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SCIOS JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE TEACHERS’ ASSOCIATION OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA

“A valuable professional learning experience” VOLUME 51 AUGUST 2015


SCIOS: To Know This journal aims to promote the teaching of science with a focus on classroom practice. It provides a means of communication between teachers, consultants and other science educators. Opinions expressed in this publication are those of the various authors and do not necessarily represent those of The Science Teachers’ Association of Western Australia (STAWA), the editorial committee or the publisher.

STAWA Office Unit 6, 10 Mallard Way, Cannington WA 6107 Contact Tel +61 (0) 8 9244 1987 Fax +61 (0) 8 9244 2601 Email info@stawa.net.au Web www.stawa.net.au

CONTENTS Editorial

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Website of the Moment

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From the President

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Chief Executive’s Report

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Editor Kelly Nebel - Penrhos College

STAWA Science Teacher Awards 2015

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De Laeter Medal 2014

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Editorial Committee for this Volume Susan Doncon Christine Howlett John Clarke - STAWA George P Lyndon Smith

The Jeff Cahill Early Career Teacher Award 2014

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Engage Inspire Educate - Lotterywest Biodiscovery Centre

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STAWA Membership

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Carnaby’s Adjust to Foreign Plants for Feeding and Shelter

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Making Waves... Through Engagement in Science

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In Memory of a Dear Friend, Sue Walmsley

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Balanced, Low GI Breakfast May Benefit Teenage Girls

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STAWA Publications

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Hair-degrading Fungus Comes Under the Microscope

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Editorial Correspondence Kelly Nebel Publisher Published quarterly by STAWA via Cambridge Publishing, a division of Cambridge Media 10 Walters Drive, Osborne Park WA 6017 www.cambridgemedia.com.au Graphic Designer Kattie Muir - Digital Crayon

Physics Day @Adventure World 2015

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Advertising Enquiries Tel +61 (0) 8 9244 1987 Fax +61 (0) 8 9244 2601 Email info@stawa.net

Cracking the Mystery of Droplet Evaporation

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Calf Muscles Outclass Hamstrings in Injury Prevention

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© 2014 The Science Teachers’ Association of Western Australia (STAWA). All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means without the written permission of STAWA. Unsolicited material is welcomed by the Editor but no responsibility is taken for the return of copy or photographs unless special arrangements are made.

Teacher-Student Conflicts Linked to Future Bullying

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Year 12 ATAR Science Planning Workshops

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Future Science 2014

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Governor’s School STEM Awards 2015

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How to Contribute

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ISSN 0157-6488 VOLUME 51

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EDITORIAL Kelly Nebel Last year Australia’s chief scientist, Professor Ian Chubb emphasized the need to “build a stronger more competitive Australia”. Since then the Abbott government have committed $12 million in funding to improve focus on STEM across schools. With the onset of the Governors STEM award later this year, and developing ideas on how we deliver STEM within our schools it is certainly an exciting time to be involved in science education. I recently attended EduTech, a conference that explores educational change and technology. It challenged participants thinking in terms of what is worth learning and what skills our students need so that they can contribute to a more globalized, networked, informed and multi-ethnic society. I believe STEM offers us the opportunity for developing the kinds of thinking and opportunities for our students to contribute to an ever changing and a more complex world. I know that you are doing interesting and innovative activities in your classroom. We want you to share them and would love to hear from you. Thank you to everyone who has contributed to this issue and for the support of the editorial committee. We trust you will enjoy this issue of SCIOS and look forward to receiving your contributions in the future.

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WEBSITE OF THE MOMENT WEB ADDRESS DESCRIPTION RECOMMENDED FOR NOTES

RECOMMENDED BY

http://www.compoundchem.com/infographics/ Infographics Any Chemistry class Year 7-12 This website has a series of infographics that can be used to excite and engage students in Chemistry. They cover some really interesting concepts in a colouful and organized manner. I download them and laminate them to use in class as posters. I also use the “What’s Happening in Chemistry this Week” as a conversation starter with my weaker students. If you are looking for infographics for other science disciplines try googling “infographic”. Kelly Nebel Penrhos College

Aroma Chemistry

THE AROMA OF THE SEASIDE The characteristic smell of the seaside stems from volatile organic compounds that contain sulfur. Some of these compounds are emitted by algae in the sea, as a result of enzymatic activity or bacterial action, whilst others can be emitted by decomposing seaweed on the beach itself.

COMPOUNDS FROM BACTERIA Hydrogen sulfide gas is produced by decomposing seaweed; the anaerobic breakdown of sulfates in the seaweed leads to the production of the gas. It is toxic in high concentrations, but as it is produced naturally in the body, humans have mechanisms to break it down, so can tolerate low concentrations.

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THIS WEEK IN CHEMISTRY

HYDROGEN SULFIDE

26TH JULY - 1ST AUGUST 2015 O H3C

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DIMETHYLSULFONIOPROPIONATE (DMSP)

Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is a compound found in algae cells, which acts as an osmolyte (maintains PHILAE IDENTIFIES ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON COMET 67P cell volume and water levels). This compound can be broken down by analysis has returned the first measurements of organic Philae’s both enzymes and bacteria, and this compounds directly from a comet, and includes four compounds can produce dimethylsulfide (DMS). never before detected in cometary material. Reports from two DMS is considered a major component different instruments on Philae showed varying results. of the smell of the sea.

POLYMER PILL DELIVERS DRUG COURSE IN ONE GO H3C

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CH3

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DMS

A capsule containing a compressed elastomer could allow some

REFLECT LIGHT CLOUDS effect) drug treatments (cooling to be delivered in one go. Delivered in gelatin capsules, the polymer is gastro-resistant, and remains intact for up to 7 days, before dissolving at intestinal pH.

DMS also has a role in cloud formation. Less than 10% of the DMS formed in the ocean gets to the atmosphere. Chemical reactions in the air can break it down ANTIFREEZE POLYMER ENHANCES CELL CRYOPRESERVATION into aerosols (tiny particles of a solid or liquid suspended in air). Water vapour can condense around these particles, and result in cloud formation. Other, non-DMSA new polymer limits ice crystal growth in red blood cells as they derived aerosols also contribute, including dust and soot. are defrosted, and could help prevent tissue damage as they thaw. The research could help improve cryopreservation of organs and © COMPOUND INTEREST 2015 - WWW.COMPOUNDCHEM.COM | @COMPOUNDCHEM blood bags.

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Shared under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives licence.

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OIL DROPLETS TURN CELLS INTO MINIATURE LASERS Droplets of oil mixed with fluorescent dyes can be injected into single cells and turn them into miniature lasers. The droplets of oil reflect or amplify the light produced when the fluorescent dyes are activated by short pulses of light. It could be used to tag cells.

EXPERIMENTAL EBOLA VACCINE CONFERS TOTAL PROTECTION An ebola vaccine candidate tested on 2,014 people found none developed the disease ten days after vaccination. Though the study’s small size means the vaccine’s protection rate may be slightly lower than 100%, the WHO may now approve the vaccine for general use.

CREATED BY COMPOUND INTEREST

#TWIChem

Twitter: @compoundchem | Facebook: www.facebook.com/compoundchem

Links to articles & research papers: http://goo.gl/HVmdif

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FROM THE PRESIDENT Geoffrey Lewis 2015 has become a very busy year. CONASTA 64 in Perth for example, the organization for which occupied my life and the lives of a few involved in its planning for many months. Our efforts were not in vain. Held from Sunday 5th July to Thursday 9th July at the Pan Pacific Hotel and Mercedes College, was a great success. More than 550 delegates attended from across Australia we even had a few international visitors. The conference offered an exciting and diverse program, which included between three and four keynote speakers each day and 20 plus workshops in each session. Monday was a specialist day for primary teachers and Tuesday a specialist day for school laboratory technicians but those who attended the full conference found plenty of interest in the other days. Other members of STAWA are spending their time on updating our Year 12 publications in readiness for the introduction of the new curriculum in 2016. We have already published new books for Year 11 Chemistry, Physics and Human Biology and I thank Maree Baddock and Brenda Winning for their massive effort rewriting and reorganising Chemistry, Glenda Leslie and Julie Weber for Human Biology and Mal Johnson for his work on the Physics book. So many WA teachers rely on these publications and without the time STAWA members such as these are prepared to give so willingly they would not be a reality.

