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Learn about the Domestic Affairs of the 70s During the 70s, lots of controversy regarding the Vietnam War and the environment changed the US as a whole.

Movies of the Decade Find out the biggest hits of the 70s in this magazine!


Education……………………………. 1 Fashion……………………………….. 2 Film & Theater……………………. 4 Food……………………………………. 5 Culture………………………………… 6 Sports………………………………….. 8 Music…………………………………... 9 Way We Lived…………………… 11 Government & Politics……… 12 Law & Justice…………………….. 13 Foreign Affairs…………………. 15 Domestic Affairs………………. 17 Book Review……………………… 20 Celebrity Gossip………………… 21 Fun and Games…………………. 22 Works Cited……………………….24

l a i c s e p 70 s es the d lu om c In s fr ad


In the 1970s, there was a movement called the “Open Education” movement. This movement encouraged a less formal, rigid, strict classroom and aimed to create a school in which learning is a fluid, malleable thing. The members of the “Open Education” movement believed that students should be able to move at a pace that best suits them and that they should individually create their own learning environment. This theory was unpopular at the time, and montessori schools are the only schools that have been able to achieve the ideals of the “Open Education” movement. In 1972, Congress passed the Equal Opportunity in Education Act to allow people of all genders to be allowed to attend any schools. Specifically, this permitted women to go to school seeking degrees in subjects other than nursing, teaching, and reception. In 1975, Congress passed the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, which granted disabled children free public education. Within the school itself, the way discipline issues were handled and the amount of homework given were very different when compared to today. Un until the late 1970s, children would often be chastised and punished using a wooden paddle. Additionally, studies have shown that stress due to homework has increased since the 1970s. 1


The fashion world of the 1970s consisted of bright colors and polyester. The early 1970’s was known as a fun fashion era. Both men and women wore tight fit pants with platform shoes. Women also wore high cut boots & low cut pants. In the early 1970’s, some of the 60’s best elements were brought into the 70s. Some production in the 70s ended up blending with the hippies style from the 60s. Towards the end of the era, the leisure suit, track suit, and pant suit were what every athletic person would wear. Not only that, but tunics, robes and culottes were a big trend. Most women at the time wore cowl neck sweaters and striped v-neck velour shirts. The miniskirt went out of style, and the midi was now the new “must have” item for women. Most women had to accessorize their outfits with all kinds of jewelry. The jewelry that was most popular were dog collars and chokers. Any jewelry that had stones, shells, or feathers was also a popular item. Purses and bags were worn around the arm in a mailman style. Boots were a huge item throughout the 70’s. They were sold in all shapes, sizes, and colors. By 1979, colorful clothing had gone away. Men and women wore grays, blacks, and whites due to the people becoming tired of having bright colors everywhere. 2


Star Wars: Episode IV - A New Hope is one of the most famous movies from the 1970s. The movie is about former farmboy Luke Skywalker, who is thrown into the intergalactic war between the Empire and the Rebellion. After meeting his mentor Obi Wan Kenobi, Luke receives a distress message from Princess Leia, held captive by the malevolent Darth Vader. Luke joins forces with smuggler Han Solo to rescue the princess and to defeat the Empire, returning peace and freedom to the galaxy. This movie has remained iconic since its release in 1977 and its timeless messages still remain relevant today. On a different note, the hit Grease has also captivated audiences for decades. This movie is a tale of Sandy Dumbrowski and Danny Zuko’s struggle to defy their social standings in order to remain in love. After spending a summer together at the beach, the two of them unknowingly attend the same high school. On the beach, social standing and peer pressure had no effect on their relationship, but once they return to the critical eye of high school, they must battle to stay together. This popular musical remains popular today due to its relevance to the timeless, universal struggles all teens face when trying to find out who they are.

In addition to these hits, some other well renowned films of the decade include: The Godfather, Jaws, and Rocky. 4


Some of today’s most famous food trends were created in the 1970s. In 1978, the major ice cream company Ben & Jerry’s was founded, and their first flavor was the generic vanilla. Ben & Jerry’s is still the home to many exotic and delicious ice cream flavors. In addition to the beginning of Ben & Jerry’s, Reese’s Pieces were also immensely popular in the 1970s, despite the fact that they were invented decades earlier, in 1928. Twix also became instantly popular near the start of the decade. Sugary snacks became a “must have” item for kids during the 70s. Some famous sugary snacks that were made in the 70’s are Bottle Caps, Yorks, Pop Rocks, Fun Dip, Ring Pop, and Jelly Belly. Also, Cocoa & Fruity Pebbles became a very popular breakfast food, as well as granola bars. Instant Ramen was created and made its way to fame throughout the 70s. Popular meal foods in the 70s included Spam, Spaghetti-O Jello, Chex Mix, Mug-O-Lunch, and Onion Nuggets. Popular desserts included Jello, Tiramisu, Crepes, Chocolate Torte, Nut Bread, and Carrot Cake. The 70s was a decade that made some of the most famous food chains that people love today.

