International School, Luxembourg A.S.B.L.

Year 5 Good Things to Know

We hope you find this handbook useful, it contains information which is an extension of the Parent Handbook you will have already received. You will receive further information in the form of termly Year Group letters with in depth information on each of the subjects your child(ren) will be studying.

Learning is growing in doing, knowing and understanding.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS HOMEWORK .................................................................................................................................. 4 CORE LEARNING IN LITERACY ......................................................................................................... 5 CURSIVE ALPHABET ....................................................................................................................... 7 LETTER OUTLINES ......................................................................................................................... 8 SPELLING OBJECTIVES ................................................................................................................... 9 DIFFICULTIES WITH SPELLING ...................................................................................................... 10 FRENCH ..................................................................................................................................... 11 CORE LEARNING IN MATHEMATICS ................................................................................................ 13 PROGRESSION IN CALCULATIONS .................................................................................................. 16 FUN MATHS ACTIVITIES TO DO AT HOME ........................................................................................ 29 MATHS VOCABULARY ................................................................................................................... 32 INTERNATIONAL PRIMARY CURRICULUM TOPICS (IPC) .................................................................. 37 INTERNET SAFETY INFORMATION ................................................................................................... 38

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HOMEWORK We are often asked questions by parents about homework – its purpose and the amount. This letter will give you an introduction as to how we view homework here at St. George’s. A more detailed programme for each class will be drawn up by the individual class teachers. There is no doubt that parents who are involved in their child’s learning help them to make faster progress, to gain confidence and to achieve better results. We appreciate the support that you already give your children at home. At St. George’s we believe that the main purposes of homework are: 1) To develop our links with you, the parents 2) To help you to understand what your children are learning at school 3) To give your child the opportunity to practise what they are learning, particularly in literacy and numeracy 4) To develop self discipline and perseverance and become independent learners 5) To help your child to learn to plan the wise use of time and to develop confidence 6) To develop ‘The Homework Habit’ 7) To increase self esteem through knowing that their achievements are regarded as important by both home and school 8) To extend school learning The purpose and the amount of homework change as your child gets older. For children in Reception and Years 1 and 2 the homework could include reading, phonic practice, word games, spelling, learning number facts and reading together. The time spent on homework will be about 1 hour each week for Years 1 and 2 and 30 minutes for Reception. We would also encourage you to share other books by reading with your child for between 10 and 20 minutes a day. In Years 3 – 6 the main purpose of homework is to provide opportunities for your child to develop the skills of independent learning. By the time your child reaches Year 6 their homework will cover a range of tasks and curriculum content. In years 3 – 6 homework could include: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

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Regular opportunities to practise word and sentence work Finding out information Reading in preparation for lessons Regular opportunities to practise number skills French or EAL Speaking and recital skills

CORE LEARNING IN LITERACY â€“ YEAR 5 Most children will learn to:

A. SPEAKING AND LISTENING SPEAKING Tell a story using notes designed to cue techniques, such as repetition, recap and humour. Present a spoken argument, sequencing points logically, defending views with evidence and making use of persuasive language. Use and explore different question types and different ways words are used, including in formal and informal contexts.

LISTENING AND RESPONDING Identify different question types and evaluate their impact on the audience. Identify some aspects of talk that vary between formal and informal occasions. Analyse the use of persuasive language.

GROUP DISCUSSION AND INTERACTION Plan and manage a group task over time using different levels of planning. Understand different ways to take the lead and support others in groups. Understand the process of decision making.

DRAMA Reflect on how working in role helps to explore complex issues. Perform a scripted scene making use of dramatic conventions. Use and recognise the impact of theatrical effects in drama.

B. READING UNDERSTANDING AND INTERPRETING TEXTS Make notes on and use evidence from across a text to explain events or ideas. Infer writersâ€™ perspectives from what is written and from what is implied. Compare different types of narrative and information texts and identify how they are structured. Distinguish between everyday use of words and their subject specific use. Explore how writers use language for comic and dramatic effects.

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ENGAGING WITH AND RESPONDING TO TEXTS Reflect on reading habits and preferences and plan personal reading goals. Compare the usefulness of techniques such as visualisation, prediction and empathy in exploring the meaning of texts. Compare how a common theme is presented in poetry, prose and other media.

C. WRITING WORD STRUCTURE AND SPELLING Spell words containing unstressed vowels. Know and use less common prefixes and suffixes such as im-, ir-, -cian. Group and classify words according to their spelling patterns and their meanings.

CREATING AND SHAPING TEXTS Reflect independently and critically on their own writing and edit and improve it. Experiment with different narrative forms and styles to write their own stories. Adapt non-narrative forms and styles to write fiction or factual texts, including poems. Vary the pace and develop the viewpoint through the use of direct and reported speech, portrayal of action and selection of detail. Create multi-layered texts, including use of hyperlinks and linked web pages.

TEXT STRUCTURE AND ORGANISATION Experiment with the order of sections and paragraphs to achieve different effects. Change the order of material within a paragraph, moving the topic sentence.

SENTENCE STRUCTURE AND PUNCTUATION Adapt sentence construction to different text-types, purposes and readers. Punctuate sentences accurately, including using speech marks and apostrophes.

PRESENTATION Adapt handwriting for specific purposes, for example printing, use of italics. Use a range of ICT programs to present texts, making informed choices about which electronic tools to use for different purposes.

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C¶u[rã[i[¹Ö A¶l[p[h]a[¥e[t Aªa

B¶ø

Cªc

Dªd

Eâ

F¶<

Gªü

H¶h

I¶i

J¶ý

K¶„

L¶l

M¶m

N¶n

Oª‹

P¶ú

Qªq

R¶r

S¡

T¶t

U¶u

V¶v

W¶w

X¶ˆ

Y¶þ

Z¶z

A¶l[l ªc]a[p[i[t]a[l ¶¯e[t[·e[rã ¶¥e]Ìi[n ¶>›om ¶t[«e ¶t]oú ¶l[i[±e. Cªa[p[i[t]a[l ¶¯e[t[·e[rã ªa[µÖ ¶n]Št ¶Ðoi[±e]d. A¶l[l ¡[m]a[l[l ¶¯e[t[·e[rã ¶¥e]Ìi[n ¶>›om ¶t[«e ¶b]Št[t]om ¶l[i[±e. T¶«e ªon[l[þ â[ˆ]¦e[p[t[i]on¡ ¶¥e]Ìi[n ªa[>·e[r ¶t[«e ¶¯e[t[·e[rã ª‹, ¶v, ¶w ªa[n]d ¶r. If your child has already been taught to write in a different style, providing their work is legible, then they will not be re-taught or required to change their style.