Future Science in December 2014 was attended by over 300 delegates and, judging by the feedback and emails we have received, was a huge success. I wish to thank John Clarke, our CEO, and Emma Donnolly, from Curtin University, for the enormous effort they put in to ensure there was an extensive and interesting program for all attendees. We look forward to another such production in December this year. Science Talent Search will take on some changes this year as we work on including a special section on STEM and its associated Governor’s Prize. This has the full support of the Education Department and maximum school participation is encouraged. Several meeting have been held with Governor Sanderson to discuss arrangements and the final details and rules are published on our website. I wish you well in your teaching in the remainder of 2015.

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CHIEF EXECUTIVE’S REPORT John Clarke STAWA resources: Available Now • Exploring Human Biology Year 11 ATAR: Activities and Investigations • Exploring Chemistry Year 11 ATAR: Experiments, Investigations and Problems • Exploring Physics Year 11 ATAR: Experiments, Investigations and Problems • Exploring Human Biology Stage 1: Looking Good (Year 11 and 12 General) • Exploring Human Biology Stage 2: Body Works (Year 11 and 12 General) • Exploring Human Biology Stage 3: Changing Bodies (Year 12 ATAR) • Exploring Earth and Environmental Science (Year 11 and 12 ATAR and General) New STAWA Year 12 ATAR resources: Available December 2015 • Exploring Chemistry Year 12 ATAR: Experiments, Investigations and Problems • Exploring Physics Year 12 ATAR: Experiments, Investigations and Problems Are you using our resources? Please drop us a line to let us know how they are going. For example are they easy to navigate, are the questions and problems useful, have you found the investigations filling a need, and do you like the separation of the problem sets and experiments in the new Chemistry books?

All our year 11 books have ebook versions. At this stage they are only available through Campion (http:// www.campion.com.au/). The Exploring Chemistry and Physics Year 12 ATAR books will be ready for purchase for the 2016 Year 12 ATAR courses. Exploring Human Biology Stage 3 will not be redone for next year but we will be producing a document that maps the Stage 3 activities with the 2016 Year 12 Human Biology ATAR syllabus. Be sure to add these books to your Year 12 booklists. Have you renewed your membership? This is easy to do and although we would prefer you to renew online feel free to either renew by phone, email or post. You can also order and purchase resources, and register and pay for workshops and conferences online at www.stawa.net. STAWA Awards Outstanding Teachers Congratulations! Malcolm Johnson, de Laeter Medal winner and Sarah Rose, the inaugural Jeff Cahill Early Career Teacher Award. The achievements and contributions of these two exemplary science teachers and STAWA members are summarised in this edition of SCIOS. Details and nomination information for the 2016 awards can be found at http://stawa.net/the-john-delaeter-medal/ and http://stawa.net/jeff-cahill-award/

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ScienceIQ I trust that you have taken the opportunity to participate in the STAWA online science competitions ScienceIQ. ScienceIQ quizzes have been available since 2008. They have captured the imagination of thousands of teachers across Australia, many of whom have had teams of student’s participant regularly since then. The feed back received has been very positive particularly in relation to student motivation and the cooperative learning and teamwork displayed by participants. If you have not yet availed yourself of this opportunity please visit the website (www.scienceiq.net) and enrol your students in the remaining 2015 competitions. Future Science 2014, an outstanding success! Future Science hosted by Curtin University, educated, motivated and feed more than 300 science teachers from across the state. Feedback was very positive. Congratulations and thank you Emma Donnelly and your Curtin outreach team and student volunteers. Be sure to place the following date into your diaries: Future Science 2015, Friday 4 December, Curtin University.

planning workshops in Psychology, Biology, Human Biology, Chemistry and Physics are scheduled for 7th – 11th September (Perth) and 29th and 30th October (ECU Bunbury). The Year 12 ATAR planning workshops are subject specific half-day workshops - details and registration at www.stawa.net. Separate subject workshops will enable your school the greatest opportunity to support as many specialist science subject teachers as they can to attend. These cross-sectoral workshops are being planned in conjunction with AISWA. CONASTA 64 What a great event. Over 550 science educators from across the country and around the world attended. Congratulations to the 30 regional primary and secondary science teachers and science technicians who were successful in gaining WA Government funded, STAWA scholarships, to help attend CONASTA 64. I had an opportunity to meet many of you and appreciated your feed back regarding the conference and passed on your thanks to the State Government via Mr Peter Collier, Minister for Education.

STS and the Governor’s School STEM Awards STAWA members and all school principals have been sent a Science Talent Search (STS) brochure, a Governor’s School STEM Awards flyer and a letter from the Governor outlining her support for STEM education in our schools. Additional details about STS and the Governor’s Awards can be accessed online at http://stawa.net/science-talent-search-2015/. We look forward to your participation and wish you every success in the STS competition and Governor’s School STEM Awards. Professional Development Keep an eye on Catalist and the STAWA website for future learning opportunities. Additional to our conferences we are planning professional learning and curriculum planning workshops for example Year 11 Psychology. The first Year 11 Psychology workshop took place on Friday 22 May at Guildford Grammar School with input from SCSA staff and University experts. Year 12 ATAR

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stawa science teacher awards 2015 STAWA is currently calling for nominations for the following 2015 awards:

De Laeter Medal The de Laeter Medal is one mechanisms that formally recognises teachers who have made an outstanding contribution to science teaching in this State. This prestigious medal specifically recognises excellence in WA science teaching and seeks at the same time to enhance the status of the science teaching profession. For criteria information and nomination instructions please visit http://stawa.net/thejohn-de-laeter-medal/ Nominations close on the 24th October 2015.

Jeff Cahill Early Career Teacher Award (1-6 years) This award honours and celebrates the work of a STAWA member, Jeff Cahill, and his commitment to the science teaching profession as an outstanding teacher, his volunteer support of STAWA, the delivery of professional learning workshops for teachers and his contributions to STAWA and Pearson publications.

de Laeter Medal 2014 Malcolm Johnson, Head of Science at Mazenod College, was awarded the de Laeter Medal at the STAWA Future Science Conference, 4 December 2014, by the de Laeter family members Mrs Robin de Laeter and Mr Rob de Laeter. Malcolm was nominated by fellow Mazenod staff member, Geoff Lewis, with supporting testimonials from Fiona Hassell and Principal, Father Peter Daly OMI. They all expressed the belief that Malcolm was the epitomy of what John de Laeter stood for and what the Medal represents. Membership of his professional association, STAWA, is something Malcolm values highly. He encourages his department staff to be members and to attend STAWA conferences and other professional learning opportunities. He has been a regular attendee at CONSTAWA over the last 14 years and a member of the organising committee for much of that time. Malcolm regularly presents professional development sessions at Mazenod, the Catholic Education Office and conferences. As a member of the SCASA Physics Curriculum Arm Committee, for several years now, he has played an active role in the development of the Australian Curriculum WA, Physics, Year 11, Year 12 and General courses. Malcolm has also voluntarily given a large amount of his time to the redevelopment of the STAWA Exploring Physics Year 11 publication and is currently working on the Year 12 edition to be available for the 2016 school year. Congratulations Malcom, you are a deserving de Laeter Medal recipient.

For criteria information and nomination instructions please visit http://stawa.net/jeffcahill-award/ Nominations close on the 24th October 2015.

