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COMPACT ADAPTABILITY Architecture that is able to respond to different uses in time.

CONCEPTUAL SECTION

Barcelona 3.0: sustainability in time By Stefani Zlateva


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COMPACT ADAPTABILITY Architecture that is able to respond to different uses in time

A Reflection Paper by Stefani Zlateva

This master dissertation was developed within the project of Streetscape Territories around Ciutadella Park in Barcelona

Academic promoter Kris Scheerlinck International Master of Science in Architecture KU Leuven, Faculty of Architecture, Campus Sint-Lucas Ghent 2016-2017

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Index INTRODUCTION

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Master dissertation Streetscape Territories

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DEFINING THE CONTEXT

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Impressions First observations Existing streetscapes Broader context Historical context Collective sequences “Barcelona model” 22@ Modern occupation Markets Potential adaptation

15 16 20 22 24 27 28 29 31 32 41

RESEARCH QUESTION

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STRATEGY

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Time Interchageability Components Adaptability study Strategical points - Estació de França - Elevated platform Urban strategy Renewed streetscapes

46 48 49 50 57 58 59 60 66

CASE STUDY - Centraal Beheer Apeldoorn by Herman Hertzberger

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GUIDELINES

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FINAL DESIGN PROPOSAL

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CONCLUSIONS AND REFLECTIONS

106

REFERENCES

107

IMAGE CREDITS

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Introduction


Spain

Spain

Province of Barcelona

Comarca Barcelones

Spain

Province of Barcelona

Comarca Barcelones

Province of Barcelona

Spain

Province of Barcelona

Comarca Barcelones

Comarca Barcalones

Fig. 1.1 - 1.4: Outline maps and a physical map, specifying the geographical context


Master Dissertation In the following document, I present my master dissertation as an attempt to answer the question “What is the future of Barcelona in the period of identity crisis and mass touristification?“. The design proposal is focused on a sustainable solution that will contribute to the social and economic situation in the metropolitan city centre. The Master Dissertation is concentrated on the soon-to-be-obsolete railway lines and railway station Estació de França on the south of Ciutadella park. The intriguing cluster of historical layers, morphology and infrastructure, combined with the central location, makes the site unique for the city and equally challenging for intervening. The railway line has had its contribution to the city economy and mobility. However, nowadays it seems to create a part of the city that is utterly avoided, despite its strategic location. The challenge is how to actively integrate the area with attention to what is happening locally - respecting the historical heritage - the station, the old town Ciutat vella and taking into consideration the future plan of the city for the areas in proximity.

Fig.2: Outline of the study area

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Streetscape territories The Master dissertation is developed within the framework of Streetscape territories research project. The framework is established by prof. dr. Kris Scheerlinck, the academic promoter of the Master dissertation project. He describes it as “an international research and design project that deals with the way buildings and properties are related to streets and how their inhabitants can give meaning to them. The research project deals with models of proximity within a street, neighbourhood or a region and starts from the assumption that urban space, from the domestic scale till the scale of the city, can be understood as a discontinuous collective space, containing different levels of shared use that are defined by multiple physical, cultural or territorial boundaries. This group focuses on the qualities or potentials of the urban landscape, taking into account the socio-cultural impact of an intervention“.

My research and design approach is initially defined by five main concepts: Depth, Collective Space, Proximity, Spatial Delimitation and Openness and functional indetermination.

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Depth is a principle, related to the transition between public and private spaces. According to Habraken (1998), it is measured by the number of boundary crossings needed to move from the outer space to the innermost territory. How can Territorial Depth be defined by different accessibility patterns in order to create an inclusive environment? The concept of Collective Spaces is a new understanding that is no more based on a division between private or public space, but deals with collective use of space (Scheerlinck, 2013). Until what extent can the notion of public space be extended to encompass new spaces, which in their essence are private, to upgrade them and turn them into parts of the collective realm? What models of Proximity can be suggested, in order to create a contemporary understanding of what is public and what is private? Proximity depends on individual or collective approach to the space production and space organization and is defined by the minimum and maximum distances in people’s daily routine. Spatial delimitation is a concept that questions the increasing need of separating the individual territory from the public realm. How can the research project answer to the question of negotiation in overlapping scenarios and interpretation of space? In terms of Openness and functional indetermination, the project needs to question the dependence on functional determination when designing urban spaces. Is it possible to design while taking into account just the spatial qualities and the relations with the surrounding urban context?

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Defining the context


Fig.3: First key point in the study area - Estaciรณ de Franรงa

Fig.4: Second key point in the study area - elevated park on the east corner of Ciutadella park

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Impressions My first impression of the site was a surprise of its proximity to the historical centre and the simultaneous absence of people. The fact that the transversal section is strongly represented by a sequence of infrastructure elements, forms the area in the mental map as the periphery and southern definition of Park Ciutadella. Passeig de Circumvalacio, the rails, La Ronda make a continuous section of 150-200 meters. The two key locations in the area are the two corners of Ciutadella park and the related buildings and spaces. The one that has a visual connection to the old historical part is Railway station Estació de França, an end station that was built with the idea to bring the flow of (mostly French and international) visitors to the Textile Expo in 1888. It is at the same time a spectacular architectural object that is humbly integrated in the urban fabric. The second key point is the other corner of the park that is predominately surrounded by open spaces, including the bridge - park above the rails which has a view to the sea of rails and Estació de França. This gives spatial qualities but it seems to be avoided by the locals. It is supposed to provide a connection above the rails and La Ronda, however, it creates complicated and confusing paths and it is not used. The second strategic point marks the beginning of Poble nou, the district currently under an intense renovation process. Overall, the area is a sequence of urban voids - connected, or defined by boundaries. Estació de França and the rails will soon become obsolete for the city and a more beneficial use should be created for them. Due to the complexity of the area, a strategy needs to be invented for the further development. The first step is testing interventions in the key points. They need to benefit the social and economical situation of Barcelona and to not rely strictly on the tourist sector. With my intervention, I would like to strategically improve the flows of people and activities in the area and encourage the natural development of the area in time.

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First observations Non-places, he (Marc AugĂŠ) writes, ‘are spaces of transport and transit that are lacking any historical significance and strong symbolism. (...) These new spaces are generic, rather than woven into the historical and social fabric of the city. (Avermaete, Havik & Teerds, 2009)

Fig.5: Streetscapes in the area, demonstrating absence of pedestrians and predominance of vehicles

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La Ronda

Passeig de Isabel II

Passeig de Picasso

La Ronda

Passeig de Circumvalacio

Fig.6: Birdview of the study area, mapping the existing streetscapes

The foremost and obvious observation of the study area was the fact that it is dominated by urban infrastructure - a sea of rail lines, railway station, the busy urban highway La Ronda Litoral, the zoo and several seemingly unvisited park areas. The influence of urban infrastructure is determining the way the area is perceived by the locals. The specific function of the infrastructure leads to a specifc use and specific users. The busy roads are used for driving and avoided by pedestrians. The zoo does not provide free entrance and creates a sense of exclusiveness. The green zones are only there in order to emphasize on the functionality of the roads as a thoroughfare and a motion space. They are generic buffer zones. As a result from the site visit, I understood that the zone is working as an urban void that is not attractive for being there. Even though the close proximity to the ciy centre, no tourists or locals come here. In theory, the streets provide the link between different parts of the city and also are dynamic with the activities that they can offer. There is an existing network of open collective spaces that can be appropriated by everyone, locals or visitors. The case is that this network is disrupted by the specificity of the functional use of the spaces. Why is it so unsuccessful for pedestrians? Does the street need to have only its specific function of vehicle thoroughfare?

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thoroughfare, hidden from view

Passeig de Circumvalacio

Railroad

thoroughfare and parking

territorial boundary and underused space

La Ronda prominant thoroughfare Estaciรณ de Franรงa

Fig.7: Roles of infrastructure in the area

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“Life in city space has a significant impact on how we perceive the space. A lifeless street is like an empty theatre: something must be wrong with the production since there’s no audience.� (Jan Gehl, 2010)

Fig. 8a - b: Streetscapes with negotiable boundaries between public and private in Ciutat vella and Gracia

Fig. 9: Streetscape on Passeig de Circumvalacio, demonstrating non-negotiable spatial delimitation

In the old districts of Barcelona (Ciutat vella, Gracia, etc.) the original purpose of the streets had been to create space of social activities, trade and communication (Fig. 8 a-b). That is the essence of the collective space. Collective space extends into private and public property and its backbone is the street. When humanity introduced vehicles into the cities, the streets changed their image. They became specific to hold the automobile traffic. Nowadays, the contemporary person cannot imagine life without the mobility cars offer. In this sense, streets should provide this freedom of mobility, but the conditions they offer should be less specific and more polyvalent, so that the original sense of the street as a diverse urban element can be preserved. The study area holds many examples of space delimitation of territory and no depth of transition between public and private.

