St Hugh's College, Oxford - Chronicle 1938-1939

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CHRONICLE 19 3 8 3 9 Number


THE MOBERLY LIBRARY seen from the roof of the Mary Gray Allen wing



THE PRINCIPAL Hon. Secretary,1933-9: MISS C. M. ADY

Hon. Editor of the Chronicle, 1937-9

MRS. M. D. LOBEL, 16 Merton Street, Oxford



3 5 6 7 7















DEGREES, 1938-9







30 33 35




37 38







45 46




Council BARBARA ELIZABETH GWYER, M.A., Principal. DOUGLAS VEALE, M.A., Fellow of Corpus Christi, Chairman. EDITH ELIZABETH WARDALE, M.A., Hon. Fellow. ELIZABETH ANNIE FRANCIS, M.A., Official Fellow. MARGERY FREDA PERHAM, M.A. Research Fellow. MARY ETHEL SEATON, M.A., Official Fellow. EVELYN EMMA STEFANOS PROCTER, M.A., Official Fellow. GERTRUDE THORNEYCROFT, M.A., Official Fellow. CECILIA MARY ADY, M.A., D.LITT., D.LITT. Research Fellow. MARY REAVELEY GLOVER, M.A., Fellow. DAISY EMILY MARTIN CLARKE (URS.), M.A., Official Fellow. AGNES HEADLAM-MORLEY, B.LITT., M.A., Official Fellow. DOROTHEA HELEN FORBES GRAY, M.A., Official Fellow, Secretary

to the




Principal B. E. GWYER, M.A.


French. English Literature. History. Philosophy. Vice-Principal, English Language. A. HEADLAM-MORLEY, B.LITT., M.A. Politics and Economics. D. H. F. GRAY, M.A. Classics. O. D. BICKLEY, Dottore in Let- Martinengo Cesaresco Lecturer tere (Genoa) in Italian. E. A. FRANCIS, M.A. M. E. SEATON, M.A., F.R.S.L. E. E. S. PROCTER, M.A., F.R.HIST.S. M. R. GLOVER, M.A. D. E. MARTIN CLARKE (MRS.), M.A.

Assistant Tutor M. G. ADAM, M.A., F.R.A.S.

Science. Lecturer


Mathematics. Bursar G. THORNEYCROFT, M.A.

Librarian P. K. HESKETH-WILLIAMS, B.A., F.L.A.

Warden of St. Hugh's House S. F. SALT.

Principal's Secretary M. FOWLE.

Assistant Bursar M. J. MACLAGAN.


EPORT OF THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE ASSOCIATION, 1938 rpHE thirteenth Annual Meeting of the Association was held in I the Mordan Hall, St. Hugh's College, on Saturday, June ath, the Principal in the Chair. The Chairman, in her statement on the events of the year, congratulated Mrs. Lobel on the high standard maintained in the first number of the Chronicle of which she was Editor. She explained the changes approved by the Gardens Committee in the layout of the land adjoining the Library, and spoke of the proposal to place some memorial to the late Custos Hortulorum in the garden. A memorial to Miss Rogers raised by her friends in the University will take the form of beautifying the enclosure on the north side of St. Mary's Church. Speaking of the appeal on behalf of the needs of the University, the Chairman said that 13.3 per cent. of the members of the Association had subscribed to it; this represented a higher percentage than that of any other Women's Society. The total membership of the Association was 611. Miss Marjorie Moller's election as a member of Council by the Association was reported. The election was uncontested. Miss Ady was elected as Secretary to the Association for another term of four years. The Chairman announced that it was hoped to hold a Gaudy on Saturday, June z4th, 1939• The following members were present: The Chairman The Secretary M. G. Adam I. W. Busbridge H. C. Deneke M. Fowle P. Hesketh-Williams W. F. Hutchinson M. E. King

B. L. Lefroy E. Lemon M. Macdonald G. Moberly L. Parks A. C. Percival M. A. Rice S. F. Salt

M. E. Seaton C. M. Snow E. M. Talbot G. Thorneycroft M. Tudor E. E. Wardale M. G. Watkins F. C. Welch

C. M. ADY (Hon. Sec.).

THE PRINCIPAL'S LETTER 9-‘HERE is, I am glad to say, no change to record in the member.11. ship of our Governing Body, except that (somewhat after the fashion of 'moving from the blue bed to the brown' ?) Miss Moller, Headmistress of Headington School, has duly succeeded as Elected Member Miss Glenday, Headmistress of Clifton High School. The year has witnessed two events very gratifying to the College. First, the conferment on Miss Ady of the Degree of Doctor of Letters. Dr. Ady has been far too well known to us from the date of her election to a scholarship at St. Hugh's Hall in 1901, followed by a First in History three years later, and later by her tenure of the offices of Tutor, Vice-Principal, and Research Fellow, for it to be 7

necessary in 1938 to do more here than congratulate her and ourselves on this distinction, well earned as it is by the sound historical work she has given to the world. A dinner took place in her honour in the Michaelmas Term to which were invited by the Principal and Fellows, among other friends, members of the Governing Body and of the Senior Common Room with some of the older Scholars of the College. The toast of our distinguished guest gave rise to what is believed to have been Miss Procter's debut as an after-dinner speaker; she was supported by Miss Reeves, whose return to Oxford as Tutor in History to the Society of Oxford Home-Students is most welcome to us. Dr. Ady's felicitous reply included quotations from an old letter, lately come to light and belonging to that period when `the Statute', as all Oxford women used to call it, had just been voted on. The writer's facetious prophecy that she might some day be `a Doctor or a Proctor', being now as to one-half fulfilled, was most apposite to the occasion. The other event is the recognition shown to Miss Seaton's distinguished work in her subject by her appointment as University Lecturer in English Literature. This has afforded keen pleasure to her College and circle of friends here and elsewhere, which includes members of many universities at home, in Scandinavia, and overseas. The College has appointed Miss Philippa Hesketh-Williams, B.A., F.L.A., to the permanent office of Librarian, instituted this year. Forty-eight candidates presented themselves, and it must have been a great satisfaction to her to be selected from among so many experienced librarians for the post which she had adorned in its `temporary, part-time' days. There can be no question that our present rate of accessions will provide full-time work for some years; with the exhaustion of the block grant, allotted just before the Moberly Library came into use, the position will be changed but not, we think, so as to leave much (if any) margin of spare time. Under Miss Hesketh-Williams the Library is sure of steady development, and—we may add—the human weaknesses of readers are sure of being, suaviter in modo, fortiter in re, progressively restrained. Miss Rogers's posthumous book Degrees by Degrees, with its lively and characteristic record of each step to the victory with which her name will always be associated, has now been published by the University Press. It will be invaluable for future historians of the women's movement, and contemporaries will enjoy on many of its pages lines which recall her very voice and tone. We have welcomed lately two other books by members of the College which are of special interest to women—Miss McLeod's Heloise, and Miss McCall's They always come back, on prison conditions for women in this country. But I must not begin on books or this letter will outrun its bounds. We much regretted that last year the Jubilee Scholarship, the gift of Senior Members and their friends, could not be awarded, and are delighted that in 1939 the first Jubilee Scholar expects to be matriculated in the person of Miss Mary Burch of Lydney Grammar

School, who submitted excellent papers in Chemistry and Zoology. She hopes to read for a degree in Medicine. The College has decided to institute an Organ Exhibition, to be offered for the first time in 194o, and hopes thereby to help some musical girl to work for the Mus.Bac. Degree. Failing a candidate sufficiently equipped for that course consideration may be given to one qualified to read for an ordinary Honour School, provided she is adequately prepared to keep the Chapel music at a high standard and to devote the requisite amount of time to that form of service to the College. Visitors to the garden will have seen that we are at last in process of completing the layout of the area east of the Moberly Library. The rockery has been removed and the lawn extended, and the wide border outside the Junior Common Room windows is to be bisected by a double row of trees of fairly low growth, the old pear tree at the east end being left in position. The two acacias were for a time in peril, but were saved by friends of (r) conservatism, (a) the nuthatch. The Gardens Committee has been asked by the Governing Body to make suggestions for a memorial to Miss Rogers in the garden where she spent so many hours, and this is now under discussion. The memorial devised by her friends in the University and elsewhere, which consists of a new layout, including a low wall and seat in stone, of the churchyard of St. Mary's, will be dedicated by the Bishop of Oxford at a Service on May r7th, to which all subscribers will be invited. Mr. Buckland, our own architect, gave his services for the design; the Public Orator has composed a Latin inscription for the seat, and Mr. House, Fellow of the Queen's College and Secretary to the Curators of the Botanic Garden, has helped the Memorial Committee with advice as to planting. Under his direction the garden, after a thorough digging over and manuring, has been well stocked with new bulbs, perennials, and shrubs, and should look its best in May. It has been a privilege for me to act as Chairman of this Committee and to receive the ready support of so many of the friends of Miss Rogers, both men and women, including representatives of all the Women's Societies and the Parochial Church Council of St. Mary's. The term just closing has been remarkable for a Parliamentary Election in the City, and for the extraordinary amount of energy devoted by members of the University to the many forms of relief work now occupying the minds of English people. The persecution of men and women unpopular for reasons of race, politics, or religion under the present regime in Germany has been brought home to us for some years past by the arrival here of distinguished scholars, some of whom have found opportunities among us to continue their contributions to knowledge. International Student Service, with which from its earliest days, just after the War, Oxford has been honourably associated, is still the centre of work for the benefit of younger students cut off in mid-career from all hope of completing their courses or training for adult life in other ways. The Oxford Association of the British Federation of University Women is A2


actively arranging for hospitality needed by women graduates; while orphaned children and others fleeing from danger are finding help through the work of a representative committee under the chairmanship of Dr. Henry Gillett, Mayor of Oxford. Both senior and junior members of the College have been 'doing their bit' both in these spheres and in connexion with funds for the maintenance of destitute Basque children in England, for the nutrition of families in Spain, and for the distribution of milk to children of pre-school age in a northern area of this country stricken with unemployment. The energy of the J.C.R. leaders in these ways has been beyond praise. It has not, however, I am glad to say, been at the expense of our more long-established 'object' St. Margaret's House, Bethnal Green, with which our links multiply as more and more members of the College live and study under its roof. Mrs. Sherwin-White (M. L. Downes), z6 Belsyre Court, Woodstock Road, Oxford, is now Secretary of the Oxford Committee, and we hope to see the list of our annual subscribers among former undergraduates of the College grow longer and longer. 2S. 6d. or 5s. is the staple figure; may 1939 see many recruits to her band! The events of September have caused serious thought to be given to questions of protection. The College is in close touch with the authorities of the University in this matter. There are A.R.P. Wardens in the S.C.R., of whom, as we should anticipate, Miss Salt was the first to earn her badge. We look forward quietly, but I hope resolutely, towards a future at present uncertain. There is, however, no fear but that the fellowship of work and responsibility, which most of the senior resident members of the College have now been privileged to share for more than a decade, will be equal to whatever it is called upon to face. This, together with the growing evidence of a general realization that in the last resort spiritual evil is overcome, not by might, nor by power, but by another Spirit, are two facts that 'in these bad days' surely strengthen our hope as well as support our faith. May it be so also with all readers of the Chronicle. December 1938. B. E. G.

SOME PROCEEDINGS OF THE RESEARCH COMMITTEE, 1938-9 PTRHE Elizabeth Wordsworth Studentship, held by Miss M. A.