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The Jeff Cahill Early Career Teacher Award 2014 Congratulations, Sarah Rose. Professor Lyn Beazley at the STAWA Future Science conference on Friday 5th December 2014 presented Sarah Rose, Tom Price Senior High School science teacher, with the Jeff Cahill Early Career Teacher Award. A Murdoch University graduate, with Bachelor Degrees in Science and Forensics, Sarah has been teaching science since 2011.

She was selected as one of only 5 students to undertake Professional Internship with the Western Australian Police Force, working with the Crime Division. During this time Sarah decided to pursue a career in Education. She completed her final practicum at Lynwood SHS who offered her a science teaching position in 2011. Sarah currently teaches Upper School Chemistry, Upper School Human Biology and Year 10 Science Enrichment at Tom Price SHS. During 2012, Sarah was nominated for the West Australian Education Awards - Beginning Teacher of the Year Award and was recognized as a State Finalist, a tremendous achievement for any teacher. Mr Eric Godfrey, Head of Department Mathematics and Science, Tom Price SHS, nominated Sarah for this award. Eric, in his testimonial, concluded, “Our students are lucky to have such a passionate Science teacher, delivering quality lessons. Sarah is a proud Scientist and Teacher, and is always willing to share her knowledge with others.”

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ENGAGE INSPIRE EDUCATE Lotterywest BioDiscovery Centre With the motto ‘make it real and make it fun’, Pauline Charman was always a passionate science teacher at heart, at home in the classroom enjoying seeing the light come on in kids eyes when they grasped new science concepts – particularly if it was in the area of biotechnology education. In 2006, after 25 years in the classroom, she moved across into statewide curriculum development roles and it was at this point in her career that she was drawn to pursue the goal of establishing a biotechnology education centre in Western Australia. After numerous self-funded interstate and overseas visits to similar centres, including a visit to the original DNA Learning Centre based in Cold Spring Harbour, New York, her dream looked closer to becoming a reality after a chance meeting with Prof. Peter Klinken, the then Director of the WA Institute of Medical Research. With a shared passion for the concept, and a potential home in the new multimillion dollar facility under construction in Nedlands, WA – plans to open the Lotterywest funded BioDiscovery Centre were hatched in 2009. In February 2013, the centre opened its doors, housed on Level 1 of the newly constructed 8 story Harry Perkins Institute of Medical Research. The 5.4 million dollar centre features a PC2 certified education laboratory, a seminar ‘dry lab’ room, multimedia interactive displays that document medical research history and major discoveries and milstones within the WA institute. It’s re-badging is in honour of one of the key founding

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members of the WA Insitute - Harry Perkins. The programs offered are: • THE NEXT GEN program for secondary science students (offered to all government and nongovernment schools in WA) Single day visits. • PERKINS PROFS ACADEMY for high achieving science/maths students as a STEM focused medical research immersion course. 10 week course (2hrs/week) • Community “Live in the Lab Sessions for community groups and the public • Corporate Team Building Days – “cure cancer in an afternoon – the ultimate challenge!” The NEXT GEN program was modelled in part on the successful GTAC (Gene Technology Access Centre) format of using Phd /Honours students as demonstrators. The scientists are the ‘stars of the show’! These scientists have been purposely recruited as they are dynamic, passionate young scientists who are fabulous role models for students. Students leave the centre having worked alongside real scientists in addition to hearing about their journey when they ‘speed date a scientist’ – another part of the day’s program. Showcasing the actual research being conducted at the Perkins is always a priority and the foundation to all activities. This provided a relevant engaging context

for all the activities offered in the school one day visits. Eg The Yr 11 Spectacular Stem Cell Activity features Perkins own (and Chief Scientist of WA) Prof Peter Klinken’s J2E Cell Line as the cell samples to be thawed, stained and imaged by the students. PCR, protein and DNA electrophoresis, gene sequencing are examples of techniques students can participate in during a visit to the centre. The students journal their day with an Ipad –

“Dynamic, passionate young scientists are fabulous role models for students.”

photographing their progress in the lab and annotating images streamed from the lab’s microscope. The photos are sent via Dropbox to the teacher back at school for use after the visit. In the future, more targeted digital learning experiences are planned. Pre and post visit materials are available also – some key resources having been developed in partnership with the well established SPICE program – based the University of Western Australia and now providing access to its multimedia resources Australia wide. Pauline Charman strives to tick every box – easy to organise, link directly with the learning program and to offer a ‘wow’ factor.

All the activities are unique, relevant and not able to be

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done in a classroom – otherwise why would a teacher choose to bring students? In its first year of operation, an independent evaluation report (Murcia, 2014) showed that visitors were highly engaged and excited by their experience of medical research. Participants noted that it was particularly valuable to conduct experiments in a real PC2 laboratory while interacting with scientists working in the field – an experience not available elsewhere in WA. The ‘Next Gen’ programs’ feedback revealed that the hands-on nature of the activities was highly valued by school students and their teachers. Specifically it showed that: 1. Students were highly engaged with over 70% of the students stating they were more enthusiastic about studying science as a result of the experience. 2. Over 50% of the surveyed students stated they were more likely to consider a career in medical research as a result of their visit to the Centre. (Murcia, 2014) After just 15 months in operation, Pauline is the only full time staff member. She relies heavily on her ‘team of rock stars’....15 PhD/honours students who work on a casual rotational roster in the classes and two highly valued colleagues who helped her establish the first year’s programs. They are Ellen Fortini – PhD student at the Perkins as ‘scientist/research guru’, and Louise Moroney, Science teacher – ‘IT/Digital Learning guru’. Both bought into the concept immediately after hearing about the ‘proposed centre’. They contributed enthusiastically their knowledge, expertise and passion which resulted in the current successful first phase of the Centre. For information more information: https://www.perkins. org.au/biodiscovery-centre/schools/

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Professional Learning opportunities 2015 Allow us to design a program for your school and staff individual needs or come along to our professional learning workshops at Scitech! Term 3 workshops

Term 4 workshops

Holiday workshops

Thursday 6 August Mathspirations (F-Y6)

Friday 30 October Planning and Assessment for Australian Curriculum: Science (F-Y6)

Thursday 8 October Open Investigations (K-Y8)

Friday 7 August Physical Sciences (F-Y6) Friday 7 August Chemical Sciences (F-Y6)

Friday 27 November Integrating Science and Numeracy (F-Y6)

Friday 9 October Science for the Early Years (K-Y1)

Friday 27 November Integrating ICT for Science (F-Y10) Friday 4 September Earth and Space Sciences (F-Y6) Friday 4 September Biological Sciences (F-Y6)

Teacher drop-in Drop-in to hear from guest speakers and network with like-minded teachers. Held regularly in schools around the Perth metropolitan area, discover the science happening in other schools.

Take advantage of a more personal professional learning opportunity as we run an investigation lesson with your students using our Investigation Planners.

Check out our new workshops on Apps for Assessment and Edison Robotics. Go to www.scitech.org.au “What an organised, well informed & enthusiastic presenter. Wonderful.“

“Thanks for your time always inspires me to be more hands-on!”

Helen McGinniss, Swan View Primary School

Fiona Driscoll, Spring Hill Primary School

SCIOS_Advert_MK969_0815

Visit scitech.org.au or sign up to the Scitech Teacher eNews to hear about future sessions.

Professional Learning consults

Rec e 10% ive off Pro VOLUME 51 | AUGUST 2015 JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE TEACHERS’ ASSOCIATION OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA

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STAWA MEMBERSHIP Become a STAWA Member or Renew Your Membership by visiting; http://stawa.net/teachers/membership/ or by calling the STAWA office on (08) 9244 1987.

