Monks Soham museum and Aying about ivy in April (Mly). Abundant in Ipswich gardens during 1930-5, bred (Whit). 1343.



Bred at Holbrook and Bentley in 1932-5 (Whit.); Blvthbro Wood 1936 (Mly). 1344. L . OXYACANTHJ®, Frey (Ppomifoliella). Frequent about hawthorn. Ipswich district 1930-4, (Whit.); Leiston (Grey); Lowestoft (Bd).


1345. L. QUINQUEGUTTELLA, Staint. Discovered late in 1936 near Cavenham by the Bishop (in lit. 30 October). 1346. L. SALICICOLELLA, Sirc. Occurred at Hemley and Euston 1932, bred at former (Whit). 1347. L. VIMINETORUM, Staint. At Stowmarket by the Bishop, who bred it in 1932-5. 1348.



A sallow feeder, emerging during May. Bentley Woods in 1935 (Whit.) and on wild-cherry there in 1932, Parham Wood on bushes in 1934, Blythburgh on birch in 1935 (Mly). 1349.



Common everywhere on birch. Bentley Woods (Pyett), Aldeburgh (Ctw), Leiston (Grey), Lowestoft 1936 (Gd). 1350. L. LAUTELLA, Zell. Holbrook, Bentley and south of Thetford in 1932-4 1351.




Attached to elm. Bred in the Ipswich district during 1932-3 (Whit.); Swefling (Bloomf.); Leiston (Grey); Southwold in 1897 (Ctw); Fritton in June 1932 (Morley).


198 1352.




Usually common on honeysuckle. One at Ipswich on 22 July 1898 (Pyett) ; common at Bentley, Nacton, Hemlev, Eyke, 1931-5, bred (Whit.); Leiston (Grey); in cop. among honeysuckle in Monks Soham garden as late as 5 October 1915 (Mly). 1353.




Anotber honeysuckle-species. Recorded with us from only Nacton, where it was bred in 1934 (Whit.), Flixton after 1890 (Ctw) and Fritton in 1936 (Gd). 1354.




Found only on 22 July 1898 in Ipswich (Pyett), doubtless among elm, whence the Bishop has bred it plentifully in the same district. 1355.




One example (there may have been many) Aying round alder at Foxhall near Ipswich on 27 May 1907 ; the species feeds on the upper-side of those leaves (Mly). Sproughton, Bromeswell in 1932 and in remarkable profusion, three or four larva; occurrmg in single leaves, at Eye during 1933 (Whit.). 1356.

L . FRÃ&#x2013;LICHELLA, Zell.

Another local alder-feeder, in the under-side of leaves. Taken at only Brandon (Wrn), tili 1932-3 when the Bishop bred it plentifully at Belstead, Sproughton and Bromeswell. 1357.

L . NICELLI, Staint.

Bred Holbrook, Bentley and Wetheringset in 1931-3 (Whit). 1358.




In numbers at Sproughton and Bromeswell, bred in 1932 (Whit). 1359.

L . VIMINELLA, Staint.

Found to occur among sallow at Blaxhall (Harker), before 1890. 1360.




Common at Ipswich in 1897 (Pyett) and bred there in 1932-4 (Whit.); Orford in July 1902 (Gibbs); Aldeburgh (Ctw); Leiston, Glemham Magna, Lowestoft. Gorleston, Benhall and Parham wood during May (Mly). 1361.




A very local kind, in oak-leaves. Observed at only Brandon (Lord Walsingham), Mildenhall in May 1935 (Mly) and bred to south of Thetford in 1932-5 (Whit.). 1362.




Common everywhere, on under-side of maple-leaves. Ipswich and Whitton (Pyett), Aspall, &c. (Mly) Glemham Parva (Bloomf).






Ipswich in 1934-5 (Whittingham, Trans, ii, p. cxcvi). 1364.



Usually common on poplar. Leiston ( G r e y ) ; Hacheson (Hkr) ; Swefling (Bloomf.); Brandon (Barrett). Euston, bred in 1932 ; Mildenhall and Ipswich (Whit). South Cove in 1937. 1365.



Ipswich, Hemley, Butley, Redgrave in 1932-4, 1366.


bred (Whit).


Found at Brandon, Tuddenham and larvse very abundant at Herringswell before 1890 (Warren). 1367.



Doubtless frequent. Ipswich in 1934-5 (Whit.); fiew into Monks Soham museum during May 1933 ( M l y ) ; Flixton (Ctw). 1368.