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SPELLING OBJECTIVES - YEAR 5 To examine the properties of words ending in vowels other than the letter e. To investigate, collect and classify spelling patterns in pluralisation, construct rules of regular spellings e.g. add s to most words; add es to most words ending in s, sh, ch; when y is preceded by a consonant, change to ies; when y is preceded by a vowel, add s. To investigate, collect and classify spelling in pluralisation, e.g. change f to ves. To collect and investigate the meanings and spellings of words using the following prefixes: auto, bi, trans, tele, circum. To explore spelling patterns of consonants and formulate rules: ll in full becomes l when used as a suffix. To identify word roots, derivations, and spelling patterns, e.g. sign, signature, signal; bomb, bombastic, bombard; remit, permit, permission, in order to extend vocabulary and provide support for spelling. To explore spelling patterns and consonants and formulate rules: words ending with a single consonant preceded by a short vowel double the consonant before adding ing. To explore spelling patterns of consonants and formulate rules: e is usually soft when followed by i, e.g. circus, accident. To investigate words that have common letter strings but different pronunciations e.g. rough, cough, bough, boot, foot. To distinguish between homophones, i.e. words with common pronunciations but different spellings, e.g. eight, ate; grate, great; rain, rein, reign. To recognise and spell the suffix: cian, etc. The correct use and spelling of possessive pronouns, linked to work on grammar, e.g. their, theirs; your, yours; my, mine. To spell unstressed vowels in polysyllabic words, e.g. company, portable, poisonous, interest, description, carpet, sector, freedom, extra, etc. To investigate and learn spelling rules: words ending in modifying e drop e when adding ing, e.g. taking; words ending in modifying e keep e when adding a suffix beginning with a consonant, e.g. hopeful, lovely.

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Say is as it is written

Find the roots and build them up

Fascinating

Find out where the word comes from.

dis + appear

Say the word clearly. Sound it out syllable by syllable

Knif was the Viking word for knife. Many Viking words began with kn.

Yes – ter – day

Say each syllable even if it sounds funny Wed – nes – day

Make up Funnies

Ways to help

Necessary has one collar and two socks.

Spell the word out loud, letter by letter, as you write it down.

Because = Big

S–a–i–d

Elephants Can Always Use Some Energy.

with difficult spellings Hang spelling Take a mental photograph of the word

lists

Together = To get her

on bedroom

Remember

Look for words with words

Friend = I will be your friend to the end

& loo doors Use the Computer Remember the way it feels to type the word. Practice writing with graphic programmes

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Get the feel of the word.

Write with your finger in the air or chalk in big letter on the board.

Rub out chalk writing with your index

FRENCH By the end of Year 6, we would expect some of our pupils to attain level C1 if they have been attending French at St Georgeâ€™s from Early Years. Below is an explanation of the levels used to assess language levels: The Common European Framework (CEFR) divides learners into three broad divisions that can be divided into six levels. It describes what a learner is supposed to be able to do in reading, listening, speaking and writing at each level. Level group Level group name Level Description

A

B

C

Basic User

Independent User

Proficient User

A1

A2

B1

B2

C1

Can understand and use familiar everyday expressions and very basic phrases aimed at the satisfaction of needs of a concrete type.

Can understand sentences and frequently used expressions related to areas of most immediate relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local geography, employment).

Can understand the main points of clear standard input on familiar matters regularly encountered in work, school, leisure, etc.

Can understand the main ideas of complex text on both concrete and abstract topics, including technical discussions in his / her field of specialisation.

Can understand a wide range of demanding, longer texts, and recognise implicit meaning.

Can introduce him / herself and others and can ask and answer questions about personal details such as where he/she lives, people he/she knows and things he/she has.

Can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar and routine matters.

Can deal with most situations likely to arise while travelling in an area where the language is spoken. Can produce simple connected text on topics that are familiar or of personal interest.

Can interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity that makes regular interaction with native speakers quite possible without strain for either party.

Can express ideas fluently and spontaneously without much obvious searching for expressions.

C2 Can understand with ease virtually everything heard or read. Can summarise information from different spoken and written sources, reconstructing arguments and accounts in a coherent presentation.

Can use language flexibly and effectively for social, academic and professional purposes.

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Level Description

A1

A2

B1

B2

C1

C2

Can interact in a simple way provided the other person talks slowly and clearly and is prepared to help.

Can describe in simple terms aspects of his/her background, immediate environment and matters in areas of immediate need.

Can describe experiences and events, dreams, hopes and ambitions and briefly give reasons and explanations for opinions and plans.

Can produce clear, detailed text on a wide range of subjects and explain a viewpoint on a topical issue giving the advantages and disadvantages of various options.

Can produce clear, wellstructured, detailed text on complex subjects, showing controlled use of organisational patterns, connectors and cohesive devices.

Can express him/herself spontaneously, very fluently and precisely, differentiating finer shades of meaning even in the most complex situations.

SUPPORTING THE FRENCH LEARNER OUTSIDE OF SCHOOL Language Camps: www.languages.lu/language-camps/ Tutoring: www.languages.lu/school-tutoring/ Tutoring: www.mastercraft.lu/en/soutien_scolaire.html Sports and Languages: www.inlingua.lu/?q=en/node/136 After-school: www.inlingua.lu/?q=en/node/135 Little Gym: www.thelittlegym.eu/lu-fr

SUPPORTING THE EAL LEARNER OUTSIDE OF SCHOOL Little Gym: www.thelittlegym.eu/lu-en Ceramics School: www.ceramics.lu/index.htm British Guides in Luxembourg: www.bglux.eu Telstar Scout Group: www.telstar.lu Newsround: www.bbc.co.uk/newsround Online Talking Stories: http://resources.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/interactive/onlinestory.htm British Council: http://learnenglishkids.britishcouncil.org/en/

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CORE LEARNING IN MATHEMATICS – YEAR 5 * Key objectives are in bold. Most children learnt to:

USING AND APPLYING MATHEMATICS Solve one-step and two-step problems involving whole numbers and decimals and all four operations, choosing and using appropriate calculation strategies, including calculator use. Represent a puzzle or problem by identifying and recording the information or calculations needed to solve it; find possible solutions and confirm them in the context of the problem. Plan and pursue an enquiry; present evidence by collecting, organising and interpreting information; suggest extensions to the enquiry. Explore patterns, properties and relationships and propose a general statement involving numbers or shapes; identify examples for which the statement is true or false. Explain reasoning using diagrams, graphs and text; refine ways of recording using images and symbols.

COUNTING AND UNDERSTANDING NUMBER Count from any given number in whole-number and decimal steps, extending beyond zero when counting backwards; relate the numbers to their position on a number line. Explain what each digit represents in whole numbers and decimals with up to two places, and partition, round and order these numbers. Express a smaller whole number as a fraction of a larger one (e.g. recognise that 5 out of 8 is 5/8); find equivalent fractions (e.g. 7/10 = 14/20, or 19/10 = 190/100); relate fractions to their decimal representations. Understand percentage as the number of parts in every 100 and express tenths and hundredths as percentages. Use sequences to scale numbers up or down; solve problems involving proportions of quantities (e.g. decrease quantities in a recipe designed to feed six people).

KNOWING AND USING NUMBER FACTS Use knowledge of place value and addition and subtraction of two-digit numbers to derive sums and differences and doubles and halves of decimals (e.g. 6.5 ± 2.7, half of 5.6, double 0.34). Recall quickly multiplication facts up to 10 × 10 and use them to multiply pairs of multiples of 10 and 100; derive quickly corresponding division facts. Identify pairs of factors of two-digit whole numbers and find common multiples (e.g. for 6 and 9).

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Use knowledge of rounding, place value, number facts and inverse operations to estimate and check calculations.