STAWA SERVICES AND SUPPORT Catalist and Primary Science Chat STAWA’s lists server (All teachers) Catalist reaches over 800 Science Educators and together with Primary Science Chat and social media such as twitter (@SciTeachersWA) are used to share information, ask questions and discuss current issues. To subscribe click here or follow the link from our website homepage. Teachers’ Survival Kit (Members Only) Found on the web at www.stawa.net, For Teachers. Members can upload and downloaded resources (exams, tests, course outlines, etc). Australian Science Teachers’ Association, ASTA, Affiliation All full fee paying members enjoy the benefits of affiliated membership to the national body. Members receive the following publications 1. Teaching Science (ASTA journal) – Four issues 2. PRISCI PIN-UPS (Primary Science) – Four issues 3. SCIOS (STAWA online journal) – Three issues. 4. E-Newsletters and Print Newsletters 5. National Science Week Activity Book (ASTA publication) 6. Professional Development & Conference Programs 7. Science Talent Search 2014 Booklet 8. Science iQ online science quizzes Information

Professional support Including information and professional advice on employment and teaching, curriculum, government policy, science equipment and professional development. STAWA offers teaching and learning enrichment opportunities such as, Physics Day @ Adventure World, Science Talent Search and ScienceIQ Online Quizzes. Professional recognition of the achievements and service of science teachers through annual awards such as the de Laeter Medal, the STAWA Primary Science Award and Jeff Cahill Early Career Teacher Award. STAWA also recognizes student achievements through Science Talent Search and the ScienceIQ Online Quizzes. STAWA provides an independent voice and with representation on many bodies and committees can express the needs and concerns of its members and help to shape the profession. Call for Nominations for STAWA Life Membership STAWA Council calls for nominations for Life Membership. Each nomination for Life Membership is considered on its individual merits. Nomination must be forwarded to the President of the Association, in writing, by 11th August, accompanied by written evidence supporting the case for Life membership. (email: admin@stawa.net or mail: STAWA President, PO Box 7310, Karawara, WA, 6152).

Members receive discounts on STAWA Professional Development Workshops and Conferences, and STAWA resources and publications.

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Carnaby’s adjust to foreign plants for feeding and shelter Jo Fulwood Carnaby’s black cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus latirostris) breed in the wheat belt and migrate to the Swan coastal plain between January and September. They are considered to be a threatened species partly because urban expansion is reducing their preferred habitat.

“(The cockatoos) adapt to the urban environment” A study tracking the movements of these endangered birds has discovered that they adapt to urban environments and also use non-native vegetation for feeding and roosting. These findings open the door for people living in urban areas to contribute to the survival of the iconic species by planting trees that can act as roosting sites and provide food. University of Western Australia researcher and study author Christine Groom said that Argos tracking devices, fixed to the tail feathers of 23 cockatoos over a two-year period, allowed her to track the flight patterns, eating habits and roosting practises of the birds. The data identified 18 key roosting sites across the Perth metropolitan area. “One thing that was particularly interesting is that nearly all of these sites are trees that are not locally native, such as lemon-scented gums (Corymbia citriodora) andpine trees (Pinaceae),” she said. “That’s particularly significant because it means that the cockatoos have the ability to adapt to living in the urban areas and it

means that people living in Perth can get involved in the conservation efforts by planting trees for these birds to roost in.” The birds used in the study were all rehabilitated animals and the study also found that they were able to adapt back into the natural environment. “The first thing I had to establish was that the rehabilitated birds were surviving and the study demonstrated that their survival rate was similar to that of the wild birds,” Ms Groom said. “The observations showed that they were meeting up with wild birds and flying in flocks. None of them had to be returned to care for any reason, showing that our ability to rehabilitate injured birds is very good.” Ms Groom said the study also demonstrated that the cockatoos eat non-native vegetation such as nuts from pecan, macadamia and almond trees and seeds from the tipuana (Dalbergieae) and liquid amber (Liquidambar styraciflua) trees. “Banksias are their main native food source and while we don’t yet understand the nutritional implications of these non-natives, it shows that they use non-native vegetation,” she said. This story first appeared on ScienceNetwork WA.

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Making Waves … through Engagement in Science Elaine Lewis, Cameron Tero and Hayley Bullimore The One World Centre (OWC) provides transformative education with the aim of encouraging and supporting an active and engaged citizenship, and a just and sustainable future for all (OWC, 2014). It is a nongovernment, not-for-profit organisation, established in 1987. The OWC provides education resources and support across WA; and works cooperatively with organisations such as the Australian Association of Environmental Education (AAEE) WA Chapter, the Water Corporation and the Australian Sustainable Schools Initiative (AuSSI) WA. In the past the OWC has worked predominantly in schools and universities but is now expanding into community education.

“Science education plays a vital role in working towards a more just and sustainable world” In 2014 a National Science Week Seed Grant provided the opportunity for the OWC to deliver a range of science activities to the general public. This trial was conducted at the annual Community Science & Sustainability Expo held at the Canning River Eco Education Centre (CREEC), Wilson, in August 2014. The activities presented in this article offer inspiration to educators wishing to engage the community in science, sustainability and global education.

Science education plays a vital role in working towards a more just and sustainable world by providing important perspectives on global issues, contributing to technological change and giving an informed basis for environmentally and socially sustainable development. This role is reflected in an OWC resource, All’s Well? Exploring the world of water with upper primary students (Flynn, Hosking & Tero, 2012). This resource book examines water scarcity, water security, pollution and wastage, providing tools that enable students to develop a deeper understanding of the importance of water in a global context as well as develop skills and understandings across a range of learning areas, including science. Bio-sand filters is one of the topics explored in this resource and demonstrated at the Community Science & Sustainability Expo. See Figure 1. The 2014 Science & Sustainability Expo was the sixth such event held annually at CREEC during National Science Week. These expos aim to enhance science understandings in the community and foster partnerships for science by providing a scientific feast for the senses. Starting in 2009 with a Taste of Science (Pearson & Lewis, 2009), followed by a Dance of Science in 2010 (Lewis & Pearson, 2010; 2011), Sound of Science in 2011 (Lewis, Gaschk & Pearson, 2011), Colours of Science in 2012 (Lewis, Nielsen, Pearson & Baudains, 2012; Lewis, Bullimore, Pearson, Krupa & Gaschk, 2013), and

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Scents of Science in 2013 (Lewis, Bullimore, Pearson, Krupa & Gaschk, 2013; Lewis, Bullimore, Krupa, Gaschk & Pearson, 2014; Sneddon & Lewis, 2013), these events have promoted science understanding in the general community. The sensory theme for 2014 Expo was ‘touch’, hence hands-on activities with water. Project Purpose The OWC project aims focussed on showcasing aspects of science that: • Drew attention to scientific understandings of water by providing an opportunity for members of the general public to participate in a new OWC event that presents science in a manner that is exciting, challenging, interesting, important and of direct relevance to daily life, the well-being of society and sustainability. •

Engaged people in the joys of scientific exploration, sparking interest in the sciences for those who are currently disinterested and help move those who are simply interested in the sciences to become more engaged. Trialled innovative science communication activities for community members, including water filtration and the Scitech Do-It-Yourself (DIY) Water Kit.

Figure 1. Cameron Tero, OWC Education Officer, explaining how the biosand filter works.

Fostered awareness and appreciation of Aboriginal knowledge and care of water resources. Fostered partnerships between the community, education/research organizations, local government and industry. Demonstrated how scientific knowledge can be a springboard for positive and active global citizenship.

Project Outline The Making Waves project sought to embed science into the OWC’s community education program at a public event, through hands-on water investigations and critical thinking related to implications. Sustainability implications included for instance, environmental (water supply, climate, erosion, etc.) and health (food production, water pollution, disease, etc.). Participants discussed these issues, stimulated by the resources on display, such as the All’s Well? book (Flynn et al., 2012).

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They were also invited to engage in a range of handson interactive experiences, with a particular focus on innovative technologies to provide clean, readily accessible water supplies for all. Bio-sand Filter The availability of a water filtration system can make a huge difference to the health of people living in an area where readily accessible clean water is a challenge. The bio-sand filter system on display at the Expo was made with clear perspex so participants could view the water filtering through the different layers. They poured water into the top and it passed through the following layers (Flynn et al., 2012, p. 13): • Diffuser – allows water to drip slowly into the system. •

Biological layer – made up of non-disease causing bacteria and parasites which trap and destroy harmful organisms.