O. ANGLICELLA, S t a i n t .

Frequent among Fragaria. Ipswich and Bentley, usually on hawthorn (Whit.) ; Southwold in 1897, common at Flixtonnear-Bungay in May and June 1891 (Ctw). 1369.

O . AVELLANELLA, S t a i n t .

Bentley, Ipswich, Hemley, Wetheringset, bred in (Whit.); common among hazel at Leiston (Bloomf.). 1370.



Taken at Beccles in 1904 by Crowfoot (Trans, i, 3 6 ) ; on Gorleston palings in August and at Mildenhall in late May (Mly). 1371.

O . SCOTICELLA, S t a i n t .

Bred bv the Bishop from larvse at Ipswich 1937, p. 31).



1372. O. BETUL^E, Staint. Bred at Bentley and Ipswich in 1933 (Whit.); captured at Orford during July 1902 by Gibbs (Trans, i, 36). 1373.


Usually common among Hypericum. 1374.


Southwold in 1897 (Ctw).



Abundant among privet and lilac everywhere, especially near towns. Common in Ipswich ; Orford, Aldeburgh, L e i s t o n ; frequent on Gorleston palings. In profusion on lilac at dusk in gardens to south of Thetford in August 1931; Brandon (Mly).



1375. G. TRINGIPENNELLA, Zell. A common species on ribwort-plantain. Lowestoft (Bd); Sutton Heath and Thetford in 1932-4 (Whit) and Tuddenham (Wrn). 1376. G. ELONGELI.A, Linn. Not very commonly beaten from bushes in Bertley Woods during August, November, March and April 1895-1934 (Mly); Flixton near Bungay in April 1891 (Ctw); Revdon in September 1935 (Baker); Sutton and Thetford (Whit.); Blythbro (Gd). 1377. G. ALCHIMELLA, Scop. (Swederella, Thb.). Not rare on oaks in Bentley Woods in May and early J u n e ; Shrubland, Ipswich, Leiston ; frequent at light beside Fritton Lake in early August (Mly). Near Thetford. 1378.



One on poplar in Bentley Woods in 1900 (Pyett) and bred thence in 1931-5 (Whit.); rare on reeds in Ipswich marshes in September and October 1895 (Mly); Leiston on sallow (Grey). [Still we lack 2 7 species of the 7 8 British GRACII.ARIID/E. Most of these omissions pertain to the genus Lithocolletis wherein are sure to occur here the merely local roboris, Heegerella, pyrivorella, mespilella, lantanella, anderidce, nigrescentella and scabiosella. Essex has cavella, and Cambs comparella ; but we can hardly expect the northern insignitella, western distentella and Amyotella nor the Vaccinium-feeding junoniella. Of the rest, only the introduced Gracilaria azalleella is improbable in Suffolk; for 6 outstanding kinds of Gracilaria are merely of local occurrence in England; G. hemidactylella with the common Phyllocnistis saligna occurs in Norfolk, A. imperialella (on Comfrey : fig. Ent. Ann. 1870) with Parectopa ononidis and Ornix fagivora in Cambs, and O. finüimella in Essex.] Family


1379. CATAPLECTICA FULVIGUTTFXLA, Zell, (flavimaculella, Stn.). By no means general; on seeds of umbellifers. Foxhall in August 1897 (Mly); Leiston (Grey); Oulton (Bd), sitting quite commonly on Angelica flowers in Barnby Broad on 21 August 1898, and Henstead Marsh 1935 (Mly). Edwardstone (Whit). 1380.



Aldeburgh, T h o r p and Southwold (Ctw); Leiston (Grey); ajnong bramble at Lowestoft (Bd). Rougham (Curtis). 1381.


In Southwold town during August 1900 and a few in Monks Soham garden on 19 October 1905 (Morley).



