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DRAWINGS

ISABELLA STEWART GARDNER MUSEUM


DRAWINGS ISABELLA STEWART GARDNER MUSEUM


A Papal Procession

Attributed to Raphael


DRAWINGS

ISABELLA STEWART GARDNER MUSEUM

EDITED BY ROLLIN V ANN . HADLE Y

PUBLISHED

BY THE

TRUSTEES, BOSTON ,

1968


COPYRIGHT

1968

ISABELLA STEWART GARDNER MUSEUM

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGUE CARD NUMBER

68-9482


Preface

This book contains all the drawings in the museum that do not, in the editor's judgment, depend on color for their primary effect. A large number of watercolors and pastels, sometimes classified in other collections as drawings, may be found in The Catalogue of Exhibited Paintings and Drawings by Philip Hendy, published by the Trustees in 1931. Fourteen of the illustrated drawings and six of those in the back of this book were published in that catalogue. Two more were in the General Catalogue of the collection by Gilbert W . Longstreet, Boston, 1935, but drawings kept in cases were omitted from both books. These are published here, some for the first time. All of the Italian drawings came from the Robinson Sale, which is described under Abbreviations . Many of the others came as gifts or were recommended to Mrs. Gardner by friends. She was not a collector of drawings . This small group was intended as an adjunct to the important collection of paintings, which it parallels in a lesser way, following her main interests. These were the Italian Renaissance and the artists of her own age, with some regard for the great Baroque painters. Altogether, there are less than one hundred drawings and they vary greatly in.quality. Some Italian drawings bearing distinguished names have proven to be inferior by a large margin, while others have stood up well, at times with a change in attribution. Those from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries have a personal connection with Mrs. Gardner, either through subject, artist, or donor. These, therefore, have a secondary interest to readers, but the primary reason for inclusion here was artistic merit, and by this standard Mrs. Gardner' s associates have stood the test of time. vii


Acknowledgements While leaning heavily on the opinion of others, the editor wishes to absolve those who generously assisted him from errors in the text or for statements not directly credited. Research might have continued indefinitely but to remain true to the original conception, it was deemed better to publish these now as a group than to write articles on selected drawings. In this way the museum stands to gain from those authorities who were unfamiliar with the contents of this book, and may now be moved to add to our knowledge . The greatest debt is to the Fogg Museum where faculty, curators, conservators and librarians were exceedingly helpful. Peter Wick and Agnes Mongan helped with the initial stages, and Sydney Freedberg and Everett Fahy made themselves available for specific questions; the latter gave great service in reading proofs. Mrs. Martin Cohn generously resolved certain problems of condition. Others cited in the book, particularly John Gere of the British Museum and Konrad Oberhuber of the Albertina, offered more than they are credited for. Other libraries and print rooms responded kindly to requests for assistance, in particular the Boston Museum of Fine Arts . Within the museum excellent service was available from Linda V. Hewitt, Susan West Day and Richard T. Dickinson in research, preperation of copy, and proofreading. Miss Hewitt was primarily responsible for numbers 16 and 23, Miss Day for 11, 18 and 32, and Dickinson for 19, 20, 21, 30 and 31.

Abbreviations In the inscriptions, ISG is Mrs. Gardner's stamp; the initials ] .C.R. on Italian drawings refers to Sir John Charles Robinson, whose sale, " A Collection of Drawings by Old Masters Formed by a Well-Known Amateur," was held at Christie's on May 12, 13 and 14 of 1902. A copy of that catalogue is in the museum. Robinson (1824-1913) was an important figure in the art world of Victorian England. As first superintendent of the South Kensington Museum (now The Victoria and Albert) from 1852 to 1869 he added substantially to its holdings and continued to buy for it after he had resigned. From 1882 to 1901 he was Surveyor of the Queen's Collection. He wrote extensively on art, and advised many collectors particularly as a noted connoisseur of drawings. His own collections were in diverse fields . (See Lugt 1433.) Lugt refers to Fri ts Lugt, Les Marques des collections de dessins et d' estampes . . . , Amsterdam, 1921. A supplement was published in The Hague in 1956. In the text, Hendy Catalogue refers to The Catalogue of the Exhibited Paintings and Drawings, published by the Trustees of the Museum in 1931. Sir Philip Hendy recently retired as director of the National Gallery, London. Berenson, as cited, refers to letters from Bernard Berenson used by Hendy as noted in his Catalogue or to other documents in the museum archives. viii


Catalog


l. Filippino Lippi

Short Gallery, Case I


1. CHRIST AND S. JOHN THE BAPTIST FILIPPINo LIPPI Prato 1457/1458 - Florence 1504 Pen and brown ink on white paper. 3 11116 x 3 9/16 in. {9.5 x 9.0 cm.). In the bottom right-hand corner is stamped the letter R for Jonathan Riehardson, Jr. (1694-1771), English portrait painter and critic (Lugt 2170). In the bottom left-hand corner is stamped WR in monogram for William Roscoe (1753-1831), English historian and collector (Lugt 2645). At the right, in ink, is written WE in monogram for W . Esdaile (1758-1837), London banker (Lugt 2617) . On the back is stamped ISG, and in ink, longhand: 1816 WE Roscoe's coll. P63-N207 Vide Lanzi 1-62. PROVENANCE : Richardson, Roscoe, Esdaile, and Robinson collections. EXHIBITION: Guildhall, London, 1895. Filippino's drawings are often confused with Piero di Cosimo's but the nervous, complex lines of Christ's clothing and the facility with pen and ink are typical of his style after 1490. In neither this nor the engraving in reverse by Conrad Metz (1749-1827) does Christ have a halo. The attribution, which appeared in the Robinson Sale catalogue, no. 191, was accepted by Berenson and repeated in the Hendy Catalogue. Marilyn Aronberg Lavin in her article " Giovannino Battista: A Study in Renaissance Religious Symbolism" (Art Bulletin, June 1955) traces the .d evelopment of the legends about S. John and cites this drawing. In the Santa Conversazione, the Holy Family and Saints seated in a landscape (two examples of which are in the museum, Hendy Catalogue p . 51, p . 228), S. John and Christ meet as infants. The extension of this to boyhood - the source for this drawing - exists in at least nine paintings, all from Central Italy and from the period 1485 to 1495. None of these is close to this drawing. A painting by Filippino of the Meetin g of Joachim and Anna at the Golden Gate, no. 184 in the Royal Museum, Copenhagen, signed and dated 1497, repeats with minor changes the attitude of the two figures .

2. A GONDOLIER VITTORE CARPAccro Venice 1460/1465 - Venice about 1526 Sepia heightened with white gouache on faded blue paper. 10 1/8 x 5 7/8 in. (26 x 15 cm.). Drawing on the verso (see no. 3). PROVENANCE : Marlborough Library Collection. Robinson Sale, no. 68. EXHIBITION : Guildhall, London, 1895. The drawing was catalogued by Hendy (p. 85) with the traditional identification: a study for the figure in the right middle distance of Carpaccio's painting The Miracle of the True Cross: the Healing of a Madman , with a View of the Rialto (now in the GALLERIA DELL' ACCADEMIA, Venice) . It has appeared in publications on Carpaccio through3


2. Carpaccio

Short Gallery, By the window


out this century and in Jan Lauts' book (Carpaccio, London, 1962) there is a summary of the bibliography on page 265 . He dates the painting around 1494. The eight pictures of the cycle of the Legend of the True Cross on which five artists were employed were painted in the last decade of the fifteenth century for the Scuola di San Giovanni Evangelista. The subject was very recent history and the treatment, notably in the canvas by Carpaccio, is genre painting of great quality, crowded with actual portraits and details of everyday life. The Gondolier and a Youn g Man and a Boy on a sheet in the Albertina (Beschreibender Katalog der Handzeichnungen, Vienna, 1926, Vol. 1, no. 20) were carefully finished studies for this painting in a medium common to Venice at this time. These detailed studies were preceded by a broad sketch of the entire work and then followed by refinements in the finished painting. In this case the figure is embellished with the addition of large white buttons running down the front of his coat and black ribbons, like those on the sleeve, around the buttons ; the hat is replaced by a colorful head band with a large feather trailing behind, and vertical white stripes run down to the knees of his red pants. His glance, directed ahead of his boat, is less haughty than it seems in this drawing. 5


3. A STUDY OF A MAN'S HEAD VITTORE CARPACCIO Sepia heightened with white gouache, both applied with brush, upside down on the verso of the sheet with The Gondolier. 10 1/8 x 5 7/8 in. {26 x 15 cm.). Blue watercolor device at the bottom. Inscribed on the right in a later Venetian hand: de! Carpazi. The drawing is similar in technique to a drawing at Princeton University (no. 3 in the catalogue for the exhibition, 1966, Italian Drawings in the Art Museum) and to a Head of a Middle-Aged Man in the British Museum (no. 1892-4-11-1) which is generally conceded to be from the second decade of the sixteenth century when his drawing style was marked by stronger contrasts and heavier lines. His portraits in oil, for example the Venetian Lady in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, lack the subtle modelling or personal insight of Bellini, but there is a boldness of color and presentation which gives the subjects a singularity. The unflattering honesty of his brush made the portraits he inserted into his larger works believable to an even greater degree than in the individual portraits. The drawings reveal his sense of line and the skill with which he captured the surface features of the sitter, and they must be regarded more successful than the pictures from his later years.

4 . A MAN PULLING ON A LOOP

Workshop of Pietro Vanucci, called PERUGINO Castello della Pieve Fontignano 1523 Lead point on antique laid paper, rubbed and spotted. 8 1/2 x 3 114 in. (20.5 x 8.0 cm.).