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Existing Streetscapes Public realm, no spatial delimitation, certain access, no visual boundaries, functional indetermination Public realm, no spatial delimitation, certain access, no visual boundaries, functional determination Public realm, spatial delimitation, certain access, visual boundaries, functional indetermination Public realm, spatial delimitation, uncertain access, visual boundaries, functional determination Private realm, spatial delimitation, uncertain access, no visual boundaries, functional determination Private realm, spatial delimitation, uncertain access, visual boundaries, functional determination

Estaciรณ de Franรงa

Institut Bonanova

Parking

Sports building

Public realm, no spatial delimitation, certain access, no visual boundaries, functional indetermination Public realm, no spatial delimitation, certain access, no visual boundaries, functional determination Public realm, spatial delimitation, certain access, visual boundaries, functional indetermination Public realm, spatial delimitation, uncertain access, visual boundaries, functional determination Private realm, spatial delimitation, uncertain access, no visual boundaries, functional determination Private realm, spatial delimitation, uncertain access, visual boundaries, functional determination

La Ronda Litoral

Estaciรณ de Franรงa

Archeological ruins

Passeig de Circumvalacio

Primary school

Public realm, no spatial delimitation, certain access, no visual boundaries, functional indetermination Public realm, no spatial delimitation, certain access, no visual boundaries, functional determination Public realm, spatial delimitation, certain access, visual boundaries, functional indetermination Public realm, spatial delimitation, uncertain access, visual boundaries, functional determination Private realm, spatial delimitation, uncertain access, no visual boundaries, functional determination Private realm, spatial delimitation, uncertain access, visual boundaries, functional determination

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noitanimretedni lanoitcnuf ,seiradnuob lausiv on ,ssecca niatrec ,noitatimiled laitaps on ,mlaer cilbuP noitanimreted lanoitcnuf ,seiradnuob lausiv on ,ssecca niatrec ,noitatimiled laitaps on ,mlaer cilbuP noitanimretedni lanoitcnuf ,seiradnuob lausiv ,ssecca niatrec ,noitatimiled laitaps ,mlaer cilbuP noitanimreted lanoitcnuf ,seiradnuob lausiv ,ssecca niatrecnu ,noitatimiled laitaps ,mlaer cilbuP noitanimreted lanoitcnuf ,seiradnuob lausiv on ,ssecca niatrecnu ,noitatimiled laitaps ,mlaer etavirP noitanimreted lanoitcnuf ,seiradnuob lausiv ,ssecca niatrecnu ,noitatimiled laitaps ,mlaer etavirP

Parking

Zoo

Dog park

Passeig de Circumvalacio

Passeig de Circumvalacio

Rails

Elevated platform on top of the rails

La Ronda Litoral

Carrer de Moscou

Residential building

La Ronda Litoral

Fig. 10: Important sections through the area, analyzing the relation of spaces, connected to the streetscape

In order to analyse the streetscapes in the area, I defined the relationship between the spaces and the territorial boundaries that define them. The conclusion from the mapping is that seldom is it evident the transition between public and private. The boundaries between the realms are harsh and non-negotiable. Also, the concept of collective space is predominantly lacking.

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Broader context By zooming out and looking at the context, I observed that the study area is surrounded by urban zones with different morphology and specific character. These zones have developped in time naturally, corresponding to the needs of the city and the local population. The urban fabric in close proximity forms an intriguing and complex city patchwork that hides secrets and memories from the past. How to determine the transition between those completely different urban layers with the tools of collective space and streetscapes? How does the urban fabric change and adapt in time? Is it possible to predict the future needs?

Eixample Old town (Ciutat vella)

Poble nou (22@)

Barceloneta

Olympic port

Fig. 11: Impression of the urban morphology of the area and the broader context as a “patchwork�

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Fig. 12: Impression of the area and the broader context in proximity in terms of architectural image


Historical context

1840 - Ciutadella, first formation of the zone as edge

1992 - Olympic games, increasing traffic, increasing notion of edge

1890 - railways, Estació de França has an important role for the renewal of the city

2010 - La Ronda. Increasing separation from waterfront

Fig. 13: Study of the continuous development in time of the urban layers around the area (Carta Històrica de Barcelona, MUHBA, 2016)

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Since its first formation, the area has been considered an edge of the Ciutadella. It was leading to the waterfront entrance to the city of Barcelona. Due to the specific powerful symbolism of the Ciutadella, the zone was feared and despised by the local residents. Barcelonians do not wish to be reminded of the time when they were observed by the Ciutadella. However, it is a fact that the curvaceous shape of the infrastructure nowadays is a result of the circular shape of the castle. After the demolition of Ciutadella in 1869, it was followed by an implementation of railway infrastructure. The infrastructure has re-interpreted the unique entity and the memory of the place as a surrounding has been kept until now. However, the need of Barcelona 3.0. is to re-establish the connection to the waterfront, which was not considered so important decades ago. How to change the character of a place, which has been designed as a thoroughfare, neutral transportation device and not a place to be?

Fig. 14: Interpretation of the site as an edge.

The edges of each urban stamp define an inside and an outside. However, they define also the space between urban stamps. These spaces are important, because they constitute a visual and spatial break: one has to pass the in-between in order to enter another block. As a means of navigation, the edges are much more recognizable than typological clusters, (Paans, 2014, p. 93) The edge should take advantage of its unique properties.

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Sport complex (former railway station)

Bus Tram Metro Public facilities Buildings University campus (UPF)

Park Ciutadella Library El Born culture center Basilica Santa Maria del Mar

University campus (UPF) Catalan Parliament and library

Franca station Zoo

Railway infrastructure

University hospital Research center Olympic port

Waterfront

Fig. 15: Public services and general mapping of functions and mobility in the area

FUNCTION MAP


Collective sequences Barcelonians value the public facilities of the city - open spaces and public buildings. In the study area, there are several public facilities, mainly buildings of the University Pompeu Fabra, a former railway station Nord, now converted into a polyvalent sport facility, Estació de França and a lot of cultural buildings , concentrated in the old town. There is also a network of open public spaces - Park Ciutadella, Park Barceloneta, the waterfront and the Olympic port. All of them create a continuous sequence that is strengthened by the proximity between the entities. The sense of collectivity creates a stronger and healthier society. However, the proximity in the network is disrupted by large portion of specific private open spaces that belong to the railways and to the zoo of Barcelona. Moreover, the busy roundabout La Ronda Litoral is severely obstructing the continuity towards the waterfront. This tendency creates an extensive sequence of non places which is undesirable in this central location. Ignasi Solà Morales describes these spaces as terrain vague, “… the shape of the absence in the metropolis” and claims the value of history and the traces of the time. The area disconnects the old town and Poble nou, the district that is the strategical target of renovation. In order to follow the strategy, an aspect of a better connectivity between the urban layers and a reinvented status should be reconsidered.

open spaces

public spaces

Fig. 16: Comparison between the open and public spaces. Study of spatial delimitation and accessibility.

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Barcelona model The city is famous for its urbanistic approaches and strategies. The Barcelona model includes strategies such as using major international events as stimulus to transform Barcelona into a desired destination and to place it on the world map of influential cities. Barcelona’s current situation is of a metropolitan city, that is the economical engine of Catalunya and Spain. The industry is thriving, the city holds the fourth place in terms of GDP and the tourism rates place the city as the fifth most popular destination in Europe (for 2015).

Spain

The main reason is the clever strategical thinking to renovate derelict locations and turn them into successful public event spaces. The Barcelona model includes hosting important international events, such as the 1888 International Textile Fair, 1929 World Fair, the 1992 Olympic games and the 2004 Universal Forum of Cultures and using the funding to upgrade the chosen locations. The current conditions of Ciutadella park, Montjuic, the Olympic village, the Olympic port and the Forum Spain Comarca Barcelones Comarca Barcel Province of Barcelona Province of Barcelona area are all results of this strategy.

