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the future of water

May 2013 2  |  The Future of Water  |  SFSU  |  Advanced Graphic Design


This report is a product of the San Francisco State University Department   of Design and Industry Advanced Graphic Design 3 course. The Department of Design and Industry is an inclusive learning environment that promotes creativity and scholarship, and mirrors the wide range of cultural, artistic and scholarly interests in the San Francisco Bay Area.

Contacts Stacy Asher Course Instructor  stacyasher@gmail.com Joshua Singer Visual Communication Design Coordinator  singer.joshua@gmail.com

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Contents Executive Summary

6

The Future of Water

9

Information

10

Alexander Hopson + Justin Soong Mobility

14

Gabriel Bentley + Federico Dejesus Wellness

18

Judy Chu + Alisha Piccirillo Nourishment

22

Anthony Buada + Celeste Freitas Shelter

24

Stella Cunanan + Carly Leung Entertainment

31

Dana Lui Waste

34

Gabriella Medina + Lindsey Millen Energy

36

Eliza Bolger + Dan Crannery Commerce

39

Pichamon Chamroenrak + Madeleine Lucero- Simmons Governance

42

Sarah Groshans +  Thrudy Regan Security

46

Ghazal Modarresi + Derek Wong

Conclusion 50 Contacts 54          Front + Back Matter / Ivonne Calderon

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Twelve urban systems are common to every city throughout the world: water, information, mobility, wellness, nourishment, shelter, entertainment, waste, energy, commerce, governance, and security. These systems are highly interconnected, and can be characterized by the flow of physical resources and related services into, out of, and within the bounds of the city. The following text examines the intersection of water and each additional urban system.

1 Information

2 Mobility

3 Wellness

In this modern age, it is

Although we are often

A pioneer of environmental

increasingly necessary and

encouraged to save

movements, San Francisco

difficult to track the social,

water by replacing our

is integrating tap water

health, and environmental

showerheads and toilets

accessibility into the urban

effects of the water we

there are significant dangers

landscape.

consume. People are

being largely ignored. We

becoming increasingly

must seriously consider

aware of how their choices

how we move water from its

regarding water impact

source to our homes and

every aspect human life.

offices as well as where it is transported after use.

4 Nourishment

5 Shelter

6 Entertainment

Water is a valuable resource

Water is considered one of

Using water for entertainment

to humans, plants and

the very basic requirements

affects the amount of water

animals. It is what keeps our

for life and is a necessity

available to us in the future.

bodies running and the world

for survival. However, in

We may not need to worry

connected. Water is present

the modern age, water is

about the amount of water we

in the food we consume as

often overused in providing

have now, but it will become a

well as the environment that

comfort. The hotel industry

problem.

surrounds us.

in particular uses copious amounts of water to create a sense of luxury.

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7 Waste

8 Energy

9 Commerce

As drought, population

The quantity of fresh water

With the drought in California

growth and water shortages

consumed for energy

getting worse every year,

in America become an

production is a massive

the topic of water ownership

increasing threat, California

concern for todays society.

becomes increasingly

must confront the biggest

Even more alarming, it is

important as well. The public

contributor to water waste,

predicted by the International

should be questioning who

water distribution loss. An

Energy Agency (IEA) to

owns the water and why they

average of seven billion

double within the next

have the right to sell it.

gallons of clean, treated

25 years.

drinking water is lost daily due to poor infrastructure.

10 Governance

11 Security

Local examples of

Water security is crucial to

organizations that regulate

our survival. The process

water use are highlighted in

of obtaining and enjoying

this chapter. These programs

the water we have access

demonstrate the potential of

to is sometimes taken for

governance to save our water

granted, and may cause

supply and quality.

problems in the future.