Filtration layer – consists of a thick layer of sand which physically traps dirt and other impurities.

Gravel layers – consists of fine and course gravel to stop dirt moving through the system.

Collection pipe – is bent upwards to stop all the water flowing out of the filter.

Figure 3. Alison Bullock, OWC Coordinator, demonstrating the unbreakable balloon’ activity.

See Figure 2. Participants also had the opportunity to make their own bio-sand filter using a large plastic bottle and water from the Canning River. Water clarity was observed before and after filtration. Unbreakable Balloon Another activity demonstrated by the OWC was ‘unbreakable balloon’, from the Scitech DIY Water Kit. The aim of this activity was to demonstrate the ‘heat capacity’ of water. A balloon was blown up containing water. A lighter was applied to the balloon for about ten seconds. Throughout the demonstration participants Identify and were challenged to: suggest safe ways to use the materials. •

Make predictions as to what they expected to happen. Compare the result with their predictions and use this as evidence to develop a scientific explanation. Think about what ‘heat capacity’ actually meant.

Participants were also challenged to predict what would happen if a balloon was blown up with air, rather than with water. This part of the investigation was not conducted for safety reasons. Figure 2. Young participants conducted their own experiments with the bio-sand filter.

The discussions that followed related to the high heat capacity of water. The water absorbed a lot of energy

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Figure 4. Exploring traditional fish trapping techniques. (heat) without its temperature changing significantly, however, if a flame was placed under the air-filled balloon some participants predicted the rubber would burn and pop as there was only air to absorb the heat. See Figure 3. Other Water Activities Other investigations at the Expo related to water too. These were conducted by various experts, volunteers and organisations. For instance, Leonard Thorn, a Noongar educator, engaged participants with traditional aboriginal fish trapping techniques. AAEE WA provided interactive opportunities to enhance learning about oblong turtles in waterways of the Perth metropolitan area. CREEC enabled microscopic examination of river water macroinvertebrates.

Figure 5. Clay creations of oblong turtles.

“Participants (engaged in) traditional aboriginal fish trapping techniques” The South East Regional Centre of Urban Landcare (SERCUL) facilitated exploration with a river catchment model. Ardross Primary School students also presented a spectacular robotics performance involving a range of sustainability issues linked to the river context. See Figures 4-8. In brief, the wide range of investigations, explorations and performances at the Expo addressed issues related to ‘water’ in terms of conceptual understandings, inquiry skills and science as a human endeavour (ACARA, 2014).

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Figure 6. Making macroinvertebrate discoveries.

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Outcomes The Making Waves project was a five hour event at the Community Science & Sustainability Expo that embedded science, through experimentation and hands-on activities, into the OWC community education program. Sustainability implications included for example, environmental (such as, clean water supply) and health (for instance, water pollution and disease). As family members stayed with children, the impact spread providing a rich opportunity for families to learn together. Although the OWC project was not evaluated separately, the Expo as a whole was evaluated and this provided evidence of outcomes achieved. Outcomes of the Expo included: • Trialled and evaluated an innovative model for integrating science into the OWC community education program. •

Apart from the events at the Opening Ceremony, there were seven science shows and demonstrations, two musical performances, local wildlife encounters, and twenty six science stalls (including the OWC stall) at the Expo.

Approximately 3,000 people attend the Expo. Responses from evaluation forms (55) included: • Did you enjoy the event? – 42% Yes, 58%, Definitely • Would you attend this event again? – 5% Unsure, 40% Yes, 55% Definitely • Have you attended a National Science Week event in the past? – 40% Yes, 60% No

Typical comments from people attending the event on what they most enjoyed: • Water filtering (related to the OWC project) • Experiments • Lots of free hands-on activities for kids • Fun and so much learning • Everything!!

Figure 7. Investigating water flow in a catchment model.

Figure 8. Ardross Primary School students’ river robotics performance. [Include Figure 8 inset of close-up of swan robot]

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Increased community understanding of the vital role of science, technology and innovation, through the exploration of sustainability issues related to water. Participants commented: • Great to have science in the spotlight • I’m into more of science, of science and nature • Spectacular Science! • This experience has made me want to find out more about science. • This was a good way to learn about science. Fostered awareness and appreciation of Aboriginal knowledge in relation to water resources. Typical comments were: • I enjoyed the Aboriginal display and talk • I learned something new Enhanced partnerships between the community, education/research organizations, local and state government, and industry to facilitate deeper understandings of water issues. Comments from people attending about what they thought of this event: • Well organised & presented. • It was great to see so many people from different backgrounds.

Clearly, these findings indicate progress was achieved in relation to project aims. Conclusion One World Centre activities at the Expo demonstrated that scientific understandings are inextricably linked with sustainability and a more environmentally and socially just world. Opportunities are all around us to engage children and the general public in rich conversations that involve enjoyable, open-ended and hands-on scientific investigations. As two survey respondents stated when asked for three words to describe the event, they said: wonderful, encouraging, worthy, essential and very educational, essential. Finally, the One World Centre activities demonstrated valuable science and sustainability education can be achieved at a community event.

Acknowledgements The One World Centre expresses gratitude to the WA National Science Week Coordinating Committee for contributing funding towards this event. Thanks also to Expo partners, the Australian Association of Environmental Education WA Chapter, the Canning River Eco Education Centre, the South East Regional Centre of Urban Landcare for their support, and other Expo patrons and volunteers.

“Wonderful, encouraging, worthy, essential and very educational (event).” REFERENCES • Australian Curriculum and Assessment Reporting Authority, ACARA (2014). Australian Curriculum, Science, Version 5.1 . Retrieved October 15, 2014, from http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/Science/ Curriculum/F-10 • Flynn, N., Hosking, K. & Tero, C. (2012). All’s Well? Exploring the world of water with upper primary students. One World Centre, Perth, Western Australia. • Lewis, E., Bullimore, H., Krupa, A., Gaschk, K. & Pearson, J (2014). Feast of Science Sense-ations. Teaching Science: The Journal of the Australian Science Teachers Association, 60(3), p. 35-41. • Lewis, E., Bullimore, H., Pearson, J., Krupa, A. & Gaschk, K. (2013). Scents of science. SCIOS: The Journal of the Science Teachers’ Association of Western Australia, 49(1), 9-12. • Lewis, E., Bullimore, H., Pearson, J., Krupa, A. & Gaschk, K. (2013). Colours of Science. SCIOS: The Journal of the Science Teachers’ Association of Western Australia, 49(1), p. 9-12. • Lewis, E., Gaschk, K. & Pearson, J. (2011). Sounds of science. SCIOS: The Journal of the Science Teachers’ Association of Western Australia, 47(4), 24-27. • Lewis, E., Nielsen, L., Pearson, J. & Baudains, C. (2012). Turtle Watch: Enhancing science engagement. SCIOS: The Journal of the Science Teachers’ Association of Western Australia, 48(2), p. 14-18. • Lewis, E. & Pearson, J. (2010). Little Green Steps: Sustainability practice for early years comes to Western Australia. SCIOS: The Journal of the Science Teachers’ Association of Western Australia, 46(3), p. 13-14. • Lewis, E. & Pearson, J. (2011). Dancing with science. SCIOS: The Journal of the Science Teachers’ Association of Western Australia, 47(2), 5-7. • One World Centre, OWC (2014). One World Centre: Home. Retrieved October 15, 2014, from http://www.oneworldcentre.org.au/ • Pearson, J. & Lewis, E. (2009). A taste of science. SCIOS: The Journal of the Science Teachers’ Association of Western Australia, 45(4), 4-6. • Sneddon, S. & Lewis, E. (2013). Little Green Steps: Hands-on science for the early years. SCIOS: The Journal of the Science Teachers’ Association of Western Australia, 49(4), 8-11.