Fig. 17: Schemes, demonstrating certain symmetry in the scale of the city and the study area

“If we look at a plan of Barcelona today, we see two green areas, two large parks near the sea, flanking the old city: these are to a great extent a result made by the entire city to bring itself up-to-date, the legacy of the two World fairs.� (De Sola-Morales, 2008)

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22@ The current important strategy of Barcelona is to revive the old industrial heart of the city Poble nou, into 22@, the new business engine, that is rooted in social, economical and urban innovation. The idea is to encourage the development of big and especially small businesses. The 22@ Barcelona project aims to have 10% of the transformed land devoted to public facilities (145,000 m2), mainly those designated facilities, which include training, investigation and promotion of new technologies. This measure favors synergies between the universities located in 22@ Barcelona, the tech and research centres and the production activity in general and improves overall efficiency by guaranteeing the availability of highly qualified workers and collaboration between research teams and companies located in 22@Barcelona. This leads to the need of a lot of office infrastructure in the area.

study area

focus zones of renovation 22@

Fig. 18: Relation of the study area to the focus zones of renovation in 22@

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Fig. 19a-e: Barcelona co-working spaces atmosphere and locations in proximity to the study area. Images: Blystone, 2017

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Modern occupation To start up a business in the times of a crisis is a brave intention. The tendency nowadays is to re-use old buildings for hosting co-working places. It is cheaper to rent your own office space, instead of the whole room. Moreover, these spaces allow free collaboration between the people, involved in this undertaking. The atmosphere is creative and insipiring. There are plenty of start-up facilities already set-up in the last decade around the study area. Should they have a bit more support for the beginning of their inspiring and innovative ideas? What kind of gesture can be appropriate to stimulate the young businesses and not let them be underground? The strategy of 22@ requires a network of public and collective spaces and working places that give the possibility to create the friendly and open working atmosphere for the development of the plan. The strategy has started 10 years ago and it is promising to complete its purpose. However, there is a physical and mental disconnection between the new business district and the old town centre - the historical and geographical heart of Barcelona. The isolation of Ciutat vella keeps the touristic flows concentrated, which seemed to be a good strategy in the beginning of the plans of the city to become a leading touristic destination. However, is the physical separation the reason why the tourists haven’t spread outside the city, or there is another reason? Nowadays, there is a paradoxical position towards the increasing tourist interest towards Barcelona. On one hand, tourists spend money and stimulate the economy. On the other hand, a substantial number of them happen to stimulate mass tourism businesses which lead to a continuous homogenezation and gentrification of the historical zones of the city. Furthermore, the local residents are gradually unhappier with the portion of the party tourists, who do not conduct respectful visits to the city. The question is how to achieve balance between encouraging the respectful visitors and keeping the residents safe from gentrification. Instead of just restricting tourists, could the focus be on the the renovation of old edifices and building of new facilities that would serve predominantly the local interest?

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Markets According to a study, conducted for the the International Public Markets Conference, Barcelona residents rank their public markets as the second most valuable public service after libraries. “We never say we are going to the market, we say we are going to the square ... The market is the symbol of centrality ... It is a public edifice that guarantees public activity ”, Jaume Barnada, deputy chief architect of the Barcelona City Council Barcelona is perhaps the best example of a modern Market City. “They have an incredibly thriving network of around 43 permanent public markets serving 73 neighborhoods,” In the mid 1980s a study was carried out by the municipality to understand the state of public markets and local trade. According to it, a municipal market modernisation plan that reimagined the network of existing markets as new economic engines and neighbourhood revitalisation hubs which supported the vibrant, small and independent commerce as a reaction against what was seen as the excess expansion of supermarkets and shopping centres taking place in the US and France (Cordero, 2014).

Fig. 20: The Old Born (Martí i Alsina, 1867)

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Fig. 21: The existing network of markets and the relation to the study area.

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The markets act as hubs for the region and function as great multifunction destinations, with many activites clustering nearby. They are strategic urban tools for improving the social cohesion in the scale of a district, and a city. They also stimulate the local economy and create a more friendly atmosphere among people that live close to each other. A market city is a place with strong networks for the distribution of healthy, locally-produced food and other goods produced in local and territorial regions near the premises of the city. Barcelona invests and will continue to invest in the markets, because they provide multiple economic, social, health and environmental benefits that are essential for creating vibrant, extraordinary places for people to live, work and play. The polyvalent nature of these structures is a key to a sustainable development of the city in the future. The important aspect is the emblematic image that markets hold in the consciousness of the citizens and visitors. They satisfy the need of a central gathering multifunctional space, combined with a necessary practical reason to go there. Even if the market changes its function in the future, its status of importance will continue to be present. That is why the architecture of a marketplace should imply this notion of significance.

Fig. 22: La Boqueria market (Wiens, 2017)

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La Boqueria Utility space for the market

Important street (La Rambla)

Children’s playground Polyvalent public space

25 m Inner courtyard of library

Polyvalent square

Fig. 23: Observation of a sequence of open spaces, related to the market with different character

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Fig. 24a-b: Santa Caterina market - interior and exterior (Gaultier, 2015)

The markets are also valuable in achieving multiple centres in a city. In a compact city as Barcelona, the decentralization is necessary for the distribution of flows of people and goods. The network should be evenly spread throughout the urban fabric, so that is accessible and reachable for all residents. The marketplaces are allegedly attractive to visitors of the city that are looking for authentic local life. Mass touristification is a current tendency that threatens the geniunie life in Barcelona and may lead to homogeneity. Tourist interest to central markets, the best example of which being La Boqueria, leads to gentrification and provision of more luxurious products, which are targeted towards the tourists. These products’ prices exceed the everyday budget and needs of the local citizens and limit their appropriation to the public space. The balance between local and global is not achieved in this case. However, tourism should not be considered as a deiberate threat to the local culture environment. It brings great opportunities for the economic development of the city and occupation of the citizens. In this line of thought, the Barcelona market model is quite successful to enhance the role played by the market in the local identity and it should be continued with the caution of not letting globalization take over the local supply. The visitors of those places are not looking for the generic products that can be found everywhere in the world, but for something local. In order to answer to this demand, local trades and production should be encouraged and not replaced.

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Santa Caterina Important road (Via Laietana)

Polyvalent square

Catedral de Barcelona

Polyvalent square

Children’s playground

Utility square

Back courtyard for the market

25 m

Fig. 25: Observation of a sequence of open spaces, related to Santa Caterina market

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El Born

Park Ciutadella

Zoo

Important vehicle artery

Polyvalent square

Francia station

Polyvalent street

Santa Maria del Mar

Square monument

25 m

Fig. 26: Observation of a sequence of open spaces and public building, related to El Borne

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Fig. 27a-b: El Borne as it was as a marketplace and as it is nowadays as a cultural center(El Born Centre de Cultura i Memòria, 2017)

Since its completion in 1976, El Born functioned as a wholesale marketplace for fruit and vegetables. After its closure, it was intended to be the new home of the provincial library of Barcelona. However, after the renovation was undertaken, ruins of 50 homes were found in the subsoil. The decision was made to transform the what used to be the old El Born market into a cultural centre. According to the authority of El Born Cultural centre, the intervention’s purpose is to “encourage and promote reflection on the local and national collective memory and the events that affect communities around the world“. (from the oficial brochure, distributed in the building) The new cultural destination may have an impact on local identity, but the target audience is rather the tourists in the city. Moreover, the local people don’t have the advantage of a market nearby and its benefits. I started considering the implementation of a new marketplace in the study area as an appropriate suggestion in order to bring back the market in the area and to achieve a gathering point, which will affect also the residents of Poble nou, Olympic village and 22@. It seems absurd that Poble nou, such a large neighbourhood not to have a marketplace. The new market could also contribute to more flows of people, goods and jobs between the old town and Poble nou. How to design polyvalent market place, durable in time, adaptable to changes and with a specific character that implies the significance of the building? How can a market increase its social value in time by answering the demands of the locals and visitors, despite the common gentrification of places with tourist interest? 39


Fig. 28a-b: Estaciรณ de Franรงa possesses spatial qualities that allow adaptation in time

Fig. 28c-d: Estaciรณ de Franรงa re-appropriated for other activities - dance reception and DJ concert (Cadenza, 2012)

Fig. 28e-f: Zoo market, organized once a month.

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Potential adaptation Estació de França is a building with a crucial historical significance. It was re-built to manage the flow of visitors, coming to the International fair in 1888 and to be a more representative entrance to the city. The whole area was urbanised then and new infrastructure was added. The station was an innovative work of architecture with the metal structure, characterisitc of Modernista movement. In the current times, the building is visited more because of its inclusion in Barcelonian historical heritage, than of its function as a station. This means it possesses certain spatial qualities that allow it to be adapted in another function in time. Nowadays, the station is having a function that makes it an obsolete element of the urban environment, along with the rail infrastructure created along with it. In a compact city such as Barcelona, the buiding blocks of the city have to be adapted to the changing needs and tendencies of the residents’ lifestyle. If they are not susceptible for change, they need to be replaced with an element that is more suitable for the time period and current and future development strategies of the city. Due to the current construction of a modern transportation hub La Sagrera, hosting high-speed trains, the function of Estació de França as it is will become even much less needed than nowadays. The desuetude of the infrastructure made me thinking that buildings should be susceptible to change, in order to achieve a more sustainable model of the city. In this case, the function of the Estació de França should be reconsidered and in this way the building will be included more actively into the urban tissue. Also, the rail infrastructure can be remodelled to satisfy the current and future needs of the city.