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IntroDuCTION Urban areas are diverse in a multitude of ways, including climate, culture, and the design of the built environment. In spite of these dissimilarities, the urban systems that underlie each city remain relatively constant. Every city in every country has devised a system for managing its inhabitants’ access to water, information, mobility, wellness, nourishment, shelter, entertainment, waste, energy, commerce, governance, and security. Different cities have different approaches to organizing the flow of and access to these twelve systems. A consideration of the relationships between the different urban systems reveals compelling insights about the capacities and priorities of a city, its leaders, and its inhabitants. Water, one of the most basic human needs, has come to occupy an increasingly complex role in city management. A necessity for health and nourishment, a means for recreation, a factor in waste removal and treatment, and a topic rife with political and environmental discussion, water maintains a critical relationship with each element of the dense network of interrelated activity that comprises urban life. We invite you to use the following pages as a resource for engaging more deeply with the water system within our own city of San Francisco.

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7

water + waste

2 | The Future of Water | Arup Foresight

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Arup Foresight | The Future of Water | 3


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water / information

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The problem of information

“Bottled water is the most environmentally responsible consumer product in the world.” —Nestlé Waters Ad

In recent years it has become important to

This results in many well-meaning consumers

track the social, health, and environmental

falling victim to “greenwashing,” a technique

effects of the water we consume. People are

companies use to build up an environmentally

becoming increasingly aware of how their

friendly brand image which may misrepresent

choices regarding water impact every aspect

their actual environmental impact. In October

human life. However, this awareness can have a

2008, Nestlé Waters advertised a bottle design

paralyzing effect. With so many questions and

that used less plastic, claiming bottled water

not enough credible information, we often find

was “the most environmentally responsible

ourselves unable to make truly effective choices

consumer product in the world.” However, even

about water.

Nestlé Waters (in direct contradiction to its own claims) stated in a Corporate Citizenship Report

For example, how can we make environmentally

released that same year that the majority of their

sustainable choices about our drinking water?

plastic bottles ended up as solid waste.

Many of us understand the importance of clean water, but are often conflicted when faced with

a decision of choosing bottled water over

Nestlé was eventually taken to task by environmen-

tap, weighing environmental concerns over

tal groups for creating a misleading narrative

perceived quality and safety of water. With

about their product, but they remain a prime

the sheer volume of information out there, it

example of how mishandled information has

becomes difficult to discern a credible source.

the potential subvert even our best intentions.

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source check list Endless amounts of resources are available with

Look for information about the author; what’s  

the click of a button. We live in a time when

his or her point of view?

anyone can publish anything on the Web and

What’s the purpose or motive of the content?

‘anything’ might pop up in your search. The Internet

Is the information objective?

has created an environment where information is

How accurate is the information. Can it be verified?

plentiful, but not consistently correct. Because

Are the sources credible? What

solid resources and quality information are at

institution (company, government, university, 

a premium, it is more important than ever to

etc.) has funded or sponsored the information?

thoroughly evaluate the content we come across.

How current is the information? Check dates.

Information on vast, general topics like “water” might seem infinite but focused and useful information on topics like “clean water” is now   at a premium. It has become more important   for us to educate ourselves about water using reliable and trustworthy resources and to keep the topics focused.

Can you trust what you know about water?

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water education and  Awareness sources   In a sobering tale about water consumption

“processed” water to the tune of over half a

Robert Glennon’s Unquenchable: America’s

billion bottles of water every week.  

Water Crisis and What To Do About It confronts

www.storyofstuff.org

wasteful water usage in America by documenting the many inefficient elements of the nation’s

Project Wet is a website that contains

water system.

everything you need to know about water. It is a teaching tool for schools or the home for

In The Big Thirst: The Secret Life and Turbulent

kids in a wide range of ages. Filled with solid

Future of Water, Charles Fishman sets out to 

information, a lot of data and a wide array of

change the way we think about water by exploring

additional resources, Project Wet is totally

our strange and complex relationship with it.

committed to conveying the truth about water. www.projectwet.org

Alex Prud’homme’s The Ripple Effect: The Fate of Fresh Water in the Twenty-First Century

California Water Awareness is an informative

is a collection of local water stories that have

source that presents a wide range of water-

major global implications.

related issues, challenges, and solutions pertaining to California and San Francisco.

