Subdigital 2021

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Subdigital Materializing the digital age


Subdigital Materializing the digital age


We are Subdigital In our studio we embrace the power of computation to create architecture, design and art. We produce sophisticated material objects that embody our client’s vision.



Our team We are a team of architects, designers and programmers, who believe that the design of things around us should reflect contemporary society, art, science and technology. We participate in academic research, collaborate and teach at universities. This constantly offers us new perspectives on our projects which is something we also benefit from in our studio practice. We connect academia with the business world.

Michaela Krpalová

Kristýna Uhrová

Ján Tóth



Software development

Lucia Dubačová Art & Culture

Pavol Truben Graphic design

Ondrej Slinták Software development

Eva Blšáková Product development

Anna Cséfalvay Design & Craft

Petra Rjabinin Photography

Martin Kossuth UX design

Michalea Lipková Product design

Specializes in generative and parametric architecture and design, software develop‐ ment and creation of interactive art instal‐ lations. He graduated from FA SUT (2007), and AFAD (2008), Slovakia and studied at Arkitekturskolan KTH (2003), Sweden, Die Angewandte (2011), Austria and UMPRUM (2019), Czechia.

Ján Pernecký

He established the rese arch research platform, has organized dozens of confe‐ rences, workshops, and lectures across Europe. He was the creator of the Slovak and Czech pavilion at 13th exhibition of architecture at La Biennale di Venezia (2012). He runs the global learning platform called rese arch Sessions which is used by universities and professionals worldwide. He is active in the international scene of the industry; teaches architecture, parame‐ tric design and programming at several universities and independent events; lectures and publishes works about theory of architecture. He co-founded the Subdi‐ gital creative studio (2016), whose team applies knowledge and skills gained from experimental and academic projects.

Specializes in architecture, computational design, arts, research and teaching. His acti‐ vities are linked by his interest in generative and parametric design tools, digital fabrica‐ tion and contemporary computational concepts. He graduated from FA SUT, Bratislava (2014) and studied at ETSAM, Madrid (2012) and CITA KADK, Copenhagen (2016). He is active in research, teaches architecture as a PhD. candidate at FA SUT and is a member of the rese arch platform (2015). He is involved in academic projects, publishes his research, leads workshops and delivers lectures on computational design and architecture.

Tomáš Tholt

He co-founded the Subdigital creative studio (2016), whose team applies know‐ ledge and skills gained from experimental and academic projects.



How do we work? Each of our projects is unique. We avoid repetition and prefer innovation; we look for new methods and use the most up-to-date technologies. Our projects are based on data. We collect, analyze, and creatively process data to reveal the relations and contexts of today’s world. At the end of the day, we bring what many could not even imagine at the beginning. Digital technologies bring new ideas and possibili‐ ties into the creative process and thus shift the boundaries of design. We use algorithms to come up with unique concepts and try to get the most out of current manufacturing technolo‐ gies. When we choose our materials, we do not only look at their properties but also examine the emotions they evoke witch each touch. We collaborate with a network of trusted suppliers, who are the renowned professionals in their fields. We want to make sure you can rely on us. Our work does not end with project delivery. We are ready to update, transport and fully service each of our outputs to prolong its lifetime. It all begins with our client’s vision and intention. We strive to transform it into the material world so that it is easier to present, understand or directly apply. We seek to exceed our clients’ expectations with the solutions we offer. Our work starts with transforming an idea into an abstract designer concept. Then we collect data and program algorithms. We turn them into a material piece of art that we can touch and interact with to make our client’s idea more acces‐ sible.

Fabrica tion te chnolog ies

re ectu rchit nd a gn a desi

Digital techno logies















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parametric software deign computing































With the parametric design approach, most of the time is spent on the creation of the parametric software and data collection. Having proper input data is crucial as it drives the entire design process. With a slight change of input data and parameters, we can automatically produce a multitude of output proposals and evaluate their fitness, if necessary. Then, we select one or more versions and the software will automatically generate data for digital fabrication, which means that the project documentation is done by one computer for another computer. It is possible to generate and even produce a lot of unique versions of the same design.

fabrication Parametric design enables the emergence of the unseen. We can keep control over incredibly complex projects and shapes and use the software tools to break them down into comprehensive parts and steps. It also enables us to generate hundreds or even thousands of alternative viable solutions. This way we can pick the best-suited solution and deliver customized and unique products to multiple customers. In the conventional design process, the designer iterates overgradually works with several design proposals manually before reaching the desired outcome. This is time-consu� ming and requires a great amount of concentration in order to meet all expectations. Within such process, the project documentation is created by one person for another person.




production Subdigital



01 Interactive presentation objects

15 EUROVEA TOWER MODEL An interactive model of the first Slovak skyscraper.

23 ELIBA MODEL Animated urban map of public transport in Bratislava, Slovakia.

31 BRATISLAVA 2022 MODEL Interactive urban model of Bratislava, Slovakia.

41 SECTION MODEL Presentation tool of the future bus station, shopping mall and office building.

47 VARSO PLACE MODEL Interactive urban model of downtown Warsaw, Poland.


02 Architecture, exhibitions, and design

55 HUMAN BY DESIGN Architectural solution of an exhibition presenting social and methodological innovation in design.

61 EDDYPARK Design depository of rehabilitation equipment for office space.

65 F*CK THEM ORTHOSES Design of high-performance aesthetically pleasing splint.

71 FORCE FIELD Parametric stage design for a social event.

75 FLAKE 3D puzzle – a presentation gift.

03 Parametric design support

81 GRASSHOPPER We are experts in the field of computati‐ onal design and parametric software for architecture and design

83 STAND-ALONE SOFTWARE We deliver software solutions for complex design and architecture tasks.

85 INTERACTIVE INSTALLATIONS We produce interactive installations and support creative art projects.



01 Interactive presentation objects We materialize visions into advanced design objects.


EUROVEA TOWER MODEL An interactive model of the first skyscraper in Slovakia Bratislava is getting ready for its new landmark. A new skys� craper is emerging on the of the river Danube next to the Eurovea shopping mall. The apartment sale began along with the excavation works. The property developer needed a powerful marketing and communication tool: a sculpture, an architectural model that would not only represent the shape of the building but also provide extra information using animations and lighting.