1446 -

Written in ink, bottom left corner, l CR, in the right corner, 3 , and on the mount at the bottom, 17 Raffaelle; in pencil on the back, 287. PROVENANCE: Connestabile Collection, Perugia, according to the Robinson Sale catalogue in which it was number 287, a study by Raphael for the figure of one of the suitors breaking his wand across his knees in the Spozalizio in the Brera, Milan. EXHIBITION: Guildhall, London, 1895. The position of this figure, one foot raised, hands straining upward, exists in at least two other drawings. The first is a figure in a drawing in the Albertina of two men in costumes similar to this facing each other. The other figure, also in the act of lifting, rests on both feet and is shown full face . (See Beschreibender Katalog der Handzeichnungen, Vienna, 1932, Vol. III, no. 43.) The second is in a drawing in the Uffizi, No. 403, attributed to Lo Spagna in which the two figures are angels in full-length vestments and standing on clouds. Illustrations of these are in Oskar Fischel's Die Zeichnungen der Umbrer (Preuss Jb 38 1917, no. 311, 312) along with another drawing (no. 313) in the Louvre of an 6


3. Carpaccio

(Verso of the Gondolier)


4. VVorkshop of Perugino

Short Gallery, Case I


angel similar to the right hand angel in the Uffizi drawing. Fischel attributes the Albertina drawing to school of Perugino, and suggests several sources for poses of this kind, none of which is an exact parallel. The loops suggest that the angels were supposed to hold up a baldachino. Hendy catalogued the drawing in question as a copy after the more finished work in the Albertina. But the drawing in the Albertina is in very poor condition, according to Konrad Oberhuber whose judgment, based on a photograph of the Gardner drawing, is that this is the source for the Uffizi drawing and that the Albertina's was probably done later. Oberhuber observes that although the Gardner drawing is "infinitely more lively and freer" than the copy in Vienna, it is less sure in its sense of proportion and line than a work by Perugino himself.

5. MAN IN UMBRIAN COSTUME (With a Study of a Head to the Left) UMBRIAN, Late XV Century Lead point on antique laid paper. 91/4 x 4 3/16 in. (23.5 x 10.6 cm.). PROVENANCE : Connestabile Collection, Perugia, according to the Robinson Sale catalogue, in which it was no. 258, a study for a figure in the Caen Spozalizio by Perugino. EXHIBITION: Guildhall, London, 1895. The stance, the costume, the bowed lips and the way in which a second head is laid in to the left recall immediately drawings by Perugino. The well-spaced parallel strokes under the left elbow are in his manner also, but this is too slight a work to sustain that attribution. These elements which identify it as Umbrian are also to be found in the work of Pintoricchio and numerous lesser masters of the period, any one of whom might have produced this drawing. The name Timoteo Viti (1467-1523) was proposed by several scholars after the drawing entered this collection, and the figure of S. Vitale in his altarpiece, the Madonna and Child with Saints Crescenzio and Vitale, now in the Brera, Milan, wears this costume and has the same stance. But there is insufficient evidence of Viti's drawing style and too little for comparison in this sketch to accept that attribution.

9


6 . Flemish (?),XVI Century

5. Umbrian, Late XV Century

Short Gallery, Case I

Short Gallery, Case II


6. S. CHRISTOPHER CARRYING THE CHRIST CHILD FLEMISH(?), XVI Century Brown ink and wash, 5 3/4 x 8 in. (14.6 x 20.3 cm.). Inscribed in ink, upper left corner, ]. C. R.; in pencil on the back, 12 and NO 1228; stamped ISG, and in monogram TD for Thomas Dimsdale (1758-1823), a London banker (Lugt 2426); also on the back, a dotted circle and the letters gr. PROVENANCE: Dimsdale Collection; Robinson Sale, no. 183, as by Leonardo da Vinci. The variety of stylistic currents employed in this drawing has caused it to be called German, Venetian, Netherlandish and North Italian since it entered this museum. The technique suggests that it was done by an engraver, perhaps copied from one or more engravings. There is a strong Italian influence in the rendering of the foliage and in other minor effects of perspective. These traits were carried north by artists who had been to Italy and absorbed the style or brought back Italian works. The tentative attribution to a Flemish artist is based on a comparison with sixteenth century engravings from the Antwerp School, in which the same prejudices for swelling forms and billowing drapery are allied with a disproportion among the various parts of the composition. The way in which figures and buildings are set into the background and the line of the hills is also typical of this school. Some of these excesses were exploited by Jan Gossaert, called Mabuse (died before 1536) . The drawing in question, however, is by a much weaker artist, apparently influenced by Mabuse but relying on several models for the patchwork of his design. In so doing he has produced a disturbing and unconvincing interpretation of a subject popular among artists north of the Alps.

7. PIETA MICHELANGELO BuoNARROTI Caprese 1475 - Rome 1564 Black chalk on laid paper. 111/16' x 71/2 in. (29 x 19 cm.). Cut top and bottom; affixed to another sheet that patches the drawing along the edges and particularly above the Virgin's right hand. Three toes are restored at the bottom. Foreign substances of various kinds appear on the surface attesting to a neglect of the drawing. Among the most obvious are the rust-colored spots on Christ's forehead and left side and the Virgin's left leg, and pale yellow markings between the foot and lower right corner and between the inscription and upper right corner. The discoloration below Christ's knee seems to be a water stain. The chalk has been rubbed blurring the areas of white and dark. On the cross : nonuisipensa•quanto·sangu (from Dante's Paradiso, c.XXIX). In ink at the bottom]. C.R. and T. L. are stamped. The paper is watermarked with a ladder inscribed in a circle. 12


7. Michelangelo

Short Gallery, Case I


PROVENANCE: From the Casa Buonarroti and the Brunet, Lawrence, Brooks and Palgrave collections. No. 64 in the Woodburn Exhibitions Catalogue, July 1836, as from the collections of M. Brunet of Paris. No. 206 in the Robinson Sale. EXHIBITION: Guildhall, London, 1895. In pencil on the back of the original mount are several inscriptions:

M. A. Buonarroti Brunet- Lawrence - Brooks Coll118路/1872/F. T . Palgrave I take this to be the drawing in which Michel Angelo, in his later life, "published" the design, which was twice or thrice engraved & several times produced in oil (e.g. at Panshangen) about that time: & that it was hence rubbed & cut. The cross, which had a peculiar top, was one in repute for sanctity at Florence. "Non si vi pensa, quanta sangue costa" is from the Commedia, Paradiso, CXXXIX. (Should be c. XXIX) /11 Aug 1884/F. T. P. Below, in ink in Robinson's handwriting: The above is written by Francis Turner Palgrave and the drawing was sold in the remaining portion of his collection of ancient drawings included in a sale at Christie's (Lord Breadalbane's drawings &c) lune 4, 1886 and was purchased by myself. It is unquestionably an authentic drawing of Michel Angelo's later time. The watermark in the paper, a ladder within a circle, will be found in my Oxford "account of M Angelo & Raffaelle drawing, it is no 19 in the table of facsimile marks, and was copied from one of the O xford drawings (no 80) - an archi路 tectural design for a window, circa 1541-65. The present dra [paper cut here] belongs undoubtedly to the same epoch. 7. C. Robinson Also in Robinson's hand : The drawing is no 64 in the Woodburn exhibition Catalogue July 1836 size 11112 by 7 112 inches - from the collection of M Brunet of Paris . At the bottom of the mount in blue ink near the stamp ISG: This drawing was purchased by me from the Robinson collection, through Messers. Agnew, in London - Summer 1902. Isabella Stewart Gardner Fenway Court Boston U. S. A. Charles de Tolnay's attribution (Record of the Art Museum, Princeton University, Vol. XII, 1953, no. 2; and Michelangelo, Princeton University, Vol. V, 1960) of the drawing to Michelangelo is supported by Johannes Wilde who has summarized the history of critical opinion in a letter (15 January 1967): " J. C. Robinson, who once owned the drawing and also was a pioneer in the critical study of Michelangelo's draughtsmanship, recognized that it is the famous drawing made by Michelangelo for Vittoria Colonna 14


on her request; but he did not publish his find. Berenson, the first to publish the Boston Pieta (in the second edition of the Drawings of Florentine Painters, 1938) saw in it a' copy' of a close follower, possibly Marcello Venusti? He praises its quality, but the illustration in his book (fig. 736) is so poor that it hardly could encourage anybody to call in question Berenson's basic judgement that the drawing is only a copy. The third, Italian, edition of Berenson' s work, Milano 1961, contains a better reproduction (fig . 675), but this edition is little used outside Italy.... It compares, I think conclusively, with the Christ on th e Cross in the British Museum, another present of Michelangelo for Vittoria Colonna, or with the beautiful Annunciation in the Morgan Library. I have no doubt that all three are autograph works by Michelangelo .... I should like to mention that in my opinion the inscription, too, is in his hand." The following information on this drawing appears in greater detail in the works of Tolnay cited above. Vasari in the 1568 edition of his Lives and Condivi in his biography of Michelangelo mention a composition which was done for the noble Vittoria Colonna, " a dead Christ between the knees of the Virgin" and supported by two angels (quotatation marks as they are used in Tolnay's account) . It is this drawing or the Crucifixion in the British Museum which she praised at length in an undated letter to the artist. It was her belief as revealed in this correspondence that divine inspiration entered into his works, that they were " invested with divine forces ." This drawing shows the loving care and soft sfumato quality peculiar to the drawings made for her and for his friend Cavalieri. The concept is based on two traditions, the Virgin with the Child between her knees and Christ in the grave supported by two angels. Unlike his early marble Pieta in S. Peter's, which centers the attention on the Virgin, it is here directed toward Christ. Together these two figures form a human cros s, while the angels move in slow rotation around them (reminiscent of the rotary movement in the Crucifixion of 5 . Peter in the Pauline Chapel frescoes). The way in which the angels are arranged in similar but reversed positions is more dramatically stated in the Virgin's movements toward heaven and the hanging head and arms of her son. The upraised arms follow the lines of the cross (now missing in this drawing) which was in the shape of a " Y" with the top closed by a crossbeam. Michelangelo became acquainted with Vittoria Colonna (1490-1547) around 1536-1538 when she was widowed and living in a convent. Through her poetry and through a circle of friends, she was identified with a particular intellectual religious movement. Michelangelo saw her as the ideal woman and she became a source of inspiration for him, not only in art but in letters and poems he addressed to her. The drawing is considered to be from the period when work was beginning on the Pauline Chapel frescoes, 1540 to 1544. The first engraving of this Pieta was dated 1546. There followed twelve other works in painting and print based on this design. 15


8. Attributed to Raphael

Short Gallery, Case II


8. A PAPAL PROCESSION

Attributed to Raffaello Santi, called RAPHAEL Urbino 1483 - Rome 1520 Red, yellow and black chalk on paper affixed to another sheet which patches the original paper in three places along the bottom. Rubbed overall. Squared twice. 15 5/8 x 15 7/8 in. (39.8 x 40.4 cm.). In the bottom right 路c orner on a patch, l CR in ink; stamped near it WR in monogram for William Russell (1800-1884) , Accountant general, the Court of Chancery (Lugt 2648). The back of the new piece of paper is stamped ISG ; written in pencil on the mount Raffaelle and on the back of the mount Guildhall Exhibtn 1895 and 295. The old paper has a large watermark of a circle with a crossbow and in ink on the back of the drawing itself an inscription illegible except for the letter M. PROVENANCE:

Russell Sale, Christie's, London, 10 December 1884, no.