The Atlas of Water, Second Edition: Mapping

It has great potential for helping Californians

the World’s Most Critical Resource by authors

rediscover the importance of water through

Maggie Black and Jannet King is a compelling

tangible examples of water programs, sources

visual guide to the state of water that uses

of drinking water and many more topics about

vivid graphics, maps, and charts to explore the

water usage. Learn more about your water at

complexities of human interaction with water.

www.waterware.org

Free Range Studios has published videos

The United States Geological Survey presents

on educational topics that are entertaining

the widest spectrum of information related to

and informative for all age groups. The Story

water in the United States. The USGS is the

of Bottled Water is a video that explains how

ideal starting point for research. This website

demand for products such as manufactured water

is filled with resources to understand our water

bottles is created. The beverage industry has

situation and how to treat water resources

persuaded Americans to consume expensive

responsibly. www.water.usgs.gov

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water / mobility

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Water System Inefficiency Although we are urged to save water by re-

these problems are beginning to be addressed,

placing our showerheads and toilets, there are

but some remain. San Francisco Public Utili-

pressing dangers being largely ignored. How

ties Commission which runs the Hetch Hetchy

we move water from its source to our homes

Regional Water System, does not publish the

and offices as well as where it is transported

efficiency of their system. However, Tokyo

after use requires some serious consideration. Currently, San Francisco’s water originates primarily within Yosemite National Park, in the Hetch Hetchy Valley. About 15% of the water comes from other sources downriver, but the majority makes the complete 167 mile trip. The

Tokyo, as of 2006, has one of the most efficient water systems in the world, but still wastes the equivalent of the water used by 455,556 San Franciscans.

water is considered clean enough that it is not filtered (with the exception of the water added

has made water system efficiency one of their

from downstream sources) and the entire

major priorities. So far they have drastically

system is gravity-driven, which saves money

reduced systemic water losses from leaks

that would otherwise be used for pumping the

and theft to just 3.6%. While this is far better

water through the system.

than the 20% losses Tokyo had in 1956, it still means the city loses about 68 million cubic

Despite these positives, San Francisco, along

meters every year. Considering the average

with most other major cities, still wastes a large

San Franciscan uses 108 gallons per day, the

amount of water on a systemic level. Some of

Tokyo system is wasting the daily equivalent of

The smallest leaks are the most dangerous because they often go undetected for a long time.

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the water used by 455,556 San Franciscans. If

hear. Tokyo has made use of extensive system

San Francisco’s water loss were to reach as

monitoring that makes pinpointing leaks much

low a level as Tokyo’s, it would still be losing

easier. They monitor flow during the lowest

the equivalent of the water used by about

demand hours, typically at night, which allows

47,970 San Franciscans. Improving efficiency

them a much better picture of where losses are

of shower heads and toilets can be helpful,

occurring. San Francisco has been upgrad-

but the benefits still pale in comparison to the

ing to smart meters that monitor the system

gains that could be had by focusing on the

every hour, meaning that implementing similar

water losses in the delivery system.

methods is possible. Additionally, Tokyo has been replacing pipes proactively, and using

Tokyo has made use of several methods to

new materials such as ductile cast iron, which

reach their system efficiency levels. First and

has magnesium to create a more flexible pipe,

foremost is the implementation of rigorous

thereby requiring less repairs.

leak detection. Existing leak detection is typically done by using specialized listening equipment to hear the sounds of leaks, but this often misses the most dangerous leaks: the small ones, because they are so difficult to

Monitoring systems can help detect and pinpoint leaks as well as helping to prevent water theft which means better, cheaper water for the consumer.