Client: JTRE Year: 2019 Type: Interactive model Stage: Design and implementation Foto: Petra Rjabinin


Assignment Our client JTRE was looking for an attractive marketing tool to present their upcoming project, Eurovea Tower. It was supposed to serve as a support tool for selling the 350 apartments in the emerging building. We realized that the first skyscraper in the country deserves more than just a downscaled model. We started to create a sculpture, a piece of art representing timeless� ness, luxury and technological superi� ority of the architecture itself.

Technological solution From the very beginning, we saw the object as a slender iconic monument reaching high in the sky. We employed its vertical ribs crossing the layers of horizontal floors as a dominant visual trait. We wrapped the internal core of the model with a custom-made LED display so that it can be used for presentations with animated visual effects. This allows us to highlight individual apartments or entire floors and immerse the building into ambient effects simulating sky conditions and weather moods. The effects are being generated by our custom software engine and controlled by an iPad app with a user-friendly interface.

A marketing tool supporting the sales of 350 luxurious apartments.

Materials We chose the materials so that they meet our durability expectations and match the overall feel of a luxurious art piece – a sculpture. The main frame, laser-cut from sheet steel, is complemented with glass and acrylic parts. Thanks to rigorous parametric computational design and precise digital fabrication, we were able to clear the model from excessive tech� nical details. Each piece falls perfectly into its place and the entire model can be put together like a giant game of Tetris.

Transportability Convenient transportability was a crucial requirement for the model. As a marketing tool, it travelled to several trade fairs, exhibitions, and showrooms. It was possible thanks to a simple disassembly and assembly process. We equipped the model with transportation cases, protecting all its parts including electronics, small and fragile parts and contact surfaces with delicate finish.

The model is controlled via an intuitive app, that triggers animated highlighting of individual apartments and their groups, as well as filtering and highlighting based on parameters such as number of bedrooms, area, availability or price.

Subdigital / Presentation objects / EUROVEA TOWER MODEL



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Features 1

The presenter can highlight specific apartments, filter them according to various parameters, such as number of bedrooms, area, availability or price.


For a complete immersive experi� ence, it is possible to apply ambient effects simulating daylight, night sky, sun reflecting in the facade, clouds and more.


The surroundings of the buildings are visually simplified. The infra� structure and adjacent buildings are indicated in simple flat shapes, which lets the dominant tower stand out.


The elegant plinth is made of horizontal boards and a group of inclined pillars, inspired by the intertwined roots that support the building. They are parametri� cally optimized so that they appear like a complicated tangle although they were assembled from simple elements. Every detail matters.


The model consists 46 modules corresponding to the individual floors, which makes it simple to assemble, transport and maintain.




Subdigital / Presentation objects / EUROVEA TOWER MODEL


Material and implementation • laser-cut steel frame • glass and acrylic detailing • apartments underlit with addres‐ sable RGB LED pixels • steel plinth with a parametrically optimized structure of pillars • iPad controller app • transportation cases

Technical specifications • 46 floors • 3,500 pieces • 5,000 LED pixels • width 2,000mm / 6’ 7” • length 3,000mm / 9’ 10” • height 2,000mm / 6’ 6”



The floor modules are stacked one on top of another along the central core. The core also houses power and data wiring so that they are properly hidden. Individual parts are put together either by a simple click or with small bolts so that the model forms a single firm piece. The number of elements forming the model requires the fabrication precision to fractions of a millimeter.

IXPO 2019, Bratislava, Slovakia The largest festival of technology in Slovakia where the model was displayed publicly for the first time. Days of Architecture and Design 2019, Bratislava, Slovakia Public exhibition in the courtyard of the city hall. Nuit Blanche 2019, Bratislava, Slovakia Enhanced with a special interactive animated game created at the event of the famous festival of light. JTRE showroom, Bratislava, Slovakia The model became a permanent centerpiece of a showroom for a major property developer.

Subdigital / Presentation objects / EUROVEA TOWER MODEL


ELIBA MODEL Animated urban map of public transport in Bratislava, Slovakia. Cities are filled with of difficult mechanisms and situations. Even if just a single part of the urban structure is about to change, it is important to have a powerful tool to present the impacts. The animated urban model for our client JTRE shows in detail a new tram line and its vicinity. It simulates the traffic conditions and at the same time it immerses the spectator into the pulsating city with its futuristic design and spectacular holographic rendering.

Client: JTRE Year: 2018 Type: Animated urban model Stage: Design and production Foto: Petra Rjabinin


Assignment Our client needed a strong tool for presenting a radical vision of a new tram line. A tool that would attract enough attention, meet high techno� logical standards, work with real urban and traffic data and look like the vision of the future itself.

Technological solution We made the model into a detailed pulsating miniature of the city with all its important urban details. It simulates the actual and also future movement of public transport. The holographic effect creates an attractive futuristic illusion combined with the spatial rendering of the urban fabric.

Materials The load-bearing structure is made of steel pipe frames generated by a parametric software. This way we achieved an intricate shape similar to a railway infrastructure while preser‐ ving the solidness of the bearing structure. The projection screen consists of layers of acrylic boards into which layers of the city are engraved. The animation of the infra‐ structure runs on an 84” 4K display placed underneath.

The model’s purpose is to display transport

Hologram Our version of a hologram is made of 15 layers of maps engraved directly into transparent acrylic boards. We layered them and thus created an effect of an impressive spatial projection screen. The animation projected on it can display various scenarios for the future of the city’s public transport and enables our client to present their planned inter‐ ventions and their impact on the existing urban structure.

lines and demonstrate the impact of the new tram line proposed by the property developer. Our version of the hologram gained its depth with the layers of acrylic boards thanks to which it immerses the spectator right into the city map.

Transportability and updatability The model is easy to disassemble and you can safely transfer it to various locations in its transportation cases. We can remotely update the scena‐ rios displayed on the screen based on the most recent input data.

vSubdigital / Presentation objects / ELIBA MODEL







The unique technology of the hologram allows to showcase buildings and topography of the city in real depth.


The animated underlighting depicts various urban situations in the capital city.


The map is complemented with an animated contextual area including a mini map of the surrounding region and information about the displayed features.


All elements are manufactured with the emphasis on detail precision.


The holographic effect is achieved by 15 layers of engraved acrylic panels.