CALCULATING Extend mental methods for whole-number calculations, for example to multiply a two-digit by a onedigit number (e.g. 12 × 9), to multiply by 25 (e.g. 16 × 25), to subtract one near multiple of 1000 from another (e.g. 6070 – 4097). Use efficient written methods to add and subtract whole numbers and decimals with up to two places. Use understanding of place value to multiply and divide whole numbers and decimals by 10, 100 or 1000. Refine and use efficient written methods to multiply and divide HTU × U, TU × TU, U.t × U and HTU ÷ U. Find fractions using division (e.g. 1/100 of 5 kg), and percentages of numbers and quantities (e.g. 10%, 5% and 15% of £80). Use a calculator to solve problems, including those involving decimals or fractions (e.g. find 3/4 of 150 g); interpret the display correctly in the context of measurement.

UNDERSTANDING SHAPE Identify, visualise and describe properties of rectangles, triangles, regular polygons and 3-D solids; use knowledge of properties to draw 2-D shapes, and to identify and draw nets of 3-D shapes. Read and plot coordinates in the first quadrant; recognise parallel and perpendicular lines in grids and shapes; use a set-square and ruler to draw shapes with perpendicular or parallel sides. Complete patterns with up to two lines of symmetry; draw the position of a shape after a reflection or translation. Estimate, draw and measure acute and obtuse angles using an angle measurer or protractor to a suitable degree of accuracy; calculate angles in a straight line.

MEASURING Read, choose, use and record standard metric units to estimate and measure length, weight and capacity to a suitable degree of accuracy (e.g. the nearest centimetre); convert larger to smaller units using decimals to one place (e.g. change 2.6 kg to 2600 g). Interpret a reading that lies between two unnumbered divisions on a scale. Draw and measure lines to the nearest millimetre; measure and calculate the perimeter of regular and irregular polygons; use the formula for the area of a rectangle to calculate the rectangle’s area. Read timetables and time using 24-hour clock notation; use a calendar to calculate time intervals.

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HANDLING DATA Describe the occurrence of familiar events using the language of chance or likelihood. Answer a set of related questions by collecting, selecting and organising relevant data; draw conclusions, using ICT to present features, and identify further questions to ask. Construct frequency tables, pictograms and bar and line graphs to represent the frequencies of events and changes over time. Find and interpret the mode of a set of data.

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PROGRESSION IN CALCULATIONS WRITTEN METHODS FOR ADDITION OF WHOLE NUMBERS The aim is that children use mental methods when appropriate, but for calculations that they cannot do in their heads they use an efficient written method accurately and with confidence. Children are entitled to be taught and to acquire secure mental methods of calculation and one efficient written method of calculation for addition which they know they can rely on when mental methods are not appropriate. These notes show the stages in building up to using an efficient written method for addition of whole numbers by the end of Year 4. To add successfully, children need to be able to: recall all addition pairs to 9 + 9 and complements in 10; add mentally a series of one-digit numbers, such as 5 + 8 + 4; add multiples of 10 (such as 60 + 70) or of 100 (such as 600 + 700) using the related addition fact, 6 + 7, and their knowledge of place value; partition two-digit and three-digit numbers into multiples of 100, 10 and 1 in different ways. Note: It is important that children's mental methods of calculation are practised and secured alongside their learning and use of an efficient written method for addition. Method

Example

STAGE 1: THE EMPTY NUMBER LINE Steps in addition can be recorded on a number line. The steps often bridge through a multiple of 10. The mental methods that lead to column addition generally involve partitioning, e.g. adding the tens and ones separately, often starting with the tens. Children need to be able to partition numbers in ways other than into tens and ones to help them make multiples of ten by adding in steps. The empty number line helps to record the steps on the way to calculating the total.

8 + 7 = 15

48 + 36 = 84

or:

STAGE 2: PARTITIONING The next stage is to record mental methods using partitioning. Add the tens and then the ones to form partial sums and then add these partial sums. Partitioning both numbers into tens and ones mirrors the column method where ones are placed under ones and tens under tens. This also links to mental methods.

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Record steps in addition using partitioning: 47 + 76 = 47 + 70 + 6 = 117 + 6 = 123 47 + 76 = 40 + 70 + 7 + 6 = 110 + 13 = 123 Partitioned numbers are then written under one another:

Method

Example

STAGE 3: EXPANDED METHOD IN COLUMNS Move on to a layout showing the addition of the tens to the tens and the ones to the ones separately. To find the partial sums either the tens or the ones can be added first, and the total of the partial sums can be found by adding them in any order. As children gain confidence, ask them to start by adding the ones digits first always. The addition of the tens in the calculation 47 + 76 is described in the words 'forty plus seventy equals one hundred and ten', stressing the link to the related fact 'four plus seven equals eleven'. The expanded method leads children to the more compact method so that they understand its structure and efficiency. The amount of time that should be spent teaching and practising the expanded method will depend on how secure the children are in their recall of number facts and in their understanding of place value.

Write the numbers in columns Adding the tens first:

Adding the ones first:

Discuss how adding the ones first gives the same answer as adding the tens first. Refine over time to adding the ones digits first consistently.

STAGE 4: COLUMN METHOD In this method, recording is reduced further. Carry digits are recorded below the line, using the words 'carry ten' or 'carry one hundred', not 'carry one'. Later, extend to adding three two-digit numbers, two three-digit numbers and numbers with different numbers of digits.

Column addition remains efficient when used with larger whole numbers and decimals. Once learned, the method is quick and reliable.

WRITTEN METHODS FOR SUBTRACTION OF WHOLE NUMBERS The aim is that children use mental methods when appropriate, but for calculations that they cannot do in their heads they use an efficient written method accurately and with confidence. Children are entitled to be taught and to acquire secure mental methods of calculation and one efficient written method of calculation for subtraction which they know they can rely on when mental methods are not appropriate. These notes show the stages in building up to using an efficient method for subtraction of two-digit and three-digit whole numbers by the end of Year 4. To subtract successfully, children need to be able to: recall all addition and subtraction facts to 20 subtract multiples of 10 (such as 160 - 70) using the related subtraction fact, 16 - 7, and their knowledge of place value partition two-digit and three-digit numbers into multiples of one hundred, ten and one in different ways (e.g. partition 74 into 70 + 4 or 60 + 14).

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Method

Example

Note: It is important that children's mental methods of calculation are practised and secured alongside their learning and use of an efficient written method for subtraction.

STAGE 1: USING THE EMPTY NUMBER LINE The empty number line helps to record or explain the steps in mental subtraction. A calculation like 74 - 27 can be recorded by counting back 27 from 74 to reach 47. The empty number line is also a useful way of modelling processes such as bridging through a multiple of ten.

Steps in subtraction can be recorded on a number line. The steps often bridge through a multiple of 10.

The steps can also be recorded by counting up from the smaller to the larger number to find the difference, for example by counting up from 27 to 74 in steps totalling 47.

74 â€“ 27 =47 worked by counting back:

With practice, children will need to record less information and decide whether to count back or forward. It is useful to ask children whether counting up or back is the more efficient for calculations such as 57 - 12, 86 - 77 or 43 28.

15 â€“ 7 = 8

The steps may be recorded in a different order:

or combined:

The notes below give more detail on the counting-up method using an empty number line. THE COUNTING-UP METHOD The mental method of counting up from the smaller to the larger number can be recorded using either number lines or vertically in columns. The number of rows (or steps) can be reduced by combining steps. With two-digit numbers, this requires children to be able to work out the answer to a calculation such as 30 + ? = 74 mentally. With three-digit numbers the number of steps can again be reduced, provided that children are able to work out answers to calculations such as 178 + ? = 200 and 200 + ? = 326 mentally.