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The 1970’s was a great decade, for it was an immensely unique one. The hippy era still lingered as disco and funk was storming across America. The Seventies was the time of crazy hair styles like the mullet and the afro. Many young Americans dropped out of college to pursue businesses or create bands. The US was filled with disco night clubs and record stores, both would attract young Americans with the latest popular songs. During the 1970s, there was an abundance of artistic freedom, and culture in the US was rapidly changing. The protests from the 1960’s carried on into the 1970’s, with women, native american, hispanics, and other minorities fighting for equal rights. Some of these protests came to fruition because the Equal Rights Amendment was passed in 1972. This amendment banned discrimination between genders in the United States. Additionally, television played an immense role in the American culture of the 1970s. Many would sit in front of their televisions to witness amazing historical events such as the later Apollo Missions, action in Vietnam, and the infamous Watergate scandal. Other options included sitcoms and cartoons, like, All in the Family, The Brady Bunch, Scooby Doo, and Hong Kong Phooey.

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In 1972, the Miami Dolphins hit a so far unbreakable record, they executed a perfect season. This means they won every game and even the Superbowl. Although many teams have come close, none have gone unbeatable. With the Don Shula, Earl Morrall, and Bob Griese, the Dolphins were a force to be reckoned with. Another incredible feat accomplished by a sports team was in basketball when the UCLA Bruins won 75 consecutive games which included 36 NCAA tournament games. One specific player Bill Walton nailed 21 out of 22 and set a new NCAA Championship record. A third astonishing accomplishment took place in MLB when Hank Aaron broke the record for most lifetime home runs, beating Babe Ruth at 714. A little fun fact is that Hank was benched at away games when he hit 713 because the team wanted him to hit the record at home. On a darker, tragic note, the Summer Olympics of 1972, held in Munich, was marred by death. During their stay in Munich, terrorists took hostage 11 Israeli athletes and a German police officer and killed them. The terrorists were from the Palestinian group Black September, and this massacre occurred on September 5 and 6 of 1972. 8


The 1970s was the era of disco, the grooviest era of them all! Genres like R&B, motown, funk, and rock defined the music of this era. R&B and pop music was very popular with idols like the Bee Gees and David Bowie. Rock bands like Led Zeppelin, Pink Floyd, and Aerosmith were also popular among the young population and paved the way for rebellious behavior. The 1970s also gave way into famous motown acts like the Jackson Five, Stevie Wonder, Diana Ross, and Marvin Gaye. Vinyl Records were everywhere! Everyone in the seventies had a record player so they could have the pleasure of enjoying music at home. Records were bought from records stores, and some records were sometimes even mixed with other records to create a new song. This action of mixing eventually lead into the creation of hip hop! Other musical innovations of the seventies include the portable synthesizer, 24-track recording, and everyone’s favorite karaoke! Many iconic songs were written and produced in the seventies. Some of these include Dancing Queen, Imagine, Bohemian Rhapsody, Stayin’ Alive, and Lola.

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The 1970’s were known to be an interesting decade. Creative & cool fads were made, such as acupuncture. This was founded by Richard Nixon while he was on a trip to China during his presidency. Not only this, but mopeds became a new invention that everyone found to be fun. Almost everyone during the decade had one or many Vinyl Records. A big activity that prospered and is also popular today is roller rinks. This was one of the many ways people had fun during the 70’s. Families would also attend drive-ins to watch the newest movies and have time to relax. Many people also liked to collect stamps and attend typing classes, where they would learn how to use a typewriter and use it to write stories. There were also some interesting fads during the 70s. Some of these fads include Acupuncture, Mopeds, Pet Rocks, Star War action figures, and String Art. Pet Rocks and Star Wars action figures were huge “must have” Christmas presents during this time. Mopeds also became extremely useful due to the national fuel crisis. The 70s also had many sayings of their own. Some popular sayings included “Dig it?”, “If it feels good..do it”, “it's real laid back”, and more.