The current animation of the model shows a plan of the future tram line at the riverbank in Bratislava, Slovakia.


vSubdigital / Presentation objects / ELIBA MODEL


Technical specifications

Material and production

• 20 km2 / 8 mi2 of the city

• steel plinth

• animated rendering of public transport in 4K resolution

• 15 layered engraved acrylic panels

• current, planned and optional public transport lines in simple diagrams

• powerful minicomputer

• width 1,300mm / 4’ 3” • length 2,100mm / 6’ 10” • height 700mm / 2’ 4”

The plinth is designed using custom parametric software.

• 84” 4K display • transportation case

The model can be updated and serviced regularly. It is easy to disassemble and transport.

PUBLIC PRESENTATION: Days of Architecture and Design 2019, Bratislava Publicly accessible in the Primates´ Palace Placed as a centerpiece in several office buildings in Bratislava, Slovakia (Tower 115, Panorama Bussiness, Landererova 12 Bussiness)

Subdigital / Presentation objects / ELIBA MODEL


BRATISLAVA 2022 MODEL Interactive urban model of Bratislava, Slovakia

How can we present the largest real estate development project in Europe (according to the Property EU chart) and explain its connection to its surroundings using a single model? We combined our architectural experi� ence, urban data and software solutions in a unique large-scale model, offering an immersive technological experience of architecture and everyday life in the capital city of Slovakia.

Client: HB Reavis Year: 2018 Type: Interactive model Stage: Design and production Foto: Matej HakĂĄr


Assignment HB Reavis approached us requesting us to create an interactive model of Bratislava that would help them present their current and future real estate development projects. We took the challenge to combine

a spatial model with a software solution in a way that enables to show the current city together with a vision of its future.

v Software solution Three large high-resolution displays underneath the transparent urban model show an interactive animation of the city. The animation renders buildings, roads, the river, parks, as well as cars, buses, trams, pede‐ strians and even trees at their real positions. The iPad controller makes it possible to highlight supermarkets, offices, restaurants, cafés, bus stops and specific developments of the client – HB Reavis. You can also high‐ light entrances, access roads and paths to the client’s buildings from various directions. All such effects are fully animated and it is possible to combine them according to one’s wishes. The map also includes a detailed text and imagery as a legend to the currently high‐ lighted urban features. A companion screen shows a slideshow of images and videos related to the selected map effects. The model can switch between more languages and live data is being automatically updated. The client can edit and update text, graphics and effects features remotely over the internet.

We pay attention to every single detail. For instance, the iPad controller has a metal plate with a HB Reavis logo on it and you can insert it into a charging cradle engraved directly into the model frame. It is held in place by a strong hidden magnet.

Service and modularity When designing the model, we already considered its transportabi‐ lity, simple servicing and update possibilities. All of that is a natural part of our delivery. This model comes with custom-made transportation cases, which make it possible to transport it even on long distances abroad.

This model serves as a presenting tool for the properties in the Nove Nivy area and the entire new downtown of Bratislava, Slovakia, housing over 70 new companies with 33.000 seats and 14.000 new residents.

Thanks to our modular solution, it is possible to modify and update parts of the software, hardware, plinth and even the urban model itself. Our client gets a product that is easy to maintain and keep constantly up-todate.

Subdigital / Presentation objects / BRATISLAVA 2022 MODEL




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The model features 175 animated effects.


Features 1

Advanced highlighting of entire urban districts and blocks.


Client’s buildings can be high‐ lighted individually.


Animated patterns of recreati‐ onal areas, parks, playgrounds, and sports areas.


Displays accessibility on foot, main arterial roads and entrances for cars and cargo.


Simulations of public transport, railways and waterways in their realistic trajectories and timeta‐ bles.


It is possible to highlight important buildings, such as offices, post offices or schools.


The small models of physical buil‐ dings are clustered into urban blocks, which allows to update each district separately whenever there is a new building announced.


Subdigital / Presentation objects / BRATISLAVA 2022 MODEL



v Technological solution

The model consists of a plinth hiding several computers and other equip‐ ment securing the computation power to run a smooth data anima‐ tion in 3 x 4K resolution. The central load-bearing part is made of steel legs. We have opti‐ mized their shape and position using a parametric software. The screen consisting of three 4K displays is set into the frame made of receding layers of wood, glass, and steel. Hence, the top part of the model looks slender and pure. The model has become a centerpiece of the headquarters (Top Office of 2020) of the largest property developer in Slovakia.

Technical specifications • width 1,600 mm / 5’ 3” • length 2,800 mm / 9’ 2” • height 700 mm / 2’ 4” • weight 350 kg / 770 lbs • 3 x 65” display • 25 million pixels • 175 animated effects

Material and production • 3D model made of acrylic and poly‐ urethane • 3D print, laser cutting, CNC milling • plinth made of steel, glass, and wood • transportation cases

The buildings placed on the screens

All parts of the model come in

are made of materials with similar

transportation cases, which make it

visual qualities and are elaborated

easy to move to it to another location.

in high detail.

• 1,195 buildings • 14 km2 / 5.5 square miles of road system • 2,500 cars • 200 busses, trams and trains • 5,000 pedestrians

Subdigital / Presentation objects / BRATISLAVA 2022 MODEL


PUBLIC PRESENTATION: MAPIC 2017, 2018, 2019 Cannes, France Real estate fair with 8,000 guests, 240 retail chain repre� sentatives, 2,000 property developers, and 1,000 investors from around the world (one of a kind model at the fair). Days of Architecture and Design 2018, Bratislava, Slovakia Exhibited at a public courtyard of the city hall. Lobby HB Reavis, Bratislava, Slovakia This permanent centerpiece welcomes the visitors of the client’s headquarters.

Subdigital / Presentation objects / BRATISLAVA 2022 MODEL


SECTION MODEL A schematic section of the future bus station, shopping mall and office tower. Take a bus to arrive directly at your work, have a coffee in a coffee shop, do your shopping and run your errands at the same place and even go for a jog on a green roof. All of that within a single building. These are the benefits which HB Reavis needed to communicate about their new develop‐ ment project – Stanica Nivy. A simplified section with a playful design proved to be an ideal form of presentation as well as a decent decoration wherever it was showcased.