Beese, was renewed for a second year, and she hopes to complete her thesis on 'Mary, Countess of Pembroke, and the Arcadian tradition in English prose fiction' and to submit it to the Committee for Advanced Studies for the degree of D.Phil. soon after the close of the present academic year. The tenure of the Mary Gray Allen Senior Scholarship was also extended for a second year, and Miss M. L. Cunningham has continued her work on 'A critical edition of Aeschylus, Seven against Thebes, lines 526-630, with a full commentary and a prose translation' for the B.Litt. degree. The I0

Moberly B.A. Senior Scholarship was awarded to Miss U. Fitzhardinge (B.A. Sydney), to whom the University also awarded the Henry Francis Pelham Studentship. Miss Fitzhardinge is now in Rome. Her subject is 'The Policy of the Roman Government towards non-Roman Religions from Julius Caesar to Traj an, with special reference to the treatment of such religions in Rome and Italy'. Elections for 1939-40 will take place during the Trinity Term. From the John Gamble Fund for Research grants have been made as follows: To Miss Mary Thorp, M.A., D.Phil., for expenses of publication by the Oxford University Press in the series Oxford Studies in Modern Languages and Literatures of her work on the History of the Nibelungenlied. Miss Thorp was in residence 1929-33. To Miss H. Buchan, M.A. (Glasgow), B.Litt., for expenses of publication by Messrs. Blackwell of her edition of Thomas Pestell's Poems. Miss Buchan was in residence 1932-4. The Committee heard with pleasure that leave to supplicate for the degree of D.Phil. had been granted to Miss R. J. Dean, M.A., to whom a grant was made from the John Gamble Fund during 1937 and that the Oxford University Press had offered to publish without subsidy the work of Miss D. M. Niblett, B.A., B.Litt., formerly Moberly Senior Scholar, on 'A study of the significance and variations in meaning and usage of certain important terms of literary criticism during the period from the late seventeenth to the late eighteenth century'.

WOMEN AND THE LEGAL PR FESSION T has been said with some truth that the state of civilization to

J1 which any society has attained is most surely indicated by the status of its women. Any student who wished to apply this test to Great Britain and based his opinions on the theoretical position would probably come to the conclusion that this country had reached a markedly high standard of civilization; for all professions (except perhaps the Church) are open to women, and no woman by virtue of her sex is in theory prevented from adopting any particular form of activity to earn her living or to develop her intellectual capabilities. As in the social world, in the professions, and in the economic sphere, there has been a marked development during the last twenty years in the legal position of women. In its development Parliament itself has not, of course, been the pioneering force; but it has, after much pressure and agitation, placed on the Statute Book new laws that have reflected the change in the position of women after public opinion in the main has accepted the situation. It is difficult to realize that just sixty years ago a married woman could hold no property in her own right, that all she possessed belonged to her husband, that she was so protected that previous to the passing of the Criminal Justice Act of 1925 she could not be convicted of an offence II

committed in the presence of her husband as it was a presumption of law that it was committed under his coercion, that until recently the same grounds that would entitle a husband to divorce his wife would not entitle her to divorce him. More remarkable still is the fact that it was only the passing of the Law Reform (Married Women and Tort Feasors) Act in 1935 that put an end to the absurd position that a husband was in law responsible, generally speaking, for his wife's debts, libels, and slanders. Since under the Law woman was of such small importance it is not surprising that she was also prevented from practising the Law, which treated her as a person only to be regarded as a child who should not be held responsible for his actions and in need of the closest protection. In 1903 a Miss Cave, greatly daring, applied to the Benchers of Gray's Inn to be admitted as a student. Her application was refused as was her appeal to the Lord Chancellor. The Law Journal of the time in commenting on the episode said that this refusal was not prompted by 'any narrow spirit of Trade Unionism' nor was it because 'men as Lawyers have set up for themselves an ideal of woman and find it hard to reconcile such an ideal with "brawling Courts" '. The appeal according to the Law Journal was dismissed on far more lofty grounds. 'Justice to women if justice it be, must not be conceded at the expense of sentiment. . . . When we consider with what zeal and emulation, with what acrimony at times, cases are conducted in our Courts, how keen and close and personal is the struggle of advocacy which they involve, a change in the direction of the Lady Barrister is greatly to be deprecated. Introduce charming woman on the scene and what man with the ordinary instincts of chivalry but must lower his lance before such an adversary, must feel himself at a disadvantage, disarmed, shorn of half his fighting strength? And with this feeling, the efficiency of our present system with its free and equal terms of combat, its frank exchange of friendly buffets must needs soften.' This lady, undaunted, tried equally unsuccessfully to be allowed to become a solicitor. Again in 1913 Gwyneth Bebb, a member of St. Hugh's Hall and the first woman placed in Class I of the Honour School of Jurisprudence, after being refused admission to the Law Society's Examination took action in the Chancery Division of the High Court for a declaration that she should not be refused such admission. She was not successful. In 1918, however, the position was entirely changed by the passing of the Sex Disqualifications Act. That Act ordained that 'A person shall not be disqualified by sex or marriage from the exercise of any public function or from being appointed to or holding any civil or judicial office or post or from entering or assuming or carrying on any civil profession or vocation or for admission to any Incorporated Society'. The result was that woman according to the Law then became entitled to demand the right to qualify for any profession. Immediately a few women set to work to claim their rights, and within a few years there were women qualified for both branches of the legal profession. 12

The difficulties that faced women practising the law were and still are enormous. The law by its very nature is conservative. It is a profession steeped in tradition. It was therefore perhaps quite natural that the influx of women was not enthusiastically welcomed. Over centuries men had worked together in this profession—had developed a code of manners, language, and etiquette which they treasured with justifiable pride. Barristers appearing in court wore wig and gown, and their professional lives centred round the Inns of Court. Chambers where they carried on their profession were antiquated and not built or organized for people of both sexes. The introduction of woman into this amiable fraternity raised therefore all sorts of problems, and many reasons were given why women would never make a success of the profession. A friend of mine once brought me a message from a High Court Judge of great learning. 'Tell her', he said, 'that women in the law are matter out of place.' This was a very apt description of how they were regarded in the early days. The organization of the two branches of the legal profession (barristers and solicitors) differs in all respects—as do their functions in the legal system. A barrister in order to practise his profession has to join a set of Chambers (and even for a man it is not easy to find a vacant seat in a busy set of Chambers)—after having first of all made the great decision as to which side of the law is to be developed—Chancery—Common law—Admiralty—Criminal or Divorce or a highly specialized branch such as Income-tax or Rating. Solicitors, on the other hand, in order to practise have to join a firm of solicitors or perhaps set up a new firm on their own, which of course requires money. No lay client can seek the advice of a barrister (whose function it is to appear in court to do the talking) without in the first instance consulting a solicitor who in most cases advises the lay client on the choice of the barrister to be consulted. Women banisters therefore have two obstacles to overcome. They have not only to fight the prejudice of people generally but also of solicitors who naturally must consider the interests of their clients and minimize all risks. In the early days (and perhaps to some extent even now) another problem of the woman barrister was that she was—news. She could not appear near a court without her presence being reported in the press. If she appeared (even as a pupil or a 'devil', positions which are very valuable and necessary stages in learning the craft of the profession) in a case of any interest, however remote to the public, not only did her private life become intolerable (which perhaps did not matter so much except for her) but the increased publicity given to the case and the clients gave them much displeasure, and further was a cause of grave comment and disapproval amongst the other members of the profession. The legal profession wages a stern relentless war on professional advertising. Barristers, as I have said, depend on solicitors for their work. Solicitors in their turn depend on lay clients, and in this branch of the profession the main difficulty of women is to overcome



the prejudice of the public. This (as in the medical profession) should only be a question of time and opportunity. Solicitors as a profession act as advisers to their clients on all sorts of matters—not only when involved questions of law arise or litigation is contemplated. The time will surely come when men solicitors will realize the value of a qualified woman as part of their organization. There are already several women practising as solicitors, but most of them have started firms of their own and have not been given the opportunity to join established firms. It is very difficult to prophesy, but now that women are Justices of the Peace and thereby administer justice in police courts, now that they regularly sit on juries and still appear in the dock, now that they are in business and must constantly want advice on commercial matters, now that women legislate in Parliament and pay income-tax and are required to perform all kinds of national service, it is difficult to find any reason why women should not in time succeed in the practice of the law. Women have the intellectual capacity to become qualified and to acquire a profound knowledge of the law. Women can become eloquent public speakers. Why cannot these two qualities be joined so that women can become advocates in courts of law? The value of a human being as a sound adviser largely depends on a capacity to consider problems objectively and in experience. The first of these qualities can be acquired by training—the second is perhaps not so easily acquired and to some extent is bound up with the whole of our social and economic system. A lawyer has to deal with any and every problem, and here perhaps women's education at present does not fit her at the beginning of her profession to deal with any problem that may arise. The young woman on the whole is far less knowledgeable than the young man of equal status and education about the ordinary things of life, such as rates and taxes, the working of engines and motor-cars, insurance and games, the registration of births, marriages, and deaths, and the whereabouts of government departments; the practical effects of licensing laws and railway time-tables; and a thousand and one other subjects which are of practical importance in the daily life of the people. This lack of general knowledge does handicap women in their attempt to become established as members of a profession which is essentially practical in its application. The value of a legal training to women is immeasurable. The mental training teaches discipline, clarity of thought, application of principles to particular facts, and the capacity for making unbiased decisions divorced from emotion. A knowledge of the criminal courts gives invaluable lessons in human behaviour and in the difficulties and temptations which face mankind. This sort of knowledge and experience must make women more useful to the community in whatever capacity they serve. At the moment the legal profession is not one to be entered by women lightly. It is an enthralling occupation for those who can 14

afford it and have patience and adaptability. For those who must earn money immediately it is not advised unless they are lucky enough to possess sympathetic relatives or friends already in the profession who will give every possible encouragement—practical and otherwise. There are positions in the civil service for which a legal qualification is essential and some women lawyers have already been appointed—but not many. The number of large industrial organizations that have legal departments is increasing and it should not be impossible for qualified women to enter this field of activity. The achievements of women in the legal profession during the twenty years since they have been admitted to its art and mystery have not been spectacular, but they are not quite negligible, and the next twenty years will probably show a slow but very definite progress. Women are beginning to be accepted without astonishment; the courts and officials are now used to their presence. Men solicitors have become accustomed, not only to the idea of dealing with women barristers and solicitors but to their work and their E. R. presence in increasing numbers.