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or

or

Method

Example

The most compact form of recording remains reasonably efficient.

The method can be used with decimals where no more than three columns are required. However, it becomes less efficient when more than three columns are needed. This counting-up method can be a useful alternative for children whose progress is slow, whose mental and written calculation skills are weak and whose projected attainment at the end of Key Stage 2 is towards the lower end of level 4.

or

STAGE 2: PARTITIONING Subtraction can be recorded using partitioning to write equivalent calculations that can be carried out mentally. For 74 - 27 this involves partitioning the 27 into 20 and 7, and then subtracting from 74 the 20 and the 4 in turn. Some children may need to partition the 74 into 70 + 4 or 60 + 14 to help them carry out the subtraction.

Subtraction can be recorded using partitioning: 74 - 27 = 74 - 20 - 7 = 54 - 7 = 47 74 - 27 = 70 + 4 - 20 - 7 = 60 + 14 - 20 - 7 = 40 + 7 This requires children to subtract a single-digit number or a multiple of 10 from a two-digit number mentally. The method of recording links to counting back on the number line.

STAGE 3: EXPANDED LAYOUT, LEADING TO COLUMN METHOD Partitioning the numbers into tens and ones and writing one under the other mirrors the column method, where ones are placed under ones and tens under tens. This does not link directly to mental methods of counting back or up but parallels the partitioning method for addition. It also relies on secure mental skills. The expanded method leads children to the more compact method so that they understand its structure and efficiency. The amount of time that should be spent teaching and practising the expanded method will depend on how secure the children are in their recall of number facts and with partitioning.

Partitioned numbers are then written under one another: Example: 74 - 27

Example: 741 - 367

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Method

Example

THE EXPANDED METHOD FOR THREE-DIGIT NUMBERS Example: 563 − 241, no adjustment or decomposition needed Expanded method

leading to

Start by subtracting the ones, then the tens, then the hundreds. Refer to subtracting the tens, for example, by saying 'sixty take away forty', not 'six take away four'. Example: 563 − 271, adjustment from the hundreds to the tens, or partitioning the hundreds

Begin by reading aloud the number from which we are subtracting: 'five hundred and sixtythree'. Then discuss the hundreds, tens and ones components of the number, and how 500 + 60 can be partitioned into 400 + 160. The subtraction of the tens becomes '160 minus 70', an application of subtraction of multiples of ten. Example: 563 − 278, adjustment from the hundreds to the tens and the tens to the ones

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Method

Example Here both the tens and the ones digits to be subtracted are bigger than both the tens and the ones digits you are subtracting from. Discuss how 60 + 3 is partitioned into 50 + 13, and then how 500 + 50 can be partitioned into 400 + 150, and how this helps when subtracting. Example: 503 − 278, dealing with zeros when adjusting

Here 0 acts as a place holder for the tens. The adjustment has to be done in two stages. First the 500 + 0 is partitioned into 400 + 100 and then the 100 + 3 is partitioned into 90 + 13.

WRITTEN METHODS FOR MULTIPLICATION OF WHOLE NUMBERS The aim is that children use mental methods when appropriate, but for calculations that they cannot do in their heads they use an efficient written method accurately and with confidence. Children are entitled to be taught and to acquire secure mental methods of calculation and one efficient written method of calculation for multiplication which they know they can rely on when mental methods are not appropriate. These notes show the stages in building up to using an efficient method for two-digit by one-digit multiplication by the end of Year4, two-digit by two-digit multiplication by the end of Year 5, and three-digit by two-digit multiplication by the end of Year 6. To multiply successfully, children need to be able to: recall all multiplication facts to 10 × 10 partition number into multiples of one hundred, ten and one work out products such as 70 × 5, 70 × 50, 700 × 5 or700 × 50 using the related fact 7 × 5 and their knowledge of place value add two or more single-digit numbers mentally add multiples of 10 (such as 60 + 70) or of 100 (such as 600 + 700) using the related addition fact, 6 + 7, and their knowledge of place value add combinations of whole numbers using the column method (see above).

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Method

Example

Note: It is important that children's mental methods of calculation are practised and secured alongside their learning and use of an efficient written method for multiplication.

STAGE 1: MENTAL MULTIPLICATION USING PARTITIONING Mental methods for multiplying TU × U can be based on the distributive law of multiplication over addition. This allows the tens and ones to be multiplied separately to form partial products. These are then added to find the total product. Either the tens or the ones can be multiplied first but it is more common to start with the tens.

Informal recording might be:

Also record mental multiplication using partitioning:

Note: These methods are based on the distributive law. Children should be introduced to the principle of this law (not its name) in Years 2 and 3, for example when they use their knowledge of the 2, 5 and 10 times-tables to work out multiples of 7:

STAGE 2: THE GRID METHOD As a staging post, an expanded method which uses a grid can be used. This is based on the distributive law and links directly to the mental method. It is an alternative way of recording the same steps. It is better to place the number with the most digits in the left-hand column of the grid so that it is easier to add the partial products. The next step is to move the number being multiplied (38 in the example shown) to an extra row at the top. Presenting the grid this way helps children to set out the addition of the partial products 210 and 56. The grid method may be the main method used by children whose progress is slow, whose mental and written calculation skills are weak and whose projected attainment at the end of Key Stage 2 is towards the lower end of level 4

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38 × 7 = (30 × 7) + (8 × 7) = 210 + 56 = 266

Method

Example

STAGE 3: EXPANDED SHORT MULTIPLICATION The next step is to represent the method of recording in a column format, but showing the working. Draw attention to the links with the grid method above. Children should describe what they do by referring to the actual values of the digits in the columns. For example, the first step in 38 × 7 is 'thirty multiplied by seven', not 'three times seven', although the relationship 3 × 7 should be stressed. Most children should be able to use this expanded method for TU × U by the end of Year 4.

STAGE 4: SHORT MULTIPLICATION The recording is reduced further, with carry digits recorded below the line. If, after practice, children cannot use the compact method without making errors, they should return to the expanded format of stage 3.

The step here involves adding 210 and 50 mentally with only the 5 in the 50 recorded. This highlights the need for children to be able to add a multiple of 10 to a two-digit or three-digit number mentally before they reach this stage.

STAGE 5: TWO-DIGIT BY TWO-DIGIT PRODUCTS Extend to TU × TU, asking children to estimate first. Start with the grid method. The partial products in each row are added, and then the two sums at the end of each row are added to find the total product. As in the grid method for TU × U in stage 4, the first column can become an extra top row as a stepping stone to the method below. Reduce the recording, showing the links to the grid method above.

56 × 27 is approximately 60 × 30 = 1800.

Reduce the recording further. The carry digits in the partial products of 56 × 20 = 120 and 56 × 7 = 392 are usually carried mentally. The aim is for most children to use this long multiplication method for TU × TU by the end of Year 5.

56 × 27 is approximately 60 × 30 = 1800.

56 × 27 is approximately 60 × 30 = 1800.

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Method

Example

STAGE 6: THREE-DIGIT BY TWO-DIGIT PRODUCTS Extend to HTU × TU asking children to estimate first. Start with the grid method. It is better to place the number with the most digits in the left-hand column of the grid so that it is easier to add the partial products.

286 × 29 is approximately 300 × 30 = 9000.