457; Robinson Sale, no. 295. EXHIBITION: Grovesnor Gallery, London, Winter Exhibition, 1877 /8; Guildhall, London, 1895.

The various problems surrounding this drawing, its connection with the frescoes in the Vatican stanze, and the medium of multicolored chalk, unusual for its time, make this the most interesting drawing in the collection. Waagen describes it (Galleries and Cabinets of Art in Great Britain, London, 1857, p. 187) and believed it to be a study for the fresco The Expulsion of Heliodorus. The figure farthest to the right supporting the chair occupies a similar place in that fresco and has been identified as a portrait of the artist. It was at that time in William Russell's collection and attributed to Raphael. The Robinson Sale catalogue called it a study for portions of two frescoes, " adapted with many variations partly in the Heliodorus and partly in the Saracens at Ostia." By letter in 1937, Oskar Fischel decided from a photograph of it that it was the work of one of Raphael's assistants, Gianfrancesco Penni. It was then for the first time associated with a drawing in the Louvre which he attributed to Giulio Romano, Raphael's chief assistant. That drawing (Inventory no. 3847), an ink sketch showing the Pope in procession, is one half of a compositional study for a highly-finished modello in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam (Inventory no. 5096), the other half of which is in the National Museum, Stockholm (Inventory no. 329.330). (See Frederick Hartt, Giulio Romano, New Haven, 1958, Vol. II, figs. 85 and 542.) The points of similarity that relate the Gardner drawing with the other two are the figures of the mace-bearer and the crucifix-bearer, the papal Sedia Gestatoria and the gesture of the Pope. The primary difference, besides the substitution of the Swiss Guard for the ecclesiastical retinue, lies in the design, which changes from a strong Renaissance statement to the mannerism of Giulio. The fact that the figure in the Sedia Gestatoria (an exclusively papal means of conveyance) wears a mitre instead of a tiara positively identifies him as Sylvester I, Pope from 314 to 335. These drawings must 17


therefore be connected with the program for the last of the four Vatican rooms which Raphael was commissioned to decorate, the Sala di Costantino . Constantine, first Christian Roman Emperor (307-337), allowed the Bishop of Rome (the pope) the privilege of wearing a diadem of gold set with jewels, but Sylvester chose to wear a white mitre, believing it more suitable for a person dedicated to religion. In the Sala di Costantino, one wall is dee.orated with a fresco depicting the " Donation of Constantine," in which the Emperor, on his knees before the papal throne, makes the donation, a document giving the papacy temporal power over all of Italy and the West. The document was never universally accepted and was challenged as spurious in the fifteenth century. The papacy continued to defend it and at the time of the decorations of the Stanze, the Pope was extremely anxious to use the weight of the document to assert his authority over the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. The drawings in Stockholm and Amsterdam show Constantine' s followers arriving on the right, the Emperor at the head falling on his knees before the advancing papal procession. This design was not used. Research on the drawing in question by Rosamond Pratt Mack of Harvard University led to the conclusion that on the available evidence of style and the creative process in the Raphael shop this could tentatively be attributed to Raphael. Until further drawings by the master in the last years of his life or documents revealing the method of the decorations in the last room are produced, the attribution as stated is accepted by Sydney Freedberg, John Gere and Konrad Oberhuber. Although drawings for this room by Raphael, Giulio and Penni survive, Mrs. Mack found that none were suitable comparisons, but the style of the Gardner sheet might be equated with the drawings in the Uffizi for Raphael's Spasimo di Sicilia (about 1516) and the Madonna of the Fish (about 1513) . In the latter, she found the same wide degree of finish and variety in the precision of strokes, ranging from the more defined figures to almost formless areas in both drawings; both are hasty compositional studies in which, nevertheless, the artist's use of curved lines to create a harmonious pattern among the interlocking shapes of the human form is comparable. Neither of his assistants develops to the same degree this characteristic, nor are they able to relate individual figures to the composition with the rhythm and balance that Raphael h as done here or, in a comparable instance that Mrs . Mack cites, the drawing for the Pasce Oves at Windsor (about 1515) . Both she and John Shearman in his essay " Raphael's Unexecuted Projects for the Stanze" (Walte r Friedlaender z um 90 Geburstag, Berlin, 1965) agree that the original designs for shop projects came from Raphael, and that known drawings by his assistants for these projects do not reveal unevenness and changes. (Note, for example, in this drawing the area below the Sedia where once another figure may have existed, and the way in which the Sedia cuts through the head below it ; also the forms behind the bishops are colored to show through them, suggesting that the bishops are an afterthought, perhaps a later addition, which might

18


Courtesy of th e Rijksmuseum, Am sterdam

Madella by Giulio Romano

be said of the bright red [lower left] and yellow chalk.) No such use of colors in chalk drawings exists for this project, although Gere recently called attention to a similar technique in a drawing, A Portrait Head of a Man , now accepted as by Raphael. (See Catalogue of Paintings and Drawings in Th e Collection at Wilton Hou se, Salisbury, Wiltshire, by Sidney, Sixteenth Earl of Pembroke, London, 1968.) Further evidence that these designs were an abandoned project for the wall which was painted with The Donation of Constantine, despite lack of documentary evidence citing such a group, was argued by Mrs. Mack on the basis of Raphael's careful regard for the natural light as it falls on the frescoes, which, in this case, would have come from the left as is indicated in the drawing. Although none of the figures in this drawing was retained in the fresco, which was painted in 1524-25 after Clement VII succeeded to the papacy, several figures from the modello were used in a different context. Her dates for these drawings, tentatively put forward, begin with the supposition that the Gardner drawing might be before October 1519, when scaffolding was erected for the first fresco in the Sala di Costantino, and that Giulio's use of this drawing (accounting for the squaring) could be from the campaign of 1520-21 following Raphael's death in April 1520, or from the second campaign. The first frescoes were actually begun in September 1520. The work was suspended with the death of Leo X in 1521, resumed in early 1524 and essentially completed by August of that year. Further arguments for a dating of this drawing around 1519 were brought forward by Konrad Oberhuber who notes that the grouping and spatial arrangement of the figures are less like the popes and their retinues in the Expulsion of Heliodorus and the Repulse of Attila than in the much later Oath of Leo of about 1517. Comparing that fresco with the Mas s of Bolsena of 1512, he finds a distinct development in Raphael's treatment of rich garments and courtly pomp . The drawing, therefore, may be a natural progression in Raphael's designs for such groups. 19


9. MUSICIANS WITH A PERFORMING DOG GIROLAMO RoMANINO Brescia about 1485 - Brescia about 1566 Red chalk on white paper. 7 3/10 x 6 112 in. {18.0 x 16.5 cm.). In pencil the initials J.C.R. appear at the bottom on the left. PROVENANCE : No. 159 in the Robinson Sale, as by Giorgione. EXHIBITION : Guildhall, London, 1895. The original attribution to Romanino was proposed by Berenson and was accepted by Hendy. Miss Florence Kossoff, Chatham College, Pittsburgh, provided the following information for this publication : This is an outstanding example of Romanino' s graphic style in the 1530' s. The poetic, Giorgionesque flavor of his earlier works has been retained but there is a far greater freedom, variety and spontaneity in his handling of line. The contours now remain open, the parallel hatching strokes are looser and less closely confined to the areas which they are supposed to define, while the line gains in eccentricity, liveliness and resilience. The forms are suggested rather than stated, yet the figures retain their sense of sculptural roundness and solidity. Also typical of Romanino is the way the features are distorted (particularly those of the standing musician) ; the eyes squint and the nose, mouth, and chin are deformed, as if the artist were too impatient to do any more than suggest a humorous mask. This slight touch of the grotesque lends a strikingly individual flavor to Romanino' s work, imbuing the Giorgionesque lyricism with a wry wit, a bitter-sweet melancholy and a kind of robust rusticity. The theme of the " concert-champetre" was one of Romanino's favorite subjects, found in four other drawings and featured as well on two of the lunettes of the Grand Loggia of the Castello del Buonconsiglio in Trento, which Romanino decorated between 1531 and 1532. The four drawings are a pen and ink sketch of a satyr and three women playing lutes (Uffizi, 691E; see Mostra di Girolamo Romanino, Brescia, 1965, plate no. 206); a red chalk drawing of flute players (Uffizi, 1758F; see Mo stra, plate no . 207) ; a red chalk study of three seated musicians and a satyr (Scholz Collection, New York ; see Gazette des Beaux Arts, 1958, p . 414, figure 3) ; and a pen and wash drawing of a rather similar group in a landscape (Lehman Collection, New York ; see Drawings from N ew Yo rk Collections, I, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1965, no. 54.). These four drawings and the Gardner sheet are usually dated about 1531-32 because of their thematic relationship to the frescoes in Trento. Indeed all but one share common stylistic characteristics which relate to Romanino' s more fluent fresco technique of the 1530's. The pen and ink sketch of the women lute players, however, differs from the others in that the line is heavier and more even in tension as well as density, and the hatching is extremely regular. This use of pen shows a striking analogy to Romanino's technique in his frescoes in the Duomo, Cremona {1519-20), in which the brush is used in exactly the same way, with the hatching executed in short, arching, evenly-spaced, parallel strokes. It would seem, then, that Romanino's interest in the theme was aroused at least a decade earlier than the Trento frescoes. 20


9 . Romanino

Short Gallery, Case I


The other four drawings (including the Gardner study) form a coherent group to which two more red chalk drawings may be added, since they share common stylistic traits: these are the Scholz Halbardier (see Mo stra, plate no. 209 and Drawings from New Yark Collections, I, no. SS) and A Kneeling Figure in Prayer, (Uffizi, 166SE; see Mostra, 196S, plate no . 20S) . All six drawings may then be dated on style about 1S30-32. Reference to the Gardner drawing, besides Hendy Catalogue p. 299, and Mostra, second edition, 1965, p. 239, may be found in M . L. Ferrari, Romanino, Milan, 1961, which includes the drawing in the list of works by Romanino, p . 327, and cites it in the text opposite plate 68.

