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MERCADO LESSONS FROM 20 MARKETS ACROSS SOUTH AMERICA

WRITTEN BY JULIE FLYNN | EDITED BY MIKE LYDON

- Cover Photo by Jake Izenberg -

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS A big thank you to Jake Izenberg for accompanying me on many market visits, and for providing some wonderful photographs to bring this report to life. All photographs taken by Jake are marked with credits. (All photographs without credits were taken by Julie Flynn.) Special thanks to the many hosts and friends who provided suggestions about which markets to explore, as well as informal “insider” tours and information. Thanks to all of the market shoppers and vendors who talked to us, answered our questions and taught us something new. Un agradecimiento especial a los anfitriones y amigos quien dieron sugerencias sobre cuales mercados debemos explorar, o aceptaron el papel de guía para mostrarnos los mercados de sus comunidades. Gracias a todos los compradores y vendedores de los mercados que hablaron con nosotros, respondieron a nuestras preguntas y nos enseñaron algo nuevo.

ABOUT THIS PROJECT The Street Plans Collaborative is a consulting firm, but also a platform for research and advocacy that we share openly. We’ve explored and given shape to a variety of emerging topics (Street Seats, Pattern Cities, Tactical Urbanism, Open Streets), but often return to the same conclusion: a city’s dynamism is created by the unplanned collision of people and the resulting exchange of goods, skills, and ideas. The Mercados Project is the consequence of one such collision facilitated by a Craigslist apartment search. In May of 2011, I moved into a Brooklyn apartment already occupied by a schoolteacher, an architect, and an urban planner named Julie Flynn. While Julie and I sought ways for our two firms to collaborate, we couldn’t find the right fit. Two years later she announced her departure for a 5-month stint in South America with Jake Izenberg, who contributed some of the photographs that help bring this project alive. While sad to see her go, I was thrilled when she pitched a collaborative research project, one that she could pursue while visiting dozens of cities across the continent. I remember sitting at the kitchen table and asking her what she was passionate about exploring. She simply answered, “markets.” Together we co-developed The Mercados Project, which investigates 20 markets of various types in cities large and small. Julie’s keen study and thoughtful analysis has brought us new insight into the variety of markets that exist, how they are organized, and the lessons they offer to North American cities experiencing their own market revival. In our opinion there are few venues better suited for serendipitous collisions than markets, an age-old urban archetype where culture and commerce invariably intersect. Mike Lydon, Principal The Street Plans Collaborative

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” Look around any U.S. city, and you’ll notice that

markets are back.”

Pikes Place Market, Seattle | Photo by Jake Izenberg

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TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION............................................................................... 8 BACKGROUND................................................................................10 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS...............................................................13 THE MARKETS................................................................................ 29 PERU.............................................................................................. 31 CHILE............................................................................................ 70 ARGENTINA.................................................................................80 BOLIVIA........................................................................................ 84 URUGUAY..................................................................................... 94 CONCLUSIONS...............................................................................99

INTRODUCTION Historically, many U.S. cities had vibrant central markets. These markets were often held in grand buildings constructed by well-respected architects on choice plots of land. They served as important hubs for commerce and social interaction, and they allowed small-scale producers to reach a high volume of consumers. Towards the middle of the 20th century, many of these central markets began to decline. Many of the once-glorious market buildings were destroyed or fell into disrepair, and commercial activity ceased to be concentrated in the central market. Look around any U.S. city, and you’ll notice that markets are back. In towns and cities across the U.S., people now look forward to buying fresh, local produce at their nearest Farmers’ Market. The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Directory of Farmers’ Markets shows a 460% increase in the number of known farmers’ markets operating in the country between 1994 and 2008.1 Weekend flea markets draw crowds, too; the now famous Brooklyn Flea in New York City features approximately 250 vendors each weekend and has been called “One of the great urban experiences in New York”.2 With the explosion of food trucks, pop-up prepared food markets have become culinary destinations. Based on the concept of “Asian night markets,” the Off the Grid street markets in San Francisco group street food vendors together in underutilized city spaces. Off the Grid began with three markets in 2010 and now operates 15 markets in the San Francisco Bay area involving over 100 vendors.

Postcard of City Market in Savannah, GA, built in 1872. The building was razed in 1954 to build a parking garage.

The Brooklyn Flea in New York City features approx. 250

We thought it made sense to learn more about the market landscape in other parts of the world in this era of market renaissance in the United States. We set off to explore 20 markets in five countries in South America, observing and gathering data to help us understand the character of these diverse and vibrant commercial centers. While modern supermarkets and shopping malls can be found in many urban centers in South America, it is quickly apparent to any visitor that public markets still thrive in most communities as primary centers of commercial and social activity. This report shares our observations from market explorations. We hope that the information presented here helps to broaden our readers’ understanding of markets and market spaces and inspires new ideas for the growing body of markets happening throughout the United States today. 1. USDA WEBSITE, FARMERS MARKET GROWTH: 1994-2012 2. NY TIMES ARTICLE, CITED ON BROOKLYN FLEA WEBSITE - HTTP://WWW.BROOKLYNFLEA.COM/ABOUT/ PAGE 8 | INTRODUCTION

Off The Grid street food vendor markets draw a crowd in San Francisco, CA. (Photo by flickr user Mr Ush)

MORE MARKETS The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Directory of Farmers’ Markets shows a 460% increase in the number of known farmers’ markets operating in the country between 1994 and 2008.

# OF FARMERS’ MARKETS 7864

8144

7175 6132 5274 4385

4685

3706

2410

2746

2863

3137

1755

1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Source: USDA-AMS-Marketing Services Division | National Count of Farmers’ Market Directory Listings. This information is voluntary and self-reported to the USDA-AMS- Marketing Services Division. PAGE 9 | INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND Markets are an important part of commerce throughout South America, in small villages and big cities alike. Some scholars assert that the market culture we see in South America today did not exist before European conquistadores arrived. Research has suggested that, at least in mountainous areas, pre-colonial economies were based around redistribution and reciprocity, not markets. Others point to the mention of market-like spaces in early writings of European conquistadores, suggesting that some form of market-based commercial exchange must have existed before the colonial era. While there may be some debate about the development of markets in South America, a modern observer cannot deny that markets thrive today as central social and commercial spaces in communities throughout the continent.

A crowded central market in Cusco, Peru demonstrates that markets still thrive as social and commercial spaces.

The modern South American market landscape is incredibly diverse. It includes catchall markets selling broad range of goods and highly specialized markets focusing on one particular category. It includes informal flea markets taking place on roadway medians, restored fish market buildings complete with fine seafood restaurants, and everything in between. As a first step to understanding this complex market landscape, we will start by defining what we consider to be a market. We’ve defined a market as a dedicated building or urban space with discernible boundaries that is devoted to the sale of consumer goods. This definition is meant to draw a distinction between individual markets and the broader concept of a market, which often includes urban market zones where stores and indoor malls selling a particular category of goods cluster together. If you speak to someone about markets in their city, they may refer to both of these types of spaces as a mercado, or market. For this study, we’ve chosen to focus on the more clearly defined markets instead of market zones.

Amazonas market in Lima, Peru is a specialty market focusing exclusively on books, old and new.

A “market zone” in La Paz, Bolivia, includes a street occupied almost entirely by furniture stores. PAGE 10 | BACKGROUND

ABOUT THIS PROJECT

SCOPE OF REPORT & RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This report explores 20 markets in five countries in South America. As defined previously, we limited our research to markets and did not include broader market zones. Within the category of markets, we included a range of market types to illustrate the diversity that exists in the market landscape. Beyond this overall goal of visiting a range of market types, we relied on suggestions from people in each community to determine which markets merited a visit. In many cases, it initially took some convincing to get people to take us beyond the well-manicured handicrafts markets exclusively selling souvenirs to travelers - to convince them that, yes, we really did want to get up early on Saturday morning and travel on the crowded bus to the outskirts of town to visit the flea market. Once we got this point across though, everyone we met was excited to show us the “real” markets in their communities. They drew routes on maps to show the way, recruited family members to play tour guide, gave tips on what stalls to eat at, and without fail, always cautioned us to try to blend in and be discreet with our cameras. We visited as many markets as possible in each town and city and conducted background research about each market where reliable information was available. Where possible, we visited markets more than once to observe variations and deepen our understanding of these places. At the beginning of this study, we established a research framework to guide the observational market site visits. The research framework consists of a series of categories; we began each market site visit by gathering information about the market across every category, as summarized in the Market Matrix that appears in the Summary of Findings section of this report. This data establishes a base of information about quantifiable market characteristics such as size, frequency and layout style. We then focused on qualitative observations, taking note of what qualities contributed to each market’s vibrancy and its success as a social and commercial space. While we had many informal conversations with vendors and fellow market-goers, we did not conduct any formal interviews with market staff, vendors or shoppers. All data contained in this report consists of observations by the author. PAGE 12 | SCOPE & METHODOLOGY

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

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MARKETS VISITED GUYANA SURINAME FRENCH GUIANA

VENEZUELA

This map illustrates the locations of the 20 markets visited for this project. These 20 markets were spread across 12 cities and five countries in South America: Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay. These markets span diverse locations, from large, coastal port cities to smaller cities in the Andes Mountains. The diversity of locations certainly contributed to the unique character of the markets. Subsequent sections of this report will provide more information about each individual market, organized by country and city.

COLOMBIA

ECUADOR

Caraz Callao

Cusco

PERU

Lima

BRAZIL

Copacabana

Ayacucho

La Paz

Arequipa

BOLIVIA

CHILE

PARAGUAY Salta

Valparaiso

URUGUAY Santiago

ARGENTINA

Montevideo

PAGE 15 | SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

MARKET SIZES = 50 stalls This chart presents estimated counts for the number of vendors at each market. These estimates were obtained through counting and by consulting maps of each market where available. Small markets were counted in their entirety. In larger markets, estimates were obtained by counting several rows (or a section) of the market and then multiplying that figure by the total number of rows observed. The vendor count estimates attempt to capture the total number of vendors inside the boundaries of each market, including informal and roaming vendors. For markets with less than 100 vendors, estimates are rounded to the nearest 25. For larger, markets, estimates are rounded to the nearest 50.