Client: HB Reavis Year: 2017 Type: Animated model Stage: Design and production Foto: Lenka Cisárová


Assignment A new bus station integrated into a shopping mall and an office building is emerging in Bratislava. The developer, HB Reavis, needed to explain and emphasize the wide variety of services and uses offered by their new property. Our assign�

ment was to create an attractive object presenting these benefits, using a jaunty animation placed into the schematic section of the building.


Technological solution The project is built around a 75” screen playing an animation divided into 3 segments – 3 views of one story. The screen is covered with a layer of engraved plywood, which adds depth to the storytelling and aims the focus on the animation. The hardware equipment is hidden to prevent distraction, but at the same time it underlines the technologically advanced level of the model.

Material and production A discreet, yet eye-catching detail.

We used parametric software to shape the cut-outs. The individual openings have been milled as a spatial relief, which enabled us to create some depth. We created a strong structure of exuberant shapes and details while preserving a soft and delicate feel. We chose refined natural materials which complement the animation, are pleasant to touch and express the values and aesthetics of the building designed by a London-based studio, Benoy.

Maintenance and modularity

The animated section comes with

The lower part of the screen is

a mount, which is solid enough although

subtly branded with the project’s

it seems delicate and airy. It is visually

logo, engraved into the wooden

pleasing from all angles, so it is possible

board and underlit through

to use it as a centerpiece or hang it on

the veneer.

The model was delivered in a trans‐ portation case. We can easily trans‐ port it, hang it on the wall, build it into a cladding or place it self-stan‐ ding in the middle of a room. Just like any other model we made, this one can be easily updated and we provide its regular maintenance.

a wall. The product can be easily transported and installed in various environments with no need for disassembly and calibration.

Subdigital / Presentation objects / SECTION MODEL


Technical specifications

Material and production

• Depth 80 mm / 3.14”

• Engraved veneer plywood

• Width 1,800 mm / 5’ 11”

• Steel mount

• Height 1,200 mm / 3’ 11”

• 75” 4K display

• Weight 35 kg / 77 lbs.

• 5 min animation • Transportation case

The animation tells a story about Tony, a fictional architect, whose studio is in the office building above the bus station. In the morning, Tony arrives directly into the building by bus. He buys breakfast in a café and leaves for work. In the afternoon, he meets his family, they go shopping and Tony gets his daily run on the green roof of the building. His entire daily routine is thus satisfied at one place.

We designed the shapes of the individual openings with a parametric software. The wooden board is CNC milled according to digital input files, thanks to which we had full control over the shapes and varying inclinations of the cutouts. We achieved an exuberant, yet elegant overall expression.

PUBLIC PRESENTATION: MAPIC 2017, 2018, 2019 Cannes, France Real estate fair with 8,000 guests, 240 retail chain repre‐ sentatives, 2,000 property developers, and 1,000 investors from around the world. Days of Architecture and Design 2018, Bratislava, Slovakia Exhibited at Archa Gallery, primate’s palace. Since 2017 Lobby HB Reavis, Bratislava, Slovakia As a permanent installation at the client’s headquarters.

Subdigital / Presentation objects / SECTION MODEL


VARSO Interactive urban model of downtown Warsaw, Poland Getting detailed urban data from a foreign city is not a problem for us. For example, for the interactive model of Warsaw, Poland, we modeled all the buildings in high detail and simulated realistic urban flows, inclu‐ ding individual traffic and public transport with real timetables. We took the effort to make it possible to efficiently present one of the most important property development projects of these years in the entire Europe – Varso Place, which includes the tallest building in the EU – the Varso Tower (310 m / 1017’).

Client: HB Reavis Year: 2016 Type: Interactive model Stage: design and production


Assignment Our client, HB Reavis, is building the EU’s tallest building in Warsaw, Poland. Varso Place consists of two lower buildings with 21 and 19 floors and a 53-floor high tower designed by a renowned architecture office – Foster + Partners. Our aim was to create a model that would depict the public amenities in and around the Varso Place project.

Technological solution The model consists of two layers: a 75” 4K screen and transparent high-resolution 3D models. We added another 85” screen displaying detailed information about the public amenities around the highlighted buildings.

Service The model comes automatically with a simple updatability and emergency service throughout the entire lifetime of the project.

Models are made in high detail thanks to precise 3D printing.

Software solution The transparent model is underlit by an interactive animation, which high‐ lights buildings, locations, or public transport lines. The presentation guide can select any of these features via an iPad application and this way present the Varso Place buildings, as well as traffic hubs in the vicinity or the direct connection with the Warsaw airport, railway station and bus station. The iPad controller can be used to highlight Individual buildings, supermarkets, or public transport lines. Detailed information about the selected features is shown on a context screen next to the model.

Subdigital / Presentation objects / VARSO MODEL






Technical specifications

Features 1

You can select entire city blocks or individual buildings to be high‐ lighted in full-color animations.


The Varso Place can be high‐ lighted and presented individu‐ ally.


It is possible to display various functional zones, recreational areas, parks, playgrounds and sports areas.


The software simulates public transport in its real timelines and shows real-time departures from nearby stations.


The animation can highlight important public amenities, such as office buildings, post offices, schools, but also restaurants or cultural facilities.


The model is controlled via an iPad app and additional informa‐ tion is displayed on an external context screen.

• Width 1,100 mm / 3’ 7” • Length 1,800 mm / 5’ 11” • Height 900 mm / 2’ 11” • Weight 100 kg / 220 lbs

Material and production • plinth made of lacquered wood and stainless steel • 75” 4K display • 400 buildings 3D printed in high detail • 40 animation effects • iPad controller application • external context screen



The model displays underground metro lines.

Subdigital / Presentation objects / VARSO MODEL


02 Architecture, exhibitions & design We work with architecture, design and implement product design, stage design and complex exhibition solutions with added value.


HUMAN BY DESIGN Architectural solution of an exhibition presenting social and methodological innovation in design. Architecture, design and arts have more in common than meets the eye. The assignment for an exhibition project of the Slovak design center combined all three areas. This resulted in a solution of an exhibition space that contri� buted to the discussion about innovative approaches to design. Parametric design enabled the production of complex structures while optimizing the amount of the used material. Client: Slovak design center Year: 2019 Type: Exhibition architecture Stage: Design and production Photo: Petra Rjabinin


About the exhibition The exhibition’s title (Human by Design) refers to the role design plays in the adaptation of the man to changing circumstances and in the survival of humankind. More and more often we hear about the need for a change in the way we see our society and environment. Design is also dealing with these questions. It strides away from commercial product design and prefers ecological

and economical concepts that reflect the need for sustainability. The exhi� bition presents social and methodo� logical innovation design ideas through the works of contemporary designers, architects and artists across Europe.