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Presidential Elections: A major political event during the 1970’s was the presidential election of 1972. The Republican candidate was Richard Nixon, and the Democratic candidate George McGovern. Richard Nixon ended up winning with 60% of the votes. Another presidential election during the 70s was the election of 1976. The election was between Jimmy Carter (the Democrat) and Gerald Ford (the Republican). Jimmy Carter won this election with 50.1% of the votes. Political News: The 1970s was believed to be a continuation of the 1960’s government & political news. Throughout the decade, Women, African Americans, Native Americans, Gays & Lesbians fought for equality. American citizens also protested against the U.S involvement in the ongoing Vietnam War, which was a controversial subject for people. While many people believed the U.S should be involved, many people also found it violent and unsettling due to the broadcasts on TV.

The scandals of Nixon also caused people to have less faith and trust in the U.S government. People began to see less “good intention” within the government and saw more secretive political work. The 70s were also filled with the drama of Nixon’s Watergate Scandal and his work as president. 12


A monumental, impactful case of the decade is the case of Roe v. Wade. In this case, Jane Roe argued that it is a woman’s absolute right to be able to terminate a pregnancy at any point. In Texas, her state of residence, abortion was completely prohibited and criminalized unless the life of the mother was jeopardized by the pregnancy. Roe argued against the district attorney of Dallas county, Texas, Henry Wade. After a lengthy case, the Supreme Court ruled, in a 7-2 decision, that the banning of abortion is unconstitutional. It claimed that unruly prohibition of abortion is a violation of privacy. In 1970, the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) Act affected how crime was penalized for the entire nation. The RICO Act changed the way criminal law was approached. With the passing of this act, leaders of criminal organizations or orchestrators of crimes were able to be penalized for the crimes they organized, despite the fact that they were not directly involved. This act allows the law system to charge the orchestrators of crimes, instead of only charging the leader’s pawns. In the case of Regents of the U. Of California vs. Bakke, a white man had applied to the University of California and was rejected. He was upset that minority students with lower grades than he had had gotten accepted. Bakke opposed “Affirmative Action,” which was a system put in place that tried to equalize acceptance rates between privileged and minorities. The Supreme Court allowed Bakke to go to the University of California, and also ruled that it was not a violation of the Equal Protection Clause to use race as a criteria for college admissions. 13


During the height of the Vietnam war during the early 1970s, Richard Nixon, the 37th president of the United States hatched a plan that faced the threat of North Vietnam. That plan was called Vietnamization. In simple terms, Vietnamization involved gradually drawing out American forces from South Vietnam. This simultaneously handed over more fighting to the South Vietnamese. A third part to the plan involves the bombing of the underground trails dug by Northern Vietnamese for easy transportation into South Vietnam. Unfortunately, the trails that were bombed belonged to the neighboring country of Cambodia. Those bombings caused civil unrest and ultimately, ended in the the Cambodian Killing Fields. This also made Cambodia side with North Vietnam and put more pressure on South Vietnam. North Vietnam eventually surrounded Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam. This sent a major alert to the nearby destroyers which frantically sent helicopters to save as many U.S. citizens as physically possible. Unfortunately, there were still many people stuck when the city fell. After being renamed to Ho Chi Minh City, the Vietnam War was seen as over and the U.S. had lost. The effects of the war were detrimental on the United States. There was previous speculation the United States government knew that the U.S. was going to lose the war. Only after did it come to light that the accusations were true.

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This spiked a massive wave of protest against the U.S. government and led to the resignation of the 37th President of the United States, Richard Nixon, which was the only resignation of the United States president. More immediate effects of the Vietnam War were the deaths. From most to least, there was 2,000,000 Vietnamese civilians killed , 1,100,000 North Vietnamese troops, 200,000 South Vietnamese troops, and 58,000 U.S. troops. The worst part is that, veterans who returned from the war were almost shunned from society because they were seen as fighting for no reason. Another major immediate effect was the spread of PTSD and other physiological effects. More long term effects of the Vietnam War were 5,000,000 acres of land destroyed including 500,000 acres of rice fields. This led to widespread starvation and civil unrest. Also, 3,000,000 Vietnamese suffered from the effects of chemical warfare such as Agent Orange. The worst part about it is the fact that 150,000 children were affected majorly. Although the Vietnam War was detrimental to the United States, it was a wake up call that the U.S. is not unbeatable and it will forever be marked as the most controversial war in U.S. history.