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reuse water Most citizens of San Francisco are aware that their fresh water resources come from Hetch Hetchy. Yet because of the lack of infrastructure for reuse, waste is inevitable. After water is used, it is carried to the water treatment plant and then released into the ocean. What if recycled water could be reused for other purposes such as watering our gardens, washing our cars, or even entertainment? Greywater is the leftover water from baths, showers, hand basins, washing machines, and other clean sources. How can we use greywater? We need to have a separate system that would only be used to distribute greywater to San Francisco’s underground water system.

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We have to limit the use of our water reserve

Association of Plumbing and the Mechanical

and think about how we can reduce the use

Official’s Uniform Plumbing Code has

of fresh water. As part of the Water System

standardized the system by using color as a

Improvement Project, San Francisco is working

way to differentiate the pipes. Specifically,

to collect greywater and use it where possible.

recycled water pipes will be purple instead of

Recycled water is used water that has been

blue, as that is the color typically used for fresh

filtered for the purpose of non-potable use.

water pipes.

Once the system is completed, water would be collected from the houses, buildings, and

In the home, the system will have separate

other places that use fresh water and then

piping for fresh water and recycled water.

transported to the water treatment plant before

Fresh water will be used in the kitchen and

making its way back to be reused.

showers. Recycled water will be used in

With so many pipes underground, how can

separate colored faucets outside the house for

we discern which one are freshwater and

use when washing cars and watering the lawn.

washing machines and toilets as well as having

which are recycled water? The International

“In 2002, San Francisco voters’ approval of Propositions A and E authorized the financing for the 40 WISP projects to be constructed within the city.” —spur.org

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water / wellness

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hydration is Life The number one indicator of wellness in

In an urban location such as San Francisco,

a community is access to clean water for

many water fountains are broken and unusable.

hydration. A pioneer of environmental

Durable and low maintenance water station

movements, San Francisco is implementing  

designs are essential for public drinking

tap water accessibility in the urban landscape

fountain installations. Since hydration is a

to promote drinking tap water instead of

necessity and reducing plastic water bottle

bottled. San Francisco has exceptional tap

consumption is a priortiy, both civic and

water sourced from the Hetch Hetchy snow

community sponsored programs are emerging

melt in Yosemite National Park. With high

in San Francisco to encourage hydration by

quality tap water available, the challenge is in

offering access to clean tap water for drinking.

design and delivery to urban public spaces.

Many public water fountains in San Francisco are broken or unusable.

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“Water is a human right allotment that must not be charged for. Scarcity of water should not affect peoples right to clean water.” —Global Tap Mission

Essential for life, drinking enough water also

In addition, hydration detoxifies the internal

reduces stress, but dehydration creates stress

system of the human body, reduces heart

in the body which in turn generates thirst.

disease and allows the kidneys to filter toxins

Maintaining hydration allows for necessary

properly, lowering the risk of kidney stones.

body regulation such as:

Since the brain is comprised of 90% water,

• Maintenance of body temperature • Lubrication of joints and muscles • Moisture of air in lungs

drinking water keeps the brain hydrated and a person functioning. Sometimes people mistake hunger for thirst, turning to food rather than a glass of water. Eating more than what they

• Elasticity of skin • Protection of vital organs • Absorbency of nutrients

really need creates the potential for overeating and ultimately, obesity.

• Transportation of nutrients and oxygen   into cells

A vicious cycle Being dehydrated can cause physiological

Stress

Dehydration

signs of stress, which in turn tends to cause more dehydration. If you are thirsty you are already dehydrated. How can a city promote wellness by providing access to clean tap water that citizens and visitors will use?

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WATER accessibility In an effort to reduce waste and promote free

Global Tap stations are popping up across

public access to clean drinking water, San

the city as well as the nation. Depending on

Francisco has installed nine ADA compliant

the location, many people are not aware of

Global TapTM bottle refill stations. Carrying re-

the station’s function or do not carry reus-

fillable water bottles and drinking tap water has

able water bottles with them. The Global Tap

become more prevalent among San Francisco

station located in Yerba Buena Park, where

residents and the Global Tap stations are an

many pedestrians pass by, is barely used. The

example of a civic, industry, and community

dispenser did create interest, as people were

based solution.

looking at it and interacting with it in curiosity.