Reduce the recording, showing the links to the grid method above. This expanded method is cumbersome, with six multiplications and a lengthy addition of numbers with different numbers of digits to be carried out. There is plenty of incentive to move on to a more efficient method.

Children who are already secure with multiplication for TU × U and TU × TU should have little difficulty in using the same method for HTU × TU. Again, the carry digits in the partial products are usually carried mentally.

286 × 29 is approximately 300 × 30 = 9000.

WRITTEN METHODS FOR DIVISION OF WHOLE NUMBERS The aim is that children use mental methods when appropriate, but for calculations that they cannot do in their heads they use an efficient written method accurately and with confidence. Children are entitled to be taught and to acquire secure mental methods of calculation and one efficient written method of calculation for division which they know they can rely on when mental methods are not appropriate. These notes show the stages in building up to long division through Years 4 to 6 - first long division TU ÷ U, extending to HTU ÷ U, then HTU ÷ TU, and then short division HTU ÷ U. To divide successfully in their heads, children need to be able to: understand and use the vocabulary of division - for example in 18 ÷ 3 = 6,the 18 is the dividend, the 3 is the divisor and the 6 is the quotient partition two-digit and three-digit numbers into multiples of 100, 10 and 1 in different ways recall multiplication and division facts to 10 × 10, recognise multiples of one-digit numbers and divide multiples of 10 or 100 by a single-digit number using their knowledge of division facts and place value

24

Method

Example

know how to find a remainder working mentally - for example, find the remainder when 48 is divided by 5 understand and use multiplication and division as inverse operations. Note: It is important that children's mental methods of calculation are practised and secured alongside their learning and use of an efficient written method for division. To carry out written methods of division successful, children also need to be able to: understand division as repeated subtraction estimate how many times one number divides into another - for example, how many sixes there are in 47, or how many 23s there are in 92 multiply a two-digit number by a single-digit number mentally subtract numbers using the column method.

STAGE 1: MENTAL DIVISION USING PARTITIONING Mental methods for dividing TU รท U can be based on partitioning and on the distributive law of division over addition. This allows a multiple of the divisor and the remaining number to be divided separately. The results are then added to find the total quotient. Many children can partition and multiply with confidence. But this is not the case for division. One reason for this may be that mental methods of division, stressing the correspondence to mental methods of multiplication, have not in the past been given enough attention. Children should also be able to find a remainder mentally, for example the remainder when 34 is divided by 6.

One way to work out TU รท U mentally is to partition TU into a multiple of the divisor plus the remaining ones, then divide each part separately. Informal recording in Year 4 for 84 รท 7 might be:

In this example, using knowledge of multiples, the 84 is partitioned into 70 (the highest multiple of 7 that is also a multiple of 10 and less than 84) plus 14 and then each part is divided separately using the distributive law. Another way to record is in a grid, with links to the grid method of multiplication.

As the mental method is recorded, ask: 'How many sevens in seventy?' and: 'How many sevens in fourteen?' Also record mental division using partitioning:

25

Method

Example Remainders after division can be recorded similarly.

STAGE 2: SHORT DIVISION OF TU ÷ U 'Short' division of TU ÷ U can be introduced as a more compact recording of the mental method of partitioning. Short division of two-digit number can be introduced to children who are confident with multiplication and division facts and with subtracting multiples of 10 mentally, and whose understanding of partitioning and place value is sound. For most children this will be at the end of Year 4 or the beginning of Year 5. The accompanying patter is 'How many threes divide into 80 so that the answer is a multiple of 10?' This gives 20 threes or 60, with 20 remaining. We now ask: 'What is 21 divided by three?' which gives the answer 7.

For 81 ÷ 3, the dividend of 81 is split into 60, the highest multiple of 3 that is also a multiple 10 and less than 81, to give 60 + 21. Each number is then divided by 3.

The short division method is recorded like this:

This is then shortened to:

The carry digit '2' represents the 2 tens that have been exchanged for 20 ones. In the first recording above it is written in front of the 1 to show that 21 is to be divided by 3. In second it is written as a superscript. The 27 written above the line represents the answer: 20 + 7, or 2 tens and 7 ones.

STAGE 3: 'EXPANDED' METHOD FOR HTU ÷ U This method is based on subtracting multiples of the divisor from the number to be divided, the dividend. For TU ÷ U there is a link to the mental method. As you record the division, ask: 'How many nines in 90?' or 'What is 90 divided by 9?' Once they understand and can apply the method, children should be able to move on from TU ÷ U to HTU ÷ U quite quickly as the principles are the same. This method, often referred to as 'chunking',

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Method is based on subtracting multiples of the divisor, or 'chunks'. Initially children subtract several chunks, but with practice they should look for the biggest multiples of the divisor that they can find to subtract. Chunking is useful for reminding children of the link between division and repeated subtraction. However, children need to recognise that chunking is inefficient if too many subtractions have to be carried out. Encourage them to reduce the number of steps and move them on quickly to finding the largest possible multiples. The key to the efficiency of chunking lies in the estimate that is made before the chunking starts. Estimating for HTU ÷ U involves multiplying the divisor by multiples of 10 to find the two multiples that 'trap' the HTU dividend. Estimating has two purposes when doing a division: o to help to choose a starting point for the division; o to check the answer after the calculation. Children who have a secure knowledge of multiplication facts and place value should be able to move on quickly to the more efficient recording on the right.

Example

To find 196 ÷ 6, we start by multiplying 6 by 10, 20, 30, … to find that 6 × 30 = 180 and 6 × 40 = 240. The multiples of 180 and 240 trap the number 196. This tells us that the answer to 196 ÷ 6 is between 30 and 40. Start the division by first subtracting 180, leaving 16, and then subtracting the largest possible multiple of 6, which is 12, leaving 4.

The quotient 32 (with a remainder of 4) lies between 30 and 40, as predicted.

STAGE 4: SHORT DIVISION OF HTU ÷ U 'Short' division of HTU ÷ U can be introduced as an alternative, more compact recording. No chunking is involved since the links are to partitioning, not repeated subtraction. The accompanying pattern is 'How many threes in 290?' (the answer must be a multiple of 10). This gives 90 threes or 270, with 20 remaining. We now ask: 'How many threes in 21?' which has the answer 7. Short division of a three-digit number can be introduced to children who are confident with multiplication and division facts and with subtracting multiples of 10 mentally, and whose understanding of partitioning and place value is sound. For most children this will be at the end of Year 5 or the beginning of Year 6.

For 291 ÷ 3, because 3 × 90 = 270 and 3 × 100 = 300, we use 270 and split the dividend of 291 into 270 + 21. Each part is then divided by 3.

The short division method is recorded like this:

This is then shortened to:

27

Method

Example The carry digit '2' represents the 2 tens that have been exchanged for 20 ones. In the first recording above it is written in front of the 1 to show that a total of 21 ones are to be divided by 3. The 97 written above the line represents the answer: 90 + 7,or 9 tens and 7 ones.

STAGE 5: LONG DIVISION The next step is to tackle HTU Ăˇ TU, which for most children will be in Year 6. The layout on the right, which links to chunking, is in essence the 'long division' method. Recording the build-up to the quotient on the left of the calculation keeps the links with 'chunking' and reduces the errors that tend to occur with the positioning of the first digit of the quotient.