1382. E. ILLIGERELLA, Hüb.

Taken at Beccles by Crowfoot during 1906 (EMM. 1908, 35) and Fritton light by lake on 21 August 1935 (Morley). [Nearly all the 9 British EPERMENID^E have evaded local Observation. No reason is apparent, excepting in the case of the Shetlands Cataplectica aurimaculata and perhaps southern Epermenia daucella-, for C. Farreni and Phaulernis d Cambs and Norfolk, are hardly commoner than the merely local C. profugella and E. insecurella.] Family PLUTELLIDJE. 1383. ORTHOTTELIA SPARGANIELLA, Thnb. Bred from pupa cut out of burr-reed at Hemley (W H Bolton) and at Fritton (Wiltshire 1936). Waldringfield in 1924 (Wir); Bungay in 1902 (Mn); severalflewto light beside Fritton Lake early in August 1933-7 (Mly, D.); Bamham, taken by J Nurse (Trans, i, 35). 1384. EIDOPHASIA MESSINGEI.LA, Fisch. Feeds on Cardamine amara, a local plant. Found only at Copdock (Lord Walsingham). 1385. CEROSTOMA CAUDELLA, Linn. One example in Bentley Woods during January 1896 (Baylis), and others in October and December 1899, all among holly therej where is no Euonymus: none seen later (Mly). Sotterly at hght on 26 May 1936 (Gd). 1386. C. XYI.OSTELLA, Linn. „ Copdock (Hkg); Bentley Woods and Westerfeld (Pyett); Waldringfield (Wir); Ipswich and sitting on Angelica flower at Foxhall ; also frequent about honeysuckle in Monks Soham garden during July to September, sometimes at light (Mly); Leiston, Southwold, Lowestoft. 1387. C. NEMORELLA, Linn. bentley in 1934-5 (Whit.); Hemley in 1903 by Waller (EMM. 1904, 80) and later; rare among honeysuckle in Monks Soham garden during August 1919 (Mly); Tuddenham (Wrn). 1388. C. SCABRELLA, Linn. Captured at Bungay by Mrs. Mann (Trans, i, 35), probablv at hght about 1903. *1389. C. SYLVELLA, Linn. V e local S ECIES ionn / r7 P > on °ak. Taken at only Leiston, before 1890 (Hon. Beatrice de Grey).



1390. C. COSTEI.LA, Fab. (parenthesella, L., sec. South). Polyphagous, and common. Copdock (Hkg); Bentley, Shrubland, Staverton (Whit.); Ipswich ( M l ) ; Glemham Magna (Bloomf.); rare at Monks Soham light in August, and Fritton sugar in September (Mly); Flixton (Ctw). 1391.



Ypsolophus variellus is termed common round Yarmouth in 1834 (Paget). Not unfrequent here still: Bentley Woods during Oct., Feb., March and April; Martlesham Heath (Mly); Leiston, Flixton, Benacre Broad; Gorleston palings (D). Ipswich, Shrubland and Thetford (Whit.); Tuddenham Fen. 1392.



A local maple-feeder. Flixton (Ctw); Shrubland in 1929 (Whit.). Found by Wratislaw in Norton Wood (since 1870 worked by no one, but occasionally T u c k ) ; bred at Timworth in 1911 (Nurse); Mildenhall in Sept. 1937 (Burton). 1393.

C. VITTELLA, L i n n .

Not very common, about elm. Hemley in 1902 (Wir); Bentley Woods on sugar, Ipswich sitting on holly, Southwold (Mly); not uncommon on Gorleston palings (D). 1394. PLUTELLA PORRECTELLA, Linn. Apparently local. Larvas on Hesperis matronalis at Hemley in 1903 (Wir); Bungay (Mn). 1395. P. MACULIPENNIS, Curt. (cruciferarum, ZU.). Never seen in Bentley Woods. Uncommon in Ipswich, on palings in June and at light in September ; Felixstow, Foxhall, Winston; in Monks Soham museum and at light in 1931; abundant at Southwold in 1891 (EMM. xxvii, 221) and common in July 1901, sitting in the salterns there under Atriplex port. on 16 July 1912 and beside Benacre Broad at roots of Glaucium flavum in sand on 19 September 1920; Blythburgh Wood, Ashby; on Fritton sugar, and Gorleston palings. Sitting on pine-trunks at Mildenhall; Kennet . ' The most ubiquitous Microlepidopteron; found everywhere, and the most regulär migrant' (Whit). 1396. ACROLEPIA PYGMIANA, Haw. (autumnitella, Ct.). Once only in Bentley Woods, on 15 April 1933â&#x20AC;&#x201D;after forty years work there ! Abundant in Monks Soham garden, house and at light there in July, Aug., Sept., Oct. April and May 1909-37 (Mly). [Only half the British kinds of PLUTKI.MD/E are recorded hence : nor are we likely to find more, unless it be the local Acrolepia granitella, Cerostoma horridella, lucella or alpella ; for C. asperella and Plutella annulatella are western species, P. Dalella, incarnatella and A. betulella northern, A. perlepidella and the very rare marcidella southern in England.]


Family 1397.