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On May 4, 1970, students at Kent State University were protesting the Vietnam War. After thousands of students and other protesters gathered, the Ohio National Guard began ordering them to disperse. The crowd refused and became increasingly violent. The National Guardsmen were being overpowered by the crowd, and began throwing tear gas. However, the details of the incident are murky, so it is unclear why 26 of the guardsmen suddenly fired approximately 70 shots into the sky or directly into the crowd of protesters. In total, four people were killed and nine injured. On a brighter note, the Environmental Protection Agency was founded on December 2, 1970. After the publication of Silent Spring in 1962, the US population became more aware of the negative effects humans have on the environment. In early 1970, President Nixon proposed an ambitious plan to Congress that aimed to help the environment. Nixon asked for 4 billion dollars to help decrease water pollution, for more stringent restrictions to be placed on emissions of automobiles, and for many other things. Nixon formed a council which helped him make educated decisions about the environment. Nixon and this council proposed that all the environmental responsibilities of the government given to a new agency, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). On December 4, 1970, the first leader of the EPA took oath.

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In the US during the 1970s, there were many changes, controversies, and scandals. A very prominent scandal of the decade was the Watergate Scandal. This was a scandal in which Richard Nixon, who was running for reelection in 1972, hired burglars to tap phone lines and steal papers from the Democratic National Committee. The burglars were spying on the Democratic candidates of the 1972 election. After the burglars were caught, Nixon managed to keep his involvement in the crime a secret until 1974 by paying the burglars “hush money.” During the Watergate Investigation, Nixon abused his presidential powers by ordering the CIA to prevent the FBI from further investigating the crime. When it was revealed that Nixon was the orchestrator, he resigned. Nixon was pardoned for his crimes by the new president Gerald Ford despite the fact that many of his accomplices were charged with serious crimes. In addition to the Watergate Scandal, two major acts and amendments were passed in the 1970s. In response to President Johnson’s unchecked power in the Vietnam War and the draft, the War Powers Act and the 26th Amendment were passed. The War Powers Act limited the president’s power in war, and prevented troops from being deployed for over 60 days unless war was declared. The War Powers Act also required presidents to consult the legislature before taking action in war. The 26th Amendment lowered the voting age to 18 in response to outrage that men who were drafted could not legally vote. The effects of the Vietnam War include the passing of these two acts and amendments. 18


Bridge to Terabithia is a beautifully written, magical story that centers on the lives of two lonely children who invent an imaginary kingdom in which to play in. They escape their parents, bullies, and social issues in the imaginary land Terabithia. This story is playful and fun while also being a touching novel about friendship and loss.

“You have to believe it and you hate it. I don't have to and I think it's beautiful.” ― Katherine Paterson, Bridge to Terabithia

Jonathan Livingston Seagull, by Richard Bach, is a novella that conveys messages about freedom, perfection, and individuality through the personal journey of a seagull named Jonathan. Jonathan abandons the oppressive flock to learn to fly higher and faster, and discovers his true self high in the sky. This story teaches readers about life, passion, and adventure, and has been meaningful since its publication in 1970.

“You have the freedom to be yourself, your true self, here and now, and nothing can stand in your way".” ― Richard Bach, Jonathan Livingston Seagull 20


There was some celebrity gossip in the seventies. Rona Barrett was crowned queen of Gossip and was one of America’s most famous woman in the seventies. The most famous gossip of the era probably goes to Carly Simon’s song You’re So Vain. The story went down that she was probably mistreated by someone she felt compassion towards. She has yet to reveal the song’s intent for. Other gossip of the era consisted of bassist of the Sex Pistols, Sid Vicious, murdering his girlfriend Nancy after a night of drugs, the world famous Beatles breaking up, supposedly due to disputes with John Lennon’s wife and the band members, and one of the most controversial being Elvis dying of a drug overdose on the toilet.

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Pet Rocks are the latest trend! Be cool and buy your own today for only $4 at your nearest toy store. Pet Rocks are the easiest pets to manage and the most fun!


1. anachronistic 2. catagelophobia 3. pentameter 4. Nebuchadnezzar 5. JK 6. starboard 7. dirge 8. Shelley 9. erudite ACROSS 4. the greatest ruler of ancient Babylon 6. the right side of a ship 8. last name of the poet who wrote “Ozymandias” and “The Cloud” 9. Having or showing great knowledge or learning

DOWN 1. chronologically misplaced 2. the phobia of being made fun of 3. a line of poetry consisting of 5 metrical feet 5. initials of a famous author and a texting abbreviation 7. a song or hymn of mourning of a person who is dead 22