BIRD-WATCHING IN THE CAMARGUE rir OWARD S the end of last June the Oxford Ornithological Society -11- made an expedition to the Rhone delta, a tract of land composed chiefly of marsh and lagoon, much of it preserved by the Societe Nationale d'Acclimatation de France as a nature sanctuary. We stayed at Arles, within easy reach of the Crau desert and the Alpilles limestone hills, having access to three different types of country rich in the bird-life characteristic of each habitat. We often caught sight of hoopoes as we drove along, flying from tree to tree with their dipping woodpecker flight, the long erectile crest raised for a moment as the bird alighted. Rollers were not uncommon, usually in pairs, the wonderful turquoise blue and chestnut plumage seeming rather unsuitable to such a large and otherwise uninteresting bird, for we were too late in the year to see the springtime rolling flight. The handsome woodchat shrike was frequently seen, crouching expectantly on the telegraph wires, and once we got excellent views of the rarer lesser grey shrike with its distinctively patterned wings. Marsh harriers were common in the Camargue itself, sometimes quartering low over the meadows, sometimes sailing buzzard-like with wide blunt wings ; one we were watching was chased by a Montague's harrier, giving us an excellent chance to compare the two birds. The Egyptian vulture was spotted several times in the sky, soaring at a great height in wide circles, the brilliant sunshine striking the black and white plumage as it turned into the light. Once a black kite, easily distinguished by its long and somewhat forked tail, was seen carrying an eel or a snake in its talons, and the 15

experts were able to diagnose two black spots in the sky as Bonelli's eagles. The Scops owl provided us with entertainment in the evenings, as it used to sit and hoot in the trees above the cafes which lined the principal boulevards of Arles. The town was full of two sorts of animal life, cats and swifts. The former chased each other along the corridors of the Coliseum and over the seats of the ruined theatre ; the latter performed aerial gymkhanas in the evenings, round the chimneys and between the trees, in countless hordes, screaming as they went. Our own familiar birds, robins, thrushes, blackbirds, and rooks, were noticeably scarce, while, on the other hand, some of our native species, the cornbunting, green woodpecker, and magpie, were very much commoner than in England. At the Pont du Gard, where the water runs deep and pours into a natural basin perfectly designed for bathing, crag martins, and Alpine swifts, with their white breasts and slender wings, were flying over us; and farther down the river where the white shingle is piled by the swirl of the current, white wagtail and a pair of little ringed plover were found. Here also a serin sang its high-pitched song for us and came down to the water to drink, and the nightingales, which sing much later into the summer in the south of France than in England, sang continuously and with more piercing beauty than I have ever heard elsewhere. The Camargue is a paradise for warblers. Snatches of blackcap's song drifted in through the windows of the bus whenever suitable cover was passed. The vigorous song of the Cetti's warbler was a frequent accompaniment to lunch. A family party of Orphean warblers was watched in the branches of an olive tree. The fantailed warbler flew over us several times with its somewhat bat-like flight, and we were shown the nest of a melodious warbler, the size of a thimble and woven of spider's webs neatly sewn through the reeds which supported it. The spectacled, moustached, Savi's and Sardinian warblers were also seen and heard; in the hills among the juniper we found a pair of Dartford warblers, and by a river bank the nest of a great reed warbler, suspended between four rushes over the water, the birds flying fearlessly to and fro, uttering their harsh cries. A pair of bearded tits were watched courting among the reeds, and several penduline tits were seen, one pair still busily engaged in building their curious retort-shaped nest, for the nesting-season was a late one last year. Crested tits were found among the fir trees in the hills. One of the most delightful expeditions was made to a heronry. The nests were in stunted fir trees, and belonged chiefly to night herons and lesser egrets, and there were a few squacco herons among them. The air was full of the raucous calls of the hungry children, and on all sides the busy parents could be seen, the dazzling white egrets forcing aside the sharp pine-needles with their long sensitive feet as they emerged from their nests in search of more food, the grave night-herons continually flying home with food for their stolid overgrown-looking young. Purple and 'common' herons were seen flying and fishing, but no nests were found. 16

The flamingoes on the wide flat shores of the inland lagoons were lovely sight, pure white in the distance as they waded feeding, spreading crimson and black wings as they rose at our approach. A large flock flew over the blue Mediterranean in a crimson expansible ball of ever-changing shape, and the loud honking call could be heard at a great distance. The breeding-ground of a colony of black-winged stilts was visited. These absurdly long-legged birds were nesting in an unpleasant marsh which was used for pasturing the bulls from the arenas, and through which we had to wade in great heat. The physical discomfort and the anxiety caused by the presence of the bulls was easily outweighed by the sight of twenty or thirty pairs of these extraordinary birds flying low over us, with necks outstretched and long pink legs trailing out far behind, uttering shrill cries of alarm. Wood sandpiper, avocets, Kentish plovers, and one whimbrel were also seen, and a spotted crake was flushed from its hiding-place and flew low over the reeds before us with dangling legs, to flop out of sight a few yards farther on. In a particularly parched and sun-baked piece of desert a colony of pratincoles was located. From their anxious behaviour the birds were believed to be breeding (a fact unknown to the French authorities), but patient searching in appalling heat failed to reveal any young, though broken egg-shells were found in the hard mud. The pratincole is a particularly fascinating bird; a wader (biologically speaking), with long narrow wings and a forked tail, which flies like a swift, and, like it, lives on flying insects, is sufficiently aberrant to tickle the palate of the most jaded ornithologist. Another very interesting bird living in the Crau desert was the sand grouse: its plumage is of such perfectly protective coloration that the bird is exceedingly difficult to pick out. We owed our best view to our bus driver who entered into the spirit of the expedition and pulled up with a gesture, proudly indicating a pair he had noticed crouching close by the road-side. Four kinds of larks were seen, the short-toed, the crested, the calandra, and our own skylark, and it was interesting to be able to compare them in the close proximity in which they were living, for the song and flight of each species varied surprisingly. Tawny pipit, black-eared wheatear, ashy-headed wagtail, and blue rock-thrush were also seen, and the short-toed tree-creeper was detected by its note among the trees in a public park at Nimes. Several unfamiliar sea-birds were added to the list: yellow-legged herring gulls were feeding on the shores among the flamingoes, and whiskered and gull-billed terns were seen on the salt marshes near the sea. The oriole was heard more often than seen, though its elusive golden presence was felt several times. On one occasion as we sat eating our lunch on the bank of a canal, orioles were calling from the tall trees on one side of us, and hoopoes from an orchard on the other.


P. K. H-W. A



SOME LETTERS FROM SENIOR MEMBERS 9'HE brief announcements usually made in the Chronicle under

.11. the heading of Appointments or News of Senior Members so often indicate adventures and interests which we should like to know more about. This year the Editor has asked a few members of the College to satisfy this curiosity and give some detailed accounts of their activities.

M. CHATTAWAY, who went to the United States in 1937 as Sterling Fellow of Yale University, writes as follows: `You ask me to write something about my io,000-mile trip across America, and I find it difficult to know what will be most interesting. It is really a choice of wonders; but perhaps the Grand Canyon is the best to choose. Forests, mountains, gorges, geysers, and even salt lakes can be found in other countries, but the Grand Canyon is different from anything else in the world, and it changes so from minute to minute that to watch it for an hour gives the impression of seeing not one canyon, but a whole series, each differing from the other in colour and apparently even in depth and width. `Gallup, New Mexico, where we stayed the night before we reached the Canyon, is a little town of about a thousand inhabitants, sprawling along the railroad tracks in the middle of the desert. Not a green thing above two feet in height seems to grow there, except a few grey-green cottonwood trees, and everything has to be imported, even eggs and cattle feed. It is the market centre for about a hundred square miles of desert, and does a thriving trade in tourists, as it is at the end of a long day's drive, and is 14.0 miles from the next town to the east, and about 40 miles from the next to the west. `Our first excitement the next morning was the painted desert and the petrified forest; miles and miles of coloured sand, shimmering in the heat like a dozen rainbows, and then huge agate logs, relics of a prehistoric time when the desert was covered with primaeval forest and brontosauri roamed about among the trees. Now, the sight of any living thing—other than a tourist—would almost call for a column in The Times. `Meals are rather a problem on a trip such as this, picnicking is quite impossible because the temperature is about 1060 in the shade —and there isn't any shade. So you drive and drive till you come to an advertisement that says "Bill Booster's Restaurant" or "Harry's Coffee Shop" air conditioned, 50, 25, 15 miles away, and then you step on the accelerator and when you arrive you find a long line of other tourist cars, and there are all the people you saw a hundred or so miles back, at the last air-conditioned restaurant! You snatch a sandwich or a salad, fill up the thermos with ice-water, check the pressure in the tyres—the pressure piles up in the midday heat—and then off into the desert again. The desert got grimmer and grimmer -


as we approached the Canyon, till I thought it the most awful place (in the literal sense) that I had ever been in. Then we got a foretaste of the Canyon as we wound up the gorge of the Little Colorado river, which has cut a deep crack, narrow and sheer, through the rocks of the plateau. And so we passed into the Grand Canyon National Park, and faced the Canyon itself; it is stupendous and breath-taking, and quite indescribable. The plateau on which one stands is 7,000 feet above sea-level, and the combination of scenic effects and altitude just addles the brain, while the least exertion fatigues the body. `Sunset on the Grand Canyon—full moon on the Grand Canyon— sunrise on the Grand Canyon. All these I have seen, and I can't describe one of them, for the whole charm of the place lies in the perpetual change of colour that the rocks take on; when I first saw them they were gleaming pink and white in the shimmering heat; next time they were carved up, with purple shadows creeping up the gullies like giant fingers ready to twist the tortured rocks into even more fantastic forms, later they lay silver and peaceful under the full moon. `A mile below lies the Colorado river; it looks a mere trickle from the rim of the Canyon, though it is actually a considerable stream, and I decided to go down to the bottom of the Canyon to see it. It was rather an adventure, as I had only been on horseback twice before in my life, but the guides assured me that the descent didn't call for any skill, only, as I found out later, for endurance. `Imagine my feelings, when I took the first few steps down the narrow mule track—never more than 5 feet wide, and seeming much less—and looked down a mile of canyon wall, and knew that my mule was going to walk down it! I shut my eyes on the first few hairpin bends and held my breath; then, as I was apparently still on the track, and not hurtling through the air towards the Colorado river, I came to my senses, and realized that Julius Caesar, on whose imperial back I was still sitting, did the trip every day, and had so far never dropped his rider over the edge. We wound down for four miles, just down and down almost sheer rock, past Kaibab limestone and red sandstone and so on, the whole history of geology unfolding as we went down, and across the Canyon we saw similar rainbowcoloured cliffs and equally fantastic formations on the other side. Then we came to a place called Indian Garden, where there was a little spring; and a garden it seemed after the barren rocks, though it could boast only grass, a few cottonwood trees, and a few flowers, watered from a little spring of the sweetest water I have ever tasted. I could hardly move for stiffness when I got off my mule, but soon found my feet again, and made for the spring and drank and drank. I did not know it was possible to be so thirsty. `Five minutes' rest, and then on again, another four miles, to the bottom. This was less pleasant than the first part; it was barren and ugly, less colourful, and even hotter than before. Down at the bottom of the Canyon the river, which from above looked a mere trickle, turned out to be a mighty flood, carrying down in normal times a million tons of mud and rock per day, and in flood carrying anything 19

up to sixteen million tons. We took off our shoes and socks and cooled our feet, and, mud or no mud, it was good. Then lunch, a most unappetizing meal in that heat, and about six little cups of water each. I could have drunk a gallon, but this was all we were allowed, and it had been carried down in saddle bottles by our guides. Only half an hour's rest and then back up the trail to Indian Garden where we could drink our fill. By this time I was too tired to bother about the scenery; all I could think of was to find some shade and lie in it, and some water, and drink it. We had half an hour's rest at Indian Garden, and as we lay on our backs in the shade some pretty deer came up. They live around the spring, and come up for scraps left from the lunch, and to lick the salt from the arms of the travellers. More water, and our guide refilled the bottles and off we went for the last four miles. The temperature was about 106째 in the shade, and again, once we left Indian Garden, there was no shade, and we cooked, and plodded on up. We rested several times on the way up, not, as our guide explained, for our sakes, but for the -mules. Whenever we stopped, Julius Caesar had a nasty way of standing sideways and putting his head to the ground in a vain search for grass, so that I looked first down a long extent of sloping neck, and then down a mile of canyon wall. The Western saddle has a large pommel in front that you can hang on to, and I found it a most comforting contrivance. By the end of the trip, however, I had gained so much confidence that I found I could leave Julius to take care of me, and could face the worst with my hands in my pockets in the most nonchalant manner. Twice the water bottles were passed down the line, and we guzzled the tepid liquid as if it were champagne. `And so back to the top, where we stretched our aching legs, greased our sunburn, and tried to pretend we had enjoyed ourselves. Never again! But all the same, though I wouldn't for all the world do it again, I wouldn't have missed it for anything.' January, 1938. C. GOODENOUGH, whose appointment as Warden of Talbot Settlement was announced in last year's Chronicle, describes her new work in Camberwell, a district, she says, which Charles Booth called 'the largest area of unbroken poverty in the world' :