PAGE 16 | SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

POLVOS VERDES MERCADO DE FLORES

MERCADO CENTRAL (SANTIAGO) MERCADO CENTRAL (CARAZ)

BIO FERIA (SATURDAY) MERCADO DE ABASTOS BIO FERIA (SUNDAY) MERCADO 12 DE ABRIL MERCADO “DE LOS VIERNES” MERCADO SAN PEDRO MERCED FERIA DE ANTIQUIDADES Y LIBROS MERCADO DE BRUJAS

MERCADO BARATILLO MERCADO SAN CAMILO

MERCADO MODELO DE COPACABANA

MERCADO SAN MIGUEL

MERCADO PARADITA

MERCADO CENTRAL (CALLAO)

AMAZONES MERCADO DE LIBROS MERCADO RODRIGUEZ FERIA DE AVE. AGENTINA MERCADO EL CARDONAL

PAGE 17 | SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

MARKET MATRIX The matrix on the following pages lists all markets studied for this report, charting observations across a series of categories for each market. This matrix served as a research framework to guide each market site visit. Note that all markets listed occur year round, and all but Montevideo’s “Mercado de Viernes” occur all day long. All of the markets were easily accessible by public transit or private vehicle, and most were surrounded by walkable streets. Bicycle infrastructure, such as marked bikeways and designated bicycle parking, was often non-existent, due to the fact that cycling infrastructure in the areas studied was lacking on a city-wide level.

PAGE 19 | SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

LOCATION

MARKET NAME

SETTING

FORM

LAYOUT

FREQUENCY

# OF VENDORS

WAYFINDING

GOODS CATEGORIES

Peru: Lima, Chorillos

Mercado Paradita

Neighborhood Center

Street Market

Linear

Daily

~ 250

No

Fruit, Vegetables, Meat/Seafood, Books/Media, Dry Goods, Clothing

Peru: Lima, Centro

Amazonas Mercado de Libros

Market District, City Center Edge

Covered

Grid

Daily

~250

No

Books/Media

Peru: Lima, Miraflores

Polvos Verdes Mercado de Flores

Industrial Zone

Covered

Circular

Daily

~25

No

Plants/Flowers

Peru: Lima, Miraflores

BioFeria (Saturday Location)

Park

Street Market

Linear

Saturdays

~40

No

Fruit, Vegetables, Dry Goods

Peru: Lima, Miraflores

BioFeria (Sunday Location)

Neighborhood Center

Street Market

Linear

Sundays

~40

No

Fruit, Vegetables, Dry Goods

Peru: Arequipa

Mercado San Camilo

City Center Edge

Indoor

Terraced Grid

Daily

~700

Yes

Fruit, Vegetables, Meat/Seafood, Books/Media, Dry Goods, Religious Items, Artisan Goods, Clothing, Plants/Flowers

Peru: Ayacucho

Mercado de Abastos

City Center

Indoor

Grid

Daily

~450

Yes

Fruit, Vegetables, Meat/Seafood, Dry Goods, Artisan Goods, Clothing

Peru: Ayacucho

Mercado 12 de Abril

Market District

Covered

Terraced Grid

Daily

~550

No

Fruit, Vegetables, Meat/Seafood, Dry Goods

Peru: Callao

Mercado Central de Callao

City Center

Indoor

Grid, Radial

Daily

~1,000

No

Fruit, Vegetables, Meat/Seafood, Books/Media, Dry Goods, Artisan Goods, Clothing

Peru: Caraz

Mercado Central de Caraz

City Center

Indoor

Grid

Daily

~300

Yes

Fruit, Vegetables, Meat/Seafood, Dry Goods, Artisan Goods, Clothing

Peru: Cusco

Mercado San Pedro

City Center Edge

Indoor

Grid

Daily

~700

Yes

Fruit, Vegetables, Meat/Seafood, Dry Goods, Religious Items, Artisan Goods, Clothing, Plants/Flowers

Peru: Cusco

Mercado Baratillo

City Center Edge

Street Market

Linear

Saturdays

~700

No

Books/Media, Artisanal Goods, Clothing, Electronics, Antiques

Chile: Santiago

Mercado Central de Santiago

City Center

Indoor

Radial

Daily

~250

Yes

Vegetables, Meat/Seafood

Chile: Valparaiso

Merced Feria de Antigüedades y Libros

Park

Covered

Linear

Sundays

~75

No

Antiques

Chile: Valparaiso

Feria de Avenida Argentina

City Center Edge

Street Market

Linear

Sundays

~250

No

Artisanal Goods, Clothing, Electronics, Antiques

Chile: Valparaiso

Mercado del Cardonal

City Center Edge

Indoor

Radial

Daily

~250

No

Fruit, Vegetables

Argentina: Salta

Mercado San Miguel

City Center Edge

Indoor

Terraced Grid

Daily

~750

Yes

Fruit, Vegetables, Meat/Seafood, Books/Media, Dry Goods, Religious Items, Artisanal Goods, Clothing, Electronics, Plants/Flowers

Bolivia: La Paz

Mercado Rodriguez

City Center Edge, Market District

Indoor, Street Market

Grid, Linear

Daily

~1,000

No

Fruit, Vegetables, Meat/Seafood, Dry Goods, Plants/Flowers

Bolivia: La Paz

Mercado de Brujas “Witches Market”

City Center

Street Market

Linear

Daily

~75

No

Religious Items, Artisanal Goods

Bolivia: Copacabana

Mercado Modelo de Copacabana

City Center

Indoor

Circular

Daily

~75

No

Fruit, Vegetables, Meat/Seafood, Dry Goods

Uruguay: Montevideo

Mercado “de Viernes”

Neighborhood Center

Street Market

Linear

Fridays

~50

No

Fruit, Vegetables, Meat/Seafood, Dry Goods

PAGE 20 | SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

PAGE 21 | SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

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Excluding street markets,

10 of 16

markets studied had a pedestrian

only

street located within 3 blocks of the market.

Excluding street markets or markets directly on a pedestrian street,

8 of 15

markets studied had a plaza or public space adjacent to the market area.

17 of 20

markets studied offered 3

or more categories of goods.

MARKET LAYOUT CATEGORIES While each market has elements that make its layout unique, trends do emerge in the ways a market is organized. The following diagram describes the five market layout categories that emerged from the 20 markets visited for this report.

GRID

TERRACED GRID

In the grid category, market stalls are organized on one floor in straight lines, with aisles intersecting each other at 90 degree angles, in a perpendicular orientation.

In a terraced grid style, stalls are organized in the grid layout, with multiple floor levels and/or “terraced� areas overlooking the main market floor.

Examples: Mercado de Abastos (Ayacucho, Peru); Mercado Central (Caraz, Peru); Amazonas (Lima, Peru); Mercado Central (Callao, Peru)

PAGE 26 | SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

Examples: Mercado 12 de Abril (Ayacucho, Peru); Mercado San Miguel (Salta, Argentina); Mercado San Pedro (Cusco, Peru); Mercado Camilo (Arequipa, Peru)

LINEAR

CIRCULAR In the circular category, market stalls and aisles are organized in a ring oriented to a central point. There are no radial aisles cutting through the rings. Examples: Polvos Verdes (Lima, Peru); Mercado Modelo de Copacabana (Copacobana, Bolivia)

In linear markets, stalls are organized in lines with few or no intersecting aisles. Stall lines may be one or two stalls wide, with a back to back orientation. Linear orientation is commonly seen in street markets. Examples: Mercado Paradita, and BioFera (Lima, Peru); Merced Feria de Antiquidades y Libros (Valparaiso, Chile); Feria de Ave. Agentina (Valparaiso, Chile); Mercado de Viernes (Montevideo, Uruguay); Mercado Rodriguez (La Paz, Bolivia); Mercado de Brujas (La Paz, Bolivia); Mercado Baratillo (Cusco, Peru)

RADIAL In a radial market, stall sections are oriented to the center of the market, with aisles running parallel to the building shape and cutting to the center in a cross or “starburst� formation. The radial formation can be seen in rectangular or rounded buildings. Examples: Mercado Cardonal (Valparaiso, Chile); Mercado Central (Santiago, Chile)

PAGE 27 | SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

MARKET STRUCTURES COVERED MARKET

INDOOR MARKET

Defined as a market “building� having a roof but no attached walls. In a covered market, the roof may serve as a protective canopy, and is often made of sheet metal. Stalls may have walls separating them from each other or the street, but there are no full-length, outer walls attached to the roof structure.

Defined as a market inside a building with solid walls that are attached to the roof.

STREET MARKET Defined as a market where stalls are outdoors, with no permanent structure to speak of. Vendors often use canopies or umbrellas to provide shade.

PAGE 28 | SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

THE MARKETS

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PERU

LIMA POPULATION: 8.4 million (in the Metropolitan area) TOTAL AREA: ~2,600 sq km (~1,000 sq. mi.) ELEVATION: ~0-1,500 m (~0-5,000 ft) MARKETS RESEARCHED: Mercado Paradita (Chorillos District), BioFeria (Miraflores and Surquillo Districts), Amazonas Mercado de Libros (Central Lima), Polvos Verdes Mercado de Flores (Surco District) Lima is an immense city, stretching from the wealthy coastal district of Miraflores to dusty hillside communities, where many live without running water or electricity. The city’s roadways buzz with traffic most hours of the day, and street vendors are always ready to sell food to anyone waiting for a bus or waiting in traffic. Lima holds some of Peru’s most important historical and cultural treasures, and it is known as the culinary capital of South America. Lima has thousands of markets to explore, and the city is an important commerce hub, a place where goods from the rainforest, the mountains, and the coast come together. Its large wholesale markets for fruit, flowers and other items are a key part of the regional trade network and of the city’s market landscape. At the same time, there are many small local markets serving equally important functions. Lima encompasses 43 districts, and most of them function like small independent cities. They have residential areas, central commercial zones and markets to serve local residents. Larger districts may have dozens of markets within their boarders, some serving district residents, others earning enough fame to draw limeños from all corners of the city. Lima is large enough to support many highly specialized markets, including some entirely devoted to the sale of flowers and plants. In smaller Peruvian cities, plants and flowers are often sold in one row of the central food market, with no other dedicated plant market to speak of. In addition to thousands of markets of all sizes, Lima has many market zones – areas where wholesale and retail vendors of a particular product category cluster together. Market zones typically include a high concentration of individual stores, mini-malls, small markets, and street vendors, all selling the same category of merchandise, such as electronics or furniture. This report focuses on individual markets rather than these larger market districts, but it is important to note that both are part of the city’s market landscape. In this section we have highlighted a handful of markets from Lima to illustrate the scale and diversity of the city’s market landscape. .PAGE 32 | LIMA, PERU

CHORILLOS POPULATION: ~260, 000 TOTAL AREA: ~39 sq.km (~15 sq.mi) ELEVATION: ~0-43 0-43 m (~0-141 ft) MARKET RESEARCHED: Mercado Paradita

METROPOLITAIN DISTRICTS - LIMA

Lima’s Chorillos District lies on the coast in the southern part of the city. Chorillos is known for its beaches, fishing culture, and district pride. There is a mid-sized fish market by the water, and numerous markets, malls, and modern supermarkets spread throughout the district. Photo by Jake Izenberg.