Municipal and community supported programs are emerging in San Francisco to encourage hydration by offering access to tap water refill stations.

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Water Refill Stations TM

Partners

Locations for accessing clean and free tap water. Map data provided by Tapit and Global Tap.

Another industry and community level project

and hydrate on the go. There are currently

has emerged with a different solution to tap

92 participating locations in San Francisco

water access. TapitTM, an organization that

and TapIt is quickly becoming a popular

works in conjunction with local cafes and

phenomena.

eateries to provide free tap water refills to the public within their storefront, is an alternative

The above map displays the Global Tap

to outdoor water dispensers. This initiative

and TapIt locations in San Francisco. These

is beneficial to the establishments as they

projects have different approaches but the

gain more traffic. TapIt then promotes these

same goal of providing hydration by offering

locations to the public via their website and

free, clean, environmentally and socially

smartphone applications so people can locate

responsible tap water.

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water / nourishment

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“There are more than 80 ‘regulated’ contaminants and more unregulated toxins, like the rocket fuel component perchlorate, which are present in most tap water.” —www.globalhealingcenter.com

WHAT’S IN YOUR WATER? Water is a valuable resource to humans, plants

are very high. Tap water is used for many  

and animals. It is what keeps our bodies running

activities such as cooking, gardening,

and the world connected. Water is in the foods

showering and washing clothes. Even after the

we consume as well as environments that

process of filtering water, there are still 

surround us. However, is the water we consume

a few contaminants that make their way

safe? Unlisted chemicals are being dumped into

through the system and end up in the tap

our water systems everyday. Many individuals

water we utilize. Chemicals like nitrate, arsenic,

aren’t aware of the toxic chemicals that are in

chlorine and fluoride are among the various

the water they drink and use which can lead to

contaminants found in tap water. Garden hoses

serious health issues.

and sinks contain the highest levels of lead which can cause serious health issues for all

Many people perceive commercialized bottled

ages. Some symptoms of lead poisoning are

water as safe and pure because it is advertised

muscle pain, kidney failure, memory loss and

as such. However, according to a test by The

brain damage. In 2005, the Environmental

Environmental Working Group, 38 low-level

Protection Agency (EPA) found Perchlorate,

contaminants were found in the 10 tested

a rocket fuel chemical which is used for

brands of bottled water. An average of eight

fireworks and explosives, in 153 drinking

chemicals including disinfection byproducts

water sources.

(DBPs) Caffeine, Tylenol, nitrate, industrial

Chemicals & Containments In Drinking Water

Health Risks

Alachlor

Eye, liver, kidney or spleen problems; anemia; increased risk of cancer

Benzene

Anemia; decrease in blood platelets; increased risk of cancer

bottled water was presented due to the notion

Cadium

Kidney damage

of high production cost of bottled water and

Carbon tetrachloride

Liver problems; increased risk of cancer

bottle” was the slogan for the concept.

Epichlorohydrin

Increased cancer risk, and over a long period of time, stomach problems

Tap water is easily accessible and widely used,

Selenium

Hair or fingernail loss; numbness in fingers or toes; circulatory problems

Xylenes (total)

Nervous system damage

chemicals, arsenic, and bacteria were all detected. The plastic used to fabricate bottled water contains bisphenol A (BPA), a toxin that can cause structural brain damage, altered immune function and stimulates prostate cancer cells. In San Francisco, the idea of banning

harm to the enivornment. “Think outside of the

but the chances of running into contaminants

For more listed chemicals and contaminants, visit: http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/index.cfm#List

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Citizens have the right to know whether their drinking water is safe, as mandated in the 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act.

water filters Water treatment plants in the United States  

apartments. These outdated pipes carry lead

are some of the best treatment plants  

and other heavy metals that also significantly

in the world. However, even in the United

compromises the quality of our water.