`Talbot Settlement houses nineteen residents, and also counts among its members many voluntary workers who give a part of their time to its activities. Of the residents, some are students reading for the social science diploma or for the Lambeth Diploma, some are professional women, and some are wholly occupied with the work of the house. The latter is continuous and varied. We are responsible for four School Care Committees for schools in the neighbourhood, which entails attendance at school medical inspections and a good deal of visiting. At Peckham we are in charge of an Infant Welfare Centre, one of the few voluntary centres remaining in the borough. The Head of the Settlement is the Chairman of the Committee and the students help on clinic days. 20

`About 5.o in the evening the children's work begins: members of the children's library congregate round the side door. They come in groups of 20 or 3o to read and borrow books. Two of the residents are responsible for the St. Michael's Brownies, and others take charge of neighbouring play centres, or help in clubs organized in the parishes. Some club work is also done in conjunction with Cambridge House, the men's Settlement in the Camberwell Road. On Sundays some members of the household help in neighbouring Sunday Schools, and in the Summer we all give a good deal of time to the organization of the Children's Country Holiday Fund. The Settlement is responsible for the Camberwell branch of this society, and each summer between 40o and 500 children are sent away to the country. `As well as these pieces of routine work other things rise up to prevent our life becoming monotonous. Once a month we have a concert, to which about 6o of our neighbours are invited, and the programmes are provided by friends of the Settlement who come to sing or play. Whenever we have sufficient saleable material we have a jumble sale, and once a term the teachers, social workers, and others interested in the work of the neighbourhood meet at luncheon to hear a speaker on some subject of current interest. `One of the interests of Settlement life is that no one knows exactly what the next demand to be made upon them will be. It depends entirely on the needs of the next caller, or a request for help or training from some one who has "just heard of the Settlement". `Occasionally we have to find work for people to do when they drop in. More frequently the work drops in and we try to find some one to do it. If any Senior member of the College is interested in people, in their work, recreation, difficulties, or pleasures and has a spare morning, afternoon, or evening, we guarantee to fill it at the Settlement. Cicely Hornby spent a month with us in September; Daphne Martin Hurst lives at the Settlement and works at King's College Hospital, so the house is not unknown to the members of the Association. If any one would like to give help or old clothes, or take an interest in one of our activities please write and let me know.'

February, 1938.

A. C. PERCIVAL writes about her experiences at an Indian College: `Few things would have surprised me more, six months before, than to be told that the last days of September 1938 would find me in the Women's Christian College, Madras. (And very hot sticky days they were, but the monsoon was kind and broke early, and I found the climate very little trying.) The College is for Indian girls who are taking the B.A. or Intermediate examination at Madras University; most, but not all, are Christians. The staff consists of American, Indian, and English women, the latter including Miss Rowe, who was for a time Tutor at St. Hugh's. It is a "Union" College, for girls of all denominations, supported by a number of different bodies in England and America, and administered, so far as this country is concerned, by the International Missionary Council. 21

`The first thing that struck me when I arrived in Madras was the beauty of the place. The glare of the sun and the bright colours of the clothes I remembered from my former stay in India. But there was none of the dry desolation that the season in Bombay and Sind had led me to expect; instead, even when I arrived, there were palmtrees and dark ilexes and innumerable creepers, to make the place green. Those thin tufted palms—a row on the horizon especially— are a characteristic of South India; one sees them across long patchy stretches of the rice-fields and "bunds" or irrigation banks. When the rice appears with its "peculiar tint of yellow green", and the flowering trees, scarlet, magenta, and gold, the richness of colour blazes out and matches the "saris" which I was thankful to see our students still wore. (Cheap European frocks are a poor substitute, but I was told that a few of the discriminating parents put their daughters into "Europe clothes" while they were still at school—to prevent them from looking too attractive.) Nevertheless, when they play games (and what they most enjoy is netball) they have been persuaded to adopt a brown pyjama-like uniform—a neat compromise between East and West. `The College itself is a white eighteenth-century classical building, dating from the time of Clive, when the merchants of "John Company" living in Fort St. George (the official name for Madras even to-day) used to have "country houses" with big compounds five or six miles outside. There is now a hostel where most of the girls and staff live, the cloisters of which lead to a small domed chapel open on three sides. In this chapel, round which the life of the College centres, nearly all the girls join voluntarily in Christian worship, seated in characteristic Indian fashion upon grass mats on the marble floor: morning prayers are taken by the Principal, evening prayers, in varying forms, by members of the staff in turn. The new buildings are also white, and include a Science block. [This has classical pillars and pediment, steps, and a vast door, and made a perfect setting to the performance of Antigone which the students acted, most simply and effectively, as a farewell to the Principal. It was a pleasure to coach girls who moved and stood so gracefully and so unconsciously.] 'Of course it was impossible in the inside of a year to know the girls more than a very little, but one did learn something of their various backgrounds. They come from all parts of southern India, a few even from Ceylon, and differ in dress, appearance, age (16-24), religion, intellectual ability, attainments, and outlook in a surprising degree. We had, for instance, five different vernaculars or Indian languages studied in the college—Tamil, Malayali, Telegu, Koorgi, and Urdu; in addition to these, "Hindi", which is a modern adaptation based on Urdu, but without any literature of its own, is being pushed as a lingua franca by some Indian authorities. All my work, however, was in English, in which each girl was supposed to have reached a minimum standard. Some expressed themselves in speech and writing most fluently, but many had considerable difficulty. Curious little mistranslations (e.g. "because of the bad mood" for —


"severe climate") gave one an insight into their idiom, but I learnt no Tamil except how to express a few wants, and of course, the words of "Hindustani" (Urdu) that I had picked up before were of no use in this country. If one were staying, however, I think it would be necessary to learn at least one language. `I had been prepared to find both the girls and the Indian staff rather strange to work with, but was amused when it came to teaching and institutional life to find how much they had in common with, for instance, the Sixth form of an English High School! The students were younger in attitude (and some in years, though a few were married) than most English undergraduates, and ran more easily to extremes—the shy girl was shyer, the keen girl showed her enthusiasm more freely, the self-conscious girl was more exhibitionist, the studious girl more devoted to her work than the majority of their contemporaries here. But from the day when they held the customary "Well,come" meeting to greet the new arrival, to the presentation of the farewell sweet-smelling garland, both they and the staff were uniformly charming and pleasant to live with. I hardly know when I have been conscious of such courtesy and fellowship, from the newest entrant, daughter of an "old girl", up to the Principal, Miss McDougall, who had spent twenty-three years building up the college. On her retirement there was a most impressive gathering of old students. Most of them were married, some were teachers, a few doctors or social workers, and from up and down the whole country they came to thank her and to show their affection for the college. I felt glad to have been, even for a short time, a member of this place.' February, 1938.

D. M. THORNTON has just begun her hospital training as an Almoner and describes the profession from the student's point of view: `The first few days in hospital are usually rather difficult; one feels so vulnerable in a community clad in the shining armour of cheerful efficiency, and there seem to be so many different ways of making the same mistake. After several years of working in one's own way in one's own time, there comes the discipline of hospital routine where everything must be done in a uniform way within a scheduled time, and there is no such thing as an Oxford afternoon. After the first few weeks, however, the work becomes real, and bare statements such as "Patient for convalescence" or "Recommended spectacles" become alive when you know that the patient is Mrs. S., "as large as life and twice as natural", who has not had a holiday for fifteen years, or old Mr. G. who has been recommended "a pair of them biographers, you know, miss, two sights in one eye". `Most people say, when an Almoner's work is mentioned, "0 yes, you collect the patients' payments, don't you ?"—and although one murmurs that one tries to do other things as well, it is a fact that the assessing of patients is perhaps the most obvious though not the most important part of an Almoner's work. Although the services



of the Hospital are given entirely free to those who are too poor to make any payment, there are many patients who are both able and willing to make some contribution towards the cost of their treatment; but in many cases the matter is left until the patient is well and working again so that there is no added financial strain when he or she is least able to bear it. There are, of course, a few defaulters, but more typical is the patient who sent five shillings with the brief note, "Dear Miss, Thank you for not worrying about the money." Apart from the question of payment, a knowledge of the patient's circumstances must be the basis of all constructive social work. For instance, a girl who earns twenty-five shillings a week in a factory is advised to wear a support to cost three guineas; or, again, Mrs. H. suffers from rheumatism and a course of spa treatment is suggested, but her husband is out of work and there are dependent children at home. Then, because she has the facts before her, the Almoner can consider ways and means of helping such patients to obtain the necessary treatment. `Usually patients come to the Almoner after they have seen the doctor so that any difficulties in carrying out his instructions can be talked over. This may mean pointing out to the well-meaning but rather shiftless mother how important it is that the drops should go in the baby's eyes and not just somewhere in the vicinity, or arranging for the patient who "suffers crool with suger beets" to have a regular supply of insulin. Sometimes problems arise when the patient has to come into the ward. Mrs. D., for example, is worried about her four small children who will have no one to look after them while she is in hospital, and it is clear that her mind must be set at rest and a way found out of the difficulty before she will consent to come into hospital for the rest and treatment which is so necessary. Occasionally one meets the kind of patient who seems to think that the carrying out of his own treatment or the welfare of his wife and children is any one's responsibility but his own, and one might well exclaim with Lamb, "What a beautiful reliance on Providence does he manifest, taking no more thought than the lillies! What contempt for money—accounting it (yours and mine especially) no better than dross!" But the real function of the Almoner is to help patients to help themselves, and the courage and fortitude shown by "just ordinary" people is sometimes amazing. `Within the framework of hospital routine, the Almoner comes into contact with all sorts and conditions of men, each with varied individual needs. There is the well-educated man facing the tragedy Of hym that stood in great prosperitee And is yfallen out of heigh degree, the moody, introspective girl, who is a misfit at home and unhappy at work, the delicate child referred from the school clinic, or the casual labourer, depressed by a long spell of unemployment. Some, more prosperous than others, "whose fortunes do somewhat guild their infirmities", may need only an occasional word of advice, with others, it is clear that any hospital treatment will be ineffective unless 24

accompanied by material help. Perhaps the best description of an ideal Almoner is given by Fisher, who wrote of Margaret, Countess of Richmond, "She was also of singular easiness to be spoken unto, and full courteous answer she would make to all them that came unto her." The more one sees of what has been called "the inner and spiritual side of Almoning" the more inadequate one feels to face its possibilities, and although training may, in time, make one less prone to certain kinds of mistakes, there will always be the realization of "The lyfe so short, the craft so long to lern."