How many packs of 24 can we make from 560 biscuits? Start by multiplying 24 by multiples of 10 to get an estimate. As 24 Ă— 20 = 480 and 24 Ă— 30 = 720, we know the answer lies between 20 and 30 packs. We start by subtracting 480 from 560.

Conventionally the 20, or 2 tens, and the 3 ones forming the answer are recorded above the line, as in the second recording. In effect, the recording above is the long division method, though conventionally the digits of the answer are recorded above the line as shown below.

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FUN MATHS ACTIVITIES TO DO AT HOME HOW MUCH? While shopping, point out an item costing less than €1. Ask your child to work out in their head the cost of 3 items. Ask them to guess first. See how close they come. If you see any items labelled, for example ‘2 for €3.50’, ask them to work out the cost of 1 item for you, and to explain how they got to the answer.

TIMES TABLES Say together the six times table forwards, then backwards. Ask your child questions, such as: Nine sixes? How many sixes in 42? Six times four? Forty-eight divided by six? Three multiplied by six? Six times what equals sixty? Repeat with the seven, eight and nine times tables.

DECIMAL NUMBER PLATES Each choose a car number plate. Choose two of the digits, e.g. 4 and 6. Make the smallest and largest numbers you can, each with 1 decimal place, e.g. 4.6 and 6.4. Now find the difference between the two decimal numbers, e.g. 6.4 – 4.6 = 1.8. Whoever makes the biggest difference scores 10 points. The person with the most points wins. Play the game again, but this time score 10 points for the smallest difference, or 10 points for the biggest total.

FINDING AREAS AND PERIMETERS Perimeter = distance around the edge of a shape Area of a rectangle = length x breadth (width) Collect 5 or 6 used envelopes of different sizes. Ask your child to estimate the perimeter of each one to the nearest centimetre. Write the estimate on the back. Now measure. Write the estimate next to the measurement. How close did your child get? Now estimate then work out the area of each envelope. Were perimeters or areas easier to estimate? Why? You could do something similar using and old newspaper e.g. Work out which page has the biggest area used for photographs. Choose a page and work out the total area of news stories or adverts on that page

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CAR NUMBERS Try reading a car number as a measurement in centimetres, then converting it to metres, e.g. 456cm, which is 4.56m, or 4m and 56cm. Try this with car numbers that have zeros in them, e.g. 307 cm, which is 3.07m or 3m and 7cm; 370 cm, which is 3.7m, or 3m and 70cm. These are harder!

TABLES Make a times-table grid like this. Shade in all the tables facts that your child knows, probably 1s, 2s, 3s, 4s, 5s and 10s. Some facts appear twice, e.g. 7 x 3 and 3 x 7, so cross out one of each. Are you surprised how few facts are left? There might only be 10 facts to learn. So take one fact a day and make up a silly rhyme together to help your child learn it, e.g. nine sevens are sixty-three, letâ€™s have lots of chips for tea!

TELEPHONE CHALLENGES Challenge your child to find numbers in the telephone directory where the digits add up to 42. Find as many as possible in 10 minutes. On another day, see if they can beat their previous total.

TARGET 1000 Roll a dice 6 times. Use the six digits to make two three-digit numbers. Add the two numbers together. How close to 1000 can you get?

CAR NUMBERS 2 Choose a car number. You may add or subtract 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 or 90. Try to get close as possible to 555. Who can get closest during a week?

30

DICEY DIVISION For this game you need a 1-100 board (a snakes and ladders board will do), a dice and 20 coins or counters. Take turns. Choose a two-digit number. Roll a dice. If you roll 1, roll again. If your two-digit number divides exactly by the dice number, put a coin on your chosen twodigit number. Otherwise miss that turn. The first to get 10 counters on the board wins.

LINE IT UP You need a ruler marked in centimetres and millimetres. Use the ruler to draw 10 different straight lines on a piece of paper. Ask your child to estimate the length of each line and write the estimate on the line. Now give them the ruler and ask them to measure each line to the nearest millimetre. Ask them to write the measurement next to the estimate, and work out the difference. A difference of 5 millimetres or less scores 10 points. A difference of 1 centimetre or less scores 5 points. How close to 100 points can she/he get?

GUESS MY NUMBER Choose a number between 0 and 1 with one decimal place, e.g. 0.6. Challenge your child to ask you questions to guess your number. You may only answer ‘Yes’ or ‘No’. For example, she/he could ask questions like ‘Is it less than a half?’ See if she/he can guess your number in fewer than 5 questions. Now let your child choose a mystery number for you to guess. Extend the game by choosing a number with one decimal pace between 1 and 10, e.g. 3.6. You may need more questions!

TIMES TABLES Ask your child a different times-table fact every day, e.g. What is 6 times 8? Can you use this to work out 12 x 8? and: What is 48 divided by 6?

31

This is the Maths vocabulary that your child will be exposed to this year. We don’t expect you to teach it to them, but would like you to be aware of the words that will be used in case your child would like help or reassurance in their understanding. If English is not their first language, it will enable you to be aware of the vocabulary they are learning. * Words new to Year 5 are in red.

NUMBERS AND THE NUMBERING SYSTEM

PLACE VALUE AND ORDERING units, ones tens, hundreds, thousands ten thousand, hundred thousand, million digit, one-, two- or three-, or four-digit number numeral ‘teens’ number place, place value stands for, represents exchange the same number as, as many as equal to

Of two objects/amounts: >, <, ≥, ≤,

greater, more, larger, bigger less, fewer, smaller greater than or equal to less than or equal to

Of three objects/amounts: greatest, most, biggest, largest least, fewest, smallest one... ten... one hundred... one thousand more/less compare, order, size ascending/descending order first... tenth... twentieth last, last but one before, after next between, half way between guess how many, estimate nearly, roughly, close to, about the same as approximate, approximately ≈, is approximately equal to just over, just under exact, exactly

32

too many, too few, enough, not enough round (up or down), nearest round to the nearest ten/hundred round to the nearest thousand integer positive, negative above/below zero, minus

PROPERTIES OF NUMBERS AND NUMBER SEQUENCES number, count, how many? odd, even every other how many times? multiple of digit next, consecutive sequence continue predict pattern, pair, rule relationship sort, classify, property formula divisible (by), divisibility, factor square number one squared, two squared... (12, 22...)

FRACTIONS, DECIMALS, PERCENTAGES, RATIO AND PROPORTION part, equal parts fraction, proper/improper fraction mixed number numerator, denominator equivalent, reduced to, cancel one whole half, quarter, eighth third, sixth, ninth, twelfth fifth, tenth, twentieth, hundredth proportion, ratio

in every, for every to every, as many as decimal, decimal fraction decimal point, decimal place percentage, per cent, %

display, key, enter, clear constant solving problems

CALCULATIONS

pattern, puzzle calculate, calculation mental calculation method, strategy jotting answer right, correct, wrong what could we try next’? how did you work it out? number sentence sign, operation, symbol, equation

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION add, addition, more, plus, increase sum, total, altogether score double, near double how many more to make...'? subtract, subtraction, take (away), minus, decrease leave, how many are left/left over’? difference between half, halve how many more/fewer is... than...? how much more/less is...? equals, sign, is the same as tens boundary, hundreds boundary units boundary, tenths boundary inverse

MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION lots of, groups of times, multiply, multiplication, multiplied by multiple of, product once, twice, three times... ten times... times as (big, long, wide... and so on) repeated addition array row, column double, halve share, share equally one each, two each, three each... group in pairs, threes... tens equal groups of divide, division, divided by, divided into remainder factor, quotient, divisible by inverse