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Tsunami: The Ultimate Guide www.emknowledge.gov.au/connect/tsunami-the-ultimate-guide/#/

A Visual Tool

Contents

The Guide presents authoritative and engaging information in a highly visual manner with a focus on videos, animations, maps, graphics and interviews with experts and survivors.

» Tsunami Basics (Earth’s structure; plate tectonics; earthquakes and volcanoes; tsunami causes; and tsunami in action)

It’s easy to navigate with intuitive functionality. Interactive slideshows and timelines allow multiple points of entry to the information. The resource includes three tsunami case studies: 2004 Indian Ocean, 2010 Chile/ Hawaii and 2011 Japan tsunami.

Australian Curriculum The Guide is aligned to the Australian curriculum for Geography: years 6, 8 and senior secondary; and Science: years 6, 9 and senior secondary.

Teaching Resources ✭ Curriculum mapping document ✭ Lesson plans ✭ School kit, including a quiz ✭ Each photo, video, map and graphic is individually downloadable

A free, interactive resource produced by the Australian Tsunami Advisory Group —the experts in Australia.

» Australian Tsunami Threats (risk zones; tsunami models; and past tsunami events) » Warning System (Joint Australian Tsunami Warning Centre; detecting, evaluating and monitoring tsunami; what happens when there’s a tsunami; and warning levels) » Marine Threat Tsunami (marine tsunami warning and what to do; and case study: 2010 Chile/Hawaii tsunami) » Land Threat Tsunami (land threat tsunami warning and what to do; and case study: 2011 Japan tsunami) » Preparing for Tsunami (tsunami signs; warning levels; what to do in a tsunami; travelling overseas; and case study: 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami)

Australian Geography Teachers Association Award 2014

(Highly Commended, Digital Category) VOLUME 51 | AUGUST 2015 JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE TEACHERS’ ASSOCIATION OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA

(Highly Commended, Projects of National Significance)

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In memory of a dear friend, Sue Walmsley Vicki Carman-Brown (nee Shegog) Sue and I first met at Scitech, as Primary Education Officers, to develop full-sensory learning experiences for children in their early years. Sue and I had a great passion for early childhood education experiences at Scitech. We were given the exclusive opportunity to develop a unique exhibition floor experience for 0-5 year olds, who had exclusive use of the space, with their carers.

Our professional friendship extended outside of work with the sharing of great personal experiences, with other Scitech friends and our partners. Even after I left Scitech to set up the Imaginarium Science Centre in Devonport, Sue and Tom Walmsley stayed with us when holidaying in Tasmania for the first time. We had a really great time and those lovely memories linger still. Sue, we will miss you.

We had such fun in choosing and developing fabulous, hands-on experiences that engaged all the senses and whole-body exploration. With the help of the Scitech workshop team, Discoverland was realised and continues to provide the very young with great experiences today. Sue was greatly instrumental in continuing to develop our Early Childhood Puppet Theatre experience at Scitech. Aas part of a team of professional development officers, Sue and I developed themed, hands-on science activity booklets to inspire teachers to teach great hands-on science in their classrooms. Titles, such as Edible Science, Have you got rocks in your head? and Mini-beasts were specifically developed for early childhood hands-on experiences. Sue and I also had the opportunity to travel together, within WA, to present such Teacher PD sessions.

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Balanced, low GI breakfast may benefit teenage girls Teresa Belcher WA researchers have found an association between breakfast composition and Metabolic syndrome in adolescent girls, but not boys. The project, conducted at Edith Cowan University (ECU), investigated associations between daily and mealtime measures of Glycaemic Load (GL) and risk of Metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a condition in which disordered processing and storage of glucose and fats in the body can lead to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Analise Nicholl, one of the students leading the research, says GL is a product of the quantity of carbohydrate present in a food combined with the more widelyknown Glycaemic Index, or GI (how fast carbohydrate in a food will raise blood glucose levels). “By taking the amount of carbohydrate present into consideration, the total impact of each meal on blood glucose levels is better represented,” Ms Nicholl says. She says almost all previous studies examining these associations used an average daily GL value, which does not distinguish between the effects of peaks of GL intake at different meals and snacks over the day. “Looking for associations with disease risk in teenage dietary patterns may act as an early warning system,” Ms Nicholl says. “We may be able to offer better food choices at specific meals to reduce the risk of developing later chronic disease.”

They used data from 516 adolescents who participated in the 14-year follow up of the Raine Study—a WA pregnancy cohort following children born in 1989-1991. “Participants recorded all their meals over three days and had blood tests to measure various components of Metabolic syndrome, including blood glucose, ‘good’ cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TAG) levels,” Ms Nicholl says. After looking at all implications, they found an association between higher breakfast GL and Metabolic syndrome, but only in the girls. Two components of Metabolic syndrome were found to be associated with this increased risk at breakfast: fasting HDL-C and TAG levels. “Breakfast obviously has a significant effect on blood glucose, and your grandmother was right: it is the most important meal of the day,” Ms Nicholl says. “These findings support further investigation into including lower-GL foods as part of a healthy breakfast in adolescence, particularly for girls. “Lower GL carbohydrates are those high in fibre and low in added sugars; including other foods and beverages that provide protein and healthy fats will also help lower the meal GL.” Ms Nicholl says further research areas could include the effect of hormonal surges and increased insulin resistance on pubescent girls. Read more at sciencewa.net.au

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stawa publications The STAWA Exploring Chemistry, Physics and Human Biology series support the new Australian Curriculum based ATAR Courses. The new, Year 11 and Year 12 syllabuses have been adapted from the Australian Curriculum, for implementation in 2015 (Year 11) and 2016 (Year 12) Year 12 Printed Books - Available December 2015 ISBN

Title

978-09925738-6-7

Exploring Chemistry Year Experiments, Investigations Problems

12: and

$31

978-09925738-5-0

Exploring Physics Year Experiments, Investigations Problems

12: and

$31

Exploring Human Biology Stage 3: Changing Bodies*

$25

978-09803704-0-9

Cost

* Please note this is the current Year 12 HB resource and is available now. A teachers supplement containing activity links to the new syllabus will be available online

Year 11 Printed Books - Available Now ISBN

Title

Cost

978-09803704-7-8

Exploring Chemistry Year Experiments, Investigations Problems

11: and

$31

978-09803704-6-1

Exploring Physics Year Experiments, Investigations Problems

11: and

$31

978-09803704-8-5

Exploring Human Biology Year 11: Activities and Investigations

$28

EBooks are also available. Contact the STAWA Office for details. Human Biology General Course Resources Available Now ISBN

Title

Cost

978-09803703-1-7

Exploring Human Biology Stage 1: Looking Good*

$15

978-09803703-6-2

Exploring Human Biology Stage 2: Body Works*

$10

* The STAWA Exploring Human Biology Stage 1 and Stage 2 resources are available and together cover both the Year 11 and the Year 12 General Courses.

Member Discount: Members receive a 10% discount on all purchases through STAWA.

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Hair-degrading fungus comes under the microscope Kerry Faulkner A FORENSIC biologist has revealed hair-degrading fungus previously associated with the dead can exist in hairs on the living.

involved in moving the body from a clandestine grave. Based on the new evidence, the person may have been alive, albeit with a fungal infection.

Murdoch University PhD candidate, Silvana Tridico, has undertaken the first in-depth study into pre-and post-mortem bio-degradative effects on hair.

“This taphonomic [after death] feature—fungal tunnelling of hairs—occurs when you have a lot of exposure to soil; fungi live in soil,” Ms Tridico says.

The most important finding is that fungal tunnelling, where the hair is eaten by fungus, occurs in living animals and not just post-mortem as previously thought.

“They eat keratin—protein found in horns, nails, hooves and hair.