MAP KEY Mercado Paradita

A ID EN

AV S LA AY U

H

MERCADO PARADITA SETTING: Neighborhood Center

# OF VENDORS: ~ 250

FORM: Street Market

WAYFINDING: No

LAYOUT: Linear

GOODS CATEGORY: Fruit, Vegetables,

FREQUENCY: Daily

Meat/Seafood, Books/Media, Dry Goods, Clothing

The arterial Avenida Huaylas runs perpendicular to the coastline, carrying high volumes of vehicle and pedestrian traffic into the heart of one of Chorillos’ primary commercial zones. About five blocks in from the water and half a block from a major Huaylas transit stop lies the Mercado Paradita.

Many tiny market streets diverge off the main market roadway, creating tight pedestrian pathways where goods spill out into the street.

Unlike most markets in Chorillos, Paradita does not occupy a market building. It stretches for five blocks along Calle Pierola, extending into five or six of the tiny streets and alleyways that diverge off the main roadway. The market is completely fluid with the shops and restaurants in the surrounding street grid. Calle Pierola is not closed to traffic, but street vendors occupy a significant area at the curb edge, competing for space in the roadway with slow-moving taxis and mototaxis. Mercado Paradita is primarily a food market, but there are many shops selling clothing, music, and DVDs where Calle Pierola intersects with Huaylas. Shoppers enjoy a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, and meats, dry goods and kitchen items scattered throughout all parts of the market. Paradita is not organized by goods category, and there is no wayfinding system. The market is small enough that one could walk through it all, but the high degree of repetition of good types makes this unnecessary – no matter where you enter, you are bound to come across a stall with a good selection of whatever you are looking for relatively quickly. .

Calle Pierola is not closed to traffic. Vendors and shoppers spill over the curb edge, forcing taxis and mototaxis to move slowly through the crowds.

Vendors set up sidewalk seating areas using plastic chairs and tables.

PAGE 35 | LIMA, PERU

EL CENTRO POPULATION: ~278, 800 TOTAL AREA: ~22 sq.km (~8 sq.mi) ELEVATION: ~2.8 m (~8.4 ft) MARKET RESEARCHED: Amazonas Mercado de Libros

METROPOLITAIN DISTRICTS - LIMA

Lima’s central district contains some of the city’s most important cultural and historical destinations, including well-restored plazas and churches from the colonial era. The quantity of restaurants and nighttime destinations is growing as the neighborhood continues to become safer and more touristfriendly after dark. In the last few decades, living in central Lima was considered undesirable, but this too is changing. As new shops and restaurants open up, new and old markets of all sizes continue to thrive within a few kilometers of the historic center.

MAP KEY

PUENTE BALTA

Amazonas Mercado de Libros

AV E. A

PLAZA MAYOR

BA N

CA Y

RIVER RIMAC

AMAZONAS MERCADO DE LIBROS SETTING: Market District, City Center Edge

# OF VENDORS: ~ 250

FORM: Covered

WAYFINDING: No

LAYOUT: Grid

GOODS CATEGORY: Books/Media

FREQUENCY: Daily

Amazonas Mercado de Libros is one of the largest book markets in South America. It is located five blocks east of the historic city center, on the southern side of the River Rimac. The market is easy to access by taxi or transit, but to get to the market on foot, one must cross the somewhat intimidating Avenida Abancay, which carries four lanes of traffic. The two zones on either side of Abancay feel distinctly different: the west side is full of restored colonial buildings and tourist attractions, the east side is less walkable, with narrow sidewalks and long blocks of market stalls that do not open into the street. One must pass a large metal-walled bag and luggage market for a long block before finally reaching the Amazonas Mercado de Libros. The market is closed off to the street with metal walls and fencing, but inside the atmosphere is inviting. The primary entrance to the market has a small open area with a library reading room and several food stalls with tiny tables. Branching off the entrance area, the market consists of four long rows, with vendors organized into a precise grid of metal stalls. There is a roof over the aisles to provide shade. There are few roaming vendors and the market aisles are very wide. The entire place feels very orderly and is even somewhat quiet. Amazonas vendors focus almost entirely on books. New, used, rare, or pirated, you can find a copy of almost any volume you want at this market. It is known as a good place to find academic texts and English-language books at an affordable price. There is a selection of cookbooks as well as story and coloring books for children. Book types are not clustered together, so each aisle has a diverse selection of merchandise. While there is no market-wide wayfinding system, many vendors have put large signs in front of their stalls to advertise their wares. And, if you ask for something specific, vendors are knowledgeable enough about books and the market to point you in the right direction.

Amazonas is one of the largest book markets in South America. It is located in an industrial market zone near the historic city center.

Metal stalls are organized in a precise grid. The roof overhead provides shade. The entire places feels orderly and quiet.

Vendors are knowledgeable about books and the market, and can easily point shoppers in the right direction. PAGE 39 | LIMA, PERU

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MIRAFLORES POPULATION: ~92,000 TOTAL AREA: ~9.6 sq.km (~3.7 sq.mi) ELEVATION: ~79 m (~259 ft) MARKET RESEARCHED: Polvos Verdes Mercado de Flores, BioFeria Ecologial Markets

METROPOLITAIN DISTRICTS - LIMA

Miraflores is one of Lima’s wealthiest districts. It is home to corporate office buildings and luxury high-rise apartments, miles of cliffside park space for jogging and biking, and some of the city’s best fine dining. The district does not have a traditional food market. Residents buy food in modern and high-end supermarkets instead. Photo by Jake Izenberg.

MAP KEY Polvos Verdes Mercado de Flores

ME

TR OP OL

ITA

NO

BU

SR AP

ID

TR AN

SIT

AVE. REPUBLICA DE PANAMA

POLVOS VERDES MERCADO DE FLORES SETTING: Industrial Zone

# OF VENDORS: ~ 25

FORM: Street Market

WAYFINDING: No

LAYOUT: Circular

GOODS CATEGORY: Plants/Flowers

FREQUENCY: Daily

Polvos Verdes is one of many small plant and flower markets in Lima. Like at most markets of its size, Polvos Verdes vendors travel each morning to the enormous Acho flower market in northern Lima, where new flowers and plants arrive daily from all parts of the country. The plants are then brought back to Polvos Verdes for retail sale to gardeners, landscapers and homeowners in the southern coastal districts of the city. Polvos Verdes is organized for optimal vehicle accessibility. It is located at the intersection of two multi-lane arterial roadways, right near an exit from the Via Expresa, a depressed highway that runs north-south through the city. Vendor stalls do not face the street. They face into the market, forming a ring around a small central parking lot where shoppers can easily load heavy plants into their vehicles. If one did want to reach the market by transit, this would also be easy due to the ample transit access on the major nearby roadways. The market is accessible on foot, but the walk is not pleasant; Polvos Verdes sits in a relatively industrial area built more for people driving than people walking.

Polvoes Verdes is a small flower market serving the Miraflores District. Vendors sell plants, cut flowers, arrangements, and landscaping supplies.

The entire market is organized in a circle to facilitate easy loading of plants and supplies into shoppers’ cars.

About half of the vendors at this market sell plants, sod, big bags of soil and other items useful for landscaping a large yard. The other half of the vendors specialize in cut flowers: they sell stems for a beautiful bouquet and create elaborate flower arrangements for celebrations. There is also a small section of food vendors offering hot lunch or fresh juices to vendors and customers alike. Because the larger Acho market is so far away, the tiny Polvos Verdes serves an important role as an accessible local destination for plant and flower purchases.

Vendors travel each morning to the enormous Acho flower market in Northern Lima and transport these plants back to the smaller market. PAGE 43 | LIMA, PERU

MAP KEY BioFera Market

NO

LITA

O ROP

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BIOFERIA (SATURDAY LOCATION) SETTING: Park

# OF VENDORS: ~ 40

FORM: Street Market

WAYFINDING: No

LAYOUT: Linear

GOODS CATEGORY: Fruit, Vegetables,

FREQUENCY: Saturday Only

Dry Goods

The BioFeria began as a Saturday market in Miraflores, sharing many characteristics with farmers’ markets in U.S. towns and cities. BioFeria vendors mainly sell food products, many of them organic and all of them grown or made in Peru. There are fruits, vegetables, handmade sauces, fair-trade chocolates, and organic beauty products. Prepared food is all vegetarian. There are no meat or fish products permitted at the market. But, one can find free-range organic eggs, and hormone-free dairy products. A handful of vendors sell artisan goods, such as hand-printed baby clothes made with fabric made from organically grown cotton. The Saturday BioFeria is located along one block of sidewalk at the eastern edge of Parque Reducto. Many customers take their prepared foods and coffees into the park for a picnic. Market stalls are organized in one line along the park fence, opening to the sidewalk. The market gets very busy, and the sidewalk does not have enough space to accommodate shoppers stopping at stalls and those who want to pass by. People spill into the street, and there is a steady flow of pedestrians crossing the road to access a strip of green space and benches. The street is not closed to vehicles during the market, but it is a small roadway with slow-moving cars, and there are several security guards on site to direct traffic. The market is only one block away from the Metropolitano, the main bus rapid transit line shuttling people north to south through Lima. It is also well served by local buses and taxis running along the Avenida Benavides, which runs perpendicular to the market. The BioFeria’s focus on vegetarian and organic products, which are inevitably relatively expensive, restrict the customer base to a certain profile. The majority of shoppers likely come from Miraflores, where residents value and can afford organic and local items. Still, as awareness of health and sustainability issues around food continues to grow, so does the BioFeria’s popularity. And, the markets’ excellent transit access enables people from surrounding districts to drop by and see what the BioFeria is all about.

The BioFeria is an organic, vegetarian market next to a park. It takes place only on weekends and resembles U.S. farmers’ markets in many regards.

The market gets very busy, and the sidewalk doesn’t quite have enough room for all the shoppers.