10. STUDY FOR A FIGURE IN THE RESURRECTION ALTARPIECE , CHURCH OF THE ANNUNZIATA, FLORENCE Angelo di Cosimo di Mariano, called BRONZINO Monticelli 1503 Flo re nce 157 2 Black chalk on white paper. 10 3/4 x lS 7/8 in. (27.4 x 40. 2 cm.). Retouched slightly with pencil noticeable in the line of the arm over the head. Spotted, particularly in the lower left. Stamped lower left corner with Sir Joshua Reynolds' mark (Lugt 2364); beside it in brown ink, J. C. R. ; stamped in the opposite corner ISG and again on the back of the sheet. The watermark is a crown with a five-pointed star over it. PROVENANCE : Reynolds' Collection; Robinson Sale, no. 218, as a study by Michelangelo for the " Jonah" in the Sistine Ceiling. EXHIBITION : Guildhall, London, 189S. The identification of this drawing as a study for the figure, lower left, of the Resurrection Altarpiece in the Guadagni Chapel, Church of the Annunziata, Florence, was made only recently by Sydney J. Freedberg. The same figure in a drawing of the entire panel in the Uffizi is closer to this drawing than to the man in the altarpiece who has dark hair and hollow cheeks. The features and pose are in other ways the same, with the addition of a scarf in the painting that passes under the right arm and over the left shoulder. The knot at the neck is ornamented with a serpent's head protruding. The staff in the left hand does not serve any function in the picture. The figure, one of the soldiers guarding the tomb, is gazing up at Christ who rises toward heaven while various contorted figures, holy, allegorical, and human, are posed around him. Michelangelo' s obvious influence, which led to the earlier attribution, came to Bronzino through his master Pontormo, and it is with him that a confusion has frequently arisen in attributions of drawings. Bronzino' s Roman sojourn, 1546-1547, may have increased the influence of Michelangelo in his preparation for this altarpiece, begun on his return to Florence and completed in 1552. 22


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10. Bronzino

Short Gallery, Case Ill


11. Veronese

Veronese Room


11. THE MARRIAGE OF S . CA THERINE Paolo Cagliari, called VERONESE Verona 1528 - Venice 1588 Brown ink and white gouache on cream paper with prepared grey-green ground; cracked and rubbed; affixed to heavy paper with decorated border, 17 3/4 x 11 3/4 in. (45 x 30 cm.). A triangular patch at the lower left extends to the left hip of the lower left angel; restoration includes the legs and feet of the angel, part of the steps, and areas along the left edge. On the drawing at the lower right, ISG stamped, and ]CR in brown ink, and PL stamped. In pencil at the lower left on the mount, No . 2 and N o. 11 . Paolo Veron(e) se written and erased at the bottom of the mount ; and in brown ink, lower right of mount, S. Caterin V enise, Si r P. Lely in pencil and ISG stamped. Back of mount in black pencil, 49 . PROVENANCE : Collection of Peter Lely (Peter van der Faes, 1618-80}, portrait painter in the court of King Charles II of England (Lugt 2093} ; Robinson Sale, no. 49. W. E. Suida suggests that prior to the Lely Collection, this drawing was in the collection of Bishop Paolo Coccapani (1584-1650, Bishop of Reggio Emilia from 1625} as an inventory of the collection made in 1640 by Giuseppe Campori mentions such a drawing. Suida notes that chronologically it could have passed into Lely's collection. (See William E. Suida, " Paolo Veronese and his Circle : Some Unpublished Works," Art Quarterly, Vol. VIII, no. 3, 1945, p . 176.} Although few finished studies for completed paintings exist, this drawing was catalogued by Hendy as a sketch for the canvas painted by Veronese for the Church of S. Catherine at Venice, now in the Accademia, Venice. Hendy also felt that the outlines had been gone over in ink and the highlights heightened by Veronese. E. P. Richardson in " Paolo Veronese's Mystical Marriage of St. Catherine," Art Quarterly, Vol. VIII, no. 3, 1945, pp. 236- 7, confirmed Hendy' s attribution saying that it "is a wonderful though puzzling drawing connected with the world famous altarpiece of the same subject which he painted for the Church of S. Catherine in Venice about 1575, at the height of his mature style." This opinion is further substantiated by Suida (op . cit., p. 176} and by H . and E. Tietze-Conrat, The Drawings of the Ven etian Painters in th e Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries, New York 1944, no. 2045. Another drawing, perhaps related to the Gardner Museum's Veronese and formerly in Lely' s collection, was in the Koenigs Collection before going to the Boymans-Van Beuningen Museum, Rotterdam. That is a sheet of studies in pen and brown wash on the verso of a letter to Veronese dated 1568. The sketches include several arrangements for a Marriage of S. Catherine, one of which is similar in concept to the Gardner drawing. This sheet is reproduced in the catalogue Vijf Eeuwen Tekenkunst, Rotterdam 1957, no. 46, by J. B. Shaw, " Notes on Some Venetian Drawings," Apollo, Vol. LXXXVI, no. 65, July 1967, p . 47. Although similar in finish to a group of drawings discussed by Jacob Bean (Drawings from New York Collection s, I, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York 1965, no. 129) it appears that the Gardner 25


drawing cannot be placed with these invenzioni as they were never realized as paintings. For the finished version of the Marriage of Saint Catherine in Venice, Veronese introduced a number of variations. Among them, the number of putti is increased, additional music-playing angels stand behind the columns, the benefactor of S. Catherine turns his head in the opposite direction, another figure stands behind the primary group, the Christ Child is held differently, the Virgin is less stylized, and drapery around the columns and the clothing of the figures has undergone transformations. The Marriage of S. Catherine was a favorite subject for Veronese and no fewer than eight paintings of it exist. This drawing, with all of Veronese's taste for pageantry, must date just prior to the painting in the Accademia. The rich costumes, particularly that of S. Catherine, the intricate details as seen on the stone steps, the patterns created by the arrangement of the figures, and this use of highlights are characteristic of the elegant phase of Mannerism which had its roots in Northern Italy and flowered at Fontainebleau under Primaticcio.

12. S . ROCH BORNE TO HEAVEN Attributed to VERONESE Pen and brown ink and wash heightened with white on a pale green ground affixed to a white board. 10 1/2 x 12 1/2 in. {26.7 x 27.8 cm.) . On the drawing bottom right, the stamp PM for P. J. Mariette {16941774), collector and art historian (Lugt 2097), (his sale, Paris, 1 February 1775, no. 249); on the white border bottom left ] .C.R. and bottom right ISG . The Mariette mat has the title in ink : Paulus Calliari Veronen. Certens de Picturis Sodalitii. 5 . Rachi. Fuit D . Crozat, nunc P. ]. Mariette ; near it in pencil 83, 1, and 1741. On the back of the white board in ink in Robinson's handwriting: Paolo Veronese Colln• D Crozat & P. ]. Mariette Lord Palmerston colln formed 1770-1801 sold at Christie's Apl 24 1891 . ]. C. Robinson. At the bottom left, a partially legible inscription in pencil: . .. Sale June 1801(or1807 ?) ... 102 1.12 0, and at the right : very fine and nice(?) Pl .. . Also No 1 and in ink 249. At the upper right in pencil : Marriet (sic), and, top center, 50. PROVENANCE : From the Crozat, Mariette and Lord Palmerston collections ; no. 50 in the Robinson Sale. Mariette, in whose mat the drawing remains, catalogued the Crozat collection and acquired a number of drawings from it. Rafael Fernandez of the Fine Arts Institute, Chicago, connected this drawing with entry no. 684 of the Crozat Sale and no. 249 of the Mariette Sale. The first is for four drawings including " a drawing that Paolo Veronese made in competition with Tintoretto and other important Venetian painters for the ceiling of the Scuola di S. Rocco" (author's translation) . The second is "S. Roch borne to heaven by Angels : a fine treatment done in bistre, 26


12. Attributed to Veronese

Short Gallery, Case II


heightened with white." The competition for the ceiling of the Scuola di S. Rocco (ca. 1560) is mentioned by Vasari and Ridolfi who tell how Tintoretto, instead of submitting a design, painted a canvas and had it put into the ceiling before the judges met. There is no discussion of Veronese's design, although presumably he prepared one. This drawing, circled and foreshortened as it is, shows a group of angels bearing the saint - identilied by the hat and staff in his right hand- toward heaven while an angel holds the chalice of the blood of Christ. The dove of the Holy Ghost is at the top ; the figure of Charity with two children, at the bottom. It is either an early work by Veronese or by a hand very close to the master's . By 1560 Veronese was well established in Venice. As early as 1553 he had been employed by the government in the decoration of the Palazzo Ducale. Before that he had worked at the Villa Soranza, and much of the style of his early work remains in this drawing . The angel with his head behind the Saint's back is reminiscent of the figure of Fame from that Villa, and something of the influence of Giulio Romano which R. Pallucchini found in work there (Catalogue of the Mostra di Paolo Veronese, Venice, 1939) survives in the mannerist figure of Charity with two children. Her profile appears in other early works, notably the Pala Giustiniani of about 1551. In a painting of his more mature style, the Martyrdom of 5. George in the Church of S. Giorgio, Verona, the artist repeats, with variations, the same idea. In the Annunciation in the Uffizi of about 1556 and the Transfi guration of Montagnano of about 1558, the angels are clothed much as they are here. The multitude of angels' heads and the inclusion of a bit of foliage is also typical of his early style. Drawings of this period by Veronese are few and those in comparable medium or state of finish are non-existent. Battista Zelotti's drawings, as demonstrated in H . and E. Tietze-Conrat, The Drawings of the Venetian Painters in the Fifteenth and Sixteen th Centuries, New York, 1944, are different from Veronese's style despite the close association of the two artists . Veronese employed members of his family but nothing attributed to them has the same sureness of line. A drawing by Marcantonio Bassetti (1586-1630) in the Scholz Collection, New York, reproduces the top half of this drawing but it is markedly different in character, and must be regarded as a copy. It indicates that a source for the Scholz drawing was available, presumably in Venice, at the beginning of the seventeenth century, where Bassetti is known to have worked. In the catalogue of the recent exhibition at the Louvre (Le Cabinet d'un Grand Amateur!P. J. Mariette!Musee du Louvre, Paris, 1967), the author accepts the provenance proposed by Fernandez which is cited above. The drawing is among those listed under entry no . 145 on page 103.