Concept The exhibits approach the theme of the exhibition in many ways. We created a single family of exhibition platforms to present various objects, photographs, textile collection as well as films or software. We strived to propose a system which would unite the subdivided space of the exhibition and let the exhibits stand out at the same time. An organic lands‐ cape of cells made of the exhibition panels with varying shapes and dimensions was created. We embraced the spirit of the exhibition – modularity and repeated use – and applied it to the exhibition premises. The panels were created with para‐ metric procedures in order to respect the scope of the exhibits as well as to the space of the gallery.

Design process We assigned size, tilt, and height to each cell in relation to its position and role in space. Using our own parame‐ tric design software, we generated the top wooden boards together with their steel bases. The shape and distribution are visually complicated, but at the same time optimized for the efficient use of material while maintaining maximum load capacity.

We used parametric software to generate the display panels and their plinths. We approached the plinths as a formal experiment – round shapes of the cells fitting each other are in contrast with a forest of thin sharp inclined legs with no regularity or order. Despite that, they were optimized for structural and material The panels were designed as the cells of one

efficiency. Although they create a well-matching

organism. Their tilt and size were subordinate to

puzzle, all exhibition platforms are unique with

an imaginary wavy surface formed by several

their size, inclination and height meeting

interlocking polygonal segments.

the needs of the exhibit placed on their top.

Subdigital / Architecture, exhibitions & design / HUMAN BY DESIGN


Technological solution We provided the production of the exhibition system, milling, laser cutting and welding of materials, as well as the graphics and print of the information system. We transported and installed the exhibition into the gallery. The delivery also included the coordination of thirty exhibiting authors so that all parts of the whole exhibition would fit together to create an attractive and understan‐ dable project.

Material and production • 55 display panels of various sizes

We provided a turnkey solution, which in this

• milled plywood boards

case meant not only the design and

• steel bases • projectors and video players with automatic playback without inter‐ fering elements

implementation, but also data collection, communication with exhibitors, transport, installation in the exhibition space, maintenance, and disassembly. There was a great interest in the exhibition in both, Bratislava and Vienna and

• built-in tablets inside the display panels

it received positive feedback. We were very

• design ready for easy transport and reinstallation in different spaces

was presented as one of the works of

pleased that our architectural approach itself the exhibition.

We implemented diagrams, labels, and graphics directly on the material using UV printing technology. This is how we achieved the expression of a clean, naturallooking solution without disturbing interventions.

We gave the panels a finish which softened the drawing of the wood and achieved scratch resistance.

PUBLIC PRESENTATION: Galéria Satelit, 2019, Bratislava The premiere of the exhibition was in the Satellite gallery of the Slovak Design Center MAK - Museum für angewandte Kunst, 2020, Vienna The exhibition was presented in an adapted form at the Museum of Applied Arts (MAK) in Vienna

Subdigital / Architecture, exhibitions & design / HUMAN BY DESIGN


EDDYPARK Design depository of rehabilitation equipment for office spaces In modern companies, the quality of the working environment and services for employees form a part of employee benefits. Companies strive for a healthy, motivating, and pleasant envi‐ ronment that should be also representative. A healthy and satisfied employee is also a good employee. Such requirements often lead to bespoke solutions. This was also the case of Eddypark, an innovative product concept which combines an attractive depository of rehabilitation equipment with the services of physiotherapeutic mentoring provided by our client. Client: Anton Katrenčík Year: 2019 Type: Product design Stage: Design and prototype implementation Photo: Petra Rjabinin


Assignment At the beginning of the project, the client’s idea was to bring firstclass physiotherapy exercises to those office workers who would like to stay active even during working hours. Our task was to design the shape, propose the finishing materials for such tool and redefine office breaks. The result was meant

to bring a comprehensive package of exercises as a service which increases the quality of working environment. After all, it should not be merely a vbox for storing rehabilitation equipment but rather an aesthetic and active addition to the 21st century office.

Solution concept The basic requirement was the ergo‐ nomics of use. We based the model‐ ling of the form on the dimensions and way of handling and using the rehabilitation equipment. The esthetic concept was inspired by the shape and structure of the verte‐ brae. With the help of the parametric design software, we processed the ergonomic principles into a unified system. This is how we got a tool that helped us identify the most suitable form among various options. It also enabled us to modify the number, composition and types of exercise tools without having to redraw everything from scratch. The versions of Eddypark were gene‐ rated automatically with a simple modification of input parameters.

Material and production The set is made of shaped plywood sheets and recycled textile panel spacers. All unique parts are inter‐ linked and together they form an organic structure. This solution gives Eddypark special character and helps to distinguish it from similar compe‐ titors’ products. We have supported the brand identity by the boldness of the model together with the sustainable material concept and socially responsible production in a sheltered workshop.

Use Eddypark defines workplace exercise areas. It can be used for individual exercises, but an important part of the concept is a custom setting of exercises for each user through a mobile application, videos or exer‐ cises with a physically present coach.

Subdigital / Architecture, exhibitions & design / EDDYPARK



F*CK THEM ORTHOSES Design of high-performance aesthetically pleasing splint. Every cloud has a silver lining. Even an injury can act as an impulse to create an innovative product combining computational design, fashion and medical use. With parametric design approach and 3D scanning, the client became the co-author of his own medical device – a custom-made orthopaedical orthosis for his ankle joint fracture. Year: 2020 Type: Design Stage: Performative medical product design Case Study by: Tomáš Tholt (Subdigital), Eva Blšáková (Arx.ace), Michal Blažek (Photoneo3D) Coordination and idea: Eva Blšáková Concept and development: Subdigital 3D scanning: Photoneo3D 3D printing: One3D Medical advisory: Invent Medical Flame paint: Martin Mikulka (Banned Studios) Broken ankle: Michal Yaksha Novotný (F*CK THEM) Photo: Petra Rjabinin, Mafin Laurincová


Assignment When it comes to medical devices, their appearance had never been the main point of interest. Medical devices like orthoses and splints could not only reflect anatomical parame� ters and ergonomics, but also the lifestyle, preferences and taste of the user. A great design increases the acceptance of the medical device and the satisfaction of the patient and therefore also the whole effi�

ciency of the product and medical treatment. Our task was incorporation of 3D scanning and digital fabrication into our computational design process, combining our expertise with the competences of Photoneo, Invent Medical and one3D, to create a fashionable, yet high-performance product.