Marketgoers sit on the wall and lawn of a nearby school, or take their purchases to the park adjacent to the market. Picnics abound. PAGE 45 | LIMA, PERU

MAP KEY BioFera Market Mercado 1 de Surquillo

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BIOFERIA (SUNDAY LOCATION) SETTING: Neighborhood Center

# OF VENDORS: ~ 40

FORM: Street Market

WAYFINDING: No

LAYOUT: Linear

GOODS CATEGORY: Fruit, Vegetables,

FREQUENCY: Sunday Only

Dry Goods

In October of 2012, the BioFeria opened a second market on Sundays. The vendors are almost entirely the same as those at the Saturday markets. The interesting differences seen in the Sunday BioFeria relate to location. The Sunday BioFeria is not tucked away behind a park in a wealthy residential neighborhood. It is located along a pedestrian street bordering Mercado 1, one of the primary public food markets serving the working class district of Surquillo. Today, the two markets complement each other. Vendors in Mercado 1 work in the market building all week as they have for decades. Once per week, BioFeria vendors set up stalls on the pedestrian street outside the market, bringing in new people from Surquillo and other districts. Shoppers hop between the two markets, splurging on special items at the BioFeria and buying the rest of their groceries at Mercado 1. And, vendors in the shops and restaurants surrounding Mercado 1 take advantage of increased food traffic around the market building as well. The BioFeria concept is somewhat controversial in Lima. Items at the BioFeria are purported to be of higher quality than that which one might find at the local public market - messaging around the market emphasizes that vendors sell only organic, free-range, and handmade items. Some feel that establishing an “upscale” market of this type is problematic in Peru – a country where many food producers selling at the older public markets still work as they did centuries ago: without pesticides, or factory farming, or mass production. In countries where industrial practices dominate food production, it might make sense to create a market like the BioFeria. But in Peru? If you want free-range eggs, some say, visit a rural back yard. If you want handmade aji sauce, visit the family-run restaurants in your neighborhood. There is a feeling that these producers are making the same quality items, but not marketing with today’s foodie buzzwords (or charging the higher prices that goes along with them). In the context of this conversation, it is interesting to see the Sunday BioFeria located adjacent to a long-established food market in what appears to be a peaceful and mutually beneficial relationship.

The Sunday BioFeria is located near Mercado 1, which serves the working class district of Surquillo. (Photo by Dan Perlman of SaltShaker.net)

Many shoppers splurge on some items at the BioFeria and hit Mercado 1 for the week’s groceries. (Photo by BioFeria de Surquillo via Facebook)

Vendors set up stalls along the pedestrian boulevard every Sunday. (Photo by Jorge A. of EcoSiembra Blog) PAGE 47 | LIMA, PERU

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AREQUIPA POPULATION: ~978, 000 TOTAL AREA: ~9,862 sq. km (~3,807 sq.mi) ELEVATION: ~2,335 m (~7,661 ft) MARKETS RESEARCHED: Mercado San Camilo Arequipa is Peru’s second most populous city. It’s white stone historic architecture has earned it the nickname of the White City. It is an important industrial center for Peru, and it boasts modern shopping and entertainment offerings to complement significant preservation of important historic landmarks. Photo by Jake Izenberg

MAP KEY Mercado San Camilo PLAZA MAYOR

MERCADO SAN CAMILO SETTING: City Center Edge

# OF VENDORS: ~ 700

FORM: Indoor

WAYFINDING: Yes

LAYOUT: Terraced Grid

GOODS CATEGORY: Fruit, Vegetables, Meat/

FREQUENCY: Daily

Seafood, Books/Media, Dry Goods, Religious Items, Artisan Goods, Clothing, Plants/Flowers

Located four blocks from the central Plaza de Armas, Mercado San Camilo is Arequipa’s primary market building. Vendors at San Camilo offer a diverse selection. They sell typical food items such as fruit, vegetables, meat, fish, and dairy products. There are dry goods stands and prepared food stalls with juices and hot lunches. And, there are a significant number of tiny market sections devoted to goods rarely seen in food markets: an entire mezzanine row of the market is devoted to fabrics, another to live animals; vendors selling natural remedies and religious items also fill an entire row, and there a small section of vendors selling hats. The market is quite large, but it is easy to navigate thanks to good lighting, wide aisles, and wayfinding signage. Merchandise is clearly clustered together, with typical food items in the center of the main floor and more unusual items in aisles off to the side, or in smaller sections on the market’s mezzanine floors. An open balcony running all around the second floor mezzanine level makes it easy to get a sense of the market layout from above.

San Camilo is a massive market with an overwhelming variety of merchandise, but wide aisles and good lighting make it easy to navigate.

Shoppers enjoy juices and sandwiches at prepared food counters.

The streets around the market’s perimeter are not closed to traffic, and taxis and buses edge impatiently along in slow traffic, making frequent stops in front of the market building to drop off or pick up passengers. Customers stick to the sidewalks around the building, navigating through informal stalls on the sidewalk and popping in and out of the street-facing shops. At the main market entrance, a small plaza provides an open area where shoppers sit on benches and enjoy street food from mobile vendors hawking ice cream and little bags of popcorn.

A plaza in front of the market provides an open area with public seating for shoppers, and room for informal vendors to set up shop. PAGE 51 | AREQUIPA, PERU

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AYACUCHO POPULATION: ~151,000 TOTAL AREA: ~2980 sq. km (~1,151 sq.mi) ELEVATION: ~2,760 m (~9,058 ft) MARKETS RESEARCHED: Mercado Central de Abastos, Mercado 12 de Abril Ayacucho is surrounded by small agriculturallybased villages and towns, and the city’s many markets allow for the exchange of goods between the region’s rural and urban populations: rural residents come into Ayacucho to sell a rich variety of farm-fresh food products in the city’s markets, and Ayacucho’s shops offer them a variety of useful ready-made goods in return. There are only a few small supermarkets in Ayacucho, and they primarily offer packaged foods such as yogurt, milk, crackers and sweets. For fresh food or other supplies, people head to the markets. Most markets are held in large market buildings clustered in one zone of the city, surrounded by smaller shops offering goods or services not readily available in the markets.

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MAP KEY Mercado de Abastos Mercado 12 de Abril

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MERCADO DE ABASTOS SETTING: City Center

# OF VENDORS: ~ 450

FORM: Indoor

WAYFINDING: Yes

LAYOUT: Grid

GOODS CATEGORY: Fruit, Vegetables, Meat/

FREQUENCY: Daily

Seafood, Dry Goods, Artisan Goods, Clothing

Ayacucho’s most prominent market is the Mercado de Abastos. In English, “Abastos” translates to “provisions,” or “supplies.” The market can be reached easily by walking down a pedestrian boulevard lined with shops and mobile vendors selling everything from snacks to phone calls on a cell phone. Many people arrive at the market using a vehicle: the market has a busy parking area where mototaxis, taxis and other cars load and unload passengers, and the market building is bounded on two sides by roads well-trafficked by combi buses.

This entrance area is a vibrant community gathering space.

The market building’s front entrance opens onto the street with a large set of steps, flanked by small grassy yards and a sidewalk with benches. This entrance area is a vibrant community gathering space: mobile vendors offer fresh drinks and snacks, and people use the benches and steps to sit, play, and chat. Inside the building, Mercado de Abastos provides a range of products and supplies. Vendors in established stalls sell all the typical fresh and non-perishable food products, and pop-up stands in the market’s main aisles offer fresh bread, typically only for sale in bread shops outside market buildings. There is also a large section of traditional clothing and artisanal items, catering to Andean women needing a new shawl or hat. Mercado de Abastos has a large dining area in one corner of the building, where busy cooks serve up affordable hot lunches. In another corner one finds the juice aisle, where customers sip freshly blended juices at the tiny juice stand counters. Despite the potentially overwhelming volume and variety of products here, the Mercado de Abastos is easy to navigate. The building is well-lit and wellorganized. It has high ceilings, wide aisles, and finished tile floors. A clear wayfinding system directs shoppers to each product section. The market is a grand introduction to Ayacucho’s informal market zone. PAGE 54 | AYACUCHO, PERU

Mercado de Abastos provides an broad range of products and supplies, including pop-up stalls for items such as bread.

A busy dining section sits in the corner of the market building.

MERCADO 12 DE ABRIL SETTING: Market District

# OF VENDORS: ~ 550

FORM: Covered

WAYFINDING: No

LAYOUT: Terraced Grid

GOODS CATEGORY: Fruit, Vegetables, Meat/

FREQUENCY: Daily

Seafood, Dry Goods

Mercado 12 de Abril is located deep in Ayacucho’s market district, where the streets are bursting. It seems the same volume of vehicle and pedestrian traffic occurring on the wider streets around Mercado de Abastos has been jammed into narrower roadways. Things are more congested, more colorful and less orderly.

The prepared food stands are a colorful focal point of the market. Customers sit and enjoy what they’ve purchased at the stall.

Mercado 12 de Abril is primarily a food market, but there are a variety of hardware products, kitchen goods, and clothes on offer at the edges. This market has no grand entrance and no wayfinding signs. The market building consists of metal walls, wooden support beams and corrugated metal roofing, and the narrow aisles are made of packed dirt. It is a bit dark, but no one seems to mind. The market feels very crowded and extremely jolly. The prepared food stands at Mercado 12 de Abril are particularly lively. Customers sit on benches, often in front of a counter or long table, taking a moment to enjoy what they’ve purchased - even if it is just a juice. All the tables and counters seem to be built or brought by the vendors themselves, and people have taken care to make the seating areas comfortable and inviting using varied colorful fabrics and pillows. Unlike in Mercado de Abastos, where the juice and hot food stands are uniformly built and tucked away in the side of the building, these stands are a colorful focal point in the center of the market. At the edges, the Mercado 12 de Abril building is a very fluid structure. Almost every aisle in the market ends with a doorway to the street. Mobile vendors occupy the sidewalks around the building perimeter, creating a high degree of activity between the doorways, where the market would otherwise have its back to the street. Mercado 12 de Abril lacks any outdoor community space, but the fluidity of the building and the high degree of activity on the sidewalks surrounding the structure lend themselves to the creation of vibrant microgathering spaces on all four sides of the market.

Vendors take care to make seating areas inviting . They use tarps and sheets to provide extra shade above the benches in front of their stalls.

Mobile vendors on the sidewalks create a high degree of activity around the market. There are many micro gathering spaces around the perimeter. PAGE 55 | AYACUCHO, PERU

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CALLAO POPULATION: ~877,000 TOTAL AREA: ~148.6 sq. km (~57.4 sq.mi) ELEVATION: ~12 m (~39 ft) MARKETS RESEARCHED: Mercado Central Callao is known as Peru’s most important port city and as the home of the nation’s main international airport. To an outsider, Callao might appear to be part of Lima. While the two do bleed together, Callao is an independent city with six districts of its own. It boasts a small historic district on the coast, a sixtyyear-old market building, and numerous modern big box stores easily accessible by car.