Doubtless abundant. Ipswich in 1932 (Whit.) ; flew to Monks Soham light on 25 July 1933 (Mly); taken at Southwold in 1897 (Ctw). Brandon (Tr. Norf. Soc. 1874, p. 75). 1398. LEUCOPTERA LABURNELLA, Staint. At electric light in Ipswich during September 1895 (Mly); Glemham Magna (Bloomf.); in profusion on laburnum in Monks Soham shrubberies in late May; and on Gorleston pales. Common everywhere : Westerfeld, Bury, Whepstead, &c. (Whit). 1399.



Ipswich, bred in 1934 (Whit.); Blaxhall among broom (Hkr); Aldeburgh and Southwold (Ctw); Gorleston pales (Mly); Brandon. 1400. L. WAILESELLA, Staint. Larval mines found 23 Sept. 1936 in leaves of a patch of Genista tinctoria, nine yards long, at Westleton lamb-pits (Mly). 1401. L. LOTELI.A, Staint. A very local species with us. Found at Tuddenham (Warren). 1402. L. SCITELLA, Zell. Larvae common in hawthorn leaves. Bred at Bentley in 1933-5 (Whit.); Felixstow in July (Gibbs); Aldeburgh (Ctw); Easton (Hkr); Lowestoft (Bd). Several in Parkham Wood 1934 (Mly). 1403. LYONETIA CLERKEI.LA, Linn. Bentley Woods in Feb.-March, and Barren Heath in Ipswich during November (Mly); Ipswich and Lackford, bred (Whit.); common among crab-apples at Glemham Magna (Bloomf.); Southwold in 1897, and Flixton (Ctw); Gorleston in October. 1404. BEDELLIA SOMNULENTELLA, Zell. Bred in 1932 by Dr. Whittingham at Haiesworth. 1405.



Bentley Woods (Pyett, Gibbs); Ipswich and Sutton Heath in 1928-35 (Whit.); common about oaks at Glemham Magna (Bloomf.); Southwold (Ctw); Gorleston in August 1935 (Mly). 1406. T. DODONEA, Heyd. Bred at Bentley and Ipswich in 1930-5 (Whittingham). 1407.




Larvae common in bramble leaves at Glemham Magna (Bloomf.); Leiston (Grey); Southwold (Ctw); Lowestoft (Bd).



1408. BUCCULATRIX CRISTATELLA, Zell. Discovered by Dr. Whittingham south of Thetford 1932. 1409.

B. MARITIMA, Staint.

Plentiful among Aster tripolium in coast salterns at Hemlev and Hollesley during 1928-35 (Whit.). Aldeburgh salt-marshes on sea-aster in 1892 and later (Ctw); Lowestoft (Bd). 1410.



Taken twice in Ipswich (Pyett) and during 1933-5 (Whit.); on palings in Whitton village during June 1904 (Mly); a local species among elm, at Southwold on several occasions (Ctw). 1411. B. ULMELLA, Zell. A frequent oak-kind. Bentley Woods on only 30 May 1896 (Pyett); Ipswich in 1934 (Whit.); Henstead and Mildenhall in early June 1935 (Mly). 1412.

B. DEMARIELLA, S t a i n t .

Captured at Aldeburgh between 1890 amd 1900 (Crutwell): doubtless common on birch. [The 32 British Lyonetiidce are hard to collect, and better bred, on account of their small size, which reason seems to account for our local knowledge of but 16. Only chance could bring us the three introduced kinds ; Leucoptera susinella is Scots ; L. lathyrifoliella southern, and both Tischeria angusticolella and Bucculatrix thoracella western ; Lyonetia prunifoliella is known solely from Northants. But we might possess both the merely local Opostega crepusculella, and cratcegi. T h e fen O. auritella of both Norfolk and Cambs, the Cambs L. orobi, the Essex O. spatulella and T. gaunacella, and the generally common ß. nigricomella on Oxeyes, and cidarella, are all probabilities.] Family TINEID JE. 1413. TRICHOPHAGA TAPETIELLA, Linn. Cosmopolitan, on wool and für. Doubtless frequent, but less general with us than Bloomfield indicates. In für of a dead Mole at Foxhall on 23 September 1899 ; occasionally in Monks Soham house and at light (Mly); on Gorleston palings (D). 1414.