USING A CALCULATOR calculator

MAKING DECISIONS AND REASONING

MONEY money coin, note penny, pence, pound (£), cent, euro (€) price, cost buy, bought, sell, sold spend, spent pay change dear, costs more, more/most expensive cheap, costs less, cheaper, less/least expensive how much...? how many...? total, amount, value, worth discount currency

HANDLING DATA count, tally, sort, vote survey, questionnaire data, database graph, block graph, line graph pictogram, represent group, set list, chart, bar chart, bar line chart tally chart table, frequency table Carroll diagram, Venn diagram label, title, axis, axes

33

diagram most popular, most common least popular, least common mode, range maximum/minimum value classify, outcome

PROBABILITY fair, unfair likely, unlikely, likelihood certain, uncertain probable, possible, impossible chance, good chance poor chance, no chance risk, doubt

MASS mass: big, bigger, small, smaller, balances weight: heavy/light, heavier/lighter, heaviest/lightest weigh, weighs kilogram (kg), half-kilogram, gram (g) balance, scales

CAPACITY

MEASURES, SHAPE AND SPACE

capacity full, half full empty holds, contains litre (l), half-litre, millilitre (ml) pint, gallon container, measuring cylinder

MEASURES (GENERAL)

AREA

measure, measurement size compare unit, standard unit metric unit, imperial unit measuring scale, division guess, estimate enough, not enough too much, too little too many, too few nearly, roughly, about, close to about the same as, approximately just over, just under

area, covers, surface square centimetre (cm2), square metre (m2) square millimetre (mm2)

LENGTH length, width, height, depth, breadth long, short, tall, high, low wide, narrow, deep, shallow, thick, thin longer, shorter, taller, higher... and so on longest, shortest, tallest, highest... and so on far, further, furthest, near, close distance apart/between, distance to... from... edge, perimeter kilometre (km ), metre (m) centimetre (cm), millimetre (mm) mile ruler, metre stick, tape measure

34

TIME time

days of the week: Monday, Tuesday... months of the year: January, February... seasons: spring, summer, autumn, winter day, week, fortnight, month year, leap year, century, millennium weekend, birthday, holiday calendar, date, date of birth morning, afternoon, evening, night am, pm, noon, midnight today, yesterday, tomorrow before, after, next, last now, soon, early, late, earliest, latest quick, quicker, quickest, quickly fast, faster, fastest, slow, slower, slowest, slowly old, older, oldest, new, newer, newest takes longer, takes less time how long ago? how long will it be to...? how long will it take to...? timetable, arrive, depart hour, minute, second o'clock, half past, quarter to, quarter past

clock, watch, hands digital/analogue clock/watch, timer 24-hour clock, 12-hour clock how often? always, never, often, sometimes, usually

SHAPE AND SPACE shape, pattern flat, line curved, straight round hollow, solid corner point, pointed face, side, edge, end sort make, build, construct, draw, sketch centre, radius, diameter net surface angle, right-angled congruent base, square-based vertex, vertices layer, diagram regular, irregular concave, convex open, closed

3D SHAPES 3D, three-dimensional cube, cuboid pyramid sphere, hemi-sphere, spherical cone cylinder, cylindrical prism tetrahedron, polyhedron, octahedron

2D SHAPES 2D, two-dimensional circle, circular, semi-circle triangle, triangular equilateral triangle, isosceles triangle, scalene triangle square

rectangle, rectangular, oblong pentagon, pentagonal hexagon, hexagonal heptagon octagon, octagonal polygon quadrilateral

PATTERNS AND SYMMETRY size bigger, larger, smaller symmetrical line of symmetry, axis of symmetry line symmetry, reďŹ‚ective symmetry fold match mirror line, reflection, reflect pattern, repeating pattern, translation

POSITION DIRECTION AND MOVEMENT position over, under, underneath above, below, top, bottom, side on, in, outside, inside, around in front, behind, front, back before, after, beside, next to opposite, apart between, middle, edge, centre corner direction journey, route, map, plan left, right up, down, higher, lower forwards, backwards, sideways, across close, far, near along, through, to, from, towards, away from ascend, descend grid, row, column origin, coordinates clockwise, anti-clockwise compass point, north, south, east, west (N, S, E, W) north-east, north-west, south-east, south-west (NE, NW, SE, SW) horizontal, vertical, diagonal parallel, perpendicular x-axis, y-axis

35

quadrant movement slide, roll whole turn, half turn, quarter turn rotate, rotation angle, ...is a greater/smaller angle than right angle, acute, obtuse degree straight line stretch, bend ruler, set square angle measurer, compasses, protractor

INSTRUCTIONS listen, join in, say, recite think, imagine, remember start from, start with, start at look at, point to, show me put, place arrange, rearrange change, change over split, separate carry on, continue, repeat what comes next? predict describe the pattern, describe the rule find, find all, find different investigate choose, decide collect use, make, build, construct, bisect tell me, describe, name, pick out, identify discuss, talk about explain explain your method/answer/reasoning give an example of... show how you... show your working justify

36

make a statement read, write, record write in figures present, represent interpret trace, copy complete, finish, end fill in, shade, colour label, plot tick, cross draw, sketch draw a line between, join (up), ring, arrow cost, count, tally calculate, work out, solve, convert investigate, question answer check

GENERAL same, different missing number/s number facts, number pairs, number bonds greatest value, least value number line, number track number square, hundred square number cards, number grid abacus counters, cubes, blocks, rods die, dice, spinner dominoes pegs, peg board, pin board geo-strips same way, different way best way, another way in order, in a different order not all, every, each

INTERNATIONAL PRIMARY CURRICULUM TOPICS (IPC TOPICS) TERM 1 IPC Topic

Corresponding Science Topic

Myths, Legends and Beliefs

Lifecycles

Myths, Legends and Beliefs

Earth, Sun and Moon

TERM 2 IPC Topic

Corresponding Science Topic

Going Global

Keeping Healthy

Going Global

Changing Sounds

TERM 3 IPC Topic

Corresponding Science Topic

Weather and Climate

Changing State

Weather and Climate

Gases around Us

37

Keep safe by being careful not to give out personal information either to people you are chatting with online or by posting it online where other people can see it.

Meeting someone you have only been in touch with online can be dangerous. Only do so with your parents’ or carers’ permission and even then only when they can be present.

Accepting emails, IM messages, or opening files, pictures or texts from people you don’t know or trust can lead to problems – they may contain viruses or nasty messages!

Someone online might lie about who they are, and information on the internet may not be reliable. Check information or advice with other websites, books, or someone who knows.

Tell your parent, carer or a trusted adult if someone or something makes you feel uncomfortable or worried, or if you or someone you know is being bullied online.

S

M

A

R

T

• Make sure your children know the SMART rules. Childnet’s SMART rules have been written especially for young people to remind them how to be careful online.

• Make use of available filtering and monitoring software. These can help to block inappropriate material but remember they are not 100% effective and are no substitute for adult involvement and supervision. For more advice see: www.getnetwise.org

• Encourage children to talk to someone they trust if they feel worried or upset by something that happens online.

• Bookmark your family’s favourite websites. Add www.ceop.police.uk to your favourites if you ever need to report online abuse to the police.