17 February, 1938. M. THORP, who holds a lectureship at Breslau University, sends her impressions of German University life there : `I find that most English people have a very vague conception of

this "capital" of Silesia, and of its real importance in the East as the ween the frontiers of Poland and Czecholargest German town bet slovakia. Yet this is an importance which is nowadays growing daily. For instance, Breslau now lies directly on the new route which, passing through Czechoslovakia, links up Berlin with Vienna. `The University seems to feel this position keenly. Thanks to the German practice, which allows an undergraduate to change from one university to another, Breslau receives a number of students from all parts of Germany, who find it a very suitable place to spend their Ostsemester, as their term spent in the East is called. During that time they are taken trips to Upper Silesia and along the frontiers, and are generally afforded ample opportunity of studying every aspect of life in the district. `The University, I was surprised to find, is not housed in one great building. There is, indeed, a very lovely old monastery which, with its assembly hall, music room, and other lecture rooms, is now used as a kind of centre. Otherwise, however, the various seminars are scattered at random about the town, causing the students to career about between them on bicycles rather as they do at Oxford. `To me the great difference between these Breslau students and their Oxford counterparts appears to be, above all, in age and experience. The German student is, on the average, older. Moreover, he is allowed, both in his ordinary social life and in his studies, an amount of freedom from supervision which is unknown at English universities. If he happens to be hard-working and intelligent, however, he has always ample opportunity for self-improvement. A student of English, for example, is provided, not only with professors and other German teachers, but also with two English Lektors, appointed to deal exclusively with the spoken language and translation into English. The result is an avid interest in English, particularly in anything modern, and a real proficiency in the spoken and written language, the more astonishing when one remembers that these Germans have great difficulty in ever going abroad, and that comparatively few of them have ever been in England. `The same keen spirit of up-to-date activity seems to prevail 25

throughout the whole university life. Sport, for instance, is taken quite seriously as a university school, directed on the same lines as the other schools. Moreover, it is to some extent compulsory. Music, however, is still largely run, and admirably run, by the students themselves. And then there are the political activities. These are, of course, very much to the fore, and yet not so much as to occasion any discord. On the contrary, politics and academic life seem, as far as I can judge, to march quite harmoniously hand in hand. Only the other day I heard a very interesting speech to the University by Herr Henlein, who is an honorary doctor of Breslau. `Finally, the University is a very sociable body. The various Seminars open and close the term with evening parties; there are parties at Christmas and excursions during the term. I find it very hard to imagine a Regius Professor doing a day's walk with his students, and, if need be, spending the night with them at a Youth Hostel. But these German professors seem to consider it part of their business, and tramp cheerfully along.' Breslau, February,1938.

ACADEMIC REFUGEES T TNDER the leadership of distinguished scholars and scientists k.../ in all democratic countries the work of the Society for the Protection of Science and Learning (formerly the Academic Assistance Council) has already brought renewal of hope to 55o displaced members of University Faculties and research departments, both men and women. This has been achieved, not by mere 'relief', but by seeking out or creating in 37 countries opportunities for continued intellectual life—a matter even more important, perhaps, to the dismissed scholars and scientists, and also to the world, to whose sum of knowledge thus they can still contribute, than is physical life itself. Only men and women of first-class qualifications and ability are, or can be, dealt with from the resources of the Society; but the loss to science and learning of such as these, if allowed to happen, would certainly have completed the ruin of `the West's' reputation as a civilized region of the globe. International Student Service, which caters for the young student of ability (as distinct from the graduate of proved reputation), has had a longer career than the sister Society, since it dates from immediately after the Great War. Its experience is therefore unrivalled in all that concerns students and student life when confronted by the problems, both material and spiritual, with which the world is now unhappily familiar. Its present Publications Secretary at the Headquarters Office in Geneva, who happens to be a member of the College, has sent at my request a short report of its recent work (see below). Readers of the Chronicle are well aware of what they owe to their own undisturbed membership of a great University. In case any of them should feel able in a practical shape to 'speak to' those less fortunate, 'that they go forward', I append the necessary z6

addresses. Society for the Protection of Science and Learning, 6 Gordon Square, W.C. 1 ; International Student Service, 49 Gordon B. E. G. Square, W.C. I.



IRCUMSTANCES have led International Student Service once more to put its relief work in the forefront of its programme. Between 1933 and 1937, over three thousand students and university workers were helped by I.S.S. in Europe: to-day I.S.S. is faced not only with the demands of refugee students from Greater Germany and Czechoslovakia, but also with a completely separate problem in China. I.S.S. does not consider that students should be treated as a privileged class, but it would stress the fact that those that are young, talented, and adaptable are of great potential value to any community provided the right place can be found for them. I.S.S. provides a general reorganization and information centre for refugee students from Central Europe. It tries to assist those that are particularly brilliant or advanced to continue their studies by helping them to obtain scholarships or academic work. To others it gives assistance and advice on re-training, and tries to make it possible for them to start a new career overseas. In Czechoslovakia an emergency relief committee was set up in November, which, because of the practical manner in which it tackled the problem, was able to render very great service. During the month of January more than ÂŁ1,450 was distributed to 614 students in Prague and Brno. Emergency relief needs are now gradually diminishing as the position becomes more settled and the government reassumes its responsibilities, but the need of certain students to emigrate is becoming all the more urgent. In China the problem is somewhat different. I.S.S. has helped a number of Chinese students in Europe either to finish their studies or to return to their country, but its main effort has been to assist the Chinese in their gallant attempts to carry on higher education in China in the face of superhuman difficulties. 'To preserve China's future leadership', says Mr. Kiang, the Secretary of the National Student Relief dommittee in Shanghai, 'is regarded as no less important than the resistance of the enemy's invasion.' I.S.S. has recently responded to a demand for ÂŁI,000 to set up three community centres for the new universities in the interior. By means of these, students will be provided with a rudimentary form of the services essential to community life. Last August at the Annual Conference of I.S.S. it was estimated that over Lzo,000 would be needed to meet the then existing relief needs. The situation has become very much worse since, and, if I.S.S. is to meet even a fraction of the demands made on it, it must be supported by university people throughout the world. 27

I.S.S. is by no means only concerned with relief work: by organizing conferences, both national and international, on every type of subject it seeks to provide a neutral platform for the expression of the most varied opinions, besides giving students of all countries an opportunity to get to know each other's viewpoint. It has also carried out valuable research into student problems, such as the overcrowding of the professions, and is now, for example, conducting an inquiry into academic freedom. Though for the moment overshadowed, these activities may well in the long run be F. V. S. as important as the more immediate work of relief. March 8, 1938.

DEGREES, 1938-9 D.Litt. C. M. Ady, M.A., Research Fellow, Faculty of Modern

History. Works submitted: A History of Milan under the Sforza. Methuen & Co. 1907. Pius II, the Humanist Pope. Methuen & Co. 1913. `A Charter of an Italian Rural Commune, 1488.' The English Historical Review, vol. xlviii, no. 190, April 1933.

`Materials for the History of the Bentivoglio Signoria in Bologna.' Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, vol. xvii, 1934. Francesco Puteolano. Maestro dei figlioli di Giovanni II Bentivoglio. L'Archiginnasio. Bologna 1935. Florence and North Italy, 1414-1492. 'The Cambridge Medieval History, vol. viii', 1936. The Bentivoglio of Bologna. Oxford University Press, January 28th, 1937. D.Phil. R. J. Dean, M.A. (in absence). Faculty of Modern Languages. Thesis: 'The Life and Works of Nicholas Trevet, with special reference to his Anglo-Norman Chronicle.' B.Litt. M. Greaves, B.A. Faculty of English Language and Literature. Thesis: 'The Life and Work of Robert Bage.' D. M. Niblett, B.A. Faculty of English Language and Literature. Thesis: 'A study of the significance and variations in meaning and usage of certain important terms of literary criticism during the period from the late seventeenth to the late eighteenth century.' M.A. M. H. Gent I. D. A. Abbott K. M. Harris M. G. Adam A. Lomax W. E. Alder-Barrett Marjorie Ethel Reeves 0. L. B. Alexander M. J. Sargeaunt (in absence) A. M. Andrews 0. E. Shaw I. S. Aspin E. H. Turner (Mrs.) M. L. Clarkson A. M. Walker D. E. H. Darker M. E. White L. M. Dolphin K. C. M. Gent 28

B.Sc. B. R. Hamilton, B.A.

S. H. M. Patrick, B.A.

B.A. M. C. B. Acaster P. M. Birley D. F. Bleasby C. W. Bradbury Mrs. Creer (N. A. Freestone), in absence C. E. Critall J. P. Dawson M. Donaldson M. G. Duce M. Garnett M. H. Gillett M. G. Edwards U. C. Fitzhardinge M. Gay K. E. Hardy K. M. Hargreaves 0. M. K. Harris A. M. Hedley L. E. Homewood C. Hornby E. Jackson

M. K. James M. T. James E. H. G. La'Brooy D. N. Lovegrove M. E. S. McIntosh S. M. Mandelkorn E. I. Marshall E. Mason I. P. Palmer J. E. Perkins M. E. Rose M. Sheehan F. M. Stinton J. M. Summers B. McN. Thom I. M. Townsend M. D. Tull S. H. M. Wilson D. A. H. Yeats-Brown R. B. M. Yule M. Zvegintzov

HONOUR SCHOOLS, 1938 Literae Humaniores.

Natural Science. Physics. Chemistry. Part I. Modern History.

Class II. D. F. Bleasby U. C. Fitzhardinge K. M. Hargreaves A. M. Hedley E. Jackson F. M. Stinton Class III. L. E. Homewood Class III. J. P. Dawson R. B. M. Yule Class II. M. G. Edwards D. M. Goschen K. E. Hardy M. K. James M. T. James D. N. Lovegrove M. E. Rose Class III. C. E. Crittall J. E. Perkins 29

English Language and Literature.

Modern Languages.

Philosophy, Politics, and Economics B.C.L. Honour Classical Moderations.

Honour Mathematical ModeraHons. Honour Moderations. Natural Science.

Class II. P. M. Birley M. G. Duce M. Garnett M. Gay E. H. G. La'Brooy M. Sheehan J. M. Summers I. M. Townsend M. D. Tull S. H. M. Wilson Class III. J. M. Whitehead Class I. A. A. B. Fairlie Class II. M. C. B. Acaster C. W. Bradbury M. M. Darwall M. Donaldson M. H. Gillett E. Mason D. E. A. Raby I. C. Pomphrett D. A. H. Yeats-Brown Class III. 0. M. K. Harris Class II. C. Hornby S. M. Mandelkorn Class III. M. E. S. McIntosh E. I. Marshall Class II. B. J. Harris, B.A. Class II. R. Barbour A. A. E. Levinson R. G. Martin Class III. M. F. Harding S. C. Pridmore S. M. Tilling Class II. B. W. Gimson Class II. H. F. Bloodworth H. C. N. Turnbull Class III. F. M. E. Macdonald

IN RESIDENCE 1938-9 Elizabeth Wordsworth Student, 1937-9:



Advanced Students:



SCHOLARS G. E. M. ANSCOMBE, 1937. Clara Evelyn Mordan. F. E. BRAMLEY, 1937. J. M. CRUM, 1937. D. F. CUMBERLEGE, 1937. E. G. ELLIOTT, 1937. N. W. GAMON, 1937. M. M. GYDE, 1937. G. M. MOSSOP, 1937. D. E. STANCLIFFE, 1937. ELLEN VERA ALICE TURNER, 1937. Yates Theological. J. WILTSHIRE, 1937. A. M. EARLY, 1938. Philosophy, Politics and Economics.


Green School. A. H. GABAIN, 1938.

Modern Languages. Lycee du Havre.

EXHIBITIONERS R. B. M. YULE, 1935. D. CHITTY, 1936. M. LEA-WILSON, 1936. P. MACLEAN, 1936. R. G. MARTIN, 1936. J. E. SEYMOUR, 1936. K. F. SLATTERY, 1936.

D. TOWNEND, 1936. D. U. C. WESTON, 1936. D. M. FORSTER, 1937. M. G. FORSTER, 1937. G. MURRAY, 1937. G. M. TREVALDWYN, 1937. E. M. WOOD, 1937.

D. R. C. ANTONA-TRAVERSI, 1938. Dulwich High School. H. R. M. COBB, 1938. St. Paul's Girls' School. P. B. DAVIES, 1938. Godolphin School, Salisbury. D. 3. DIXON, 1938. Mary Datchelor Girls' School. A. H. ELLIOTT, 1938. Herts. and Essex High School. C. M. GERNOS DAVIES, 1938. Princess Mary High School, Halifax. L. JOAD, 1938. South Hampstead High School. A. J. PARKER, 1938. Ipswich High School. s. SURTEES, 1938. Heaton Secondary School, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. B. M. Y. TYLER, 1938. Clifton High School. E. R. WYNNE, 1938. Queen Anne's School, Caversham.