Not always attached to dwellings, though usually in sheds. Copdock ; Bentley Woods and on sugar at Benacre Broad, both far from dwellings ; in Ipswich houses and gardens, frequent in Monks Soham outhouses but probably is never actually attracted to light; Gorleston. Maidcross Hill in Lakenheath, a füll mile from any dwelling, on 13 June 1899. Many tinea rusticella bred from larvae feeding in Owls' casts at Timworth (Nurse. Entom. 1906, 160).




205 Hüb.

An extremely local kind among für and feit in Britain, from Kent to Suffolk, and in Lancs. With us, confined to the vicinity of Brandon (Barrett), where Bloomfield told me it was originally discovered in Britain by Dunning, in Sandy fields just east of the town about 1858 (Mly); from June to August occurs " n e a r the town m fields that have been manured with furriers' refuse " (Crutwell): rabbit-skin top-hats used to be largely manufactured there. Tinea imella bred freely from a rotted " knitted woollen stocking" in Dumbarton (EMM. 1903, p. 150). 1416.




Sometimes in profusion in Bentley Woods during Mav (Mly, Pyett); Bentley, Felixstow and Orford (Gibbs); Ipswich (Pyett)• Aldeburgh (Ctw); Southwold (Wir); Lowestoft (Bd). Brandon.' 1417.



Found in woods at Nacton during 1902 (Gibbs); rare on Monks Soham windows in June and July 1914-33 (Mly). 1418.



In profusion in Ipswich houses (Pyett), and my study there (Mly); Hemley, Leiston, Southwold and in Gorleston houses Never seen at Monks Soham. 1419.



Apparently rather local. Bentley in 1931 (Whit.); Hemley and abundant in 1933 at Southwold (Wir); Bungay in 1903 by Mrs. Mann (Trans, i, 35); a few at light beside Fritton Lake in August 1934-5 (I.e. ii, p. clxxxiii). 1420. T. CORTICELLA, Curt. One in Bentley Woods on 4 August 1937 (A. P. Waller). 1421. T. PARASITELLA, Hüb. (carpinetella, Stn.). Quite rare in our County. Not observed since it was taken before 1890 at Brandor (Warren), tili one occurred in a Coddenham chalk-pit on 3 June (Mly) and another at Ipswich (Whit.) in 1934. One on dead birch-stump at Lowestoft in 1936 (Gd). 1422. T. GRANELLA, Linn. Rare in Monks Soham outhouses (Mly); Aldeburgh (Ctw) • Lowestoft (Bd); Brandon (Wrn). 1423.



Haw. (ruricolella, Stn.).

. Copdock (Hkg); Bentley Woods, Shotley, Ipswich, common in Monks Soham stables, Southwold (Mly); Leiston (Grev) • Aldeburgh (Ctw); Mildenhall on willow.






This Middlesex species was taken in Ipswich during July 1933-5 by Dr. Whittingham (Trans, ii, p. cii). 1425.




One example on the door of Ipswich hospital in 1901 (Pyett, E M M . 1902, 7.) 1426.

T . MISELLA, Zell.

Not often Seen. Ipswich in September 1901 (Mly); Orford in July 1902 (Gibbs); Southwold in 1897 (Ctw). 1427.




A very few specimens in Ipswich and Monks Soham houses during May to July (Mly). Frequent throughout the east half of Suffolk, up to Lowestoft. 1428. T . PELLIONELLA, Linn, (merdella, Zell.). The commonest Clothes Moth with us, occurring in all town and country houses, probably throughcut the entire County, certainly from Ipswich to Lowestoft. 1429.




Not infrequent at electric lights in Ipswich (Pyett); Felixstow (Gibbs); uncommon at Letheringham and Monks Soham (Mly). Adkin showed Tinea pallescentella reared from a bale of Hares hair at Brandon on Nov. 1912 (Meet. F.nt. Soc. 5 in 13). 1430.




Copdock (Hkg), Dodnash (Gd), commonly in Ipswich during 1930-5 (Whit.); occasionally at Foxhall, Hemley and Monks Soham light (Mly). 1431.




Copdock (Lord Walsingham); Bentley in 1931 (Whit.); rarely at Monks Soham light in June-July (Mly); Flixton (Ctw). 1432. TEICHOBIA VERHUELLELLA, Staint. Ubiquitous. Numerous larval-cases on Higham churchvard wall in 1934 (R. Burn, sec. Mus. Brit.); Mutford Hall on a lichened gate, and Monks Soham garden in 1935 (Mly).




Sandy places on coast and Breck. Hemley (Mly, Whit.); Leiston (Hkr); Southwold salterns, abundant under ragwort on Gorleston cliff in 1929, Barnby Broad in 1898. Thetford by Mr. C. Dale (Williams); swept on Breck at Elveden in 1933.