States, contamination of drinking water sources does occur more than one might

With known contaminants found in our

think. Microbes, pollutants, and chemicals

municipal drinking waters, we can ensure

includ-ing pharmaceuticals are some of the

quality water by investing in a home water  

major concerns. Microbes are easier to treat

filter. Home filtration systems can eliminate  

in water systems, pollutants and chemicals

heavy metals, chemicals, pollutants,  

are becoming a pressing issue as they are

parasites and bacteria. Since there is a  

sometimes part of the treatment process.  

wide range of home filters, it’s important to

For example chloramine, a combination of 

check your local water quality to see what

chlorine and ammonia used for disinfection  

pollutants are most prevalent. It is stated that

and killing microbes, stays in the water. Is  

citizens have the right to know whether their

there another way we can treat water without

drinking water is safe, as mandated in the 1996

the use of chemicals?

amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. Requesting or downloading a report from your

Although contaminants are found in water,  

water company is the best way to determine

the typical water treatment processing plant  

your water quality. Another water filter to

in the U.S. is advanced in comparison to  

consider is a shower filter for your bathroom.

other countries. The majority of people have  

Our skin is the largest organ and can absorb

access to drinking water without a high risk  

chemicals which come in contact with it.

of becoming ill due to poorly treated water.  

Attaching a shower head filter can prevent  

In San Francisco, the majority of water comes

or lower your exposure to contaminants.

from snowmelt of the high Sierra Nevada. The natural cleanliness of this water is jeopardized

Obtaining a water filter for your home is

by the extensive distance it travels in pipes

essential to protecting your health from

made of contaminants and heavy metals during

contaminants that most water treatment  

its journey to the Bay Area.

plants in the United States do not process out. This ensures the safety of the household

Another threat to the quality of the water are older pipe systems found in many homes and

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consuming the water.


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water / shelter

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the hotel industry Water is considered one of the very basic

the United States is between 382-787 liters

needs of life and is necessary for survival.

per day; compared to about 300-380 liters the

While many homeless in San Francisco

average person uses at home. According to the

struggle to obtain water for survival, the  

San Francisco Guardian, there are approxi-

hotel industry is overusing drinking water

mately 32,952 hotel rooms in San Francisco.

to provide comfort and luxury. Many hotels

If at full capacity there could potentially be

consume large amounts of water to achieve

upwards of 26 million liters of water being used

a luxurious atmosphere. The average water

in San Francisco hotels.

consumption of one guest per hotel room in

Water used in hotels and other lodging businesses accounts for approximately 15% of the total water use in commercial and institutional facilities in the United States. –

American Water Works Association Research Foundation.

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Hotel Nikko uses low flow toilets which can save 6 million gallons a day.

san francisco  green hotels The Hotel Nikko: Changed to low flush toilets

They are also attempting to eliminate use of

(3.5 gallons to 1.5 gallons) which can save six

water bottles.

million gallons per day. Hotel Drisco: Implemented a reuse linen InterContinental San Francisco: Provides

program to reduce daily washings.

guests with real time water usage reports to educate them and to allow them to participate in

Hotel Carlton: First solar powered hotel which

the green initiative.

provides roughly 12% of energy needed to run the hotel.

Galleria Park Hotel: Replaced toilets, faucets, and shower heads to eliminate water waste.

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Arup Foresight  |  The Future of Water  |  38


HOMELESS in the city According to the 2011 San Francisco Homeless Count, there are 6,455   homeless residents in San Francisco. Nearly half of the homeless residents are left unsheltered, living in cars or tents. Approximately 200 unsheltered homeless individuals were denied access to shelters, causing many to live in the streets. Reporter Julia Scott followed the daily routines of homeless individuals and discovered their lack of access to restroom facilities. Homeless individuals use alternative sanitary items because of the lack of water available to them Joseph Luna, a homeless man in San Francisco, carries baby wipes, shaving cream, Purell and a bit of soap for his sanitary needs. It is important for homeless individuals to have access to clean water and restroom facilities as it is a hygenic necessity for everyday life.