Material and production One3D materialized the designed structure of the splint made of solid, flexible and durable material Thanks to advanced contemporary 3D printing possibilities, we were able to work with high level of detail and aesthetic intricacy on the smallest scale. By optimizing the structure to the parameters of the material, we achieved a significant reduction of used material and printing time while maintaining all the desired properties of the splint.


Design For our studio was the splint project an interesting chance to engage our workflow into the interdisciplinary collaboration, hence to confront our work and values of us as designers with the requirements and standards of medical industry. During the whole process, Photoneo 3D Vision tested their custom tech‐ nology of the high detail scanning of a human body for medical purposes We processed the 3D scanned model, trimmed to the shape of the shell structure around the calf, heel and ankles – areas where the structure is necessary for the functionality of the splint. This shell was ready for struc‐ tural evaluation in Rhinoceros 3D and Grasshopper software. The basic concept of the design was to use physics models and simula‐ tions to evaluate the forces in the shell of the splint and the trans‐ formation of these parameters to forms. Such high-performance, visually complex and appealing detailed forms can be produced only by using the 3D printing technology. During this process we consulted the performative requirements with our partner, Invent Medical. We were able to set up the precise values for bending, stress and pressure flow, combining into one right system of forces and pressures acting on the shell of the splint, resulting in a parametric structural analysis. Based on that, we were able to generate a highly performative 3D printable shape.

Summary We created an object which combines contemporary digital aesthetics of parametric design, high-performance medical design, technologies of 3D print and 3D scan together with fashion and art. This project is a perfect example of the potential of new tools and new approaches to design. We created this unique product for F*CK THEM. Computational methods generating complex patterns, structures and materials are used for instance in sports fashion apparel (NIKE flyknit) for their performance. At the same time, they appear as concepts in haute couture for their unique contemporary visuality and artistic relevance (Iris van Herpen, Neri Oxman). This kind of contemplation between technology and art is very close to our values, so we gladly combined it with the 3D scanning and precise 3D printing to produce this high-performance fashion accessory that serves as medical device.


FORCE FIELD Parametrically designed installation Our present era is accurately referred to as the plastic age. Plastics are versatile materials with an amazing range of benefits that make them irreplaceable in the modern world. However, the use of petroleum-based plastics has serious consequences on our planet. We therefore need projects that approach these issues critically. Slovak chemists and designers under the Crafting Plastics! brand developed Nuatan, a bioplastic made only from sustainable, fully-degra� dable natural ingredients. At the event of one presti� gious social event, we created a photo wall which paid tribute to nature using this bioplastic. It was designed by parametric processes and inspired by the flow of natural forces.

Client: Crafting plastics! studio Year: 2019 Type: Design Stage: Design and prototype creation Render: s.h.e. renders


About the client Crafting Plastics! is a renowned design studio focused on the research of innovative materials and their practical application. They currently focus on the development and design of Nuatan, a bioplastic made of 100% renewable resources, which does not generate microplastics at

the moment of decomposition or contribute to the man-made climate change causes. Nuatan was precisely the material that we presented with our parametric photo wall at the prestigious social event.

Parametric design We did not try to replicate any specific natural form during the designing process. Our way of working requires a thorough under‐ standing of how a particular pheno‐ menon works, so that we can then computationally simulate it and create a novel, comprehensive, yet well-justified solution. With the help of computational tools, we can work and design at the level of simulations of natural systems - we set the forces and influences that create shapes and forms similarly to how they are created in nature. This way we have good control over every small part of a complex design form.

angle. The angles are precise and mathematically calculated to ensure that the whole result will look natural and dynamic.

Inspiring nature The phenomena of nature and para‐ metric design have many things in common. We may compare the para‐ metric generation of objects to natural forms that emerge under the influence of several external and internal forces, influence each other and form a comprehensive system. We design them indirectly by defining the forces that create them. Biopla‐ stic, which in a form of panels creates the mass of the installation, has a surface that evokes irregular natural ornaments. This is a result of the production process which involves pressing from granules of different colors and transparencies. Thanks to its degradability, this material is in line with the vision of production with a positive impact.

We created a scale model of lasercut steel plates that helps us verify if all parts fit together properly. Each part of this puzzle is rotated differently, the angle of rotation of each of the plates being defined with mathematical precision. We have absolute control over the design and production process, thanks to which the finished prototype acts dynami‐ cally and naturally and is visually intricate and rich. Just like the shapes formed by natural forces. 200

onto the structure at its own specific

Prototype production


Each part of the wall is mounted



Once we understand the phenomenon we are inspired by, it is not an issue for us to define it mathematically – not as the form itself, but as the principle that generates the form. The most interesting moment of a project is for us to transform an interesting principle into an algorithm. We can then automatically and quickly create any number of simulations and designs by simply changing the input parameters.

Subdigital / Architecture, exhibitions & design / FORCE FIELD


FLAKE 3D puzzle as a presentation gift Our way of thinking and skills associated with parametric design procedures are present across all our projects. This attitude to the tasks we face has become our main characteristic. It is also embodied in our Christmas present for our clients and friends. We created a unique puzzle which reflects the features of our creative thinking and has therefore become the bearer of the DNA of our studio.

Client: Subdigital Year: 2019 Type: Design Stage: Design and implementation 75

Assignment This object was created as a thank you gift for our colleagues, partners, and friends. We designed a small three-dimensi� onal jigsaw puzzle from two of our typically used materials where every single piece is unique. The complex

shapes of the parts demonstrate the visuality and forms we like as well as the material processing techniques we usually apply in our projects.

Inspiration by nature Parametric design The design was clearly inspired by snowflakes – not so much by their shape, even though the resulting design resembles it, but mostly by the myth that no two snowflakes are alike. This is not true in nature but the idea constituted a challenge for us. We created 400 unique puzzle pieces from two different materials, which can be combined in millions of diffe‐ rent ways (exactly 396,010,000).