1434. P. BISONTELLA, Zell. Swept from hypericum in Bentley Woods on 3 August 1896 ; Corton cliff in August 1908 (Mly); Blundeston marshes 1936 (D). One at Tuddenham on the Breck in July 1896 (A. Waters); Worlington in 1934 (Whit.). 1435. P. VACCULELLA, Fisch. ' Barham, W. K i r b y : ' Steph. Illust. (c. 1834—sec. field); Tuddenham near Ipswich, Bealings Magna sitting on Darsham and several at Farnham, all in July 1897-1921 Southwold in 1897 and Flixton in 1890 (Ctw). Westleton 1436.


Bloomwillow, (Mly); Heath.


Common at Aldeburgh on 15 July 1892, pupal-cases at Thorp, and imago taken at Southwold (Ctw, E M M . xxvii, 50); cases often observed in Bentley Woods (Mly); one bred at Ampton in 1911 (Nurse). *1437. T. DOUGLAS!, Staint. Solenobia 3-quetrella, Dbld., is found at Brandon by Barrett (Tr. Norf. Soc. 1874, p. 62). 1438.



Bentley Woods, many cases beaten on 24 October 1899 (Mly); Southwold (Ctw). 1439.



Larval-cases in Monks Soham shrubbery on 20 June 1910 (Mly), Brandon (Wrn). 1440. N. MARGINIPUNCTELLA, Steph. Discovered on hawthorn stems at Aldeburgh in 1892 (Crutwell). 1441. EPICHNOPTERYX RETICELLA, Newm. Far from uncommon locally in Hemlev salterns about 1933 (Wir, Rait-Smith, Metcalfe, &c.); Hollesley and Orford in 1932-4 (Whit.); swept from reeds at Easton Broad on 30 Mav 1905 (Mly).

1442. E. PULLA, Esp. (radiatella, Ct.). Flying not uncommonly at Foxhall pond during May 18981907 ; Oulton Broad in 1905 ; and Blvthburgh Heath in 1934 (Mly); Henham (Gd). Lakenheath (Eedle in ' Fenland'). 1443. FUMEA CASTA, Pall. (intermediella, Brd.). Bentley Woods (Mly, Gibbs); Southwold in 1897 (Ctw); larval-cases not uncommon at Ampton and West Stow in 1911 (Nurse). Coddenham, &c. probably general.



[Our percentage of the 48 British T I N E I D / E seems good at 28 species, when we consider that many are imported in hair, wool, hides, &c. But other kinds surely await discovery, e.g. the Herts and Essex Scardia boleti, the Essex Luffia lapidella, Essex and Norfolk L. sepium, Norfolk Monopis croceicapitella, Cambs M. fenestratella and monachella, as well as with less certainty the local Tinea fulvimitrella, albipunctella and flavescentella. Unlikely here are Myrmedosela because Formica rufa is become decadent, the northern Tinea arcuatella and picarella and confusella, southern T. simplicella, Celestica and Talceporia Staintoni, western Tinea albicomella, Monopis Weaverella, Meessia Richardsoni and Ischnoscia.] Family 1444.




Beaten from birch bushes in Blythburgh Wood on 23 May 1936 (Morley). 1445.



Common in Assington Thicks, Bentley Woods and about Foxhall, Monks Soham, Flixton, &c. very general. 1446.



Discovered by Dr. Whittingham at Westerfeld during 1934-5. 1447.



Bentley Woods on 15 June 1897 and later, Benhall, at Monks Soham light, and in May 1929 at Brandon (Mly). 1448. L. PR/ELATELLA, Schif. Discovered to occur among wild-strawberry (Hocking), about 1900. 1449.





In Monks Soham paddock on 5 June 1937 (Morley). 1450.


Found to occur in the Bishop's garden at Ipswich during 1934 (Trans, ii, p. clix). Cavenham in June 1936 (Gd). 1451.




Beaten from sallow in Staverton Thicks on 4 June 1931 (Morley). [Of the 11 British species of LAMPRONIID^E, we now claim 8. But Incurvaria pectinea is merely local on birch, as are Lampronia capitella on current, pubicornis on the Dunwich-rose and tenuicornis on birch.]



Family 1452.