Fig. 29: Location of the new transportation hub La Sagrera, related to Estació de França

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Fig. 30: Conceptual section for buildings that are reinterpreted in time

CONCEPTUAL SECTION


Research question: How to provide a sustainable framework of architectural interventions for the central area of the contemporary city of Barcelona, which are able to adapt to unknown future needs and have a specific character to be considered worth keeping and reusing in time?

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Strategy


Time “We might see this photo as an example of the ‘porosity of borders’ that exists in the ruin. ‘Nature’ and ‘culture’ are not as strictly and forcefully divided as in the planned environment, which triggers the question: what is ‘nature’ and what is ‘culture’? What is ‘natural’ and what is ‘planned’? (Sanne, 2013)

Fig. 31: Tracking time. (Vergara, 2013)

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The building components of the urban environment change in time just like the cells are being replaced in a creature’s organism. As the city blocks emerge, they might stay in this formation hundreds of years, but the components transform - in function or in form, outside or inside, for better or for worse. Transformation is the sign of development and progress in time. Change is necessary, so that the urban environment can correspond to the needs of the citizens. Is it possible to predict the future needs by architecture? Is designing by function really the best way to go?

Fig. 32: Occupying and connecting (Otto, 2009)

According to Bernard Leupen, “Every building is a prediction and every prediction is wrong.”. In attempt to interpret this statement, the contemporary architects think they know what ther users want and need, but at the same time they don’t establish the connection with them. Sometimes architects design without knowing the users. However, the built environment is sculpted in order for the individual user to appropriate. How is this going to happen without a direct contact with the architect, designing his or her space?

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Interchangeability “ We are so conditioned to label every room by function, in conversations and floor plans alike, that it has become difficult to understand that people instinctively settle built space. (...) Actions and functions in the buildings were linked not to specific rooms or spaces as much as to specific attributes or configurations present: fireplace, type of window, doors giving onto street or backyard. (...) Given the increasing fluidity and variety of contemporary life, the functionalist approach may prove to be a short lived phenomenon.”, N.J. Habraken JAPANESE CONCEPT

WESTERN CONCEPT

FUNCTION SLEEPING

ZASHIKI

LIVING ROOM

TSUGI-NO-MA

GET TOGETHER

NAKANO-MA

DINING ROOM

CHA-NO-MA DAIDOKORO

BEDROOM

KITCHEN EATING COOKING

YUDONO

UTILITY ROOM BATHROOM

OTEARAI WASHING, EVACUATION

WORKING

Fig. 33: Interchangeability of functions in a house: comparison between the traditional Japanese house and the Western house (Nishihara, 1968)

There are quite a lot of theories and explanations of time-based architecture. In the investigation, the ones that intriguied me were directly connected to the non-functional approach when designing and the interchangeability of the activities between the different rooms and spaces. The living/working unit is not divided by compartments, to which are pre-assigned functions, but attention to the spaces and their qualities.

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function

atile, refitable, able, movable

specific function

specific function

adjustable

adjustable

Components function and is a specific space

hly

s

claiming public space, thresholds and articulations

The important aspects are the following: configuration between the rooms, hierarchy of the spaces, structural strength, expression, durable materials, light, views and connection to the outside, usable height and proportions. Relating to the Japanese concept of building dwellings, the spaces have names, but the activities can be spread throughout them. There is a possibility of taking part in different activities in one space. Unlike the Western model of having one function assigned to one room. The design by function makes sense in the contemporary world in terms of practicality and economical principles. However, this model of designing is strictly obliging to minimum standards, which make the building very hard to adapt if a future change is needed. The opposite, designing with the thought of the adaptable possibilities of exaggerated size is also unacceptable, due to practical reasons - heating, cooling, unnecessary expenses for materials, too high buildings, etc. How to define the guidelines to encourage the sustainable design of compact, but adaptable spaces?

eed)

hly

restricted access, defined

stuff

Stewart Brand built upon work by Frank Duffy and dissected the Stewart Brandt’s building into layers components - the six S: structure space services skin site Site (geographical setting, urban location, legally defined plot, whose boundaries and context generally outlast generations of ephemeral buildings. “Site is eternal“) Structure consists of the foundation and load-bearing elements. They are perilous and expensive to change, so people don’t. Skin is the exterior surface. It changes in order to keep up with fashion, technology, sustainability or just for maintenance. Services are the working guts of a building: communications, electricity, plumbing, sprinklers, heating, ventilation and air conditionning, escalators and elevators. If the services are too deeply embedded into the building, the outdated services cause the early demolishment

stuff space plan services skin structure site Fig. 34: The building being dissected into six “S-” (Brandt, 2005)

of buildings. Space plan is the interior layout - position of walls, ceilings, floors and doors. Stuff is all things that twitch around daily to monthly. They include everything from cupboards and beds to phones and hair brushes. 49


relation to context

Adaptability study

approach

derived from context

adaptable to change of context

building/space, designed to host many functions, but keeps the same spatial configuration

building/space, designed to respond to changes

According to Steward Brandt (1994), Duffy’s time-layered perspective is fundamental to understanding no specific function function how buildings actually behave. Organizational levels of responsibility match the pace levels. The building interacts with people at the level of Stuff; with the tenant organization the Space plan levflexible properties (or family) at adjustable el; with the landlord via the Services (and slower levels) which must be maintained; with the public via the Skin and entry; and with the whole community accessible, defined,restrictions articulated, on urban spaces through city or county decisions...and the Site.... Buildings [also] rule ussequence via their time layering at least as much as we rule them, and in a surprising way.... The insight is this: ‘The dynamics of the system will be dominated by the slow components, with the rapid components simply following along.’ Slow constrains quick; slow controls quick.... Still, influence does percolate in the other direction. The slower processes of a building gradually integrate trends of rapid change within them. The speedy components examples propose, and the slow dispose.... Ecologist Buzz Hollings points out that it is at times of major changes in a system that the quick processes can most influence the slow. The quick processes provide originality and challenge, the slow provide continuity and constraint. Buildings steady us, which we can probably use. But if we let our buildings come to a full stop, they stop us.”

able

50

type of change

no specific function

adjustable, versatile, refitable, convertible

accessible, not entirely defined

decision level

b. elements scale

fits in

building/ neutral, so functions an the spec

no

adjustab convertib

space that complemen

time (c

adjustable

change of task

user

components

dai

versatile(flexible)

change of space

user

components

dai

refitable

change of performance

user/owner

components

convertible

change of function

user/owner

building

scalable

change of size

owner

building

movable

change of location

owner

building

3


aptable to change of context

building/space, designed to respond to changes

derived from context

does not depend on context

building/space, designed to be neutral, so that it can host many functions and it’s complementary to the specificity of the function

building/space, designed to host a specific function

building/space, designed to host a specific function, but reinterpreted in a different way (or a part of the whole)

In order to determine how the urban spaces respond to the concept of adaptability in time, I used characno specific function specific function specific function teristics that would help me determine the labels. Firstly, the labels are polyvalent, adaptable, generic, specific and interpreted. They are adjectives, used to describe the possible flexibility and permanence of adjustable, versatile, refitable, adjustable adjustable convertible, scalable, movable Depending on the label, the correspondthe spaces. ing buildings relate differently to the immediate context, have distinct design approach, have or don’t space that has nohave function is restricted access, defined public space, thresholds a and specific function, differ in the possessionclaiming of complementary toflexible a specificproperties. space These labels translate into urban and articulations spaces in terms of accessibility, definition, orientation, articulation, spatial configuration and relation to other spaces.

no specific function

djustable, versatile, refitable, convertible

cessible, not entirely defined

n level

fits in different contexts

Where do these labels come from?

b. elements scale

time (cycle speed)

Stewart Brandt’s layers stuff

er

components

daily/monthly

er

components

daily/monthly

wner

components

7 years

wner

building

15 years

ner

building

15 years

ner

building

30 years

space services

skin

structure

site

Fig. 35: Study matrix of adaptability, based on Frank Duffy and Stewart Brandt’s theoretical findings

51


My interest in time-based architecture was induced by Herman Hertzberger’s interpretation of polyvalence. According to him, “polyvalence means that the buildings can be used in different ways, without adjustment to the way it is built.“ The concept of polyvalence has been widely understood as a multi-purpose hall (“salle polyvante”), which could be found in French villages. This building could be used for a variety of activities (weddings and parties, musical and theatrical performances, cinema) without any adjustments required to the building itself. The difference between “salle polyvante” and Hertzberger’s concept is that the latter is focused on dwellings and the accommodation of the activities that take place at the same time and their interchangeability in the spaces of the dwelling. In this theory, the polyvalence depends on the spatial composition of the dwelling and the relations between the various rooms. Bringing attention to this aspect, a dwelling can be designed in a way to accommodate different living patterns. This idea is sustainable, because the users of a living unit change and it should be capable of housing more than just one living pattern. It is important to mention that polyvalent does not equal flexible.