MAP KEY Mercado Central de Callao

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MERCADO CENTRAL DE CALLAO SETTING: City Center

# OF VENDORS: ~ 1,000

FORM: Indoor

WAYFINDING: No

LAYOUT: Grid/Radial

GOODS CATEGORY: Fruit, Vegetables, Meat/

FREQUENCY: Daily

Seafood, Books/Media, Dry Goods, Artisan Goods, Clothing

Callao’s central market building was constructed in the 1940s. It is flanked on two sides by small arterial roads, providing relatively easy access to the market for vehicles. Two pedestrian boulevards border the market on the other sides of the building, creating pleasant public spaces complete with benches and shade trees. All sides of the market have street-facing stalls, and there is a high volume of foot traffic on the sidewalks around the building’s perimeter. The market is primarily devoted to fresh and dry food items, but it is quite a large building and it contains small sections of stalls offering non-food items such as music, movies, clothing and handicrafts. In general, the stalls are organized according to type of good sold; there is a large section for fruit, meat, and fish, as well as areas where prepared food vendors are clustered. While the market does not have a formal wayfinding system, each row and stall is clearly numbered, making it easy for shoppers to find a designated vendor. Throughout the building, the market aisles are wide, well lit and relatively easy to navigate. Callao’s historic Mercado Central is bustling, and it appears to remain an important destination for Callao residents living or working nearby. Recently, a new market complex opened outside of the city center in a former industrial zone. This modern commercial center, known as Minka, combines an enormous traditional food market with a fish market, mall, and food court. Shoppers from Lima and all over Callao travel to Minka by public bus, car or taxi (the site is not easily accessible to pedestrians). Minka contains familiar elements seen in older market buildings, but everything is done on a much larger scale, outside the historic city center, near the airport, and surrounded by multilane roads. It seems that while the historic Mercado Central was once large enough to serve as Callao’s commercial center, the city has grown out and up, and residents now also demand a more modern, almost big-box-store-style approach to retail commerce.

Shoppers visit meat counters inside the market.

The market is primarily devoted to food, but a small number of vendors sell essential non-food items as well.

Two sides of the market are flanked by pedestrian boulevards, creating pleasant public spaces with benches and trees. PAGE 59 | CALLAO, PERU

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CARAZ POPULATION: ~19,100 TOTAL AREA: ~246.5 sq. km (~95.2 sq.mi) ELEVATION: ~2,256 m (~7,402 ft) MARKETS RESEARCHED: Mercado Central Caraz is one of several small towns nestled in a river valley that cuts through the Cordillera Blanca and Cordillera Negra mountain ranges. Caraz is the only town in this population center that was not destroyed during a devastating earthquake in 1970, and it maintains the lifestyle and architecture of a traditional Andean village. Caraz is much smaller than the largest city in the valley, Huaraz, which has a population of 120,000 people. But, travel between towns in this region can be arduous, and Caraz remains an important commercial hub for small farmers throughout the northern section valley and the surrounding hills.

MAP KEY Mercado Central de Caraz

PLAZA MAYOR

MERCADO CENTRAL DE CARAZ SETTING: City Center

# OF VENDORS: ~ 300

FORM: Indoor

WAYFINDING: Yes

LAYOUT: Grid

GOODS CATEGORY: Fruit, Vegetables, Meat/

FREQUENCY: Daily

Seafood, Dry Goods, Artisan Goods, Clothing

The Mercado Central is Caraz’s primary hub for commerce and transportation. Street-facing stalls run around the perimeter of all three market buildings, seamlessly integrating the market with the hundreds of small shops in the surrounding streets. At either end, long lines of mototaxis wait to transport people and goods all over town. At the far corner of the market lies the town’s primary bus stop, where nearly all buses depart for towns in the valley or the hills. In addition to passenger cargo, the buses often pile sacks of agricultural products, live poultry, and other goods on their roofs, strapping them down however possible with makeshift racks and ropes. Inside the market buildings food is the major focus, with only a few stalls devoted to flowers, kitchen goods or clothing. All other non-food products are located in the street-facing market stalls. Beyond that, vendors are not necessarily clustered by product type, and mobile vendors set up informal stalls wherever they can find space. As busy times, the narrows aisles and sidewalks quickly become crowded.

On Sundays, Caraz closes the streets around the market buildings for a street fair. Informal vendors and shoppers take over the streets.

The market takes place in three large buildings, each slightly less formally constructed than the first. Above, a tin roof covers hundreds of stalls.

The streets around the Mercado Central seem almost as important a community focal point as the indoor market area. The street-facing market stalls are bustling, and the small family-run restaurants around the perimeter are as popular (if not more) than the hot food stalls within the market. On Sundays, the town closes all streets surrounding the market buildings for the Feria, or street fair. During Feria, the streets are filled with pop-up stalls selling fresh fruits and vegetables, new and used home goods, handmade artisan products and street food. Even when Feria is not officially occurring, the market seems to threaten to take over the roadway, as shoppers and vendors flow off the sidewalks into the streets. Vendors come from small isolated towns to set up as part of the Sunday Feria. They create stalls with whatever materials they have available. PAGE 63 | CARAZ, PERU

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CUSCO POPULATION: ~358,900 TOTAL AREA: ~70,015 sq. km (~27,033 sq.mi) ELEVATION: ~3,399 m (~11,152 ft) MARKETS RESEARCHED: Mercado San Pedro, Mercado Baratillo Once the capital of the Inca Empire, Cusco remains an important historical and cultural destination. It is the gateway to the ruins of Machu Picchu, and tourism is a major part of the city’s economy. Cusco’s streets reveal layers of history, with well-restored 18th and 19th century colonial architecture built upon original Inca stonework. On the sidewalks and in the markets, vendors sell handmade crafts and traditional street food, mingling with modern shops and supermarkets, some of which offer well-heeled tourists a taste of Peru’s best fine-dining and fashion design. Photo by Jake Izenberg

MAP KEY Mercado San Pedro

PUBLIC PLAZA

PEDESTRIAN BLVD.

MERCADO SAN PEDRO SETTING: City Center Edge

# OF VENDORS: ~ 700

FORM: Indoor

WAYFINDING: Yes

LAYOUT: Grid

GOODS CATEGORY: Fruit, Vegetables, Meat/

FREQUENCY: Daily

Seafood, Dry Goods, Religious Items, Artisan Goods, Clothing, Plants/Flowers

Mercado San Pedro is located in a large rectangular building about six blocks from Cusco’s central plaza, and one block from the regional train station. One side of the market building is flanked by the busy Calle Santa Clara, where taxis and buses edge along in the midst of heavy vehicle and pedestrian traffic. Sidewalks on this side of the market are crowded with informal vendors, huddled along the market wall and on the steps of each doorway. By contrast, the “main” entrance to the market is much quieter, with fewer mobile vendors and one large doorway opening into a tranquil plaza with several benches and trees. Parallel to Santa Clara, along the other side of the building, a wide pedestrian boulevard provides a more tranquil approach to the market for those arriving on foot. Mercado San Pedro is considered Cusco’s primary food market, but vendors offer a range of non-food related goods often not available in smaller food markets. In addition to traditional items such as fruits, vegetables, meats and dry goods, the market has entire aisles devoted to fresh bread, flowers, and natural cures and herbs. Prepared food is a major focal point, with large central sections of the market devoted to hot meals, and fresh juices. Tourists mingle with locals, sampling local dishes and wandering down the aisles devoted to artisan goods. The market building has high ceilings and relatively low stalls, making it feel grand and open throughout. Signs direct shoppers to the various market sectors with labels in Spanish, English and Quechua, the indigenous language that has been in use since the Inca occupied the area. The market’s aisles are wide and wellpaved, although pop-up vendors selling special items on weekends and holidays can create congestion in the main arterial aisles. It is clear that despite the modern supermarkets and fine-dining establishments that Cusco has to offer, tourists and residents alike still flock to this traditional market for fresh and prepared foods every day of the week.

Cusco is famous as a hub for artisan products, and stalls in Mercado San Pedro reflect this . Artisan goods take up several aisles of the market.

A whole new set of vendors set up shop in the center of an aisle around Easter, selling special holiday breads and traditional holiday foods.

Near the formal entrance to the market, vendors gather on the pedestrian boulevard, selling their wares on the steps. PAGE 67 | CUSCO, PERU

MAP KEY Mercado Baratillo

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MERCADO BARATILLO SETTING: City Center Edge

# OF VENDORS: ~ 700

FORM: Street Market

WAYFINDING: No

LAYOUT: Linear

GOODS CATEGORY: Books/Media, Artisan

FREQUENCY: Saturday Only

Goods, Clothing, Electronics, Antiques

Every Saturday, the Baratillo flea market fills blocks and blocks of narrow side streets off the busy four-lane roadway of Aveinda del Ejercito. The market is located several blocks downhill from an overpass at Avenida Grau, and it is easily accessible via bus, taxi, or sidewalk. Vendors at Baratillo sell a huge variety of new and used items, from street food and clothing to electronics, tires, and tools. Cusco residents joke that if you have a camera or phone stolen, this is the place to go to buy it back. Stalls are entirely homemade. Some vendors lay merchandise on tables and use tarps overhead to provide shade, others simply set their wares on a blanket on the ground and sit beside it. There are no organized merchandise sections to speak of - vendors simply set up shop where they are able to find space. The market is quite crowded, and shoppers shuffle slowly along the two narrows rows on each street, appraising the merchandise on either side of the footpath as they go.

The Baratillo flea market fills blocks and blocks of residential side streets. Vendors set up informal stalls using tarps and tables.

While there are other weekend street markets in Cusco, Baratillo is by far the largest and most popular (although its reputation as a haven for pickpockets tends to deter most tourists from attending). Every inch of the sprawling market feels boisterous and lively. Aisles are filled with conversations as vendors and customers haggle on all sides.

The market is buzzing with vendors and customers haggling over prices.