UNDERGRADUATES NOT BEING SCHOLARS OR EXHIBITIONERS Fifth Year. S. H. S. Smith. H. A. Clarence. S. Sutton Smith. E. B. Dean. R. D. Wise. E. M. Edmunds. Fourth Year. Third Year. B. Forbes Adam. M. Anderton. S. E. Fryer. I. J. Baker. H. J. M. Annett. D. J. M. Fursdon. S. M. R. Keay. H. M. Gilmour. P. Llewellyn-Smith. R. Barbour. 31

B. W. Gimson.

S. M. Tilling. M. E. L. Griffiths. H. C. N. Turnbull. C. A. Hall. A. M. Watson. S. Harbottle. G. M. P. Wortley. M. F. Harding. Second Year. M. B. Holdgate. R. M. Howard. M. M. L. Bailey. E. M. Jackson. H. F. Bloodworth. A. A. E. Levinson. H. L. Coates, B.A. P. E. Loveday. C. J. Dastur, M.A. F. M. E. Macdonald. V. L. Disney-RoeM. M. McKinstry. buck. D. E. McK. Milner. J. A. Dixon. S. C. Pridmore. K. Dixon. J. M. D. Purnell. A. M. Downie. M. F. Richardson. J. A. Gaved, B.A. A. I. M. Shaw. E. Gold. D. M. M. Thomas. H. M. Green.

J. P. Harris. K. A. Haslam. M. C. Honour. W. M. Laws. G. C. M. Lewis. J. G. Miln. A. B. Y. Mitchell. D. C. Paige. J. M. Peel. D. E. Penny. E. Renwick. M. C. Rylands. B. A. Skemp. D. M. Thompson. J. Tresise. K. F. B. Tyabji, B.A. C. M. Upton. T. Zakharoff.

First Year. A. D. Catterns. Benenden School, Cranbrook.

J. S. A. Chappat. Licence, Paris University. L. M. Clish. Seaham Harbour Secondary School for Girls. M. B. E. Cloake. Malvern Girls' College. K. I. Coombs. Henrietta Barnett School. L. Crankshaw. Bolton Church Institute Secondary School. G. E. Davies. Cheltenham Ladies' College. M. P. Davis. Scarborough High School. S. F. De Sa. Christ's Hospital, Hertford. P. T. Dickman. B.A., London; Ceylon University College. C. M. Dowler. Manchester High School. J. M. Embray. Eltham High School. M. C. Finch. Badminton School, Bristol. D. I. Fletcher. King Edward VI High School, Birmingham. J. 0. Harries. Orme Girls' School, Newcastle, Staffs. H. M. Healey. Parkfields Cedars Secondary School, Derby. M. F. Hume. St. Mary's Convent, South Ascot. U. M. C. Johnson. The Downs School, Seaford. A. W. Jones. St. Paul's Girls' School. N. S. Jones. Howell's School, Denbigh. G. I. Keenleyside. Hunmenby Hall. P. M. Kumaramangalam. Badminton School, Bristol. M. H. Ledeboer. St. Felix School, Southwold. F. E. Lloyd. St. Paul's Girls' School. F. G. Lloyd. M.A., Sheffield University. B. A. Money. Howell's School, Denbigh. G. L. Musto. Wycombe Abbey School. E. L. Oldham. Shrewsbury Girls' High School. 32

A. R. Pow. Henrietta Barnett School. M. Rhys. Dr. William's School, Dolgelly. J. S. Rogers. Godolphin and Latymer School. P. M. Russell. Sandecotes School, Parkstone. M. M. Shaw. Bedford High School. E. R. Snodgrass. Laurel Bank School for Girls, Glasgow. M. Standeven. Sowerby Bridge Secondary School. P. Stockdale. St. Mary and St. Anne, Abbots Bromley. A. E. Tatlow. Sherborne School for Girls. L. M. Trevor. Perse School, Cambridge. S. I. Zilliacus. Bedales School, Petersfield.

OBITUARY BESSIE AYRE BULLEN II) ESSIE BULLEN died suddenly of diphtheria on March i4th, 1938, in Cyprus, after two days' acute illness. She was well known to many members of St. Hugh's as Bursar of the College from 1915 to 1921. On resigning that office she went to Ceylon where, for over three years, she worked at establishing Domestic Science as a school subject. In 1927 she was appointed Warden of Wootton House at the Gloucester Domestic Science Training College, and in 1929 she became Bursar of Chatelard School at Chamby in Switzerland. Later on she returned to England to hold a post as Inspector of the Domestic Training centres established under a scheme for helping the Depressed Areas by the Ministry of Labour. Her success in this work led in 1935 to her appointment by the Colonial Office as Headmistress of the Victoria Girls' School in Nicosia, Cyprus. All those who knew her will regret that so genial and energetic a person should have died in her prime, and her more intimate friends, of whom there are many, will find it hard to bear the loss. One of them writes of her—`She was so alive and interested in everything, from archaeological remains in Greece to the latest political movements in Europe. Whether it was music, singing, the Russian ballet, riding, ski-ing—hers was always a whole-hearted enjoyment. I have never known a more truly generous person—generous in affection and thought, and wanting to share everything with her friends—a genuine giver all her life.'

JENEPHER GILLETT JENEPHER GILLETT died on April znd, 1938, during the University vacation, after a short illness. She was in her third year, and was reading for the Final Honour School of Natural Science (Botany). A friend writes: lenepher was the second daughter of Henry and Lucy Gillett, born on October 3, 1915, and educated at the High School, Oxford. Wide sympathies at home allowed her to reap full benefit from some additional schooling abroad, a sojourn in Germany


and travel with her father one summer to Friends' Meetings in Europe. It was her home life, too, that enabled her to carry out and enjoy the things she felt she wanted to do when a young woman, and with such singleheartedness and simplicity did she carry on the work that some of her contemporaries felt she was a living embodiment of their ideals. `Many of her friends feel that she would like to be remembered above all as a Socialist . . . her quiet efficiency and unswerving courage were always at the service of the University Labour Club, the Oxford Labour Party, and in Unemployed Camps. The workingclass movement . . . lost a good comrade in every sense of the word.'

JULIA SIMPSON JULIA SIMPSON, who died on June 3rd, 1938, after many years of ill health gallantly borne, was a student at St. Hugh's Hall from 1884-7. The outstanding characteristics of this valiant soul were cheerfulness, courage, and a gaiety that nothing could quench. She was outspoken and downright as befitted her Yorkshire birth. She possessed a strong individuality, was critical, witty, and amusing, but never unkind. Moreover, her criticisms and wit were acceptable because she gave the impression of absolute truth. Miss Moberly in after years was wont to speak of Julia Simpson not only with affection but with impressive respect. Upon leaving College Julia embarked upon a scholastic career of marked success. Her work began at King Edward VI school, Birmingham, and after teaching in various other schools she bought, in 1906, a private school of from seventy to eighty girls. Here, in St. Michael's Hall, Hove, she spent seven happy years, the crown of her teaching life. She was a brilliant teacher, as her pupils testify, but far beyond this her fine character impressed her girls and drew them as well as her colleagues to her in true bonds of friendship. Julia sold her school in 1913, intending to travel abroad, but the war prevented this and subsequently she threw in her lot with the fortunes of the Principals of Brentwood school, Southport, acting first as their secretary and upon their retirement going with them to live first in Hove and then in Worthing, where she died. Her religion was her stay. She was a convinced Anglo-Catholic, and did much quiet work for the Church. She retained through life a great respect for Miss Moberly, and was wont to say that her influence had done much for her, and that she owed a great debt to St. Hugh's and to the University. As to what others owed to her, a pupil writes thus: 'it was, I think, her greatest gift to her girls that her fine sense of essential values, the love of a certain quality of life to be maintained manfully, taught them who were in close contact with her never to be content with the second-rate, the cheap thing easy of attainment. . . M. A. R. 34


of the death on January loth, 1939, of Patricia Whitehouse, just before her eighth term, and in her twenty-third year, came as a cause of shock and grief to her friends in College and at her school, Cheltenham Ladies' College. Only a week earlier she had written courageously of the immediate operation for appendicitis that she had to undergo, and of the set-back to her work for Honours in English, 'with June so near'. Her freedom from all self-assertion made one slow to realize that she was not only older than most undergraduates, but also more mature in stability of character, and steadier in serenity of faith. 'Do you need any more helpers ? Can I do anything else? questions in a letter on a small matter, are significant of her eagerness to help, her readiness to set herself aside. Our grief at the loss of so gentle and unselfish a presence, both to the College and to the work that she hoped to do for others later, would be greater, were it not for the confidence that she was one of those rare spirits who 'in a short time fulfilled a long time'. M. E. S.

MARRIAGES tO MR. JAMES GUY BRAMWELL, at the Church of Our Lady of the Assumption, W., April 23rd, 1938. D. M. BUTLER tO MR. JOHN CARR, at Old Headington Church, Oxford, December 7th, 1938. C. M. CLARKSON tO MR. F. 0. CRYER, at the Church of All Souls, W. r, March 25th, 1939. E. CLOUGH to MR. HARRY CULLEY, at St. Anne's Church, Tottington, Lancs., January rith, 1938. N. E. L. CUMMINS to MR. ROBERT AYLMER HALL, at St. Mary's Church, Fetcham, October 8th, 1938. A. DISNEY-ROEBUCK to CAPT. D. GRANT BIRKETT, R.A., at St. Peter's Church, Meavy, December 7th, 1938. E. H. DUTHOIT to MR. JOHN WOLSTERHOLME TURNER, at St. Vincent's Church, Littlebourne, July 2nd, 1938. E. V. FOWLER tO MR. DONALD FREDERIC FARRAR, September i3th, 1937. N. A. FREESTONE to MR. J. K. CREER, in London, May zoth, 1937. J. M. L. GREAVES tO MR. HUGH SHEPPARD BAYLEY, at Christ Church, West Didsbury, Manchester, July 23rd, 1938. H. J. (ANN) HAGGETT tO CAPT. ANDREW KARSLAKE MURCOTT, Q.V.O. Corps of Guides, F.F., at the Parish Church, Penn, April 23rd, 1938. M. KER tO the REV. THOMAS GEORGE KING, at Hanwall Parish Church, November zoth, 1938. E. M. W. LAVINGTON to the REV. HENRY HEDLEY, at St. Dunstan's Church, Monks Risborough, September 1st, 1938.



at the Church of St. Michael and St. George, Lyme Regis, September x5th, 1938. K. A. MOORE tO MR. ADETOKUNBO ADEMOLA, at the Cathedral Church of Christ, Lagos, January 31st, 1939. H. M. OSBORNE to MAJOR CHARLES HILTON RODNEY LEE, at St. James' Church, Buxworth, September 17th, 1938. W. PRONGER tO MR. JAMES MAXWELL, July 25th, 1938. F. E. RANDOLPH to the REV. J. H. DOBBS, Vicar of St. Paul's, Southampton, April 23rd, 1938. M. STEPHENSON to MR. JONATHAN FIELD, in London, August 27th, 1938. D. M. SHERWOOD to the REV. B. KNIGHT, at Streatham, July 16th, 1938. G. P. STRADLING tO MR. HAROLD WARRIS THOMPSON, Fellow of St. John's College, Oxford, at St. Giles' Church, Oxford, June 27th, 1938. S. L. STURGE tO MR. RONALD LEWIN, at Edgebaston Old Church, August zoth, 1938. E. W. TANNER to MR. GRAHAME MILLER, January 7th, 1939. E. TOSTEVIN to MR. EDWARD ARNOTT, September loth, 1938. P. WALLBANK to DR. A. C. TOUCH, at Emanuel Parish Church, Wylde Green, Birmingham, May r4th, 1938. R. J. MITCHELL tO MR. JOHN ALAN LEYS,

It IRTHS MRS. BELL (H. Faure)—a son, April 1st, 1938. MRS. CARDEW (M. E. B. Russell)—a son, August 21st, 1938. MRS. CONKLING (C. L. Sowby)—a daughter, August 5th, 1938. MRS. CREER (N. A. Freestone)—a daughter, November 5th, 1938. MRS. DAY (M. E. Stinton)—a son, May 18th, 1937. MRS. DONNE (N. Keys)—a son, October 26th, 1938. MRS. ERIKSSON (P. Bourne)—a daughter, June zoth, 1938. MRS. HARGREAVES (F. L. Jelleyman)—a daughter, March 7th, 1938. MRS. HOME (P. Kirby)—twins (daughter and son), September 18th,

1936. MRS. KING (M. R. B. Collins)—a daughter, October 26th, 1938. MRS. KREUZER (F. Thelwell)—a son, October 3rd, 1938. MRS. MORRIS (B. Beale)—a daughter, March, 1938. MRS. NIEBUHR (U. Kepple-Compton)—a daughter, January 13th,

1939. MRS. PEILE (F. Hoare)—a daughter, October 7th, 1938. MRS. PIERCY (R. Learoyd)—a daughter, August znd, 1938. SIGNORA PRAZ (V. Eyles)—a daughter, October 18th, 1938. MRS. SADLER (D. H. Clark)—a daughter, August 16th, 1938. MRS. SAMPSON (M. van Boeschoten)—a daughter, September



MRS. SAVORY (M. Davies-Colley)—a son, September 22nd, 1938. MRS. THACKWELL (P. Talbot)—a daughter, May 8th, 1938. MRS. THOMPSON (A. E. Barry)—a daughter, August 8th, 1938.