28


13. THREE CAPTIVES From MANTEGNA'S THE TRIUMPH OF CAESAR PETER PAUL RUBENS Siegen 1577 -Antwerp 1640 Chalk, black and colored, on a sheet laid wet on a thick backing. 16 1/2 x 13 3/4 in. (42 x 35 cm.). Abraded and reworked with a weakening of the color due to washing. PROVENANCE: Purchased in Venice, 28 September 1897. Berenson was with Mrs. Gardner when he recognized this drawing and urged its purchase. His attribution to Rubens was questioned in the Hendy Catalogue where it was entered as a rough copy after Mantegna, of the seventeenth century or later. It remained without notice until Ludwig Burchard and Roger D'Hulst included it in their book, Rubens Drawings, Brussels, 1963. They accepted Berenson' s attribution and dated the drawing between 1600 and 1608, at which time Rubens was in Mantua and the nine canvases of The Triumph of Caesar (now in Hampton Court) were displayed in the Palazzo Pusterla. A drawing in the Louvre attributed to Rubens by Michael Jaffe (The Burlington Magazine, Vol. XCVIII, 1956, p . 318, pl. 34) was identified by Burchard as from the sixth scene of The Triumph (Ibid., p. 415) . Burchard and D'Hulst also call attention to the use made by the artist of the head of the middle figure in this drawing in his picture Roman Triumph in the National Gallery, London, and in the background of his Plato in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. The former is thought to have been finished after the artist again saw The Triumph in England in 1629-1630. That the drawing may be from a later period is suggested by Julius S. Held, who, from a photograph, is inclined to accept the attribution, as is J. Q . van Regteren Altena, who saw the drawing in 1967.

14. THE ANNUNCIATION Copy after REMBRANDT Harmenz van Rijn Leyden 1606 - Amsterdam 1669 Bistre and brush on paper affixed to another sheet. 6 x 8 1/4 in. (15.2 x 21 cm.). The stamp, in the lower right corner, is that of Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792) , the English artist (Lugt 2364); inscribed in pencil on the mat : Rembrandt, from Sir Joshua Reynolds' Collection. Sold at Christie's May 1873 . PROVENANCE : Reynolds Collection. After an examination of the drawing, Seymour Slive concluded that although the drawing has never entered the Rembrandt literature, its conception and technique suggest that it is a copy after a lost original made by the master around 1650-55. It is closely related to an authentic drawing by Rembrandt of the same subject now at the Kunsthalle, 29


Dutch Room 13. Rubens


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Bremen (see Otto Benesch, The Drawings of Rembrandt, London 1957, Vol. V, p. 285, no. 994, reproduced fig. 1208). The artist has made an attempt to imitate the tremulous line and vibrant hatching Rembrandt used during the early 1650s, but the hesitancy of his touch and the failure of the hatching to create either spatial or tonal accents betrays the hand of the copyist. This opinion is seconded by Egbert HaverkampBegemann who also connects it with a fragment of a painting of the same subject in the museum in Prague.

15. PORTRAIT OF A MAN JEAN AuGuSTE DOMINIQUE INGRES Montauban 1780- Paris 1867 Black pencil with white chalk on cream paper affixed to another sheet, 7 1/8 x 5 3/4 in. (18.1x14.6 cm.) . Lower left corner torn and mended on a diagonal line running through the hand. Other minor tears on the upper and right edge. Rubbing has softened some of the lines. Signed at lower right: Ingres Del. florence 1824. The frame has the label of the Brooklyn Museum with Ingres D. G. Kelekian March 26, 1921. Various numbers are marked on the back, 126 several times and 11 twice . PROVENANCE: Frarn;:ois Flameng (1856-1923), painter and engraver of Paris (his sale, Galerie Georges Petit, Paris 26 May 1919, no. 122, picture opposite p. 66, as a portrait of Berlioz); Dikran Khan Kelekian (1869-1951), the antiquarian (his sale, Plaza Hotel, New York, 30 January 1922, no. 11, as of Berlioz); purchased for Mrs. Gardner by the artist Louis Kronberg, a protege of Mrs. Gardner's, through P. W . French and Company. EXHIBITION : Brooklyn Museum, 1921. The strange position of the right forearm may be the result of restoration at the time the tear was mended and an effort was made to disguise the repair to the paper. The signature and date are confirmed by Hans Naef of Zurich who examined the drawing and by letter repeated his verbal opinion that " this is a genuine work by Ingres in rather poor condition. The summary rendering of the clothes appears in other pencil portraits, particularly in the likenesses of Ingres' friends and fellow artists. In Florence, he befriended in particular the Gonin family and this portrait may be of a member or friend of that family. " That it is not of Berlioz was confirmed by Richard MacNutt of Tunbridge Wells, England, whose work on the composer has brought no evidence that this is a likeness. Berlioz did not visit Florence until 1831, and in 1824 he was a medical student in Paris taking private lessons in composition from Lesueur, without finances or fame . It has been published in Alexandre Arsene, Collection Kelekian, tableaux de l'ecole fran~aise moderne, Paris, New York and Cairo, 1920, no. 43, reprod. ("Berlioz"), and in Morton D. Zabel, "Ingres in America," The Arts, New York, February 1930, p. 381 ("Berlioz"). 32


.. 15. Ingres

Short Gallery, Case I


16. Ruskin

Short Gallery, East Wall


16. THE CASA LOREDAN, VENICE JOHN RusKIN London 1819 - Coniston, Cumberland, England 1900 Pen, water color, pencil and gouache on gray paper. 111/2 x 17 1/4 in. (29 x 44 cm.).

In pencil on capital to the left: Same as little dotted column drawn at St. Marks , and below : . .. columns . ... together have . ... capital on both . . .. others all different . ... Marks School. The mount is inscribed : Casa Loredan. ]. Ruskin del 1850. See " Stones of Venice" ii. 390. Brought from Brantwood, 1900. C. E. Norton . PROVENANCE : Purchased in 1901 from Charles Eliot Norton, who had brought it from Brantwood, the house where Ruskin died. The Casa Loredan, a Venetian palace of Byzantine design with Gothic and Renaissance restorations, Ruskin considered the most beautiful palace on the Grand Canal. (See The Stones of Venice, Vol. 2, London, 1853, p. 390.) It had been the home of a family which produced many Venetian statesmen. This drawing is presumably one of more than six hundred made by Ruskin as preliminary studies for The Stones of Venice, the first volume of which appeared in 1851. These drawings were in addition to those made for the text. Ruskin did not use this sketch in that book, although several drawings of the Casa Loredan's capitals and other architectural details were included in plates illustrating his discussion of Byzantine palaces (Vol. 2, 1853). A finished drawing of the Casa Loredan, showing a portion of the fa~ade different from that in the Gardner drawing, was later published in Ruskin's Modern Painters (London, 1903). The habit of sketching his surroundings was established in Ruskin's youth and became an important part of the preparation of his books. In a letter of 1852 he wrote that "there is a strong instinct in me ... to draw and describe the things I love ... I should like to draw all St. Mark's ... stone by stone - to eat it all up in my mind touch by touch." (John Rosenberg, The Darkening Glass, New York, 1961, p. 79.)

Arthur Pope has suggested that Ruskin regarded his drawings as theoretical studies rather than as pictorial compositions. They were attempts to discover the structure of objects he studied (Introduction, Catalogue of Ruskin Exhibition, Fogg Art Museum, 1909-1910, p. 2). Ruskin's preference for the "rudeness" of Gothic art arose from his belief that spontaneity and joy of craftsmanship should not be sacrificed to an insistence on "finish". His drawings often show dissatisfaction with the limitations of any given medium and he often began working in pencil, switched to pen, then added a bit of wash or color. Many of his drawings have an unfinished quality which is also true of the present drawing. 35


17. Hunt

Short Gallery, East Wall


17. WILLIAM AMORY GARDNER WILLIAM MoRRIS HuNT Brattleboro, Vermont 1824 Shoals 1879 Charcoal on buff paper, 20 1/2 x 16 1/2 in. (52 x 42 cm.).

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Signed to the right over the shoulder: WM Hin monogram. PROVENANCE: Gift of William Amory Gardner? When in 1875 Mrs. Gardner' s brother-in-law died leaving three sons orphaned, Mr. and Mrs. Gardner became their guardians and brought them up . William Amory Gardner (1863-1930), the second son, became a master and trustee of Groton School. He was among those who signed the papers of incorporation for the museum in 1900. This is the preliminary drawing for a portrait in oils, done by Hunt in 1873, which was evidently in the sitter's possession at his death (Hendy Catalogue, p. 191) . Another portrait, of his younger brother Augustus Peabody Gardner {1865-1918), was done at about the same time. Both have passed to Augustus' great-grandson, Winthrop Gardner M inot of Greenwich, Connecticut. As Hunt made Boston aware of the Barbizon painters, his own style came under the influence of the prevailing romanticism, and these portraits of a ten-year-old and an eight-year-old carry the importance of an aristocratic commission. The clothing is somber, the background dark. The light falls unsentimentally on their serious faces. A shock of hair, a white school collar and a colored tie establish the youth of the sitters, but the pose is typical of far grander subjects. In the portrait of William, an overcoat is thrown around the left shoulder of his gray suit in a cavalier gesture, the warm, brown tone giving volume to the slight figure beneath. This drawing differs little from the finished work except that part of his right forearm is visible in the painting.