PAGE 69 | CUSCO, PERU

CHILE

Photo by Jake Izenberg

SANTIAGO POPULATION: ~5.4 million TOTAL AREA: ~641 sq. km (~247.6 sq.mi) ELEVATION: ~520 m (~1,706 ft) MARKETS RESEARCHED: Mercado Central Santiago is a modern South American capital city, with a high-functioning public transit system, and a great network of bike trails and parks. It is home to many multinational corporations, with highrise office and apartment buildings forming an impressive skyline. Shopping centers and supermarkets offer fresh and packaged foods to cosmopolitan customers from early morning until late at night. Photo by Jake Izenberg

MAP KEY Mercado Central de Santiago

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MERCADO CENTRAL SETTING: City Center

# OF VENDORS: ~ 250

FORM: Indoor

WAYFINDING: Yes

LAYOUT: Radial

GOODS CATEGORY: Vegetables, Meat/Seafood

FREQUENCY: Daily

Santiago’s Mercado Central is located in a large, beautifully restored building. The front of the market faces the busy street of Ismael Valdes Vergara, but a small plaza at the entrance provides a buffer from the traffic and allows plenty of space for pedestrians to step back and admire the building. And, the wide roadway makes the market easy to access for public buses, taxis, and tour buses alike.

Vendors at this market primarily sell fresh fish and shellfish. (Photo by Jake Izenberg)

The market opens to the surrounding street grid with street-facing stalls. These stalls create a moderate degree of pedestrian activity in the sidewalks around the market, but there are few mobile vendors to be found. On the three smaller streets surrounding the market, car traffic moves slowly and pedestrians stroll tranquilly down the wide, open sidewalks. At the middle of each block, ornate arched doorways provide entranceways into the building. Weather you enter from the grand front entrance or a side street, it is clear that the Mercado Central is a culinary destination. A significant portion of the market is devoted to restaurants, and it is a popular lunchtime spot for tourists and locals alike. Non-restaurant vendors primarily sell fresh fish and shellfish, with a handful of meat, vegetable and dry goods vendors interspersed. But, the prepared-food eateries seem to be the heart of the market.

Meat, cheese, vegetable and dry goods vendors round out the market’s offerings. (Photo by Jake Izenberg)

Lower-priced and more informal restaurants encircle the market from the inside. The central atrium is dominated by fine-dining establishments, with rustic wooden chairs and white linen tablecloths. Most restaurants specialize in seafood dishes, and all have at least one staff-person beaconing customers inside; the market is abuzz with conversations about how each restaurant’s chef has prepared the catch of the day. The historic market building features a grand dining area where tourists and locals enjoy prepared meals. (Photo by Jake Izenberg) PAGE 73 | SANTIAGO, CHILE

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VALPARAISO POPULATION: ~275,90 TOTAL AREA: ~400 sq. km (~150 sq.mi) ELEVATION: ~10 m (~30 ft) MARKETS RESEARCHED: Feria de Avenida Argentina; Merced Feria de Antiquidades y Libros; Mercado el Cardonal Valparaiso is a port city on Chile’s central coast, about 75 miles from Santiago. Valparaíso’s port is an important regional shipping hub, and brightly colored shipping containers are a striking part of the city’s landscape. A few blocks in from the water, historic plazas quickly give way to hills covered by the street-art and Victorian-style houses for which the city is famous. The city’s unique geography and historically significant architecture have earned it distinction as a UNESCO world heritage site. While Valparaíso residents have many modern supermarkets and shops available to them, markets remain vibrant commercial and social destinations.

MAP KEY Mercado Cardonal Merced Feria de Antigüedades y Libros Feria de Avenida Argentina . AVE DE INA ENT

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PLAZA O’HIGGINS

MERCED FERIA DE ANTIGÜEDADES Y LIBROS SETTING: Park

# OF VENDORS: ~ 75

FORM: Covered

WAYFINDING: No

LAYOUT: Linear

GOODS CATEGORY: Antiques

FREQUENCY: Sundays

Vendors at the Merced Feria de Antigüedades y Libros offer a curated selection of antiques, collectors’ items and books. Set at the southern edge of the large, open Plaza O’Higgins, the market feels charming and tranquil. Vendors sell their merchandise from small portable stalls under an antique roof structure with open sides. Shoppers stroll down the wide sidewalks on either side of the market structure, making a circuit around the perimeter to visit each vendor. The roof structure features retractable lateral awnings, creating ample, uniform shade for shoppers. The market is small and fluid and feels very much a part of the plaza. Many shoppers walk into the plaza to sit and socialize on nearby benches. There are few prepared food offerings near the market, but mobile vendors offer popular street foods and drinks throughout the rest of the public space. Informal vendors set up shop in the pathways through the plaza, selling used books and clothing items. At the edge of the market, a street musician plays the harp for a crowd of shoppers and plaza visitors.

Every Sunday, vendors from the Merced market offer a curated selection of antiques, colletors’ items and books.

Vendors sell merchandise from small portable stalls under an antique roof structure with open sides.

At the northern edge of the plaza, fast-moving buses and taxis shuttle people across town. On all other sides of the plaza, the streets are relatively quiet, with slower moving traffic. On Sundays, most of the small shops and restaurants in these surrounding streets are closed, leaving the market and the plaza as the major hub of activity.

The market is set at the southern edge of a large open park, and vendors spill out of the market roof structure into the walkways of the park. PAGE 77 | VALPARAISO, CHILE

FERIA DE AVENIDA ARGENTINA SETTING: City Center Edge

# OF VENDORS: ~250

FORM: Street Market

WAYFINDING: No

LAYOUT: Linear

GOODS CATEGORY: Artisan Goods, Clothing,

FREQUENCY: Sundays

Electronics, Antiques

Every Sunday, hundreds of vendors set up shop in three long rows along the central median of Valparaíso’s Avenida de Argentina. They use folding tents or tarps for shade, set their goods on tables or portable racks or simply on the ground. They sell antiques, used clothes, books, and shoes. They sell electronics, tools, hardware items and household goods of every kind imaginable. While fresh food is a rarity, countless mobile vendors sell prepared food products such as empanadas, mote drinks and grilled meat skewers. The three long rows are punctuated by a few cross streets which break the market up into distinct sections. Stalls are not organized by merchandise category and there is no wayfinding system in place, so shoppers travel slowly up and down the crowded rows to see what vendors have to offer. Stalls located at the outer edge of the median have their back to the car traffic along either side of Avenida de Argentina, protecting the vibrant pedestrian environment inside the market from fast-moving traffic on the roadway. The crowds of shoppers have many ways to arrive at this market. It is five blocks from rail and bus transit lines running along the coast, accessible by car or taxi along Avenida de Argentina, and safe to reach on foot thanks to ample signalized pedestrian crossings along the roadway. Sidewalks approaching the market are filled with clusters of informal vendors, hoping to take advantage of the flow of pedestrians traveling to and from the market. On Calle Juana Ross, a tiny pedestrian street running perpendicular to Avenida de Argentina, informal vendors have even created somewhat of a secondary “echo” market, mainly selling used clothing and shoes. There are large hardware and supermarket stores nearby, but the market remains an important destination. With affordable goods and ample street food, this market is popular place to eat, shop and enjoy a Sunday stroll. PAGE 78 | VALPARAISO, CHILE

In this weekly market, hundreds of vendors set up shop in three long rows along the central median of Valparaíso’s Avenida de Argentina.

The variety of goods at this market is dizzying. You’ll find fresh strawberries right next to second hand clothing and electronics.

Informal vendors create secondary “echo” markets on nearby sidewalks and streets, taking advantage of the foot traffic in the area.

MERCADO EL CARDONAL SETTING: City Center Edge

# OF VENDORS: ~250

FORM: Indoor

WAYFINDING: No

LAYOUT: Radial

GOODS CATEGORY: Fruit, Vegetables

FREQUENCY: Daily

The sidewalks on the industrial streets surrounding Mercado el Cardonal are rather quiet. Foot traffic is heavy on the nearby commercial street, but activity fades for a few blocks as you approach the market. But, then you hit it. The sidewalks are packed. Street-facing stalls are open for business, with tables full of fruits and vegetables spilling into the sidewalk. Where the sidewalk meets the road, informal vendors sell more fresh produce from boxes, pallets, or shopping carts, transforming parts of the sidewalk at the market’s perimeter into a crowded twosided outdoor aisle. In some street facing stalls (primarily on the side facing the industrial waterfront), large trucks load and unload massive bins of produce. Unlike many historic urban markets, Mercado el Cardonal is easily accessible to trucks. Medium-sized trucks pull right up to the street facing stalls, some of which have loading bays available. Other trucks park along the wide shoulder of Calle Brasil, which feeds easily into the arterial roadways running up and down the city’s industrial waterfront. Wholesale commerce is a visible part of the activity outside the market. Still, the market has much to offer individual shoppers approaching on foot. Shoppers enter through ornate iron doors on all four sides of the building. The first floor is easily navigable, with wide well-lit aisles and a radial floor plan. First floor vendors sell fresh fruits and vegetables. The entire second floor of the building is devoted to cooking and eating. At the top of the stairs, diners are greeted with an informal art exhibit displaying large photographs of the market, including portraits of vendors and shoppers. Restaurants on this floor beckon every passing person inside, offering affordable multi-course lunches. Seating areas are located around the perimeter of the building, and diners enjoy a view of the city through huge antique windows.

Mercado Cardonal is inside an historic market building easily accessible to the port and the central business zone of the city.

The first floor of the market is full of stalls offering fresh produce.

The second floor of the building is home to dozens of tiny restaurants where shoppers can enjoy prepared food and a view of the street below. PAGE 79 | VALPARAISO, CHILE

ARGENTINA Photo by Jake Izenberg

SALTA POPULATION: ~535,300 TOTAL AREA: ~60 sq. km (~23 sq.mi) ELEVATION: ~1,152 m (~3,780 ft) MARKETS RESEARCHED: Mercado San Miguel Salta is an attractive city in the in the Lerma Valley in Northern Argentina. It boasts well-restored colonial-era architecture, sophisticated cafes, and modern shops and restaurants. The beautiful landscape and great wine and restaurants make it a destination for tourists, but if you wander far enough away from Salta’s main plaza, it is clear that the city also attracts people from rural Argentina and Bolivia who come to the city looking for work and education.

MAP KEY

Mercado San Miguel

PLAZA PRINCIPAL

D: THREE BLOCKS

PEDESTRIA N BOULEVA R

PEDESTRIA N B O U LE V A RD: THREE BLOCKS

MERCADO SAN MIGUEL SETTING: City Center Edge

# OF VENDORS: ~750

FORM: Indoor

WAYFINDING: Yes

LAYOUT: Terraced Grid

GOODS CATEGORY: Fruit, Vegetables, Meat/

FREQUENCY: Daily

Seafood, Books/Media, Dry Goods, Religious Items, Artisan Goods, Clothing, Electronics, Plants/Flowers

Mercado San Miguel is three blocks away from Salta’s center, on the second of two parallel pedestrian streets running south from the city’s main plaza. Both pedestrian streets are pleasant public spaces, with shops and restaurants on both sides and benches covered in shade located in the center.