“In the United States, homeless individuals struggle to access running water and restroom facilities.” — Catarina de Albuquerque, U.N. Special Rapporteur


ACCESS to clean water In the United States, homeless individuals

entrepreneur plans to convert MUNI buses to

struggle to access clean running water and

shower facilities. With her latest project titled

restroom facilities. A non-profit organization

Lava Mae, the MUNI buses will provide 100

based in Houston, Texas called the I Am Water

to 200 showers each day. Having access to

Foundation offers homeless clean bottled

clean water for sanitary needs may help many

water that have words of encouragement on

homeless individuals to have a brighter and

them. San Francisco has nine GlobalTap water

safe future.

fountain stations that allow the homeless to have access to drinking water. In terms of facilities, Doniece Sandoval, a Bay Area tech

“The woman I passed was crying and saying that she would never be clean.” — Doniece Sandoval, a Bay Area tech entrepreneur

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water / entertainment

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NOT NOW, BUT LATER Water and entertainment affects he amount of

could easily be reduced if people were more

water that is available to us in the future. We

aware of the wasteful nature of their activities.

may not need to worry about the amount of

Entertainment and water will be discussed

water we have now, but it will become a prob-

through three different categories: natural  

lem as the population increases. The amount

water activities, man-made water activities,

of water that is wasted through entertainment

and water nutrient required activities.

WATER RELIANT ACTIVITIES Activities that require no direct interaction with water still require excessive water usage. Sports such as baseball, soccer, football, and golf require gallons of water to maintain the fields. These fields range from 90 feet to over 200 feet of grass.

2.5 billion gallons of water is used per day to feed the world’s golf courses, which is equivalent to the amount of water needed to support 4.7 billion people per day.

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NATURAL WATER ACTIVITIES Natural water activities include kayaking, surf-

wasted because we are not taking water out

ing, boating, scuba diving, snorkeling, fishing,

of the ocean, but instead utilizing the water

and riving rafting. These are all grouped into

while it is still in the natural water sources.

natural water activities because they do not

These activities have great effect on the ocean

require a water tank that is man made. Instead,

because they alter the ocean’s ecosystem.

these activities utilize areas that were already

According to scientific studies, the amount of

created by nature such as the ocean, rivers,

important species is declining in many natural

and lakes. 

water spots. This disables the ocean’s ability

to provide clean water for the population and

People may think that natural water activities

as a result, may create a scarcity of water for

have no effect on the amount of water that is

the population.

Recent studies have shown that the human impact on oceans are far worse than what scientists predicted. 40% of the world’s oceans are heavily affected by human activities.

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3,170,064 GAL

1,960,786 GAL

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A water tower can hold up to 3,170,064 gallons, the San Francisco public swimming pools total gallon per one fill is equal to approximately 1,960,786 gallons.

MAN-MADE WATER ACTIVITIES Man-made water activities include swimming

‘N Slides require the continual run of a water

pools, slip and slides, water parks, and

hose in order to keep the inflatables wet. Kids

aquariums. All these activities require that are

can play with these for hours which also means

built by man, and gallons of water to fill them.

that the hose is running for hours.

San Francisco public swimming pools are

Although many man-made water activities

equal to approximately one fourth of a water

wastefully require the use of gallons of water,

tower. Water towers typically hold water as an

man-made activities like aquariums do not

emergency storage for towns. Swimming pools

waste any water. Instead, there is a system

may be used for our own entertainment and

created where the water that is within the

health, but the continued waste of water used

aquarium is circulated through the bay.

to refill the pools could serve a better purpose. There are a total of nine public pools in the San Francisco recreation system; perhaps cutting back on the amount of swimming pools could be a start. Water parks waste water the most. These parks require a continual flow of new clean water and the pools and slides are also bigger than our typical swimming pool. One water park pool can equal up to 350,000 gallons of water per fill. Aside from water parks, water inflatables that are used at home also take up many gallons of water. Inflatables such as Slip

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The aquarium circulates water through the bay, but this activity may be gone in the future due to the lack of water.