Distinctly local; among Ballota nigra. Ipswich (Garrett) ; several imagines in Bramford marshes on hemlock in July 1894-9 (Mly); Orford in July 1902 (Gibbs); Aldeburgh (Hele) and one taken there (Ctw). 1453. N. MINIMELLA, Zell. Several imagines taken on and about Angelica sylvestris flowers in Barnby Broad during August 1898 (Morley). 1454 & 1455.








Both ocurred in small numbers upon the above flowers, growing among Scabious, in Fritton marsh during August 1936 (Doughty, Morley). The former from our Breck sands (Ent. 1886, 79). 1456. N. DEGEERELLA, Linn. By no means generally distributed. Records are confined to Bentley Woods in June 1894-1935, Fritton and (Doughty) Barsham. Thnb. Discovered in April 1936 to occur sparingly on sallows in Herringfleet marshes; both sexes there April 1937 (Morley). 1457.


1458. A. VIRIDELLA, Scop. Flying in delightful fairy evolutions at outstanding twigs throughout May in every wood from Assington to Fritton and Brandon ; Tostock (Tuck).

Found appear to a Century turned it

1459. A. CRCESELLA, Scop. (Sulzella, Schf.). in Suffolk (Steph. Illust. 1834, p. 230). Does not have been noticed in the County since recorded ago from Wrentham by Curtis : until Dr. Whittingham up at the opposite extremity, Mildenhall, in 1907.

1460. A . RUFIMITRELLA, Scop. Discovered to be of common occurrence in Barnby Broad on 18 May 1905, and again there in August 1908 (Mly); Ampton and Timworth (Nurse, Ent. 1911, 221).

1461. A. FIBULELLA, Schiff. Foxhall, Bramford and Shrubland Park in May and June 18961904 ; probably general, several in Parham Wood in 1934 (Mly); abundant on flowers of Veronica champaedrys near Bradwell church in early June 1935 (Doughty).






Monks Sobam garden ; Assington Thicks in 1899, and always frequent in Bentley Woods in May, especially abundant there in early May 1935 (Mly); Ipswich in 1930-5 (Whit.); Beccles ( D ) ; Fritton Lake in June 1937 (Baker). 1463.




Bentley Woods, Dodnash, Ipswich, Butley, Blaxhall, Parham Wood, Monks Soham, Weston. 1464.



Discovered at Hopton near Gorleston so recently as 1931, also at Beccles and Gorleston in May 1931-3 (Doughty). 1465.



Found to occur with us at Beccles, after 1890 (Dr. Crowfoot, Trans, i, 35). Family 1466.




Found abundantly about hawthorn at Newmarket (Warren). 1467.



Haw. (ruficap., Haw).

Doubtless very numerous everywhere on oak trunks. Rarely observed on Monks Soham windows in mid-May (Morley); on oaks at Tuddenham (Warren). 1468. N. BASIGUTTELLA, Hein. A local species, occurring in Breck at Tuddenham (Warren). 1469.

N . ANOMALELLA, G ö z e .

Among roses at Glemham Magna (Bloomf); Lowestoft (Boyd). 1470.


Tuddenham, where it is very local, before 1890 (Warren). 1471. N. OXYACANTHELLA, Staint. Local among whitethorn in the Breck at Tuddenham (Warren). 1472.

N . AURELLA, Staint.

At abundant kind in bramble-leaves. Very numerous on oaks in Bentley Woods (Trans, ii, p. clxxvi); Foxhall in April (Morley); Leiston (Grey).



1473. N . ALNE'IELLA, Staint. Several on Monks Soham windows on 14 August 1937 (Mly). 1474. N . Common at Glemham

Staint. before 1890 (Bloomfield).



1475. N. PLAGICOLELLA, Staint. Found at Rendham (Bloomfield); and among blackthorn at Lowestoft (Boyd). 1476.




Occurs locally, in the Breck round Brandon (Warren). 1477.




Found with the last species at Brandon (Warren). 1478.




Bentley Woods in 1898 (Pyett); among birch at Leiston (Grey) one Walking on aspen-bark at Southwold 9 July 1900 (Morley). 1479.




Among beech at Glemham Magna (Bloomfield). 1480.




An abundant kind among roses. Assington Thicks in early June 1899, and frequent in Monks Soham garden in August (Morley); Hacheston (Harker). 1481.




Observed only in a gravel-pit on Southwold Common September 1910 (Morley, Trans, i, 37). 1482.




A scarce species, tunnelling galleries in oak-leaves. near Bungay (Crutwell). 1483.






Very local among poplar at Brandon in the Breck (Warren). 1484.