Such uniqueness was again made possible by parametric design, thanks to which we were able to generate many structures in a way that each piece was different and yet they could be combined with each other. We developed a design process defined as a sequence of rules and parameters that generate shapes. The final form of such a process is not a single object but a series – a family of objects that are alike and have similar properties.

Production The creation process consisted solely of the laser cutting of all 400 pieces out of sheets of plexiglass and steel. Our clients and acquaintances always received four parts, so they had an original puzzle in their hands, which, after being assembled, turned into an ornament or a unique piece of jewelry.

Parametric design allowed us to create 100 different and unique pieces of the puzzle.

Subdigital / Architecture, exhibitions & design / FLAKE


03 Software design support We design and implement software solutions to optimize design and architectural processes in programs such as Rhinoceros & Grasshopper, Rust, Processing, and others.


GRASSHOPPER We are experts in software designed for parametric and architectural design Grasshopper (part of the CAD software - Rhinoceros) is a versatile tool – a visual programming language that has become the standard in experimental archi‐ tectural and design practice and innovative studies. It works on the principle of creating parametric and generative algorithms that produce complex geometries, but also allows the optimization of operational, material, structural, static, lighting, or environmental tasks.

Uses In practice, it is often used in the conceptual phase of architectural design, for example to design patterns and structures for facades and interior elements but also in complex urban simulations, such as traffic analyses, shading or optimiza‐ tion of building density. Advanced uses of Grasshopper include parametric modeling for structural engineering and architec‐ ture, where changing input data automatically generates a new rational and optimal solution and produces production documentation. It is also possible to generate a large number of variations and automati‐ cally select them in an optimal way according to analyzes of lighting technology, energy consumption or economic indicators.

Grasshopper Consultancy One of the services we offer is the support of parametric programs Rhinoceros and Grasshopper. We can help in the development and prepa‐ ration of tools for our client’s archi‐ tectural and engineering tasks. We can work with their internal concept team, but we can also deliver a complete turnkey solution and develop a Grasshopper script that solves a specific problem. We can provide all the skills we use in our own projects as a service to our clients.

BOID library Swarm behaviour library for Gras‐ shopper. The BOID library operates exclusively with Agent locations (Grasshopper points) and Agent motion vectors (Grasshopper vectors). Each component calculates specific motion vector based on certain Agent behavior. The vectors need to be aggregated into a compound vector and iteratively applied insode an Anemone loop. The library relies vastly on the Anemone plugin which provides loopback of the boid current loca‐ tions and motion vectors.

Subdigital / Software design support / GRASSHOPPER


STAND-ALONE SOFTWARE We create software solutions for complex design or architectural tasks.

H.U.R.B.A.N. selector

Creation of custom software solutions

Client: Slovak Design Center

Programming is an essential part of the work of architects and designers who deal with parametric design. Experience in software prototyping, parametric geometry models and generative visual systems gives us confidence in developing our own design tools. We offer the prepara‐ tion of design software and scripts as a service to our clients.

Year: 2020 Type: software solution Stage: Concept and implementa‐ tion Voxelization is a hot topic in contem‐ porary computational design. In cooperation with the Slovak Design Center, we have developed a standa‐ lone software for designers using mainly voxel algorithms for shape prototyping. This software can create a hybrid of two or more forms. To put it simply: it generates a new shape based on various different features of input shapes. Its biggest benefit is a quick responsi‐ veness to changes in settings, allowing immediate feedback. The user can therefore produce many alternative hybrid shapes in a short period of time and select the one that best suits the author’s intention.

Connecting software to hardware We also have experience with projects, the output of which is a hardware that performs motion, generates sound or images, collects data, or interacts with its environ‐ ment. We program the software for such projects, design the hardware and manufacture mechanical components.

The software works internally with voxel and mesh representation of geometries. We develop H.U.R.B.A.N. selector with the emphasis on performance and stability in the new and promi‐ sing programming language Rust.

Subdigital / Software design support / STAND-ALONE SOFTWARE



We create interactive installations and support creative projects in the fields of art, education, and exhibition practice. WALKERS Author: Júlia Jurinová Year: 2018 Type: Interactive installation Stage: Technical solution We created an interactive installation at the Main Railway Station in Bratis‐ lava for the exhibition of textile artist Júlia Jurinová. The technical solution consisted in scanning the visitors of the exhibition using a 3D scanner. We converted the obtained images into a set of points in the shape of a silhouette of characters. Such digi‐ talized versions of pedestrians were then projected on the station wall. Visitors themselves became a part of the exhibition. In this case, we used parametric software as a tool for artistic abstraction. We worked with the topic of temporality and through this idea we designed an image of an abstract situation that happened only recently. The exhibition was deliberately located on the grounds of a railway station from which Slovak Jews were transported in the 1940s. This is how we supported the message of the artwork – that hateful rhetoric against any group of population can at any point turn into open violence, even liquidation, regardless of the original intention. We honor freedom as one of the highest values. We like to communicate important social topics through new technologies.

Interactive installations We like to get involved and support meaningful projects involving art, science and technology. We can provide technical support while respecting the author’s idea, but we can also help with creating concep‐ tual projects relevant in the field of critical theories and academic practice.

Education and exhibition practice We also recognize technology as a creative educational tool. While creating creative concepts, we consider the technical solution but also the possibility of engaging the viewer in a playful manner. We have experience with delivering turnkey solutions of an exhibition but also with providing technical support for specific creative and technological problems.