“1970s Ads.” Vintage Ad Browser, www.vintageadbrowser.com/. “1970s Fashion: Styles, Trends, Pictures & History.” RetroWaste, www.retrowaste.com/1970s/fashion-in-the-1970s/. i.pinimg.com/originals/86/67/64/8667642d014e248cd729506d50356340.jpg. purushu.com/pa/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/b7c43ecb-a6b3-4ab1-8824-a55b617b9efd.jpg+ . “Grease.” Born Free (1966) Movie Posters, 7 July 1978, www.cinematerial.com/movies/grease-i77631/p/gdgwbprz. Grease the Movie. www.cinematerial.com/movies/grease-i77631/p/gdgwbprz+https://www.amazon.com/Star-Wars-Hope-Mark-Hamill/dp/B00VF06OBS. Popular Foods of the 70s. www.thedailymeal.com/eat/if-you-grew-70s-you-ll-definitely-remember-these-foods++. “15 Foods You Only Ate If You Grew Up in the '70s .” Red Tricycle, Red Tricycle, 6 Mar. 2018, redtri.com/70s-food-that-you-will-remember/slide/2. “Vintage Recipes From the '70s Worth Trying Today.” Taste of Home, Taste of Home, www.tasteofhome.com/collection/vintage-recipes-from-the-70s-worth-trying-today/view-all/. Morley, Bern. “70 Things from the '70s.” Mamamia, 5 Jan. 2017, www.mamamia.com.au/70-things-from-the-70s/. “Fads of the 1970s.” Crazyfads.com - Fads of the 1980s, www.crazyfads.com/70s.htm. “Voting America.” Digital Scholarship Lab, dsl.richmond.edu/voting/preselections.html. History.com Staff. “The 1970s.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 2010, www.history.com/topics/1970s. History.com Staff. “The 1970s.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 2010, www.history.com/topics/1970s. i.pinimg.com/originals/cd/ce/9c/cdce9cf82ba337fc86baff92216973d3.jpg++. “Bridge to Terabithia by Katherine Paterson.” Goodreads, Goodreads, 1 Jan. 1996, www.goodreads.com/book/show/2839.Bridge_to_Terabithia. “Jonathan Livingston Seagull: The Complete Edition: Richard Bach, Russell Munson: 9781476793313: Amazon.com: Books.” Amazon, Amazon, www.amazon.com/Jonathan-Livingston-Seagull-Richard-Bach/dp/147679331X.


Music in the 1970s- “1970s Music: History, Pictures & Artists.” RetroWaste, RetroWaste, www.retrowaste.com/1970s/music-in-the-1970s/. Music Technology of the 1970s: A Timeline- https://pitchfork.com/features/lists-and-guides/9940-music-technology-of-the-1970s-a-timeline/ Fragile- Yes cover album https://classicalbumcovers.wordpress.com/2013/03/08/fragile-yes/ Grateful Dead Veneta Oregon 1972 cover album http://nugs.net/browse/music/9825/Grateful-Dead-mp3-flac-download-8-27-1972-Sunshine-Daydream-Veneta-OR Motown Gold: The 1970shttp://nugs.net/browse/music/9825/Grateful-Dead-mp3-flac-download-8-27-1972-Sunshine-Daydream-Veneta-OR The Best 70s TV Show Sitcoms- http://nugs.net/browse/music/9825/Grateful-Dead-mp3-flac-download-8-27-1972-Sunshine-Daydream-Veneta-OR \15 forgotten cartoons from the early 1970s you used to love- https://www.metv.com/stories/15-cartoons-from-the-1970s-you-probably-forgot-about

Scooby Doo Photo- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scooby-Doo

Matthew Gilbert's TV-14: Top title sequences- http://archive.boston.com/ae/tv/gallery/tv14/title_sequences?pg=9

How To Get A David Bowie Hairstyle- http://mullethaircuts.blogspot.com/2010/03/how-to-get-david-bowie-hairstyle.html

Ram Jam photo- http://www.nepaliechords.com/ram-jam-awesome-music-video-black-betty/ Flashback: Nancy Spungen Found Dead at Chelsea Hotelhttps://www.rollingstone.com/culture/news/flashback-nancy-spungen-found-dead-at-chelsea-hotel-w508409 Carly Simon Plays 'Lost Verse' from 'You're So Vain' for First Timehttps://www.rollingstone.com/music/news/carly-simon-plays-lost-verse-from-youre-so-vain-w480888 You’re So Vain Album Cover- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/You%2

TODAY IN HISTORY: AUGUST 16 1977: The king is gone . . . https://www.elsewhere.co.nz/culturalelsewhere/2512/today-in-history-august-16-1977-the-king-is-gone/

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