18. Studies for HARMONY IN BLUE AND GOLD : THE PEACOCK ROOM JAMES ABBOTT McNEILL WHISTLER Lowell, Mass . 1834 -

London

1903

Five sheets of pen and black ink sketches on plain cream-colored block paper with the watermark : Original Turkey Hill Kent. The sketches include : a window with the shutters open showing the feather motif (not illustrated), 4 3/8 x 7 in. (11.1 x 17.8 cm.); a folded sheet with the feather motif and peacocks on one side, the layout of a wall section on the other, 7 x 9 in. (17.8 x 22.9 cm.); three studies of peacocks for the shutters, 4 1/2 x 7 in. (11 .4 x 17.8 cm.); and a study of two peacocks for the large panel opposite the fireplace, 4 1/2 x 7 in. (11.4 x 17.8 cm.). The latter two were published by E. R. and J. Pennell, The Life of James McNeill Whistler, Vol. I, Philadelphia, 1908, opposite p. 200. 37


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PROVENANCE: Unknown. The sketches were done in preparation for Whistler's modification of the dining room commissioned by Frederick R. Leyland in 1876 for his house in London. Leyland had ordered extensive alterations for the house to be completed by Norman Shaw and his assistant, Henry Jeckyll. The dining room was intended to provide a display area for Leyland's porcelain collection. A suspended shell of wood and canvas was constructed within the original walls of the room by Jeckyll who completed the decoration with old Spanish leather covered with German gilding. Over the marble fireplace was hung Whistler's painting, "Rose and Silver : The Princess from the Land of Porcelain", a portrait of Miss Christine Spartali, completed in 1864. Whistler objected to the setting for the painting proclaiming that the bright colors in Jeckyll's arrangement detracted from the colors in "The Princess". Having convinced Leyland that he could provide a more appropriate setting, Whistler began to modify Jeckyll's work. The changes, however, were more drastic than Leyland realized. Working around the dados, shelves, and low Tudor-style stalactite ceiling, Whistler painted the entire room in shades of dark turquoise or peacock blue and gilt, using the divisions of the molding as sets for feather motifs based on the "eye" of the peacock's tail feathers and on the softer breast feathers. On the three sets of gold shutters, Whistler painted peacocks in a fanciful array of plumage. The studies in the Gardner Museum include rough sketches of the feather motifs, a sketch of a wall section flanking the fireplace showing variations of the feather theme, a sheet of studies for the three shutters, a window section with the shutters open, and a sketch, similar to the finished version, of the large wall panel of two peacocks. This last he interpreted as a caricature of Leyland as an outraged peacock, covered with gold coins and clutching silver shillings, being taunted by a second peacock, a proud and defiant Whistler. For a narrative of the argument leading to the caricature, see The Whistler Peacock Room, Freer Gallery of Art, Occasional Paper S. P. 4024, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 1965, p. 9. The room was bought by Charles L. Freer in 1904 for his residence in Detroit; in 1919 it was permanently installed in the Freer Gallery of Art, Washington. "The Princess" painting, purchased separately by Freer in 1903, was hung over the fireplace as was intended by Whistler. Additional sketches, including an earlier sketch and the full size cartoon for the large peacock panel, are in the Birnie Philips Bequest, University of Glasgow, Scotland. The work on the Peacock Room was done during the period when Whistler was under the influence of Oriental art, particularly its decorative aspects. This is also evident in "The Princess", painted twelve years earlier, in which he portrays his sitter in a seemingly Oriental dress holding a Japanese fan and surrounded by " orientalia". (See John Sandburg, "'Japonisme' and Whistler", The Burlington Magazine, Vol. CVI, 1964, no. 740, pp. 500-507 and The Burlington Magazine, Vol. CVII, 1965, no. 747, p. 324, for a letter from Basil Gray

39


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The Peacock Room

Cou rtes y of T he Free r Gallery of Art, W ashington, D . C.

of the British Museum regarding Sandburg's article.) By 1870 Whistler had adopted aspects of the Oriental spatial ambiguity and, although he probably never fully comprehended it, it did become part of his artistic vocabulary. In the large panel of two peacocks, the lack of defined space reflects this influence. In addition, Denys Sutton (lam es McNeill Whistler, London, 1966, pp. 28-29) noted Whistler' s originality in his treatment of the room : because the architecture was not from Whistler' s own design, only the shutters suggest the boldness of which he was capable. Sutton (Ibid., p. 29) adds that " historically .. . his designs for this room are of some importance as they anticipate certain sides of Art Nouveau : the peacocks themselves with their elegant, curvilinear appearance are sketched in with a sweeping movement which points ahead to a fa~ade like that for Endell' s Elvira atelier of 1897 in Vienna, which is so typical of this style." Of all of Whistler's interior designs, the Peacock Room is the only one that survives. 41


19. Degas

Short Gallery, Case III


19. RACEHORSE EDGAR DEGAS Paris 1834 - Paris 1917 Black and white chalk, with bit of red chalk in eye, on warm brown paper. 113/4x16 3/8 in. (30 x 40 cm.). The bottom left corner is patched and the drawing is affixed to a sheet of cardboard. At the lower right-hand corner, under frame, is written in pencil Phl958. The red Degas cachet is stamped at the lower left. PROVENANCE : The drawing was no. 229b in the Degas atelier sale, in July, 1919 and was bought for Mrs. Gardner through Fernand Robert. The head, neck, feet and legs of the horse have been considerably reworked, to some disadvantage, particularly in the feet and front legs . The back of the horse, where Degas used the white chalk to such good effect as highlights, is excellent. Like the jockeys and the ballerina in the collection this drawing of a horse is one of many which Degas did of the same subject.

20. THREE MOUNTED JOCKEYS EDGAR DEGAS Black ink, white, flesh and rose washes, probably oil pigments, applied with a brush on medium brown paper. 12 1/8 x 91/2 in. (30.5 x 24 cm.). The technique of using oil washes is commonly referred to as a l' essence. The paper surface is heavily worked and damaged slightly in places; it is severely darkened by the aging of the oil washes. At the bottom left with the Degas cachet is inscribed very lightly in pencil Ph1944. PROVENANCE : No. 229a in the fourth Degas atelier sale of July 1919; bought through Fernand Robert for Mrs. Gardner. The quality of this drawing in all three of the jockeys is superb. The line is freer and more spontaneous than in the racehorse, and is particularly effective in capturing the jockey's movement as he reins in his mount. The white wash is used to maximum advantage both in establishing the space around the jockeys and in articulating the shining satin and the volume of their tunics and blouses.

21. A BALLERINA EDGAR DEGAS Black and ochre chalk, pink and white pastel on buff paper. 113/4x9 in. (30 x 22.75 cm.). In the lower left corner is the Degas cachet. At the upper left is written in black chalk by Degas' hand: bras gauche mauvais, en chercher un autre. 43


20 . Degas

Short Gallery, Case Ill


21. Degas

Macknight Room


PROVENANCE: No. 125, 2째 in third Degas atelier sale of April 1919. No. 66 in the catalogue of the sale which took place at the Durand-Ruel Gallery in New York, March 11-27, 1920. The drawing was bought by Louis Kronberg for Mrs . Gardner. Degas was dissatisfied with the drawing and indicated in the note to himself that the left arm was bad and that another should be looked for. The drawing is one of a great number of studies he did of the poses of ballerinas, and although he finished this one more carefully than many others, adding the ochre shading and the pink and white pastel, it is at best mediocre in comparison with many of his less finished drawings. Fo r oth er wo rk s by Degas in th e collection, see Hendy catalogue, p. 121 .

22. A COUPLE IN A CABARET from the EL JALEO

SKETCHBOOK JoHN SINGER SARGENT Florence 1856- London 1925 Pencil on inexpensive paper. 9 112 x 13 in. (24 x 33 cm.). Signed John S Sargent. Seville ; his name is part of an inscription by Mrs . Gardner along the left margin. PROVENANCE: Gift of the artist. At an early age, perhaps 12 or 13, Sargent formed the habit of carrying a sketchbook with him wherever he went. Twenty-one of his hastilymade sketches are pasted into a book in the Short Gallery in the museum, evidently a gift from the artist, who signed the first page John S Sarge nt to Mrs. Gardner, 1919. In Seville in 1879, he made studies of the Flamenco dancers and musicians in a cabaret. Sixteen of these were used in the painting El Jaleo, done in his studio in Paris and presented at the Salon of 1882. It was bought by T . Jefferson Coolidge, Mr. Gardner's cousin, in 1887 and given to the museum in 1914. Mrs. Gardner placed it alone in the Spanish Cloister which was created for it when the old music room was dismantled. Of the twenty-one studies, sixteen relate to the painting, four are studies of a dancing figure, and the last is this drawing which must be from the same moment as the others although it is on a different kind of paper. Typical of his work at this period, the line is softer and the highlights more subdued, the effect of the French environment in which he had been working and his interest in the impressionism of Manet. The shapes appear from the shadows defined by tight strokes of uneven pressure but never with a strong outline. The rough material of the costumes, the subtle gestures and the attitude of a woman leaning forward and a man resting an elbow on the table are captured here with the same freshness with which he captured the transitory scene of a Flamenco dance in El Jaleo. 46


22. Sargent Sketchbook

Short Gallery, Storage Cabinets


23. MRS . GARDNER JOHN SINGER SARGENT Pencil on faded white paper. 8 x 5 in. (20 1/2 x 12 3/4 cm.). Inscribed in ink John S. Sargent Feb. 28 (?) 1888 by Mrs. Gardner; on the back in pencil, ISG? in an unknown hand. PROVENANCE : Presumably a gift from the artist. Henry James took Mrs. Gardner to meet Sargent in 1886, and when Sargent came to Boston in 1887 he painted the portrait which hangs in the Gothic Room of the museum (Hendy Catalogue, p. 319) . He was living in New York during February of 1888 and saw Mrs. Gardner on at least two occasions when this drawing might have been done. She was with him in his box at the opera, according to Town Topics of 23 February, and he was a dinner guest at 152 Beacon Street, according to an undated letter of acceptance bearing his New York address. They had become great friends but from their many years of friendship only this one pencil sketch survives. In 1922 he again painted her portrait, this time in watercolors (Hendy Catalogue, p. 237). It was his habit to set the face in a dark background with the hair barely defined, the features lightly but perfectly conceived, the modeling almost non-existent. Even in the sketch of Heifetz (no. 24) done thirty years later the same technique was employed although the hand had become heavier. In more finished portraits (no. 26, for example) the light breaks across the face and the structure of the head is more precise. But this slight work is a sympathetic portrait and one of the few likenesses of her that dwells on her expression.