According to Hertzberger (1991), Flexibility therefore represents the set of all unsuitable solutions to a problem. On these grounds a system which is kept flexible for the sake of the changing objects that are to be accommodated within that system would indeed yield the most neutral solution to specific problems, but never the best, the most appropriate solution. The only constructive approach to a situation that is subject to change is a form that starts out from this changeableness as a permanent - that is, essentially a static - given factor: a form which is polyvalent. In other words, a form that can be put to different uses without having to undergo changes itself, so that a minimal flexibility can still produce a optimal solution.”

52


Adaptability in time and polyvalence can be applied in various typologies. Recently, the flexible open plan has become very popular. According to designers, this is a good way a building can adapt to its future uses. In theory, this planning brings empty container space that is able to accommodate change. However, the ability to accommodate everything, makes the space too generic, neutral and repetitive. Additionally, the buildings should encourage the individual appropriation and association of the user to the building. A truly sustainable adaptable building should have a certain expressiveness and character, so that its value for the users, city and environment will grow in time.

Fig. 36a-b: Flexible open space offices with lack of privacy and option of individualizing the space, compared to Hertzberger’s simultaneously customizable and open working spaces (Hertzberger, 1999)

The thoughts about adaptation in time led me to investigate the site and spaces in proximity in a subjective manner in terms of adaptability. I created a matrix, based on the above-mentioned theories, an analysis of time-based buildings and qualities that can be translated into urban spaces. Reading the site, using these characteristics, helped me determine the strategy for development of the area.

53


adjustable, versatile, refitable, convertible

accessible, not entirely defined

adjustable

accessible, defined, articulated, sequence

flexible properties

urban spaces

daily/monthly 7 years 15 years 15 years

components components building building

user user/owner user/owner owner

change of space

change of performance

change of function

change of size

refitable

convertible

scalable

user

change of task

adjustable

versatile(flexible)

daily/monthly components

decision level

type of change

time (cycle speed) stuff

space that has no function and is complementary to a specific space

adjustable, versatile, refitable, convertible, scalable, movable

no specific function

building/space, designed to be neutral, so that it can host many functions and it’s complementary to the specificity of the function

fits in different contexts

generic

able

examples

b. elements scale

no specific function

no specific function

function

approach

building/space, designed to respond to changes

adaptable

building/space, designed to host many functions, but keeps the same spatial configuration

polyvalent

adaptable to change of context

permanence

derived from context

relation to context

relation to time

space services

skin

structure

flexibility

claiming public space, thresholds and articulations

adjustable

specific function

building/space, designed to host a specific function, but reinterpreted in a different way (or a part of the whole)

does not depend on context

interpreted

site

Fig.37: Study matrix of adaptability Stewart Brandt’s layers

restricted access, defined

adjustable

specific function

building/space, designed to host a specific function

derived from context

specific


The study area is vibrantly coloured with spaces of different kinds. The tendency is to have the Ciutadella park as a large continuous polyvalent space, along with the sequences of collective spaces by the waterfront. The explanation of this label is that the spaces have a distinctive character, which brings a unique value to be appropriated and liked and this is durable in time. People come here dependless on the function (walk, run, picnic, read, rest, play music, meet friends, etc.), but because of the spatial qualities - open air, nature, attractive view, uniqueness in the city, openness and tolerance, articulations that give the opportunity to individually decide which is the best place for each person. The adaptable spaces I find, where they are defined from one or two fronts and the others are open to interpretations - can be redefined. They usually infiltrate the ground floors of the surrounding buildings, or have a continuous relation to another open space. These collective uses give a reason to be there. For example, the square in front of the Catalonia government. The spatial configuration is defined, but there is openness from two sides, which gives an opportunity for a change. The space is in a close proximity to the park, it is a logical continuation of it. The specific spaces are the ones, designed the way they are to execute a specific function. Some can hardly adapt to change in time, because of their specific design. I find this characteristic in the zoo, La Ronda Litoral and all the new streets of Eixample. The road infrastructure is designed for car traffic and sometimes is not accessible by pedestrians. The zoo is exclusive and the entrance is only for those, who pay a ticket. Its infrastructure is also really specific. In a likely need of rethinking the function, only the spatial configuration and the artificial landscape might be adapted to a new use. The generic spaces act as buffer zones and can be placed everywhere. They enhance the specificity of the previous type of spaces, restricting the access, or just providing better views. They are fillers of space, such as the green land between the lanes of La Ronda. The conclusion after this mapping is that the zoo’s location is especially problematic for the natural transition between the old town and Poble nou and the waterfront, because it creates a large specific area, combined with the rails zone and La Ronda. Should the location of the zoo be rethought? Could the rails zone have a better use for the city?


polyvalent

adaptable

generic

specific

100 m

Fig.38: Subjective reading of the site, in terms of adaptability

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Strategical points To narrow down the analysis, I chose to pick the key points in the area, as stated earlier. In terms of location, the zones around Estaciรณ de Franรงa and the elevated platform above the rails are strategical for the reintegration of the area. They represent the gates to the old town and the new business innovation district 22@ in Poble nou. Moreover, a future concentration in these zones, will lead to an emphasis on the already existing connections to the waterfront.

Estaciรณ de Franรงa

elevated platform

strategic points existing streets

Fig.39: Chosen strategical points of urban development for the area

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Estaciรณ de Franรงa

access and depth solid wall solid wall with perforations fence, visual connection thresholds, not necessarily restricting access private/ inaccessible public/ accessible

polyvalent

adaptable

generic

specific

interpreted 20 m

Fig.40: Analysis of the zone related to Estaciรณ de Franรงa in terms of adaptability

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Elevated platform

Zoo

University Pompeu Fabra

Research center polyvalent

private/ inaccessible

polyvalent

adaptable

generic

adaptable

generic

specific

interpreted

access and depth solid wall solid wall with perforations fence, visual connection thresholds, not necessarily restricting access

specific

interpreted 20 m

Fig.41: Analysis of the zone related to the elevated platform in terms of adaptability

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Urban strategy

towards Eixample

towards Poble nou

towards old town

towards Poble nou

towards water-

enhanced/new routes existing connections desired sequence of public open spaces existing buildings in the park development in time

Fig.42: Urban strategy 60


The most important realization of this study is that there is a cluster of generic space that is not attractive for visits. Also, the specificity of the rails and zoo creates conditions not to be appropriated by a diversity of users, such as a public space could be. Thus, the suggestion in the strategy would be to create a diversity of spaces with different spatial qualities in the study area. Due to the large scale, the development will be prolonged in time. The question would be how to create the best strategy in this case? In the proposal, I decided to first intervene into the key zones. The interventions should include a function of importance to the residents and the local economy. They should have strong collective functions in order to successfully create flows in between. Thus, the development of the area will take place organically in time.

Arc de Triomf

Civic centre

Cultural centre

Library Start-up hub Market

Fig.43: Key public buildings, located on the “curve“

The curvature in the urban fabric is characterized by buildings with public function. The proposed strategy fits into this tendency and continues it to Poble nou.

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Fig.44: Sketch model with the urban strategy, presented on 22.03.2017.

The model of the site shows the desired links and the densification plan of the area, that is following the given curved shape of the urban fabric, creating a neighbourhood, associated with this form. The main objective is the emphasis on the existing link to the waterfront and the development of Passeig de Circumvalacio as a crucial link between the old town and Poble nou. The strategy suggests the creation of three new streetscapes. The first is the abovementioned existing street, which nowadays is neglected, but has the potential of becoming a boulevard of high importance for the city. The second is an internal street - a pedestrian passage that would be a statement of giving back the city to the people. The third is the continuation of the tram line to the waterfront, providing a more democratic approach for all citizens. 62


20 m new market 50 m

Fig.45: Plan with the intervention of the urban strategy.

waterfront

Fig.46 (on the right): Urban section, showing the relation to the waterfront.