The finding has implications for the fields of forensics, archaeology and conservation biology where mis-identification of fungal tunnelling could result in incorrectly classifying species or in misinterpreting peri-mortem events. Previously, forensic investigators, on finding a missing person’s hair exhibiting fungal damage at a suspect’s home, may have concluded the suspect had been

“But you see them on healthy animals like shrews that predominately live in undergrowth and have a lot of contact with soil.” “These animals can become infected.” Ms Tridico studied 450 hairs including those from the scalp of ancient humans, the flanks of polar bears and coarse hair from woolly mammoths. She then honed in on 95 hairs which were studied using light microscopy and electron microscopy to give much greater detail.

Cuspate bite marks made by insects that have partially eaten away scalp hair recovered from human remains, thousands of years old. Credit: Silvana Tridico

She concluded the only process found only after death is post-mortem banding—a longitudinal band above the root of the hair.

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Physics Day @ Adventure World 2015 Physics Day@ Adventure World is a great day for students and teachers alike, with activities, worksheets, displays and plenty of water! 2015 has some exciting new digital data collecting activities.

Ms Tridico says when someone dies and it is ‘game on’ for bacterial degradation of the body, including hairs, bacteria preferentially target hair roots that were actively growing at the time of death. The bacteria invade the hair shaft near the root, giving it a banded effect. “If you find a clump of hair in a missing person case or mass disaster and see post-mortem banding, you know it’s a recovery not a rescue,” she says. Ms Tridico says the research promotes the value of proficiency and expertise in the study of hair in fields where the use of an atlas for hair identification, rather than a microscopic examination, is becoming more common.

Date Time Location Register

24th September 2015 08:00 AM - 03:00 PM Adventure World 351 Progress Drive, Bibra Lake http://stawa.net/events-2/physicsday-adventure-world/

Please download and complete the Adventure World / STAWA Physics Day Armband Form. The form outlines the safe and exclusively permitted usage of smartphones when combined with an Adventure World approved arm band to record physics data during the STAWA Physics Day using the SPARKvue app.

She says accurate animal hair examination for forensics and conservation biology, is essentially an exercise in taxonomy. ScienceNetwork WA http://www.sciencewa.net. au/topics/technology-a-innovation/item/3183-hairdegrading-fungus-comes-under-the-microscope

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Cracking the mystery of droplet evaporation Samantha Saw CURTIN University scientists have modelled the effects of droplet size and velocity on evaporation to better understand the refining process of heavy oil. Department of Chemical Engineering researcher Dr Monica Gumulya studied the hydrodynamics of liquid droplet evaporation when oil contacts heated, solid spherical particles . “We have not known either how fast evaporation occurs at high temperatures, nor just which factors affect the evaporation rate,” Dr Gumulya says. Oil is classified as heavy or light depending on its density compared to water. Heavy oils have longer-chained molecules and are more difficult to process. However, light, easier to process petroleum is becoming scarce, and there is an increasing need to process heavy oil. Heavy crude oil is refined by a process called fluid catalytic cracking (FCC). The central feature of FCC is the interaction of superheated solid particles with droplets of heavy oil to vaporise or evaporate them. This process cracks the long-chained oil molecules, converting them to products we use every day, such as kerosene and gasoline. The study looked at two parameters, liquid droplet size and velocity, to determine optimal ranges for evaporation to occur.

Smaller droplets formed vapour layer Dr Gumulya’s findings were contrary to intuition; reduced contact time between the superheated solid particles and the liquid droplets increased evaporation, and very small liquid droplets actually evaporated more slowly than larger droplets. “In some cases, smaller droplets formed a stable vapour layer, which stopped contact between the droplet and the particle.” She found larger liquid droplets were able to displace the vapour layer, coming into contact with the heated particle, allowing evaporation to occur. Velocity also plays an important part in evaporation. Faster moving particles, even though they had less contact time with the solid particle, evaporated faster because more mixing and heat transfer was occurring within the droplet, Dr Gumulya explains. This kind of numerical modelling is made possible now due to the existence and accessibility of supercomputers and high speed cameras, she says. Dr Gumulya noted that numerical studies of this nature are very complex. “One [simulation] requires a few days per run using parallel computers. It’s really quite an intensive process.” Each simulation takes five days to process, using 144 parallel Intel Xeon 2.8 GHz processors at iVEC’s facilities at Murdoch University. The total simulation time can be appreciated when it is realised that Dr Gumulya ran dozens of simulations.

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Calf muscles outclass hamstrings in injury prevention Vicki Carman-Brown (nee Shegog) BETTER prevention of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries is on the horizon after a recent study found the calf muscle plays a larger role in stabilising the knee than previously thought. Researchers from the University of Western Australia’s School of Sport Science, Exercise and Health and the University of Tennessee studied six amateur Western Australian Rules footballers to determine what muscle forces are at work during single-leg jump landings. Each footballer performed two single-leg jump landings on their preferred leg, while grabbing at a football. Researchers filmed the jumps, using a 12-camera motion capture system to create three-dimensional footage, which they then used to create a 37 degreeof-freedom, full-body musculoskeletal model, scaled to each participant’s anthropometry. UWA Assistant Professor Cyril Donnelly says analysis of the model shows the calf—or gastrocnemius—muscle is used much more than the hamstring muscle during singleleg landings. “This was initially surprising as 30 years of clinical research had suggested the hamstring muscles were key players for supporting the knee during sporting tasks,” he says. “We are not saying you don’t use your hamstrings, just not as much as we originally thought.” Training to reduce risk of injury in sport Increased force through the calf helped minimise

external forces through the ACL, Assistant Professor Donnelly says. “When you think of this logically, these results actually make sense. The primary task of your neuromuscular system is to keep your body upright, or prevent it from falling to the ground. “As the gastrocnemius is a bi-articular muscle [crossing two joints: the ankle and knee], it serves a secondary role to elevate joint compression and stabilise the knee. “We feel this is the protective mechanism supporting the knee and protecting the ACL from injury during single-leg landing tasks.” In the United States over 400,000 ACL injuries occur annually, the majority from non-contact sports. Assistant Professor Donnelly says the model has provided a mechanistic understanding of why neuromuscular training of muscles like the calf may have reduced knee injuries in the past. “Having the ability to estimate muscle forces during [single-leg landing and change of direction tasks] gives researchers and clinicians a better understanding of how to train the neuromuscular system to reduce an athlete’s risk of injury in sport,” he says. “The downstream effect will be the design of effective prophylactic training protocols to reduce an athlete’s risk of injury in sport, and seeing injury rates reduced in Australia and around the world.” ScienceNetwork WA http://www.sciencewa.net.au/ topics/health-a-medicine/item/3138-calf-musclesoutclass-hamstrings-in-injury-prevention

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Teacher-student conflicts linked to future bullying Rob Payne Conflict between teachers and students in kindergarten and pre-primary has been directly linked to increased future problems with victimisation, aggression and hyperactivity problems, research suggests.

“This information may guide peer interactions, for better or worse, via modelling or by social referencing; the other students may decide it is alright to pick on that child because the teacher does.

The findings come from a three-year Edith Cowan University study which followed 1,114 Western Australian students through their first three years of schooling.

“Or a poor relationship with a teacher may limit a child’s use of the teacher for emotional or practical support to peer problems.”

The research suggests students may be influenced by teacher attitudes in forming opinions about their classmates. Those who do not get along with the teacher are more susceptible to bullying. Dr Kevin Runions, now with the Telethon Kids Institute, says this study shows the ‘underappreciated power’ of the teacher in children’s peer relationships. “Teachers have distinct relationships with individual students in their class, and their relationships with children are an important source of social information for other students,” Dr Runions says.

The study confirms teacher-child conflict as a robust developmental risk marker for subsequent social developmental problems.

“Teachers have powers that need to be better understood, and better utilised, in the interests of children.” Behaviour puts more stress on teachers It also highlights the impact of hyperactivity over and above children’s aggression in accounting for conflict with teachers, with impulsive and distracting behaviours putting more stress on teachers.