24. JASCHA HEIFETZ JOHN SINGER SARGENT Pencil on a piece of paper board. 9 1/2 x 8 3/4 in. (23.7 x 21.9 cm.). Signed To Mrs . Gardner

Souvenir of Heifetz and J. S . S. March 17

1918.

PROVENANCE : Gift of the artist (1918?). Sargent accompanied Mrs. Gardner to Heifetz' s first Boston concert at Symphony Hall on Sunday afternoon, January 6, 1918. This sketch was done afterward from memory, according to a note in the museum records, but may well have been begun at the concert or based on one done at the time. His passion for sketching was almost equalled by his love of music. Letters to Mrs. Gardner at this period, often with only the day of the week at the beginning, are filled with references to concerts and arrangements for tickets for both of them, but there is no mention of Heifetz. The ease with which he translated what he saw in simplest terms and his natural instinct for design brought him early success as a por48


23. Sargent

Short Gallery, Case II


24 . Sarge nt Portfoliio

Yellow Room, Musicians' Casi


:5. Sargent

Short Gallery, Storage Cabinets


trait painter. Over the years the technique of these informal sketches varied little, as may be seen in a comparison between this and the sketch of Mrs. GarJner. 25. STUDY FOR A RELIEF FOR THE ROTUNDA OF THE MUSEUM OF FINE AR TS, BOSTON JOHN SINGER SARGENT Charcoal on coarse white paper. 18 3/4 x 25 in. {47 x 63 1/2 cm.). Signed John S. Sargent in the lower left hand comer. PROVENANCE: Gift of the artist. This is one of ten designs belonging to the museum for the stucco reliefs and murals in the rotunda of the Museum of Fine Arts. Although none of them corresponds exactly with the finished work, they can, in most cases, be identified. Above the four painted roundels are reliefs with two boys set against a gold medallion and seemingly in the act of adjusting draperies on each side and above. Many sketches were made. In addition to this one there are others here, and in the Fogg Museum, Harvard, the Museum of Fine Arts, and the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington (see Drawings by John Singer Sargent in the Corcoran Gallery of Art, 1967). The decoration of the museum in 1916 followed the long campaign to fulfill the commission awarded in 1890 to Sargent, among others, for the Boston Public Library murals. Studies for the museum project seem academic by comparison with the vitality of his earlier drawings, and despite the care and thought which the artist put into the commission, the finished work has never been among his great accomplishments. Nevertheless, it stands as one of the last major decorative undertakings in a style begun in the Renaissance, in which one artist was responsible for architecture, sculpture and painting. The Sargent decorations were published in the following bulletins of the Museum of Fine Arts: Vol. 19, 1921; Vol. 20, 1922; Vol. 23, 1925. In David McKibbin' s book, Sargent's Boston, published in connection with the exhibition assembled at the Museum of Fine Arts in 1956 in honor of the one hundredth anniversary of the artist's birth, the author discusses the decorations {p. 51 ff.) and lists some of the preliminary drawings and other related works (p. 73) .

26. THOMAS WHITTEMORE JOHN SINGER SARGENT Charcoal on paper. 23 3/4 x 17 3/4 in. {60 x 45 cm.) . Signed in charcoal at the bottom, John S . Sargent 1922. PROVENANCE: Gift of Thomas Whittemore. The shy, almost aloof quality of Thomas Whittemore {1871-1950), revealed in Sargent's sketch of him, was combined with the wit and 52


26 . Sargent

Macknight Room


vitality of a man remarkably involved with the social and political life of his era. Born in Cambridge, he was graduated from Tufts College and taught English there. After he became an archaeologist, he lectured in the fine arts at Tufts, Columbia and New York University. His early explorations were in Egypt, and from 1911to1926 he was American representative to the Egypt Exploration Fund in London. He established a Byzantine library in Paris in 1929, and in 1932 the government of Ataturk entrusted him with uncovering and restoring the mosaics of Hagia Sophia in Istanbul. This work was published in four reports from 1933 to 1952. The uneasy climate in which he worked may have nurtured Whittemore' s increasing involvement in the politics of the Near East. In one of several letters to Mrs. Gardner, dated 15 October 1914, he mentions his attempts to persuade Harold Nicholson of the British Foreign Office that keeping " . .. native Egyptians at work normally is the real service to the Empire to be rendered by Expeditions of Excavators this year." Often motivated by friendship or simple humanitarianism, he made several trips to Berlin in 1916 to try to arrange the release of Matthew Stewart Prichard, former assistant director of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, who was a prisoner of war. Two long descriptions of the Russian Revolution written from Petrograd in March 1917 confirm the interest in Russia suggested by the cossack-style hat he wears in the drawing. But not all of Whittemore's letters to Mrs. Gardner were as serious. He delighted in making sport of venerable institutions and persons, as when he describes a visit to Oxford where he observed the Prince of Wales " . . . much hedged about with servants . . . and his tutor Hansal - too much Hansal . . . it is to be feared, the Prince will have, and too little Gretal." At other times, Whittemore seemed to take naive delight in describing embassy balls, luncheons with foreign ministers, dinner with Enver Pasha and a yachting party in which " I am the only one aboard who wears an uncrowned shirt." He contributed to the collection of the Fogg Museum where he was a research fellow in Byzantine art and Keeper of Byzantine Coins. In 1922, the year he sat for Sargent, possibly at Fenway Court, Whittemore gave Mrs . Gardner a fifteenth century Russian icon. His friendship with Matisse accounted for a painting and several drawings being given to her. (Matisse's pen and ink portrait of Whittemore is now in the Fogg Museum.) He was still active at Hagia Sophia and still concerned with the politics of the Near East, when he died in 1950, during a visit to the State Department.

54


27. STUDY OF A WOMAN ON A SOFA PAUL CESAR FRANS:OIS HELLEU Vannes 1859 - Paris 1927 Brush and brown wash on paper affixed to another sheet which patches the original paper at the sitter' s hip. 9 x 11 1/4 in. (22.9 x 28.6 cm.). Part of a drawing is on the back. Signed Helleu at the bottom. PROVENANCE : Unknown. This is one of three studies of this woman in the collection, possibly the wife of the artist; all three are the same size, and in the same medium. Sargent was a friend and admirer of Helleu's and may have selected these for Mrs . Gardner. He encouraged her to purchase the large canvas The Interior of the Cathedral, St. Denis, (Hendy Catalogue, p . 184) which was typical of Helleu' s early work when he was a disciple of Monet's . Like Sargent, who may have influenced, and surely helped him, he gained fame and fortune when he turned to portraits of fashionable people. These drawings evidence his guest for a style of grace and elegance, and the languid line of the then popular Art Nouveau. A letter, 24 April 1892, from Helleu to Mrs. Gardner speaks of sending a water color: " please show it to Sargent who liked it so much." But there is no indication that it was one of these.

28. CHARLES MARTIN LOEFFLER WITH VIOLIN ANDERS ZORN Mora, Sweden 1860 - Mora 1920 Pen and ink on white paper, folded to 8 7/8 x 10 1/2 in. (22 .5 x 26.7 cm.); some foxing. PROVENANCE : Gift of the artist, 18 February 1894. On 18 February 1894 Loeffler and the pianist Ferruccio Busoni played at 152 Beacon Street. Zorn and Theodore Dwight were house guests ; they and the musicians signed the guestbook. Zorn wrote 34th birthday under his name. Busoni wrote in the evening's program, and beside it was pasted a sketch of him at the piano which Zorn had made on the back of Mr. and Mrs. William Apthorp' s calling card. Through Mrs. Gardner, whom he had met at the Chicago Exposition the summer before, Zorn received several commissions from the Gardner family and the Boston Museum of Fine Arts planned an exhibition of his work which opened 7 March 1894. Loeffler (1861-1935), long a friend of Mrs. Gardner's, was a composer and first violinist with the Boston Symphony Orchestra. His portrait by Sargent (1903) hangs above the case that has this drawing and the technique here suggests Zorn may have had an etching in mind. 55


,

27. Helleu

Short Gallery, Case II


j

I

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I

28. Zorn

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Yellow Room, Musicians' Case


29.â&#x20AC;˘ Andersen

Blue Room, Okakura Case


29. GEORGE SANT AYANA ANDREAS M. ANDERSEN Bergen, Norway 1869 - Boston 1902 Charcoal on buff paper. 9 1/2 x 6 112 in. (23.8 x 16.3 cm.). Signed in ink To Mrs. ]. L. Gardner, from Andreas Andersen 3rd day of January 1897. His name is lightly written in beneath this inscription . PROVENANCE: Gift of the artist. Santayana (1863-1952) was one of the many young friends whom the Gardners entertained and encouraged, some with financial as well as moral support. He was a professor of Philosophy at Harvard where, as an undergraduate, he had known Berenson. In 1912 he, like Berenson, became an expatriate, although in a letter to Mrs . Gardner he calls his departure " temporary. " As early as 1892, he had sent her a sonnet signed "G. S. to I. S. G . a lenten greeting." It is in the museum along with other evidences of their friendship, his letters, books and a verse written on a program of Paderewski's concert at the Beacon Street house. Andersen' s family came to Newport, Rhode Island when he was a boy. An art course in Boston led to a fellowship for study in Paris, which accounts for the style of this drawing and its similarity to the work of Sargent and Hunt, who passed through similar experience. He travelled in Italy with his brother Hendrik, a sculptor, perhaps with assistance from Mrs. Gardner. This drawing and a portrait of the young pianist George Proctor (Hendy Catalogue, p. 4) may have been done at the Gardners' where he was a frequent guest. A seascape by him is also in the collection and his portrait of Julia Ward Howe was bought by Mrs . Gardner for the New England Women's Club. In the last year of his short life he married the sister of Howard Cushing, another young artist who was a friend of Santayana's and the Gardners' (Hendy Catalogue, p. 117) . 30. SAVAGES (two male nudes and a head) HENRI MATISSE Le Cateau, Nord 1869 - Cimiez, Nice 1954 Black ink applied with pen and brush on white paper. 12 1/2 x 9 1/2 in. (33 x 24 cm.) . At the bottom right is the signature Henri-Matisse. PROVENANCE: Gift of Thomas Whittemore. The style of the drawing is rare for Matisse and was used only before 1905. Another drawing of the same subject and in the same style belongs to the Galerie J. K. Thombauser, and is dated c. 1900. The many over-laid, coarse lines and the heavy shading are self-conscious and expressionistic. This kind of drawing does not reappear in Matisse's later work; it was abandoned in favor of a simpler style, both more spontaneous and more polished and where the subject matter is more matter of fact. In the case of these drawings of savages, the consciously rough style is complementary to the subject. 59


111'111 ,-

30. Matisse

-) Uu/,J.t..__

Short Gallery, Case II


'

'

31. Matisse

Short Gallery, Case II


31. THREE GIRLS' HEADS, TANGIER HENRI MATISSE Le Cateau, Nord 1869 - Cirniez, Nice 1954 Pen and black ink on buff paper. 12 3/8 x 9 3/4 in. (30.5 x 25 cm.) . In pencil on the left side, Henri Matisse, Tangier 1912. Gift of Thomas Whittemore. The three girls' heads, or perhaps three different versions of the same head, show the development of economy of line which resulted in one of Matisse's finest styles of drawing, here very well exemplified in the girl's head and shoulders at the bottom of the paper. The economy of line sacrifices neither volume nor placement in space; the volumes are indicated solely by outline and the placement in space by the perfect relationship of one area to another.