• Create a family email address for registering online.

• Agree rules as a family about not disclosing personal information – such as your full name, email address, phone number, home address, photos or school name – time spent online, and contacting people via the internet.

• Get involved in your children’s internet use. Discussing the opportunities and risks with children involves helping them to see for themselves how they might get into and out of difficulty.

WHAT YOU CAN DO RIGHT NOW

The Internet Watch Foundation website is the UK’s hotline for reporting illegal online content. It deals specifically with child abuse images hosted worldwide and criminally obscene and incitement to racial hatred content hosted in the UK. www.iwf.org.uk

Childnet International © 2002-2011 Registered charity no. 1080173 www.childnet.com

This guide has been written and produced by children’s charity Childnet International.

Childnet forms part of the UK Safer Internet Centre in partnership with the SWGfL and the IWF. www.saferinternet.org.uk

The Child Exploitation and Online Protection (CEOP) Centre’s website houses a range of information on how to stay safe online. It includes a link that enables parents and young people to make reports of actual or attempted abuse online which the police will investigate. www.ceop.police.uk

Childnet’s Sorted website is a resource produced entirely by young people for young people and adults on the issues of internet security. It gives important information and advice on how to protect computers from the dangers of viruses, phishing scams, spyware and Trojans. www.childnet.com/sorted

Childnet’s Digizen website provides information about using social network sites and social media sites creatively and safely, it shares advice and guidance on preventing and responding to cyberbullying. www.digizen.org

Childnet’s award winning suite of Know IT All resources have been designed to help educate parents, teachers and young people about safe and positive use of the internet. You can access the suite of resources for free at www.childnet.com/kia

Childnet runs a special parents’ seminar which can be held in your school and there is further advice for parents on Childnet’s KidSMART website at www.kidsmart.org.uk/parents

The Childnet International website gives internet safety advice, resources and links for young people, parents, teachers, and other organisations. Childnet’s Chatdanger website, accessible from here, gives information and advice about how to keep safe while chatting online. www.childnet.com

FURTHER ADVICE AND RESOURCES

... AN INTERNET SAFETY GUIDE FOR PARENTS AND CARERS

www.childnet.com/kia

KEEPING UP WITH CHILDREN ON THE INTERNET

THE INTERNET – ALWAYS CHANGING

Encourage your children to keep their personal information private, learn how to block pop-ups and spam emails, and use a family email address when filling in online forms.

Young people’s privacy can be invaded by aggressive advertising and marketing schemes.

COMMERCIALISM

There can be legal consequences for copying copyrighted content. Young people need to be aware that plagiarising content and downloading copyrighted material without the author’s permission is illegal.

Inappropriate material is available to children online. Consider using filtering software and agree ground rules about what services you are happy for your children to use. Give them strategies for dealing with any content they are not comfortable with – such as turning off the computer screen and telling an adult they trust.

CONTENT

Children may be at risk because of their own and others’ online behaviour, such as the personal information they make public. They may also become either perpetrators or targets of cyberbullying (the use of information and communication technologies to deliberately upset someone else).

CONDUCT

Potential contact from someone online who may wish to bully or abuse them. It is important for children to remember that online contacts may not be who they say they are. Children must keep personal details private and agree not to meet unsupervised with anyone they have only contacted via the internet. It’s important that you discuss with your child who they can report inappropriate conversations, messages and behaviours to and how.

CONTACT

The risks for children when using the internet and mobile phones include inappropriate:

WHAT ARE THE RISKS?

This Childnet Know IT All guide will help you to understand online safety issues and give you practical advice as you talk to your children so they can get the most out of the internet and use it positively and safely.

Many children may have better technical skills than you; however they still need advice and protection when using internet and mobile technologies.

Keeping up to date with children’s use of technology is challenging for many adults. It can be hard to supervise what young people are viewing and creating online, who they are chatting to and texting, and what they are downloading.

CYBERBULLYING

IS IT LEGAL? People who download or upload copyrighted material online without the author’s permission are breaking the law. You can legally download by going to websites where this permission to share files has been given.

WHAT IS PEER-2-PEER (P2P)? A file-sharing network enables people to exchange photos, videos, music, software and games directly between computers, by downloading P2P software.

DOWNLOADING, P2P AND FILE-SHARING

For further information on social networking safety visit: www.childnet.com/downloads/blog_safety.pdf

WHAT CAN YOU DO? Learn from and teach children how to use these applications responsibly. Check the privacy settings available and encourage children to make their profiles accessible only to people known offline. Encourage young people to keep their personal information to a minimum and to think very carefully before including a personal photograph of themselves or their friends in their profile. Photos online can easily be copied, changed and used elsewhere, and can potentially stay online forever.

WHAT ARE THE RISKS? Personal information and contact details can be contained in a profile or could be disclosed during online conversations. Such information can lead to children and their social network receiving unwanted contact from inappropriate people. Children can also post comments or images of themselves or others online, which may compromise their or their friends’ safety or be used as a means to bully others.

SOCIAL NETWORKING

Social networking services or blogs are places online where young people can create personalised web-pages in order to express themselves and share ideas and opinions with others. These services enable them to meet and socialise online by linking to other people and therefore create an environment for the whole of their social network to easily exchange information and chat.

New technologies provide an apparently anonymous method by which bullies can torment their victims at any time of the day or night. While the bullying may not be physical, the victim may receive an email, chat or text messages or be the target of unfavourable websites or social networking profiles that make them feel embarrassed, upset, depressed or afraid. This can damage their self-esteem and pose a threat to their psychological well-being. For more advice on preventing and responding to cyberbullying see: www.digizen.org

For more advice on online gaming and how to stay safe visit www.childnet.com/downloads/Online-gaming.pdf

GAMES CONSOLES AND HANDHELD GAMING DEVICES Home entertainment consoles such as the Playstation, Wii and Xbox are capable of connecting to the internet as are handheld games consoles like the DSi and Playstation Portable.

For more advice visit: www.chatdanger.com/mobiles

It is very important to encourage your children not to give out their mobile numbers to strangers either online or in real life and help them to use their mobile safely and responsibly.

MOBILE PHONES Whilst mobile devices offer opportunities in terms of communication, interaction and entertainment, children can be at risk of accessing and distributing inappropriate content and images and talking to strangers away from parental supervision. Children can receive abusive text messages, be vulnerable to commercial mobile phone pressures and run up large phone bills.

The internet can be accessed through mobile phones, handheld gaming devices and gaming consoles as well as other devices like the iPod Touch and iPad. Internet safety issues apply to these interactive technologies.

ACCESSING THE INTERNET ON OTHER DEVICES

For further information visit: www.childnet.com/downloading

WHAT ARE THE PRIVACY AND SECURITY RISKS? Your computer is at risk from spyware, viruses and other invasive programmes if you are sharing files on non-regulated sites. Protect your computer and personal files by visiting reputable sites and by installing a firewall and anti-virus software.

WHAT ABOUT INAPPROPRIATE CONTENT AND CONTACT? File sharing networks are the least regulated part of the internet. They can contain pornography and inappropriate content, often in files with misleading names. Direct children to legal downloading sites to reduce this risk.

St Georgeâ€™s International School, Luxembourg

11, rue des Peupliers L-2328 Luxembourg tel: +352 42 32 24 fax: +352 42 32 34 www.st-georges.lu

A.S.B.L

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