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Year 12 ATAR Science Planning Workshops

This was not the case for kindergarten students, however. They were afforded leeway for their age and status as newcomers in the more structured education system. “By pre-primary, teachers may expect better selfcontrol, and children who still display these behaviours may engender conflict,” Dr Runions says. Their classmates may share these expectations, as even when teacher-child conflict is removed from the study’s modelling, hyperactivity is shown to increase the likelihood of victimisation.

STAWA in conjunction with AISWA are offering half-day science professional development opportunities in selected Year 12 ATAR Science subjects in preparation for 2016.

For kindergarten students, aggression was shown to be a warning sign for increased conflict with teachers in later years.

The current syllabi have changed and our guest speakers will clarify and elaborate on the new courses.

Victimisation had no effect on the likelihood of teacherchild conflict at any age. Dr Runions says understanding the complexities of victimisation requires the whole social context of classrooms to be considered. The study recommended educational and intervention strategies which focus on the teacher’s role in creating positive peer dynamics, in order to create a supportive learning environment for all students. “These results suggest that teachers have powers that need to be better understood, and better utilised, in the interests of children.” ScienceNetwork WA http://www.sciencewa.net.au/ topics/social-science/item/3139-teacher-studentconflicts-linked-to-future-bullying

PERTH Date Time Location Register

7th - 11th September 2015 12:00 AM - 03:30 PM each day Various - please see flyer http://stawa.net/wp/wp-content/ uploads/2015/07/2016-ATARPlanning-Workshops-Final-flyer.pdf

SOUTH WEST 29th - 30th October 2015 Date Various - please see flyer Time ECU - Bunbury Location http://stawa.net/wp/wp-content/ Register uploads/2015/07/South-WestYear-12-ATAR-WShops.pdf

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future science 2014 John Clarke 301 science educators were wowed by depth and breadth of Future Science Conference presentations and workshops.

Her presentation was very well received and sighted on many evaluations as one of the highlights of the conference.

Future Science, an annual STAWA conference, was hosted by Curtin University on Friday 5th December 2014. The focus of Future Science is to showcase enthusiastic experts from science, technology and engineering while exploring cutting-edge science, pedagogy and curriculum change. With 48 workshops on offer covering most areas of science delegates were spoilt with choice.

As you are well aware there is a lot of behind the scenes work that goes into preparing for a conference. The efforts of Emma Donnelly, Science Outreach Manager and her team were commendable. Without this support, both before and during the conference, it would not have run as smoothly, been as enjoyable, or as successful as it was. The STAWA Council take this opportunity to thank all the Curtin University staff that assisted in hosting this event.

The state-of-the-art Curtin Engineering Pavilion was the hub of the conference where delegates were fed and able to engage with the 17 trade exhibits. Our many loyal exhibitors add value to the experience and atmosphere of the conference. The support of Jo Ward, Dean of Science and the many members of the Science and Engineering Faculty who presented were tremendous. Associate Professor Linda Selvey provided the keynote address: Global infectious diseases: are we winning?

Figure 1: All Education Sector were well represented.

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(See Figure 1), 90 delegates participated in the Keypad lead evaluation during the plenary session with a further 56 responding to the online evaluation questionnaire following the conference. We thank everyone for their feedback and will do our best to accommodate the many suggestions provided. The online feed back in particular provided was rich with ideas and suggestions for improvement and we thank you for your time in responding to the questionnaire. Summary of key points from the evaluation: • Almost 38% of delegates received information about the conference via an email invitation from STAWA and 20% through school email. •

Delegates rated their workshop selections highly, with 21% saying awesome. Future Science 2014 impressed 97.8% of delegates who found the conference a valuable Professional Learning experience and 99% saying that they would attend again. Don’t miss Future Science 2015.

Future Science 2015 Friday 4 December 2015 Curtin University Details coming soon See overpage for more photos from the event!

It was great to see that 41% of respondents were first timers but equally as important, we had 36% of our delegates who have attended more than 5 times. Delegates said that Curtin facilities were more than sufficient for this conference, had no difficulty locating the registration desk, and 80% liked the hot drinks voucher. As far as the food was concerned 60% strongly agreed and 33% agreed lunch was sufficient in quantity and quality.

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Governor’s School STEM Awards 2015 The Primary and Secondary Schools awards will acknowledge school leadership and excellence in science and mathematics as part of STEM education. Primary and Secondary schools that enter the Science Talent Search will be eligible for nomination by STAWA for these awards. Details including selection criteria will be available here, early Term 2.

Science Talent Search STAWA invites primary and secondary students to participate in the 57th Science Talent Search competition. The science Talent Search aims to promote science teaching and learning through creative project work. The Science Talent Search is an annually held competition for Western Australian schoolstudents from Kindergarten to Year 12. This competition recognises the excellent work of students with prizes in each age group and category, along with young scientist and school awards for outstanding achievements.

How to Get Involved Ensure your school participates in The STAWA Science Talent Search and / or The MAWA activities and Mathematics competitions. STS 2015 • Submitting entries Monday, 17 August • Judging Saturday, 30 August • Awards Presentation Wednesday 16 September For more information and the online entry form, please visit the website http://stawa.net/science-talentsearch-2015/

The 4 winning schools will receive: • $1,000 for school’s STEM programs • Invitation to attend a schools function with the Governor at Government House • Governor to visit school to present award

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HOW TO CONTRIBUTE CAN YOU CONTRIBUTE? YES, of course you can. So can lab technicians and students... your Year 7 or Year 8 class could write a half page article with a photo that we would love to publish. We are keen to increase the number and variety of types of articles published in SCIOS. SO if the answer is YES to any of the following questions, we want to hear from you. • Have you recently conducted a new experiment that worked really well? • Is there a great demonstration that always gets your students’ attention? • Have you tried a new teaching technique that was fun? • Do you have some helpful hints for new teachers (and not-so-new ones)? • Are there some safety hints and tips that you’d like to pass on? • Have you used computers or some other technology really effectively? • What successes have your students had in science? • Are your students involved in science project outside of school? • Anything else science-related you would like to share with others? Email your contributions to nebelk@penrhos.wa.edu.au GUIDELINES FOR AUTHORS These notes are a brief guide to contributors. Contributors should also refer to recent issues of the Journal. Refereed articles are peer reviewed by the Editor and anonymously by at least two reviewers. Feature Articles Feature articles should not normally exceed 3000 words plus figures, tables and references. Short, concisely written articles are very welcome. Please use headings and sub-headings to give your article structure. WE also welcome any other type if contribution. Reviewed articles are subject to peer review.

Send the following to the Editor If you cannot send your contribution in the following recommended form, please send it to the Editor in any reasonable form. Please send your document as a word file. 1. Photographs and other images (e.g. diagrams) 2. should be sent as separate files. Photographs often increase the clarity 3. and interest level of your work. Send your photographs as .tiff or highest quality .jpeg files with a resolution of at least 300 dots per inch (dpi). Note to teachers: Parent permission (signed permission slip) must be obtained for any photographs to be included in SCIOS 4. Copyright clearance for any part of your contribution that is copyright of a third party needs to be obtained in writing (email acceptable). Innovations in the classroom The editorial; board members are keen to increase the number of articles on this topic. We are always keen to review your ideas about experiments, demonstrations, teaching techniques, hints, safety notes, computer applications and anything else that could help classroom science teachers, especially beginning teachers. Reference style SCIOS reference style is based on the most recent edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Copyright No other publisher should have already published our manuscript, nor should you submit it for publication elsewhere. If SCIOS publishes your manuscript then your text and graphics will become copyright of STAWA. STAWA will, however, allow you to use the contents of your paper for most reasonable non-commercial purposes. Contact John Clarke, STAWA email john@stawa.net

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SCIOS August 2015 Volume 51  

Journal of the Science Teachers' Association of Western Australia

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