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ACTIVATION ACTIVATION OF KEY POINTS OF KEY POINTS

Station Estació Station de França

Start-up hub

Start up hub Start up hub

Elevated platform

Towards old Towards town old town

Elevated platform

Market place Market place

Extending the public transport

Development Development in time, due in to time, flows due to flows

Library

“Barcelona “Barcelona residents rank residents their public rank their markets public asmarkets the second as the most second valuable most public valuable service public afterservice libraries” after libraries”

Towards Old town Towards waterfront

Development in time, due to flows

Elevated platform

Marketplace

Fig.47: Strategical creation of flows, between the key points, that will conduct the gradual development of the area in time.

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The proposal for the system of strategic interventions includes a start-up hub with a headquarters status, a central library and a new marketplace. The first key point, Estaciรณ de Franรงa is a polyvalent building. It is an architectural symbol, loved by the citizens and even a touristic destination, because of its architectural qualities. Due to its specific character and historical significance, the building will continue being an essential part of the urban fabric, but with a different function. It is capable of adaptiing to a renewed use, not because of the function, but mainly because of the spatial qualities - the proportions of a hall building, specific materials (predominantly metal), linking it to Modernista period of Barcelona, key location and expressive architectural form. Moreover, I decided to include in my strategy the winning proposal of a Provincial library, that has a central status in the city, unifying all other units. The building is attached to Estaciรณ de Franรงa and together, they create a really important and attractive social gathering zone. The building of the station currently has an orientation towards the old town, emphasizing the importance of the district. However, in my proposal, by changing the railway function, I also open the building on three other sides, to make it better accessible from the opposite facade and the two side facades. In this gesture, I intend to emphasize the connection to Poble nou, continuing the sequence of open public spaces. Furthermore, on the other corner of the park, in the place of the elevated platform, I suggest a new marketplace, which will be equally used by the residents of the old town, Poble nou, Olympic village, the students from the university buildings in the area and even the working people in the Olympic port and the waterfront. It would be an apropriate link in the traditional chain of public markets in Barcelona and a strong public space. Both of the zones will in time become powerful magnets for the future development of the whole area, which will happen gradually.

65


Renewed streetscapes

Start up hub

La Ronda Litoral

66

Square, related to the building of Estaciรณ de Franรงa

Library

Library

Sports building


Polyvalent square

Democratic access to the park

Residential building

Marketplace

Park

Fig.48: Important sections through the area that show the implemented urban strategy.

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Case study


Centraal Beheer Apeldoorn

Herman Hertzberger “The basic requirements of an office building may well be simple enough in principle, but it was this need for adaptability that led to the complexity of the commission. Constant changes occur within the organization, thereby requiring frequent adjustments to the size of the different departments. The building must be capable of accommodating these internal forces, while the building as a whole must continue to function in every respect and at all times.”, Arnulf LŸchinger. Herman Hertzberger : Buildings and Projects. p87

Fig.49: Interior of Central Baheer in Apeldoorn (Hertzberger, 1999)

Hertzberger’s exemplary workplace Central Baheer in Apeldoorn (1968-72) was designed with the needs of the individual at its core objective. It was one of the first buildings to develop the idea of the internal street or elongated atrium to encourage social interaction and get light into all the rooms. The architectural idea was to create “a sort of a settlement, consisting of a larger number of equal spatial units”, resembling islands in an archipelago. These spatial units are in fact the basic building blocks. They are comparatively small. They have been designed with dimensions and form to accommodate different functions.

70


The simultaneous compactness and spatiousness create the possibility of different arrangements, depending on the individual user. The purpose of this design is to create a sense of belonging. The spatial organization of the units suggests different levels of privacy and collectiveness. The unit determines the user’s territory, although it is not necessarily closed off by solid walls. The “internal streets“ unify the individual compartments and provide free and easy circulation around the space.

basic spatial organization and circulation

gradient levels of privacy

individual compartment possibilities

unit

office

conference

sanitary

lounge

“get together”

restaurant

personal territory internal streets collective streets Fig.50: Analysis of the planning of Central Baheer in Apeldoorn (plans and axonometry - Hertzberger, 1999)

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Guidelines


After the theoretical analysis of the spaces and the determination of the urban strategy, I am questioning myself: how to implement all that knowledge in practice? How do the adaptable characteristics translate into architectural spatial qualities? Owing to the research, I came up with several guidelines that will help me make decisions in the design of the architectural intervention. They represent a conclusion and necessary transition point in the dissertation to the design. They are general at the beginning and evolving during the process. The leading motif is that Durability = Sustainability Design of solids “A solid is a sustainable building; sustainable in the economic, functional, technical and emotional senses of the word... This is acheved through two qualities: accmmodation capacity (accommodation in the sense of being able to adapt) and preciousness (the emotional value). It is precious on the exterior and in the shared spaces such as entrances.� (Bijdendijk, 2005)

Buildings on Place Stanislas in Nancy. Their exteriors are quite similar, but they do not suggest the function inside. Offices, hotel, museum and opera house!

Fig.51: Buildings on Place Stanislas in Nancy. (Brandt, 2005)

Distinction between the base building (structure, access and exterior) and the fit-out (for the particular use). The former is supposed to be permanent and the latter - changeable in an easy and economical way.

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In terms of: Accommodation capacity Structure Preferably no load-bearing walls for the structure, inclusion of columns and large load spans. Rhythm and dimensions of construction that is capable of containing various internal subdivisions and causing minimum restrictions.

Exterior-interior relation The outer appearance does not necessarily give away the function of the constantly changing interior spaces. The exterior does not change, because it is precious and it becomes a constant factor in the conscience of the local people. The facade can have changeable elements. The unchangeable can be load-bearing and achieving the effect of self-supporting facade.

Spatial organization Spatial configuration that gives different possiblities for the dwelling (or in the scale of the building) to adapt to new uses/users. The following are proved to give more opportunities to change, than a regular chain model, in which you can only access a room through another one.

star model

star model (with central room)

circle model

grid model

chain model

Fig.52: Schemes, defining spatial organization and configuration.

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Space planning Freedom in internal subdivisions and oversize on number of points (free height, surface area, proportions, openings) The dimensions of the rooms are unconventional and non-standardized for specific functions, so that they can provoke the imagination and give freedom of new appropriation, according to the needs.

Fig.53: Minimum free height of the spaces (2.6m) and diversity in height.

Fig.54: Articulations.

The space has to encourage customization through the tool of articulations and levels. These elements bring a more specific character to the space, without necessary assigning the function!

Services Wide range of possible connections for services. No installations integrated into the load-bearing structure. The distinction between these layers makes a future need of update of the installations possible and more economically sustainable. A possibility to add service ducts, including the possibility to cut holes in the floors and walls for shafts. Implementation of smart technologies for passive buildings and high energy performance systems, such as re-use of heated air, grey water, solar power use.

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Underground level The building will always need some technical compartments and services to function properly. In order to save the ground level for pedestrian appropriation and collective spaces, the underground is suitable for parking and technical rooms. In terms of: Precious (emotional) factor Precious buildings and precious spaces increase their value in time. This aspect is strictly subjective. However, some guidelines, derived from study of old examples can be helpful.

According to Vitruvius, who 2000 years ago described how the Romans build, the most important qualities of good and durable architecture are Strength, Beauty and Usefulness.

An inspirational reference from 3rd CIB International Conference on Smart and Sustainable Built Environments, Delft:

“A beloved building is a sustainable building�, (Unknown interviewee, 2009 June 15-19)

Fig.55: Venetian palazzi.

Fig.56: Amsterdam houses.

Venetian palazzi and Old Amsterdam houses (fig. 55-56) are clear examples of typology of buildings that are adaptable in time. Their initial spatial and exterior qualities are so good, that their value has grown with their aging.

77


Context It is really important to consider a very well fit in the setting the setting is uppermost, the building comes next The architecture has to be very site-specific and city-specific. The character of the exterior has to represent the atmosphere of the city and the immediate surroundings. Apperarance It is more likely for people to form an attachment to a building, which they understand. If the principle of how the building is constructed is visible and understandable, the feeling of permanence is projected. A simple building is more appropriable. Materiality The use of durable materials that correspond to the city atmosphere and age beautifully are the best choice. Natural local materials become more attractive in time.

Fig.57: Barcelonian materials.