Found at Ipswich about 1900 (Pyett); in profusion on oaktrunks at T u d d e n h a m before 1890 (Warren). 1485. TRIFURCULA IMMUNDELLA, Zell. Generally quite a common kind among broom, where it occurs at Brandon (Barrett).





A very local species, amongst alder in August. Lowestoft (EMM. 1888, p. 187) and Fritton (Boyd); Barnby Broad in 1908 and Shipmeadow marshes in cop. during August 1935 (Morley). [Many of our NEPTICULIDJE records still rest upon Mr. W. Warren of Cambridge's attention before 1890 : indeed but one species has been added since the publication of Bloomfield's Suffolk Lepidoptera, for neither Dr. Whittingham not Mr. Hayward will venture to determine such obscure insects. Hence no more than a score can be claimed for Suffolk out of the 71 British species ; and it were vain to indicate those we lack when names cannot be attached to our material awaiting identification. Here is work to the hand of some keen-eyed youngster.] Family


1487. HEPIALUS HECTUS, Linn. Very frequent in all bracken districts. Always abundant in Bentley Woods at dusk (Baylis); Copdock (Hkg); Sudbury (Ransom); ' very common in woods near Stowmarket' (Nat. 1858, 60); Beccles, Bury, West Stow, Newmarket. None at Monks Soham.





Quite common everywhere from Bentley Woods to Gorleston. Frequently at Monks Soham light in June and late May. *1489.




Eye in August 1859 (Tyrer, Entom. Weekly vii, p. 43 : cf. Trans, i, 31). 1490.





Fairly frequent, but by no means general. Not uncommon round Stowmarket (Nat. 1858, p. 60); both sexes occasional at Monks Soham light; Gorleston ; Barton Mills in August (Mly). 1491.




Quite common throughout the entire County: Bentley Woods, One house, Monks Soham, &c. Family MICROPTER 1492.




' I believe I have taken this in Dodnash Wood' (W. H. Harwood, 1900); beaten in April 1934-6 from birch-bushes in Bentley Woods and Polyporus betulinus in Blythburgh Wood (Morley).




213 Haw.

In the utmost profusion from 6 April to 11 May, especially on 25 April 1932 when it seemed to be sitting on every bush in Bentley Woods ; Barham, Coddenham, &c. (Morlev) ; Tuddenham and Brandon (Warren). 1494.

E. SANGI, W o o d .

Dunwich in April 1937, by Dr. Whittingham. 1495.




Bentley in May 1896 (Pyett), quite common there, at Barham and Monks Soham ; Tuddenham Fen in May 1930 (Morley). 1496.



Several beaten from birch-bushes in Bentley Woods on 15 April 1933 (Morley); Blythbro Wood on 26 March 1936 (Goddard). 1497.




Abundant, Aying by dav about oak-trees, in Bentley Woods (Baylis); Sutton Heath in 1934-5 (Whit.); Aspall Wood, Butley and Coddenham. Wrentham in 1936 (Gd). Brandon (Warren) • Barton Mills in 1916 (Morley). 1498.



Local in May, on oak-trunks at Assington Thicks in 1902 and on bushes at Raydon Wood in 1933 (Morley). 1499.

M. ARUNCELLA, Scop. (seppella, F.).

Taken singly at Bentley and Belstead (Pyett); in the utmost profusion on umbelliferous flowers at Covehithe on 12 July 1897 (Morley). In speedwell flowers at Tuddenham (Warren). 1500.

M . CALTHELLA, L i n n .

Quarrelsomely jostling each other for the possession of every marsh-marigold and cuckoo flower throughout the County in May.

1501. (247«).



Three or four specimens, all within twenty yards though I searched several similar spots, at light in Blythburgh on 25 June 1937 (P. J. Burton).






A Single example at Street lamp in Lowestoft on 27 October 1937 (Mitton, in coli. Gd). 1503.




Felixstow in July 1937 (Dr. Whittingham). 1504.




Discovered at Ipswich in 1937 (Dr. Whittingham). 1505.




Taken upon palings in Brandon on 23 July 1937 (Morley).

END.—1 Nov. 1937.

Profile for Suffolk Naturalists' Society

The Lepidoptera of Suffolk  

Final Catalogue of the Lepidoptera of Suffolk (The Moths and Butterflies of the County) Edited by Claude Morley Published November 1937

The Lepidoptera of Suffolk  

Final Catalogue of the Lepidoptera of Suffolk (The Moths and Butterflies of the County) Edited by Claude Morley Published November 1937

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