MRS. TROTMAN (P. Byram)-a son, August 12th, 1938. MRS. WEST (D. McNeill)-a son, May, 1938. MRS. WOODS (J. M. Sprules)-a son, August 4th, 1937. MRS. WRINCH (B. Buckler)-a daughter, November 9th, 1938. MRS. WROTTESLEY (M. M. Wilde)-a daughter, May 1st, 1938.


Europe and the World. A School History. 1789-1938 (with maps). Desiree Edwards-Rees, M.A. Blackie, 1938. 5s. The Romanesque Architecture of the Order of Cluny. Joan Evans,

D.Litt. Cambridge University Press, 1938. 3 gns. Taste and Temperament. Joan Evans, D.Litt. Jonathan Cape, 1938.

los. 6d. Religion and the Guide Law. Cecilia Goodenough, M.A. S.P.C.K.,



Walking Together: A Study in Liverpool Nonconformity. Anne Holt, M.A. George Allen & Unwin, 1938. 5s. They Always Come Back. Cicely McCall. Methuen, 1938. 7s. 6d. Haase: a Biography. Enid McLeod, M.A. Chatto & Windus, 1938. 12S. 6d. A History of the Village of Abbots Bromley. Marcia Alice Rice, M.A. Wilding & Son, Ltd., 1938. 6s. Degrees by Degrees. Annie M. A. H. Rogers, M.A. Oxford University Press, 1938. 7s. 6d. Works of Ben Jonson. Volume vi. Clarendon Press, 1938. E. M.

Simpson, D.Phil. (with Percy Simpson, D.Litt.). ARTICLES `Variation of Faint Fraunhofer Lines across the Solar Disc.' Communications from the University Observatory, Oxford. No. II. M. G. Adam, M.A. `John Donne the Younger: Addenda and Corrections to his Biography.' Modern Language Review, vol. xxxiii, no. 3, July 1938. M. A. Beese, B.Litt., M.A. `Dual Integral Equations.' Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, Series 2, vol. 44, 1938. I. W. Busbridge M.Sc. (Lond.), D.Phil. `A Theory of General Transforms for Functions of the Class LP(o, co) (1 < p < 2).' Quarterly Journal of Mathemtaics (Oxford), vol. 9, 1938. I. W. Busbridge. `Old English Studies.' Year's Work in English Studies, vol. xvii. D. E. Martin Clarke, M.A. `jean Baudouin's version of the Testamenta XII Patriarcharum.' Modern Language Notes, vol. lii. 7 (Nov. 1938), pp. 486-93. R. J. Dean, M.A., D.Phil. 'Anglo-Norman Studies.' Romanic Review, March 1939. R. J. Dean. `Chaucer.' Year's Work in English Studies, vol. xvii. D. Everett, M.A. 37

`Obligation and Value.' International Journal of Ethics, October 1939. H. R. Glover, M.A. `Notes on the History of Medieval Oxford.' Oxoniensia, vol. iii (1938). M. D. Lobel, B.A. Address with demonstration of 'Cases of Hirsuties' to St. John's Hospital Dermatological Society. Transactions of St. John's Hospital Dermatological Society, 1938. A. D. K. Peters, B.A., M.B., B .Ch. `The House that Came Back.' Feature Programme, Regional and West, B.B.C. June loth, 1938. C. L. A. Richardson, B.A. `Coker Court in Somerset.' Feature Programme, West, B.B.C. November 21st, 1938. C. L. A. Richardson, B.A. `Cropredy Bridge,' with J. J. Leeming. Oxoniensia, vol. iii (1938). M. R. Toynbee, Ph.D. (Manchester), M.A.

APPOINTMENTS, 1938-9 Staff Secretary, John Lewis & Co. Ltd., London. 1938. I. S. T. ASPIN, M.A. Assistant Librarian, British Library of Political and Economic Science, London. E. S. BANNING, B.A. Classics Mistress, St. George's School, Ascot. N. BARROWS, B.A. Principal of Pickford's Educational Service, Holborn. D. F. BLEASBY, B.A. Temporary Classics Mistress, Keswick School. M. A. W. BONE, B.A., B.SC. Assistant Science Mistress, Cheltenham Ladies' College. I. W. BUSBRIDGE, M.SC. (Lond.), D.PHIL. Lecturer in Mathematics, St. Hugh's College, Oxford. 1938-9. D. BUSHNELL, B.A. Inspector of the City of Birmingham Women Police. K. M. c. CANE, B.A. Assistant Classics Mistress, Dr. Williams's School, Dolgelley. C. MCF. CLARK, B.A. Classics Mistress, the County School, Godalming. September 1938. M. E. CLARK, B.A. Junior French Mistress. The County School for Girls, Neath, Glamorganshire. September 1938. H. R. CLARKE, B.A. Classics Mistress, School of St. Helen and St. Katharine, Abingdon. E. P. CORNER, B.A. Assistant Probation Officer, London. M. R. CUNNINGHAM, B.A. Correspondence Tutor to the National Adult School Union, London. M. DALGLEISH, M.A. Headmistress of Brentwood, Southport, Lancs. J. M. DENCER, M.A. Headmistress of Rotherham Municipal High School for Girls. L. M. DOLPHIN, M.A. Junior Classics Mistress, Godolphin School, Salisbury. B. H. ALEXANDER, M.A.


Biology Mistress, Royal Grammar School for Girls, Clitheroe, Lancs. J. EVANS, D.LITT. External Examiner, History of Art; Member of Board of Studies, History of Art, University of London. w. M. FOX, B.A. Assistant Principal, Unemployment Assistance Board. October 1937.* M. E. GIBBONS, B.A. Probation Officer for Kingston-on-Thames. April 1938. C. P. GOODENOUGH, M.A. Visiting Lecturer, St. Christopher's College, Blackheath. M. GREAVES, B.A., B.LITT. English Mistress, Lincoln Girls' High School. D. D. HARRIS, B.A. Assistant Housing Manager, Swansea Borough Council. K. M. HARRIS, M.A. Assistant Mistress, Charles Edward Brooke School, Kennington, S.E. September 1938. O. M. K. HARRIS, B.A. Modern Language Mistress, Maida Vale Secondary School. September 1938. W. J. L. HAZLEHURST, B.A. Junior English Mistress, St. Martin's High School, Tulse Hill, S.W. September 1938. M. N. HENSMAN, M.A. English Mistress, Westcliffe High School for Girls, Essex. September 1938. E. HERDMAN, M.A. Warden of Bedford College House, University of London. E. E. HERRON, B.A. Publisher's Reader, Hodder & Stoughton, Ltd. March 1938. v. HUGHES, B.A. Assistant Mistress, Girls' High School, Barnsley. September 1938. D. IBBERSON, M.A. Principal, Unemployment Assistance Board. 1938. K. JACKSON, B.A. Assistant Secretary, West Riding National Fitness Committee. October 1938. W. H. JONES, B.A. Assistant History Mistress, York College for Girls. M. L. LAUTERBACH, B.A. Tutorial Secretary, Downing College, Cambridge. August 1938. M. B. LEWIS, B.A. Assistant Mistress, Aigburth Vale High School for Girls, Liverpool. M. E. LONG, B.A. Senior History Mistress, Delabeche Girls' Secondary School, Swansea. H. K. MACDONALD. Housemother, St. Margaret's School, Waterbury, Connecticut, U.S.A. M. MACDONALD, B.A. Research Assistant to Miss Perham. M. MCDOUGLE, B.A. Assistant Mistress, Elmslie Girls' School, Blackpool. E. MACKINLAY, B.A. Assistant English Mistress, St. Helen's, Northwood. E. D. MCLEOD, M.A. Member of the Staff of the African Research Survey, Chatham House. V. M. MACPHERSON, M.A. Headmistress of Danesfield School, Walton-on-Thames. E. M. ELLIS, M.A., B.SC.


French Mistress, St. Anne's College, Pietermaritzburg, Natal, S.A. February 1939. M. G. MORTON, M.A. Second and English Mistress, City of London School for Girls. September 1938. w. E. MURRELL, M.A. English Mistress, Godalming County School, Surrey. September 1938. A. OGILVIE, B.A. Staff Nurse, Cook's Hill Sanatorium, Mundesley, Norfolk. E. A. V. MERCER, M.A.

E. M. OLIVIER. Mayor Of Wilton. N. PAPWORTH, B.A. History Mistress, Ludlow High School. J. M. PARKINSON, B.A. Post in the Housing Department of the

City of Lincoln. 1938. L. D'O. PARKS, B.A. Sub-editor on the Staff of the Practical Press Ltd., London. A. C. PERCIVAL, M.A. Lecturer, Education Department, University College, Hull. A. D. K. PETERS, B.A., M.B., B.CH. Consultant Dermatologist to the British Hospital for Functional, Mental, and Nervous Disorders. R. M. PRESTON, B.A. Secretary and Assistant-Librarian, British School at Rome. E. E. S. PROCTER, M.A. Oxford University Lecturer in Medieval European History. October 1938 to October 1941 (Reappointment). M. M. REES, M.A. Classics Mistress, Overstone School, Northamptonshire. B. J. REEVE, M.A. Diocesan Secretary to the York Diocesan Association for Moral Welfare. September 1938. MARJORY EMILY REEVES, B.A. French Mistress, Vardean School, Brighton. September 1938. A. S. M. RICHARDSON, M.A. Secretary of St. Margaret's House, Bethnal Green. September 1938. M. C. ROBERTSON, M.A. (Glas.), B.A. (Oxon.). Assistant Secretary, London University Appointments' Board. March 1939. M. E. RYALL, B.A. English Mistress, County High School, Braintree, Essex. F. E. SAINTSBURY, B.A. English Mistress, West Bank School, Bideford. J. E. R. SALTER, B.A. Biology Mistress, Woking County Secondary School for Girls. September 1938. F. SCURFIELD, B.A. Secretarial post at the I.S.S. office at Geneva. M. E. SEATON, M.A. Oxford University Lecturer in English Literature; Examiner for the Charles Oldham Scholarship. 1938. M. R. B. SHAW, M.A. Occasional Inspector, Board of Education. N. C. SHAW, B.A. Assistant Biology and Geography Mistress, St. Dunstan's Abbey School, Plymouth. 0. E. SHAW, B.A. Assistant Juvenile Employment Officer, Newcastleupon-Tyne. H. J. SOUTHERN, B.A. Geography Mistress, West Leeds High School for Girls. November 1938. 40


Modern Language Mistress, St. Clare's

School, Penzance. F. STALLMAN, M.A. Member of the Staff of the African Research Survey, 1937.* Assistant Secretary, XVth International Congress of the History of Art (London, July 24-9, 1939). J. STOVIN, B.A. Junior Tutorial Secretary, St. Mary's College, Durham (1938-9). E. M. STRONG, M.A. (Oxon.), M.B., B.SC. (Loud.). House Physician, York County Hospital, April—October, 1938; House Physician, Belgrave Hospital for Children, November 1939. L. B. TAYLOR, B.LITT. Assistant Lecturer in History, University of Aberdeen; part-time Archivist to Aberdeen Town Council. R. E. TAYLOR, B.A. English Mistress, Tasker's High School, Haverfordwest. September 1938. K. TEASDALE, B.A. History Mistress, Queen Bertha's School, Birchington, Kent. Easter 1938. B. MCN. THOM, B.A. Secretary in a Literary and Editorial Agency. April 1938. M. A. WHITE, M.A. Lecturer in Classics, Manchester University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. M. WHITTAKER, B.A. Post in publisher's office in Vienna, January 1938; private secretary to Mr. W. Berstein, and editor of a private magazine published by the latter, January 1939. E. WILSON, B.A. Moral Welfare Worker, Maidenhead and Henley Association. September 1938.