Collective spaces There needs to be a special attention on the design of the most accessible spaces, which are the shared ones. A building with an inviting entrance and an attractively designed collective spaces give a more cherished image of the building and takes it one step closer to “preciousness�. 78


79


Fig.58: Relation of the focus point of the architectural intervention in comparison to the urban strategy for the area

Fig.59: Possible unexpected future scenarios of development

80


Final design proposal

81


Market

Fig.60: Axonometric view, scenario 1

The architectural intervention consists of two buildings that work in symbiosis with one another. They are chosen to be furtherly developed, because they are the cornerstones of the project that would trigger the area. Their groundfloor plans are intertwined, creating permeable collective spaces with various spatial characteristics. The massive brick building has a strong presence and the light wooden structure of the market permeates the solidity of the first one. The public space in front of the market’s main entrance is of utmost importance for the site and for the area. It is enriched by the impressive wooden landscape that is provided by the coonstruction of the market. The new tram station is placed in front of it, providing direct access to the public building. 82


Fig.61: Axonometric view, scenario 2

The market is accessible from each direction, accentuating on the adaptability that this openness leads to. In the morning, the building is a productivity hub in preparation for the busy day, protecting the inside space with permeable retractable doors. The busy atmosphere is visible from the outside. During the day, the market attracts people living in the surrounding area and visitors to the old town, or the beach. Students from the university buildings in close proximity, can be tempted to come buy fresh fruit for the afternoon break, or just sit in front to enjoy the good weather. The in-between spaces provide an overview of the touching of two materials and makes walking through the passages exciting. 83


C B' B A

A

C B

B'

Fig.62: Groundplan 84

10 m


In order to become polyvalent, the building of the market is supposed to provide spatial qualities, which do not entirely depend on the function, which will be used for it. That is why it has a very democratic approach and a light articulated structure, which changes in each segment. No two segments are the same, in order to create variety in the appropriation and visual stimuli. The articulations created on the wooden roof interior are inspiring with the implied movement and dynamics. The light comes from above, infiltrating through the changing levels of the roof.

Fig.63: Ceiling articulations

85


86


Fig.64: Section through market

Numerous number of flows can take place in this open and tolerant building. The playfulness of the roof landscape creates a memorable presense of the market. The separated logistics underground floor gives a freedom of various spatial configurations on the ground level. The shape of the arches achieves the sensation of a transition between two realms and implies being inside a connectivity productivity hub. The building provides variations in a number of aspects: openness, flexible spatial configuration, articulated ceilings, diverse light qualities. These characteristics make it able to adapt, regardless of the function inside.

87


ceramic tiles cement screed waterproofing osb panels timber finishing secondary glulam beam primary curved glulam beam

metal mesh

gutter

glulam columns

panot tiles cement screed waterproofing precast concrete slab metal grate

water grate

metal nest for the column concrete foundation

Fig.65: Detail

88

panot tiles cement screed sand rammed earth


Productive Residence The second building in the intervention is the residential building, which provides spatial conditions for work as well. The type of productivity is more technological than the one of the market. It corresponds to the innovation business district 22@ and it is a continuation of it. This building answers the need of contemporary dwellings by providing generously spaceous apartments, which the user not only can live comfortably there, but could also start up their own business from home. The organization of each floor consists of a collective structure, concentrated around an open courtyard and providing spaces of interaction, where the residents can exchange business ideas, work together in a coworking environment or just have a cup of coffee. The shared space invades the apartments, creating a collective area, organized as working space in the boundaries of the residence. Some typologies are configured to be able to be home of people sharing the working space and living in their own private rooms. Other dwellings are smaller and focused on young families that are working from home. The proportion between the private and the collective and the dominance of the latter makes it more affordable to live and work here. The idea of the building in terms of function is to provide dwellings in correspondence to the idea to make Barcelona 3.0 a more productive city. The building should be looked at as a prototype, showing the interaction between living and working and how it can be changing in time. It is a contemporary interpretation of the residences in the past, which combine working space in the ground floor and living space in the upper floors. The difference is that there is a gradient of collectivity that penetrates the dwellings as well.

89


collective in the scale of the building

collective in the scale of the residence

Fig.66: Impression of the gradient of collectivity

90

strictly private


+1

B'

B'

B

B

+1.5

B'

B'

B

B

+2

B'

B'

B

B

Fig.67: Floorplans and schemes explaining gradient of collectivity

91


92


Fig.68: Sections

93


site

structure

services Fig.67: Six layers

94

skin

space planning

stuff


This is an adaptable building. It has been designed on the principles of dissecting the building into 6 layers. This step is taken, so that the layers are not dependent on one another and if a change is needed, it could be executed in a more efficient and cheap way, not destroying or replacing the other layers. Site, structure, skin, services, space planning and stuff differentiate in their permanence. I see the site, structure and services with their fixed positions. The skin has also a certain permanence, because it gives the image of the building and the public spaces around. The space planning and the stuff are a subject of interchangeability and temporariness.

95


96

Fig.68: Fragment showing the use of the base levels


97

Fig.69: Fragment, depicting the use of inbetween levels


Fig.70: Ceiling articulations

The fascination of polyvalent spaces that can adapt to changes in time has lead me to the approach of designing the base building - inner and outer shell. It was important to provide a structure, skin and services which would be permanent and the infill - space planning and stuff can change. The construction principle is detaching the skin from the structure - the facade is self-supporting and constructed with brick. The main levels have double floors, in which installations can be placed and concealed. The middle levels are constructed with lighter materials, making them less permanent and possible to remove, if needed the double floor height. The double floor is included, because it provides the freedom to have a more articulated ceiling treatment. This was important for me, because in this way the inner shell provides variation of the inner space. The elevation is articulated as well, with the dream of becoming a loved building, such as the adaptable examples from the past. The seemingly very massive and solid brick volume is in reality very flexible and susceptible to change. However, the difference to the generic flexible buildings is that in this case, the massiveness gives the building presence and personality. This does not change. Also, the connection to the market creates an intriguing architectural relationship between two contrasting buildings, which would be interesting to see how it develops in time.

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light flooring (wood) rubber wooden subfloor sound insulation wooden finishing

tile/marble/stone/carpet thin set mortar rubber wooden subfloor sound insulation wooden rafters prefab hollow core slab wooden finishing

self-supporting brick wall air gap for ventilation insulation internal finish (brick) stucco

Fig.71: Construction detail 99


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Fig.72: Elevation

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Fig.73: Impression of the entrance space to the market

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Fig.74: Impression of the entrance from the street

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Fig.75: Impression of the space in-between

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Fig.76: Model photos

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Conclusions and reflections An adaptable building is a sustainable building. It is very interesting to think that so many buildings that have been constructed in the past are still present and after all this time, they provide architectural qualities good enough to be preserved and re-used all over again. Also, the durability of the materials and the specificity of the facades help create a memorable image and endure as an irreplaceable building. Barcelona is rich with examples of this kind. It is a patchwork of historical layers that grow and regenerate. The proposed interventions of adaptable in time buildings fit in the image of the area in transition between different historical layers. Their purpose is to enrich their environment and be an active participant in the urban life. The idea is to create buildings that are able to be adapted to the future needs of the citizens and the city. They have to be flexible enough to answer to the unknown, but also to have a specific character in order not to become generic. That is why i dissected the buildings and chose the right proportion between polyvalent, adaptable generic and specific to construct it. The market and the residential building enrich the streetscape in a way that transforms the existing street into an urban boulevard that provides an important connection between the western and eastern part of the city. Also, the sequence of collective spaces and the depth of them brings visual and spatial variety. To conclude, the architectural interventions are the answer to how Barcelona 3.0 will be like. It is a productive city, which carefully builds and rebuilds with interventions that can adapt in time. Due to its compactness, the city must be able to regenerate in an efficient and natural way. Learning from the past, the recipe to achieve this is with buildings that are practical in their configuration, durable in their construction and appealing in their appearance. By achieving these characteristics, the buildings become important elements of the image of the city and the emotional landscape of its citizens. Due to the fact that every person has a different opinion on what is aesthetically pleasing, the architect introduces a variety of articulations and spaces that are interpretable in order to create a diverse environment that stimulates the senses.