Mercado San Miguel is located on a pedestrian boulevard running south from the city’s main plaza. It almost blends in with the other store facades.

The market building has street facing shops on all sides and blends in well with the continuous facade of commercial storefronts on the street. It is a surprise to enter the building’s unassuming doorway and realize you are inside a massive multi-tiered market. Mercado San Miguel has well-organized sections of merchandise: fruits, vegetables, meat, artisan goods, and many items not usually found in central food markets such as electronics, plants, and clothing. There is a large central dining section on the ground floor of the market, and all the balconies and terraces of the second floor are filled with restaurants, too. All of the restaurants serve affordable meals, and musicians weave through the tables, serenading diners. Although the market is large and multi-tiered, it is relatively easy to navigate thanks to large maps at the entrance and adequate wayfinding signage throughout. The market is a short walk away from the historic city center, and its location on the corner of the arterial Calle San Martin makes it easy to access by bus or taxi. Shoppers arriving in their own car can use the parking garage below ground. The market is located in an area that used to be known as La Banda - a neighborhood where many new immigrants and poorer residents lived. Today, the block where the market sits is a noticeable border area marking the end of Salta’s touristic zone and the beginning of a working-class residential neighborhood. While there is a large modern supermarket less than two blocks away, Mercado San Miguel remains a popular and accessible destination for affordable shopping.

There is a large central dining section on the ground floor of the market, and restaurants line the 2nd floor balconies and terraces as well.

Mercado San Miguel has well-organized sections of merchandise, including many fruit and vegetable stands. PAGE 83 | SALTA, ARGENTINA

BOLIVIA

Photo by Jake Izenberg

LA PAZ POPULATION: ~877,500 TOTAL AREA: ~472 sq. km (~182 sq.mi) ELEVATION: ~3,640 m (~11,942 ft) MARKETS RESEARCHED: Mercado de la Brujas, Mercado Rodriguez La Paz is a densely populated mountain city, with busy streets running down a deep valley and buildings clinging to the hillsides. It is adjacent to El Alto - once a suburb of La Paz, but now considered one of South America’s fastest growing cities in its own right. La Paz is often described as one big market, because it seems the city’s streets and sidewalks are always full of vendors selling one thing or another.

MAP KEY Mercado Rodriguez

MERCADO RODRIGUEZ SETTING: City Center Edge/

# OF VENDORS: ~1,000

Market District

WAYFINDING: No

FORM: Indoor, Street Market

GOODS CATEGORY: Fruit, Vegetables, Meat/

LAYOUT: Grid, Linear

Seafood, Dry Goods, Plants/Flowers

FREQUENCY: Daily

About five blocks from the main commercial center of La Paz, Mercado Rodriguez provides a sprawling welcome to a cluster of markets, each with their own specialty. Blocks before Mercado Rodriguez formally begins, the sidewalks become more and more crowded in a crescendo of informal vendors that culminates at the market building entrance. The market building houses a dining area on the top floor, and below, meats, some produce, flowers, and street-facing stalls specializing in dry goods. At first glance, one might think this building is Mercado Rodriguez, when in fact, it is only the beginning. Mercado Rodriguez spills out of the market building and rambles up the hill of Calle Rodriguez, occupying nearly five blocks of street space. Vendors entirely fill the street - it is never open to vehicle traffic. Stalls outside of the market building are primarily simple and informal, with blankets and pallets or tables used to display merchandise, and tarps hung overhead for shade. The majority of vendors are there to sell fruits and vegetables, although some stalls near the market building offer cheese, dry beans, grains, and pastas. Throughout the market, vendors with small blue carts sell spices. On the ground floor of buildings along the street, brick-andmortar shops and restaurants open into the market space, taking advantage of the high volume of foot traffic along the sidewalk.

Blocks before the market formally begins, the sidewalks are crowded with vendors who’ve created stalls wherever they could find space.

Mercado Rodriguez runs for nearly five blocks in the street adjacent to it’s official home in the market building structure.

While no vehicles can enter the street market itself, buses, taxis and mototaxis run up and down cross streets, providing ample access to the market at the ends of each block. Traffic is slow and congested along these side streets, and pedestrians generally have adequate time and space to move across the roadway. After five blocks, Mercado Rodriguez begins to peter out at the top of a hill, where the streets flatten out and continue on into a large market zone with smaller food markets, an electronics market, and a furniture market.

The market streets are reserved for pedestrians only, but vehicles run up and down the busy cross streets, shuttling shoppers around. PAGE 87 | LA PAZ, BOLOVIA

MAP KEY Mercado de Brujas

PLAZA SAN FRANCISCO

MERCADO DE BRUJAS (“WITCHES MARKET”) SETTING: City Center

# OF VENDORS: ~75

FORM: Street Market

WAYFINDING: No

LAYOUT: Linear

GOODS CATEGORY: Religious Items, Artisan

FREQUENCY: Daily

Goods

La Paz’s Mercado de Brujas specializes in items needed for natural cures and religious and spiritual rituals. This includes herbs, incense, talismans, candles, and all manner of altar decorations and offerings.

Mercado de Brujas consists of approximately 75 shops oriented towards a quiet pedestrianized street.

The market consists of a grouping of shops along two small pedestrian blocks in the city’s historic center, with a handful of additional shops and street stalls scattered along the half-block approach to the market. Buses and taxis run frequently along the main street bisecting the two market blocks, and the market is easy to reach on foot from La Paz’s main central plaza. Today, the Mercado de Brujas is one of La Paz’s top tourist attractions. Within the two main blocks devoted to the market, traditional “Brujas” shops that seem truly lost in time mingle with souvenir shops selling colorful ponchos and llama key chains. Still, the market appears to remain an important destination for a spiritual culture that is still very alive in Bolivia. While tourists stroll along the narrow street, taking photos of the shops, Bolivian shoppers consult spiritual advisors in the stores or stop on the sidewalk to have a coca leaf reading.

Vendors at this market specialize in items needed for natural cures and religious or spiritual rituals.

Looking for luck in love? Success in business? A happy home? Endless Riches? Whatever your wish for, there’s a candle to help you get it. PAGE 89 | LA PAZ, BOLOVIA

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COPACABANA POPULATION: ~6,000 TOTAL AREA: ~350 sq. km (~130 sq.mi) ELEVATION: ~3,600 m (~12,00 ft) MARKETS RESEARCHED: Mercado Modelo de Copacabana Copacabana is tucked between two green hills on the shore of Lake Titicaca. Despite its small size, Copacabana is an important hub for commerce and transport in the region; it is the primary jumping-off point for the many tourists who come to visit Isla del Sol (island of the sun), and the only nearby town for residents on the lake’s islands and in the smaller towns along the shore.

MAP KEY Mercado Modelo de Copacabana

LVD.

PEDESTRIA NB

N BLVD.

PEDESTRIA

PLAZA MAYOR

LAKE TITICACA

MERCADO MODELO COPACABANA SETTING: City Center

# OF VENDORS: ~75

FORM: Indoor

WAYFINDING: No

LAYOUT: Circular

GOODS CATEGORY: Fruit, Vegetables, Meat/

FREQUENCY: Daily

Seafood, Dry Goods

The Mercado Modelo Copacabana lies in the corner of the city’s main plaza, where tourist buses and taxis stop to drop passengers coming into the city. Those arriving by boat can easily reach the market on foot, as it is just five blocks from the water’s edge. The market is an important destination for tourists, city residents, islanders and nearby townsfolk alike - Mercado Modelo Copacabana is the only place to find a wide selection of food items as Copacabana has no supermarket.

Mercado Copacabana is the only place to find a wide selection of food items. This city has no supermarket .

The market has approximately 50 stalls inside the building, organized in two concentric rings. The outer ring of stalls is devoted to meat, dry goods, and vegetables. The smaller inner ring is devoted to fresh fruit. There is a small dining section offering hot food during lunchtime. The market is small and easy to navigate, with good lighting and relatively wide aisles. The outer walls of the market building have street-facing stalls, where small shops sell dry goods and meat. The building is flanked on two sides with pedestrian streets, full of shops and family-run restaurants. In the center of the pedestrian streets, vendors set up small stands to sell hot food and snacks such as cereals, nuts and dried fruit.

The market is organized in a circular floor plan, with stalls arranged in two concentric rings.

Pedestrian streets adjacent to the market are full of vendors who have set up temporary stalls on folding tables. PAGE 93 | COPACABANA, BOLOVIA

URUGUAY

Photo by Jake Izenberg

MONTEVIDEO POPULATION: ~1.3 million TOTAL AREA: ~200 sq. km (~80 sq.mi) ELEVATION: ~43m (~140 ft) MARKETS RESEARCHED: Mercado “de Viernes” Uruguay’s capital city is a vibrant place, full of attractive cafes, eclectic restaurants, and historic architecture. Modern supermarkets, malls and office buildings stand side by side with art deco and neo-classical structures in various states of repair. Even Montevideo’s quieter residential neighborhoods contain a high mixture of uses, with cafes, bars and bookshops on the ground floor of small apartment buildings located along tree-lined streets. Photo by Jake Izenberg

MAP KEY Mercado “de Viernes”

CALLE GUANA CALLE CHARRUA

O DE MARIA CALLE DR. PABL

PARQUE RODO

RIO DE PLATA

MERCADO “DE VIERNES” SETTING: Neighborhood Center

# OF VENDORS: ~50

FORM: Street Market

WAYFINDING: Yes

LAYOUT: Linear

GOODS CATEGORY: Fruit, Vegetables, Meat/

FREQUENCY: Fridays

Seafood, Dry Goods

Every Friday at the edge of the Cordon neighborhood (or barrio) of Montevideo, a food market takes over Calle Dr. Pablo de Maria for one block, between Calles Guana and Churrua. The market is located where barrio Cordon, a commercialized neighborhood near the center of the city, meets barrio Parque Rodo, a residential neighborhood characterized by tree-lined streets and small verdant parks.

Mercado “de Viernes” is a weekly food and grocery market set up on a neighborhood side street every Friday.