* We very much regret that in the last issue of the Chronicle Miss Fox was erroneously stated to have a post at the Home Office and Miss Stallman to be secretary to Miss Matheson of the African Research Survey staff. We are glad to be able to print the correct appointments now, and to apologize for the mistakes.—The Editor.


is taking a Librarian's Course at the University of

London. has been appointed Classics Mistress at the County School, Keswick. January 1939. c. W. BRADBURY is preparing for the Civil Service Examination. C. E. CRITTALL is doing Historical Research work under Professor Eileen Power at London University. J. P. DAWSON is working for her B.M. examination. A. A. B. FAIRLIE is acting as English Repetitrice at the Ecole Normale d'Institutrice, Chartres, while working for her Paris Doctorate. D. F. BLEASBY

M. GARNETT, M. H. GILLETT, M. E. S. MCINTOSH, S. M. MANDELKORN, and J. M. WHITEHEAD are doing Secretarial courses in London.


and D. N. LOVEGROVE are taking a training course for teaching. A. M. HEDLEY is training at the London Institute of Education. R. M. HORNBY and J. E. PERKINS are taking a Social Service Course at the London School of Economics. E. JACKSON is working for the Oxford University Diploma in Anthropology. M. K. JAMES is working for her B.Litt. degree. E. I. MARSHALL is taking a Social Science Course in London. D. E. A. RABY is working in a London shop. M. D. TULL is working at Journalism in London. R. B. M. YALE is now taking her Final Examination in Chemistry, Part II. N. M. HARGREAVES, M. GOSCHEN, E. LA'BROOY,

NEWS OF SENIOR MEMBERS M. C. B. ACASTER is beginning a year's course in Household Manage-

ment at the Battersea Polytechnic. working as a student with the Charity Organization Society. K. N. BABES is acting as Exchange Mistress at Napier High School, New Zealand, for one year. B. BETTES has become a member of St. Pancras Borough Council. MRS. BRADBURY (L. F. Todd) has returned with her husband to England as he has become Vicar of St. Andrew's, Luton, after twenty-seven years' missionary work in India. MRS. CARGILL (M. A. Morice) has just returned to Northern Rhodesia after some months in England. I. CARVER is working at a flower-decorating business. N. I. CHELTON has changed her name by deed-poll from Chmelnitzky to Chelton. M. L. CLARKSON is working for the Social Study Diploma at Birmingham University. J. CLIFFS is teaching at an elementary school at Barnsley. R. M. COMPSTON is living at home and teaching children in their own homes. She is also doing Red Cross work, and has been Captain of a Ranger Company. M. R. CUNNINGHAM has been appointed unofficial visitor of the Young Prisoners' Department of H.M. Prison, Winchester. MRS. DANIELL-JENKINS (D. I. Jeudwine) is Company Commander znd Glamorgan (General Duties) Company, A.T.S. R. J. DEAN is back at Mount Holyoke College after her year's leave of absence to do research work. She writes to say how much she appreciated the grant by St. Hugh's from the John Gamble Fund for extra expenses of travel and equipment in connexion with her work here and in France. N. DEAS is at the College of the Ascension, Selly Oak. G. EDMUNDS is teaching in Littlehampton. P. M. ALLEN is


(K. Classen) is still living in Leeds and combining domestic duties with lecturing, coaching, helping in infant Welfare Centres, and membership of the Ladies' Council of Education. She has been appointed occasional lecturer to the W.E.A. in the West Riding of Yorkshire. MRS. EVANS (K. M. Dawson) is co-Warden with her husband of the Aberdare Valley Educational Settlement, an interesting experiment in social service and democratic education in a distressed area. L. GAPPER resigned her position as organizing Headmistress of Battle Abbey School in March 1939. D. M. GARDNER is working for the Diploma of Education at Oxford, and is having her practice term at Sutton High School. c. GOODENOUGH passed the Archbishop's Diploma (S.Th.) in January 1939. M. A. GRANT has resigned her post as Headmistress of Withington Girls' School, Manchester, and is now living in Bedford. LADY GRIGG (G. C. Hough) will be in England in April as her husband, Sir James Grigg, is relinquishing his post as finance member of the Viceroy's Executive Council, and returning to the Civil Service. A. HADFIELD is teaching an invalid girl at Exeter. M. HAIG is lecturing on 'Historical and Dramatic Costume' in schools, institutes, and the like. G. M. K. HILL has been adopted as prospective Labour candidate for Bristol West. She is already a Borough Councillor. G. E. s. HUNT is going to Canada in April for Church work in connexion with the 'Travelling Sunday School'. W. F. HUTCHINSON resigned her post at Blackheath School in December 1938. w. M. KEENS is teaching at the County School, Llangollen, N. Wales. J. LANE has been awarded a bursary at the Josephine Butler House, Liverpool, January 1939. J. H. F. LAPRAIK is doing a secretarial course in London. M. L. LEE writes that since she has retired from the English lecturership to the Society of Oxford Home Students she has been spending her time in 'trying to become a better Principal of Wychwood School'. She has acquired a partner, and has started a new Domestic Science Hostel in Bardwell Road, for older girls and even housewives. MRS. LEYS (R. J. Mitchell) has been awarded the Reginald Taylor Essay Prize for 1938 by the British Archaeological Association. L. F. LIMPUS was elected a Rural District Councillor for Wimborne and Cranborne R.D.C. last November. She is finding it very interesting work. H. K. MACDONALD conducted a group of Seniors from St. Margaret's School, Waterbury, Connecticut, to Bermuda for the Spring vacation. MRS. ELLIOT


M. E. MAURICE is staying in South Africa for eighteen months or so. MRS. MAXWELL (W. A. Pronger) will be going to South Africa as her

husband has been appointed to a lecturership in Psychology at Rhodes University College, Capetown. LADY MOBERLY (G. Gardner) visited a year ago with her husband the Commonwealth Fellows in the University of Quebec. Since then she has visited a large number of English and Scottish universities and English schools. She has sons at Winchester and the Dragon School ; is a Manager of two infant and one Central school, and a Governor of two secondary schools. She is also Chairman of Bishop Creighton House. M. G. C. MOILLIET is teaching at St. Clair School, Hayward's Heath. G. M. MORTON was appointed second (and English) Mistress of the City of London School for Girls, September 1938. B. NICK.ALLS, still a reporter on the Bristol Evening Post, has been made Daily Mirror Correspondent in Bristol. Her play Inside Story had a very successful reception when it was performed for a week last November by the Bristol Repertory Company. Another company is going to put it on in May or June. MRS. NIEBURH (U. Keppel-Compton) will be in England and Scotland from March to November of this year as her husband is giving the Gifford Lectures in Edinburgh, and will be speaking and preaching at Oxford and Cambridge in June. J. M. PARKINSON has been awarded the Women House Property Managers' Certificate of the Chartered Surveyors' Institution. M. A. B. PARSONS is secretary to the Foreign Director of Barclays Bank. A. D. K. PETERS has been made a member of the Council of the Dermatological Section of the Royal Society of Medicine, and a member of the British Association of Dermatology and Syphilology. M. s. C. PETERS is assistant French and Geography Mistress at Malvern Girls' College. L. POWYS-ROBERTS is taking a secretarial course at the London College of Secretaries. E. M. C. PRIDEAUX retired from active teaching in April 1938. A. S. M. RICHARDSON has undertaken the Hon. Secretaryship of the Children's Care Committees at Cranbrook Terrace School and St. John's School, Bethnal Green. She has also become a member of the Shoreditch Juvenile Advisory Committee (Ministry of Labour). MRS. RICHARDSON (C. L. A. Dening) writes that she has by now had thirteen radio plays of different kinds produced. V. RUSSELL is doing social work in Bristol. E. M. SIMPSON has been appointed Joint Editor (with Percy Simpson, D.Litt.) of the remaining volumes of the Clarendon Press edition of the works of Ben Jonson. s. F. STALLMAN writes that while on the staff of the African Research Survey she was engaged in research work, and generally helping with the preparation for publication of Lord Hailey's book An African Survey. She and a colleague were responsible for the index.


ended her appointment as secretary to the East and West Friendship Council in March 1937. She then went to South Africa to act as secretary to the Y.W.C.A. in Durban, and Warden of its Hostel. She has held various other temporary posts in South Africa. B. J. THEOBALD has a clerical post at the B.B.C. B. M. HAMILTON THOMPSON has given lectures during the year for the Durham Historical Association, the Sunderland Geographical Association, the York Diocesan School of Social Study, and the Durham Community Service Council. She has also contributed various reviews and short notices to Theology and the English F. G. SUTTON

Historical Review. writes to say how much she appreciated the kindness of the members of the Senior Common Room during her stay in College last Summer, when she was convalescing from a motor accident which occurred in Oxfordshire. MRS. TUPPER (D. F. H. Chappel) writes that the work of the Great Harrow District Nursing Association, of which she is the Organizing Secretary, is increasing. She has a son in residence at St. Edmund Hall. J. M. YEAXLEE is working under Mr. Nugent Monk at the Maddermarket Theatre, Norwich, both in connexion with her B.Litt. thesis on 'Garrick as a producer of Shakespeare' and as part of her professional training for play production. E. M. A. TUDOR

REPORT OF THE ST. HUGH'S CLUB DINNER, 1938 HE following communication has been received from the Honorary Secretary of the Club : The dinner of the St. Hugh's Club was arranged according to custom for the first Saturday in October, which fell in 1938 on October 1st. The Principal had kindly consented to preside. The Club was to have had the pleasure of welcoming Mrs. H. A. L. Fisher as the Guest of Honour, the toast of Absent Friends was to have been proposed by Miss Addison Phillips, and Miss Ibberson had undertaken to respond for the Club. It was with great regret that, owing to the Crisis, the Committee felt obliged to cancel the arrangements, and thanks are due to the Management of St. Ermin's Hotel, which waived all claims to compensation. The Club is in need of new members, and the Secretary (M. E. Irwin, 7 The Butts, Harrow-on-the-Hill)will be pleased to enrol them on the payment of the very small life subscription of 1os. '














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