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References 22barcelona.com. (2017). 22@ Barcelona - El districte de la innovacio. [online] Available at: http://www.22barcelona.com/index.php?lang=en [Accessed 3 Feb. 2017]. Brand, S. (1994). How buildings learn. 1st ed. New York, NY: Viking. Carta Històrica de Barcelona. (2017). Carta Històrica de Barcelona. [online] Available at: http://cartahistorica.muhba.cat/index.html?#map=14/242185/5070759/2010//0/0/0/0 [Accessed 11 Dec. 2016]. Cia, B. (2017). Sin dinero para la Biblioteca Provincial de Barcelona. [online] EL PAÍS. Available at: http://ccaa.elpais.com/ccaa/2014/11/09/ catalunya/1415563132_877589.html [Accessed 6 May 2017]. De Solà-Morales i Rubió, M. (2008). Ten lessons about Barcelona. 1st ed. Barcelona: Col·legi d’Arquitectes de Catalunya. Gehl, J. (2009), Cities for people Habraken, N. (1961). The supports and the people. 1st ed. Amsterdam: Scheltema & Holkema. Habraken, N. and Teicher, J. (2000). The structure of the ordinary. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Ingrosso, C. (2011), Barcelona. Architecture, City and Society 1975-2015 Lack, B. (2017). European cities continued to attract growing numbers of tourists despite a troubled year in Europe: bednights up 4.2% in 2015 - European Cities Marketing. [online] European Cities Marketing. Available at: http://www.europeancitiesmarketing.com/european-citiescontinued-to-attract-growing-numbers-of-tourists-despite-a-troubledyear-in-europe-bednights-up-4-2-in-2015/ [Accessed 6 Mar. 2017]. Leupen, B., Heijne, R. and Zwol, J. (2005). Time-based architecture. 1st ed. Rotterdam: 010 Leupen, B. (2006) Polyvalence, a concept for the sustainable dwelling, Nordic journal of architectural research Volume 19, No 3,

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Moffatt, S. (2001) Assessing the Adaptability of Buildings; Annex 31 Energy-Related Environmental Impact of Buildings, November 2001 Paans, O. (2014) Situational Urbanism Project for Public Spaces (2017). Market Cities: Barcelona Offers a Hopeful Glimpse of the Future - Project for Public Spaces. [online] Project for Public Spaces. Available at: http://www.pps.org/reference/market-cities-barcelona-offers-a-hopeful-glimpse-of-the-future/ [Accessed 19 Apr. 2017]. Razvan, Z. (2017). Food Market Touristification: The Case of La Boqueria Market in Barcelona. [online] Academia.edu. Available at: https://www. academia.edu/27838715/Food_Market_Touristification_The_Case_of_ La_Boqueria_Market_in_Barcelona [Accessed 14 April 2017]. Scheerlinck, K. (2013). Collective Spaces Streetscape Territories Notebook. Notebooks 2. Brussels: KU Leuven Scheerlinck, K. (2012). Depth Configurations and Privacy. Proximity, Permeability and Territorial Boundaries in Urban Projects�, in M. Carucci (ed.). Revealing Privacy: Debating the Understandings of Privacy. Frankfurt am Maine: Peter Lang, 89-104.

Satelite maps https://www.bing.com/maps/

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Image credits 8 9 14 14 16

Fig.1.1 - 1.4: Outline maps and a physical map, specifying the geographical context Fig.2: Outline of the study area Fig.3: First key point in the study area - Estació de França Fig.4: Second key point in the study area - elevated park on the east corner of Ciutadella park Fig.5: Streetscapes in the area, demonstrating absence of pedestrians and predominance of vehicles 17 Fig.6: Birdview of the study area, mapping the existing streetscapes 18 Fig.7: Roles of infrastructure in the area 19 Fig.8a - b: Streetscapes with negotiable boundaries between public and private in Ciutat vella and Gracia 19 Fig.9: Streetscape on Passeig de Circumvalacio, demonstrating non-negotiable spatial delimitation 20-21 Fig.10: Important sections through the area, analyzing the relation of spaces, connected to the streetscape 22 Fig.11: Impression of the urban morphology of the area and the broader context as a “patchwork” 23 Fig.12: Impression of the area and the broader context in proximity in terms of architectural image 24 Fig.13: Study of the continuous development in time of the urban layers around the area. Source: Carta Històrica de Barcelona, MUHBA, (2016). Carta Històrica de Barcelona [Internet]. Available from: http://cartahistorica.muhba.cat/. Accessed on 14.11.2016. 25 Fig.14: Interpretation of the site as an edge. 26 Fig.15: Public services and general mapping of functions and mobility in the area. 27 Fig.16: Comparison between the open and public spaces. Study of spatial delimitation and accessibility. 28 Fig.17: Schemes, demonstrating certain symmetry in the scale of the city and the study area. 29 Fig.18: Relation of the study area to the focus zones of renovation in 22@. 30 Fig.19a-e: Barcelona co-working spaces atmosphere and locations in proximity to the study area. Images: Blystone, D. (2017) Barcelona Coworking Spaces [Internet]. Available from: http://barcelonanavigator.com/barcelona-co-working-spaces/, accessed on 29.02.2017. 32 Fig.20: The Old Born (Martí i Alsina, 1867) 33 Fig.21: The existing network of markets and the relation to the study area. 34 Fig. 22: La Boqueria market. Source: Wiens, M. (2016). La Boqueria Barcelona: Incredible Food You Don’t Want to Miss [Internet]. Available from: https://migrationology.com/la-boqueria-market-barcelona/, accessed on 14.04.2017. 35 Fig.23: Observation of a sequence of open spaces, related to the market with different character. 36 Fig. 24a-b: Santa Caterina market - interior and exterior. Source: Gaultier, A. (2015) Santa Caterina market [Internet]. Available from: http://archinect.com/embt/project/santa-caterina-market/. Accessed on 14.04.2017. 37 Fig.25: Observation of a sequence of open spaces, related to Santa Caterina market. 38 Fig.26: Observation of a sequence of open spaces and public building, related to El Borne. 39 Fig.27a-b: El Borne as it was as a marketplace and as it is nowadays as a cultural center. Source: Ajuntament de Barcelona (2017) El Born Centre de Cultura i Memòria [Internet]. Available from: http://elbornculturaimemoria.barcelona.cat/en/. Accessed on 14.04.2017. 40 Fig. 28a-b: Estació de França possesses spatial qualities that allow adaptation in time. 40 Fig. 28c-d: Estació de França re-appropriated for other activities - dance reception and DJ concert (Cadenza, 2012), Available from: http://www.cadenzamusic.net/video/lucianos-vagabundos-estacio-de-franca-barcelona/. Accessed on 12.02.2017. 40 Fig. 28e-f: Zoo market, organized once a month. 41 Fig.29: Location of the new transportation hub La Sagrera, related to Estació de França.

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Fig.30: Conceptual section, showing change of appropriation to spaces in time Fig.31: Tracking time in Camden, Former Camden Free Public Library . Source: Vergara, C. (2013) Tracking time [Internet] Available from: https://www.failedarchitecture.com/spaces-of-othernessruins-through-a-feminist-lens/. Accessed on 19.12.2016. Fig.32: Occupying and connecting. Source: Otto, F.(2009) Occupying and Connecting: Thoughts on Territories and Spheres of Influence with Particular Reference to Human Settlement Fig. 33: Interchangeability of functions in a house: comparison between the traditional Japanese house and the Western house Source: Nishihara, G. (1968) Japanese Houses: Patterns for Living Fig. 34: The building being dissected into six “S-”, Brandt, S. (2005) Time-based architecture. Fig. 35: Study matrix of adaptability, based on Frank Duffy and Stewart Brandt’s theoretical findings Fig. 36a-b: Flexible open space offices with lack of privacy and option of individualizing the space, compared to Hertzberger’s simultaneously customizable and open working spaces (Hertzberger, 1999) Fig.37: Study matrix of adaptability Fig.38: Subjective reading of the site, in terms of adaptability Fig.39: Chosen strategical points of urban development for the area Fig.40: Analysis of the zone related to Estació de França in terms of adaptability Fig.41: Analysis of the zone related to the elevated platform in terms of adaptability Fig.42: Urban strategy Fig.43: Key public buildings, located on the “curve“ Fig.44: Sketch model with the urban strategy, presented on 22.03.2017. Fig.45: Plan with the intervention of the urban strategy. Fig.46: Urban section, showing the relation to the waterfront. Fig.47: Strategical creation of flows, between the key points, that will conduct the gradual development of the area in time. Fig.48: Important sections through the area that show the implemented urban strategy. Fig.49: Interior of Central Baheer in Apeldoorn (Hertzberger, 1999) Fig.50: Analysis of the planning of Central Baheer in Apeldoorn (plans and axonometry - Hertzberger, 1999) Fig.51: Buildings on Place Stanislas in Nancy. (Brandt, 2005) Fig.52: Schemes, defining spatial organization and configuration. Fig.53: Minimum free height of the spaces (2.6m) and diversity in height. Fig.54: Articulations. Fig.55: Venetian palazzi. Fig.56: Amsterdam houses. Fig.57: Barcelonian materials. Fig.58: Relation of the focus point of the architectural intervention in comparison to the urban strategy for the area Fig. 59 - 76 Images explaining the architectural interventions

Note: unless source specified, all images are an artistic or observational interpretation by the author of the paper

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Compact Adaptability, A research paper by Stefani Zlateva  

The Master Dissertation has been developed in the framework of Streetscape territories, KU Leuven, International Master of Architecture, 201...