With the street closed to traffic, vendors set up stalls in simple metal frames along the both lanes of the road, creating one wide aisle for shoppers in the middle. Fresh fruit and vegetables dominate one side of this aisle. The other side has a mix of produce stands and “stores on wheels” - repurposed trucks and vans selling specialty and packaged food items. One truck is devoted to fresh fish; another to cheese and dairy products, while a third sells practical goods for the kitchen and home, including packaged foods, cleaning supplies and toilet paper. Calle Dr. Pablo de Maria is the only street that is officially closed for the market, but vendors spill out into nearby sidewalks and streets, ignoring the vehicle traffic slowly rolling past. The market is not located near the center of the city, but it is accessible to neighborhood residents by bus, taxi and tranquil sidewalk on both sides. The market’s small size and wide central aisle make it easy to navigate. Seating is not provided, but there is plenty of space for shoppers to stop and chat with one another in the middle of aisle without blocking the flow of other customers browsing market merchandise. The Friday Market is a popular destination for shopping and socializing, despite the fact that the neighborhood is well served by supermarkets, bakeries, and corner stores selling boxes of produce all days of the week. The markets intimate size and pleasant location, on a quiet tree-lined street, make it an attractive and friendly place to pick up ingredients for dinner.

Trucks selling non-produce items make the market a one-stop shop for neighborhood residents looking to do the weekend shopping a bit early.

Near the market, informal vendors set up shop on the street, selling used clothes, books, appliances and other items. PAGE 97 | MONTEVIDEO, URUGUAY

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CONCLUSIONS

The markets presented in this report are diverse. They vary in size, configuration, merchandise category, and degree of formality. They operate in different cities with different regulatory frameworks and market landscapes. Nevertheless, they share a number of common characteristics that contribute to their vibrancy and importance as commercial and social centers. These “success factors” merit consideration in the context of the relatively recent North American public market renaissance. They provide inspiration and, hopefully, get the reader to think about how to help markets in the U.S. continue to grow and prosper.

FULL-DAY HOURS OF OPERATION Noticeably, most markets observed for this report are open all day. Those open every day of the week open very early each day and slow down in the afternoon, with a handful of vendors remaining open until as late as 7 or 8PM. Markets occurring once per week were open for nearly the full day, too, from morning until at least the late afternoon. None of the markets studied observed the “half-day” hours often seen in outdoor weekend markets in the U.S. Longer hours undoubtedly make the markets more accessible for shoppers. But, what about vendors? Are the sales really high enough to merit the longer hours? If there is balance in the market landscape, the answer should be yes. That is to say, if there are too many markets in an area, vendors and shoppers will be spread thin, and the commercial activity in each individual market cannot possibly reach a very high level. But, with the right number of centrally located markets, it seems, vendors see a commercial benefit to remaining open for the entire day. Neighborhood context is also an important factor in the viability of full-day markets. Most of the daily markets in this report are located in relatively dense, walkable, and mixed-use neighborhoods, with plenty of foot traffic from morning until night. The markets are located near housing, transportation hubs, public spaces, convenient stores and restaurants. In this context, they are well positioned to make sales throughout the day and evening, all week long.

Salta’s multi-tiered Mercado San Miguel is open from morning until late in the evening almost every day of the week. PAGE 100 | CONCLUSIONS

ACCESSIBLE AND CENTRAL LOCATION Accessibility and location are important to the success and vibrancy of markets. For a market to remain a viable commercial hub, it must provide vendors and shoppers with workable options for moving goods in and out. If shoppers have to walk too far with their purchases to the nearest transit stop, for example, they will be hesitant to do a lot of shopping at the market. All of the markets highlighted in this study were easily accessible by public transit or private vehicle, and most were located in a city or neighborhood center.

PROTECTION FROM THE ELEMENTS Whether indoor or outdoor, most markets provided protection from the elements. A large number of markets were located in buildings or under simple but permanent roof structures. Outdoor markets nearly always incorporated cloth or tarps over significant sections of the market aisles, providing shade from the sun and protection against the elements. This less formal aisle protection appeared to be placed by vendors who worked “across the aisle� with their neighbors, improving customer comfort and making the market a viable destination on hot and rainy days alike.

NAVIGABLE AISLES Markets displayed varying degrees of aisle navigability, and those with navigable aisles were decidedly more pleasant to visit. Market aisle width is the most important factor contributing to navigability: an aisle should allow enough room for shoppers to stop and purchase items at a stall, while still leaving room for others to pass by and continue moving along. For a linear market with stalls on one side only, this means the aisle space must be wide enough for at least two bodies (one to stop and one to pass). A two-side aisle ought to provide room for four bodies at any given time. Appropriate lighting, ventilation and wayfinding also contribute to navigability, depending on market size and context. While the equation for navigable aisles varies, it is an important consideration for shopper comfort and vendor success.

Cars and pedestrians approach the market district in Ayacucho, Peru.

Vendors use cloth or tarps to protect their stalls and customers from the hot sun in Caraz, Peru. PAGE 101 | CONCLUSIONS

BROAD SELECTION OF GOODS Markets are typically associated with an overwhelming variety of goods, and this proved true in the markets studied here. It is important to note that the markets studied offered variety within each goods category and, in most cases, a high number of goods categories, too. In other words, there was a vast array of fruit and vegetables types on display, but there were also vendors selling a vast array of kitchen goods, paper products, clothes and school supplies. In this scenario, the market is a one-stop-shop, much like today’s big chain supermarkets or discount stores. In a market landscape full of options for the consumer, markets must offer a good selection across a variety of goods categories to be competetive.

Dried fruits, packaged snacks, and sauces at this stall compliment the fresh produce and meat sold elsewhere within the market building.

AFFORDABILITY One of the most important draws of the market is that it is affordable to shop there. In most of the markets studied here, merchandise proved again and again to be cheaper than at supermarkets. An affordable market is accessible to all, and thus becomes an important space for commercial and social activities. In cases where the market is not particularly affordable, it must occupy some niche to merit the higher cost; this is seen in the case of the BioFeria markets in Lima, where the market offers specialty and organic products not easily found elsewhere in the city. While exceptions such as the BioFeria do exist, the overall culture of market as a public space, affordable to all, remains dominant. In this framework, the market is seen as an important public resource. This is an interesting contrast to the cultural conception of today’s farmers’ markets in the U.S., which have often been associated with high quality and therefore high cost.

The stalls in this aisle offer dishwashing soaps and other household items, in addition to prepared foods and snacks.

SAFETY Safety is an important concern in many of the markets studied for this report. Most markets studied here are, as discussed above, intended to be accessible to all. They are bustling, crowded places where people from all walks of life mix together. There is a lot of activity, and money is constantly changing hands. While the markets surveyed generally felt safe, some issues remain challenging. Pick pocketing, for example, is a common concern. In response, many markets have uniformed security guards at key entrances and roaming throughout the market. Through informal interviews the vendors and shoppers, it seemed that PAGE 102 | CONCLUSIONS

The aisles above are well-lit and feel safe for shopping and lingering.

security guards were deemed a wise and appropriate measure to maintain a safe environment in the market. There is also the concern that some degree of “cheating� may occur around transactions, since markets are typically less regulated than a supermarket or formalized store. To combat this, markets are often equipped with public scales, intended to allow customers to weigh their purchases to verify that the vendor has not shorted or overcharged them. These practical safety concerns can threaten the viability of the market if they are not addressed. The majority of markets studied here displayed concrete efforts to keep the market a safe place to shop.

PREPARED FOOD AND SEATING Many of the markets visited for this study incorporated the sale of prepared food. Almost without exception, seating for diners was located right in front or to the side of the stall where the food was prepared and sold. In some cases, the market architecture incorporated counters and stools as seating for each individual prepared food vendor. But, it was also quite common to see prepared food vendors creating their own seating areas for customers. They used chairs, wooden benches, milk crates, and even the tops of coolers for seating. They placed tents or simple tarps above the seats to provide protection from the elements. By whatever means they did it, vendors made sure their customers had a comfortable place to sit right where they bought their food or drink. In most cases, customers lingered at the stall and shared space with each other for a while in a pleasant social space. This practice is quite different from what we see at most farmers’ markets or food truck markets in the U.S. today, where customers buy food at a stall in one location and then either walk off to a small seating area somewhere else, sit on a curb or give up on seating entirely and gobble down the food standing up. Allowing vendors to provide a small amount of seating near their stall is a preferable option for customer comfort and the creation of a social atmosphere in the market.

Friends gather and eat prepared food on benches in the market dining area.

MULTI-LEVEL VENDING Every market included in this report incorporated vendors of varying degrees of formalization: there are vendors who have had established stalls in a particular market for decades side by side with vendors setting up makeshift stalls on the floor and ambulatory vendors weaving through both of them, selling their wares on foot. This high degree of variety creates a rich experience for the customer, adding to the excitement of the market atmosphere and providing him or her

Cart vendors catch customers outside of Mercado 12 de Abril in Ayacucho. PAGE 103 | CONCLUSIONS

with more options for purchasing merchandise or food. Multi-level vending also lowers barriers of entry for informal entrepreneurs because it allows vendors to participate in the market and sell their goods, even if they cannot afford to rent a formal stall. But, are these vendors really allowed to sell on foot? And, if so, would it be safe for the customer to buy from them? In the markets studied here, ambulatory vendors are likely participating without formal permission or regulation; someone is looking the other way. This means they likely do not pay anything to access the commercial opportunities the market provides, nor are they subject to any oversight in terms of product quality or safety. And, they are always in danger of being caught and penalized for selling illegally. This scenario can be problematic for established vendors, who pay to participate in the market, and for customers, who may get sick from food they buy from an unregulated mobile vendor. It can also be problematic for the informal vendors themselves, as they are at risk of being penalized for illegal street vending. An ideal solution, it seems, would be to structure market participation in tiers, subjecting vendors to an appropriate degree of oversight with an appropriate fee for participation at each level for formalization. A tiered vending structure preserves the vibrancy and variety that multi-level vending affords, without the risks and frustrations to vendors and customers.

INTEGRATION OF PUBLIC SPACE AND/OR PEDESTRIAN STREETS

Sidewalk vendors set up outside Mercado 12 de Abril in Ayacucho.

Vendors sell flowers outside clothing stores in Ayacucho’s Market district.

A significant number of markets studied for this report incorporate either a pedestrian street or small plaza near the market, and some include both. The inclusion of pedestrian streets and open public spaces around the market improves walkability and provides space for socialization and “street appropriation” – the use of street or public space for activities other than permanent commerce, such as outdoor eating and street-vending. These areas establish the market as a community gathering space and encourage customers to linger – a goal worth pursuing in any city, no matter the context!

The street outside Caraz’s central market is closed to car traffic and open to pedestrians only every Sunday. PAGE 104 | CONCLUSIONS


The Mercados Project | Street Plans Collaborative