PROVENANCE:

32. MISS ALICK SCHEPELER AuGUSTUS EDWIN JOHN Tenby 1878- Fordingbridge 1961 Hard black pencil on white paper. 8 5/8 x 7 in. (21.8 x 17.8 cm.). Signed John in the lower right side. PROVENANCE: Purchased from the artist by Mrs. Charles (Mary) Hunter; obtained by Mrs. Gardner through John Singer Sargent in 1920. The drawing of Miss Alexandra (Alick) Schepeler is representative of the many fine drawings John made of this model in 1906-07. John mentions his fascination with her in his autobiography, Chiaroscuro: " I was at this time principally occupied in drawing and painting a subject, Alick Schepeler, to whose strange charm I had bowed. I made many drawings of Miss Schepeler who, of Slavonic origin, illustrated in herself the paradox of Polish pride united to Russian abandon. An infinite capacity for laughter was the result - laughter and sometimes tears." In the tradition of great draughtsmen, John's work is economical in line and contour but quickly evokes both personality and mood. The acquisition of the drawing by Mrs. Gardner, a result of Sargent's prodding the prospective buyer and sympathy for the plight of Mrs. Hunter whose collection Sargent had overseen, culminated with a cable accepting "the John drawing of a woman's head full face with crazy eyes". Sargent noted its quality: "It is like an old master in its delicacy and finish." (Charles M. Mount, John Singer Sargent, W. W. Norton, New York 1955, pp. 375-76.) A close parallel, done in 1906 and now in the Fitzwilliam Museum, no. PD-154, 1961, can be seen reproduced in The Burlington Magazine, Vol. XI, April 1907, in a critique of the International Society exhibition of modern artists for that year. Other drawings of Miss Schepeler are in the collection of the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge University, England (no. PD 155-1961 and no. 1024), and in the collection of Edgar Scott, Philadelphia. 62


'J

32. John

1-z/l

Short Gallery, Case I


Drawings Not Catalogued

Anonymous

EUROPA AND THE BULL; pen and brown ink, 7 5/8 x 11 3/ 4" (19 x 29.1 cm.) ; provenance unknown; Long Gallery.

Anonymous (Venetian?) HEAD OF MAN IN VENETIAN CAP; copy after a painting in the Liechtenstein collection; pencil on white paper, 10 3/ 4 x 8" (26.6 x 20 cm.); Lawrence and Warwick collections, No. 28 in Robinson sale; Short Gallery, Case 1. Anonymous (Dutch XVII ?) THE BRIDGE; pencil and sepia, 5 1/ 2 x 6 3/ 4" (14 x 17 cm.); bequest of William Paine Blake, 1922; Macknight Room. Andersen, A. M .

PORTRAIT OF FLORENCE HACKETT; pencil on gray paper with color washes, 17 15/16 x 10 1/ 2" (44.8 x 26.3 cm.) ; provenance unknown; Short Gallery, Case 2.

Bunker, D. M.

" DAY"; after the statue by Michelangelo in the Medici Chapel ; pen and wash on buff paper, 18 11/16 x 23 3/ 4" (46.7 x 59.1 cm.) ; gift of the artist; Blue Room.

Bunker, D. M.

A TORSO; pencil on buff paper, 17 5/ 8 x 23 3/4" (44 x 59.1 cm.); gift of the artist; Blue Room.

Conant, Kenneth

BARCELONA CATHEDRAL; pencil on white paper, 9 1/ 4 x 6 1/ 4" (23.1 x 15.6 cm.) ; gift of the artist; Short Gallery, Case 2.

Degas, E. M .

PROCESSION ON A ROAD NEAR FLORENCE ; pencil and sepia wash on white paper, 61/4 x 81/ 4" (15.6 x 20.6 cm.); No. 66b in Degas atelier sale, July 1919; Short Gallery, Case 3.

Degas, E. M .

PROGRAM for an artistic soiree, June 1884 (Galerie Ponsin); charcoal on white paper, 9 3/ 4 x 12 3/8" (24.1 x 30.9 cm.); No. 258a in Degas atelier sale, July 1919; Short Gallery, Case 4.

65


Degas, E. M .

PROGRAM for an artistic soiree, June 1884 (Galerie Ponsin) a less-finished version of the above; charcoal on buff paper, 9 3/ 8 x 12" (23.4 x 30 cm.); No. 258b in Degas atelier sale, July 1919; Short Gallery, Case 4.

Diirer, after

COAT OF ARMS WITH A SKULL; copy of engraving by Diirer; pen and ink on white vellum, 8 5/ 8 x 6 1/ 8" (21.5 x 15.3 cm.) ; No. 114 in Robinson sale ; Short Gallery, Case 1.

Gay

AUGUSTUS PEABODY GARDNER (1890) ; charcoal and red and white chalk on gray paper, 19 1/ 2 x 12 3/4" (48.8 x 31. 6 cm.); gift of sitter(?); Vatichino.

Helleu, P. C.

WOMAN LEANING ON HER ARM; brown wash on white paper, 9 x 11 1/ 4" (22.5 x 28.1 cm.) ; purchased from the artist, 1892; Short Gallery, Case 2.

Helleu, P. C.

WOMAN RECLINING; brown wash on white paper, 9 x 11 1/ 4" (22.S x 28.1 cm.) ; purchased from the artist, 1892; Short Gallery, Case 3.

Leonardo, style of

STUDIES OF FIGURES AND HORSES ; pen and brown ink on buff paper, 6 1/ 4 x 8 1/16" (15.6 x 20.15 cm.); Dimsdale Collection, No. 186 in Robinson sale; Short Gallery, Case 1.

Mantegna, after

Detail from THE ELEPHANTS from "The Triumph of Caesar" by Mantegna; pen, pencil and wash on white paper, 6 1/ 2 x 4 3/4" (16.3 x 11.6 cm.); No. 201 in Robinson sale; Short Gallery, Case 2.

Matisse, H.

NUDE WOMAN SEATED ON A TABLE; pencil on white paper, 12 1/ 8 x 9 1/ 4" (30.3 x 23.1 cm.) ; gift of Thomas Whittemore; Short Gallery, Case 2.

Matisse, H .

FEMALE NUDE SEATED ON THE GROUND; pencil on cream-colored paper, 12 x 8 5/ 8" (30 x 21.5 cm.) ; gift of Mrs. J. Montgomery Sears; Short Gallery, Case 2.

66


Matisse, H .

ST ANDING NUDE; pencil on white paper, 12 13116 x 81 / 4" (32 x 20.6 cm.); gift of Thomas Whittemore; Short Gallery, Case 2.

Michelangelo, after MALE TORSO from Sistine Chapel ceiling; copy of a drawing in the British Museum; red chalk on white paper, 14 1/ 2 x 7 13116" (36.3 x 19 cm.); No. 216 in Robinson sale; Short Gallery, Case 2. Mitelli, A. M . (?)

EUROPA AND THE BULL; pen and wash, 8x111/ 2" (20 x 28.8 cm.) ; copy after Titian's, in mirror image; provenance unknown; Long Gallery.

Nast, T .

MR. FULLER'S SOCIABLE NEIGHBOUR (J. A. M . Whistler) ; pen and ink on white paper, 4 1/4 x 4 1/ 2" (10.6 x 11.3 cm.); provenance unknown; Long Gallery.

Potter, ] . B.

MATTHEW STEWART PRICHARD; pen and water color on white paper, 18" x 12 1/ 2" (45 x 31.3 cm.); gift of the artist in 1905; Macknight Room.

Whistler, ]. A. M . SKETCH OF SIX FIGURES IN A LANDSCAPE; pen and black ink on white paper, 4 1/ 2 x 7" (11 .3 x 17.5 cm.) ; provenance unknown ; Long Gallery. Zorn, Anders

MRS. GARDNER; pencil on smooth white paper, 13 3/ 4 x 8 1/ 8" (34.1 x 20.3 cm.); gift of the artist; Short Gallery, Case 2.

Zorn, Anders

MRS. GARDNER; pencil on rough white paper, 13 1/ 4 x 8 3/ 4" (33.1 x 21.6 cm.) ; gift of the artist; Short Gallery, Case 2.

Zorn, Anders

HEAD OF MRS. GARDNER; pencil and sanguine on white paper, diam. 6" (15 cm.); gift of the artist in 1894; Blue Room.

Zorn, Anders

A WOMAN SEATED WITH A DOG ; red pencil on tan paper, 10 1/ 4 x 7 1/ 2" (25.6 x 18.8 cm.) ; provenance unknown; Short Gallery, Case 4.

67


DESIGN AND TYPOGRAPHY BY THOMAS TODD COMPANY PRINTING BY THE MERIDEN GRAVURE COMPANY



Drawings