Subdigital / Software design support / Interactive installations


CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF ALL OUR PROJECTS ASKING ARCHITECTURE What are the current questions in the world of architecture? We asked this while designing the concept and construc� tion of the Czechoslovak pavilion at the prestigious festival of architecture. 13th exhibition of architecture at La Biennale di Venezia. 2012 Project concept and solution Concept and production

UNDULATED FRACTAL A shape experiment for our online rese arch educational platform, used by dozens of universities and thousands of students and professionals around the world. rese arch 2015 Generative and parametric design Education and experiments

FLOCKING Boid plugin for Grasshopper simula� ting the movement of an insect swarm. rese arch 2015 Generative and parametric design Education and experiments

DDOS SIMULATION We generated the visualization of a DDOS attack as part of the corporate identity for Nethemba, a company dealing with computer security and penetration testing. Truben studio 2016 Generative and parametric design Visuals

MISBEHAVED A collection of generatively designed jewelry. We generated swarm-inspired forms using simulations in Rhinoceros and Grasshopper software and our own Boid plug-in. The jewelry is made with high-de‐ tailed 3D printing from stainless steel. Subdigital 2016 Parametric design Design, production, and exhibition

BODY OF THE LINE For the art exhibition at the Mario Mauroner Contemporary Art Gallery in Vienna, we helped with the design of an installation system anchoring the artworks in space in a precise, pre-cal‐ culated manner. Darina Kmeťová 2014 Art installation Design and production

CURVEDBOARD Design of a living room wall using para‐ metric software, which enabled us to achieve an unusual curvature in two directions. Private client 2014 Furniture design Design and production



WALKERS An interactive art installation in which the silhouettes of visitors were scanned by a 3D scanner and projected on the gallery wall as a crowd of walking figures. Júlia Jurinová 2018 Interactive installation Technical support

ROBOT For our research platform rese arch, we acquired the KUKA robotic arm for experimental purposes. The Faculty of Architec‐ ture of the Slovak Technical University provided us with the background for our research projects and for teaching inno‐ vative production methods. Over the course of four years, we have prepared 15 research, art and educational projects and workshops under our leadership or in cooperation with foreign lecturers. rese arch 2015 - 2019 Education and experiments Concept and execution

NIVY MODEL Interactive model of the development project of the Nivy bus station and its surroundings. The model demonstrates Bratis‐ lava’s urban situation and presents the client’s development intentions. HB Reavis 2015 Interactive model Design and production

VARSO MODEL An interactive urban model of the center of Warsaw, presenting the development project Varso Place and its surroundings. The model simulates the urban situa‐ tion of the city and allows our client to present their development intention. HB Reavis 2016 Interactive model Design and production

SECTION MODEL Presentation section of the future bus station, shopping center and administra‐ tive tower. It portrays the daily rhythm of users of the future Nivy center. HB Reavis 2017 Interactive model Design and production

BRATISLAVA 2022 Interactive urban model of the city of Bratislava. The model simulates the urban situation of the city and presents the client’s development intentions. HB Reavis 2018 Interactive model Design and production

ELIBA MODEL Interactive urban map of Bratislava’s public transport. The model simulates the urban situa‐ tion of the city and allows to present the client’s development intentions. JTRE 2018 Interactive model Design and production

AMBIENT TCT Technical solution of dynamic lighting on the Twin City Tower façade in the newly-emerging downtown of Bratislava. HB Reavis 2018 Light art installation Technological solution Subdigital


DNA LEVIATANA Construction of a light installation created for the Nuit Blanche festival. The object was inspired by a DNA structure helix. Pavol Truben 2018 Structural solution Design and production

EUROVEA TOWER MODEL Interactive model of the first Slovak skys‐ craper. The model allows you to present selected apartments, floors, or an offer selected through filters. JTRE 2019 Interactive model Design and production

WELCOME 1900 Unmaterialized design of a light installation for the reception of the historic building Pradiareň in Bratislava. The information display untangles into luminous fila‐ ments which are rearranged into a second display. On these projection screens, it is possible to present the past and present of the building, but also to display practical information for the visitors of the business center. Subdigital 2019 Light art installation Design COPIPE Unmaterialized design of coffee dispensers for a network of cafes in Dubai. Subdigital 2019 Design element of the cafe interior Design

BLOXELS A design proposal of universal public space furni‐ ture for the new public marketplace Nivy Market in Bratislava. The idea of modular geometrical units allows to create sitting or dining areas, market stands, stages or relax areas just by reassembling the furniture into different combinations. Tržnica Nivy 2019 Nivy Market Draft and proposal LED SLIDER Light art installation based on the movement of linear LED displays. The line made of colorful light points works as an aperture that reveals an infinite and otherwise invisible space of hidden images and patterns. They are shown as a glimmer, part by part, in a slow movement of the object. 2020 Light installation Design and production

FORCE FIELD Parametrically designed presentation object. We designed a photo-wall for a prestigious social event. It was a tribute to nature due to the use of the Nuatan bioplastic from the Crafting Plastics! Material studio. Our parametric design process was inspired by the flows and power of nature. Crafting Plastics! Studio 2019 Design Design and prototype

H.U.R.B.A.N. SELECTOR Voxelization is currently a big topic in the field of contemporary computational design. In collabo‐ ration with Slovak Design Centre, we developed a stand-alone design software using voxel algo‐ rithms for a rapid creation of form prototypes. Slovak Design Centre 2020 Software solution Concept and implementation Subdigital


EDDYPARK Eddypark is a design storage for physiotherapy workout equipment. It defines a workout zone in an office space and motivates employees for regular exercise. This attractive interior furniture piece is a part of the employee well-being service provided by our client to companies and office space providers. Anton Katrenčík 2019 Product design Design and prototype

PLANT MODEL An early stage draft proposal of an interactive multi-media presentation of a large industrial area. Subdigital 2019 Interactive model Proposal

HUMAN BY DESIGN – SATELIT, BRATISLAVA Architectural design of an exhibition focused on sustainable design concepts for Satelit Gallery, Slovakia. Slovak Design Centre 2019 Exhibition architecture Design and implementation

HUMAN BY DESIGN – MAK, VIEDEŇ Architecture and design of the exhibition on sustainable design concepts at the Museum of Applied Arts in Vienna. Slovak Design Centre 2020 Exhibition architecture Design and implementation

FLAKE 3D puzzle as a presentation gift. Using parametric software, we created more than 400 pieces of puzzle where each one is unique. Pick and combine any four of them to get a unique design decoration. Subdigital 2019 Product design Design and realization HOME OFFICE A proposed solution of a foldable homeoffice furniture. The design is appro‐ priate for homes that require an effi‐ cient use of space. The working space can be easily folded and unfolded. Subdigital 2020 Product design Design

FOAM TABLE A design of an interior furniture piece assem‐ bled from a number of spatial units. The units fit together perfectly forming a complex and visually intricate structure filling simple geometrical shapes. Subdigital 2020 Frutniture Product design

PARAMETRIC CHANDELIER A parametric concept of a hanging chandelier object. Carefully selected materials combined with a unique design process, digital precision and artisanal detailed work create an original design solution for the centerpiece of the representative area. Subdigital 2020 Product design Proposal


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