7 47  |  The Future of Water  |  SFSU  |  Advanced Graphic Design


water / waste

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An average of seven billion gallons of clean, treated drinking water is lost daily due to poor infrastructure. -SMART PLANET

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WATER LOSS   DISTRIBUTION As drought, population growth and water

waterworks technology is highly adaptable

shortages in America become an increasing

to water systems worldwide. However, as

threat, California must confront the biggest

budgets decrease, these major infrastructure

contributor to water waste, water distribution

upgrades become unobtainable, resulting in the

loss. An average of seven billion gallons of

use of data analysis becoming the most cost

clean, treated drinking water is lost daily

efficient and effective solution.

because of poor infrastructure. Due to soil movements, vibrations, materials used and

America’s infrastructures are in dire need

changes in water pressure, underground leaks

of repairs. The traditional detection system

have amounted up to fifty percent of water

that helps identify leaks is large transmission

loss rates in California. In order to learn to

testing; which often involves a hydrophone

become environmentally responsible with the

that is carried through out the pipe, listening

water we do have, its important to see what

for leaks. Though this method is helpful,

water system works best and to find available

very few utilities in California conduct leak

methods for California.

detection on their transmission mains. American Water is currently evaluating

Japan has one of the lowest levels of water

several complex methods to listen for leaks

distribution losses in the world, consistently

on large pipes including Continuous Acoustic

exceeding its own strict standards for

Monitoring. This process utilizes Itron MLOG

consumption. The majority of the country

technology which equips water service lines

receives water from public utilities and

with a leak detecting sensor that records

continues to reduce water loss by the change

sound vibrations over a four-hour loop of

in pipe materials, inspection of pipes and

time and determines the status of a leak. The

system changes. Japan has reached a high

Continuous Acoustic Monitoring is currently

of ninety-two percent reduction of leakage

being tested within California for potential

in their public utilities water system. Japan’s

solutions to this withstanding problem.

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don’t flush drinking water From source to destination, leaks in the water

Commercial structures like office buildings,

infrastructure can account for a 50 percent

hospitals, hotels and schools also allocate a

loss. Now that water scarcity is becoming a

substantial portion of water used to domestic

global dilemma, it is critical to carefully use this

and restroom use. Thirty to fifty percent of

invaluable resource in our homes. Of the re-

daily usage in these kind of buildings is used in

duced percentage of clean drinking water that

sinks, showers and by toilet use. Toilets are by

comes into our home, 26 percent goes to flush-

far the main source of water use in this catego-

ing toilets in an average American household.

ry, accounting for nearly 30 percent of indoor

Conventional toilets in the U.S. have a standard

water consumption. High efficiency toilets use

flush of 1.6 gallons, toilets pre-1980 can use

20% less water than conventional counterparts

dramatically more per flush than the modern

although vacuum toilets are the most efficient

standard. The EPA estimates that average

and use only 1.5 liters per flush, a 75% reduc-

families of four can use up to 400 gallons of

tion in water use. These toilets could save 2

water a day, which means about 100 gallons of

billion gallons per year, saving residents and

potable water is flushed into sewers and septic

businesses money and sparing that water for

tanks each day. The amount of water used in

other uses. Updating old appliances to high ef-

flushing conventional toilets, 1.6 gallons, is

ficiency toilets and appliances would save the

about the recommended daily intake for a man,

country more than three trillion gallons of water

woman and child combined. The 100 gallons

and more than 18 billion dollars per year. For

of water flushed each day in American homes

homes without these appliances, lowering the

could provide drinking water for a family of four

consumption of water can be accomplished by

for nearly two months.

fixing leaking faucets and plumbing and updating older appliances dating before 1992.

The national standard toilet flush uses six liters of water, which is approximately the recommended daily intake for a man, woman and child combined.

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The water that is diverted through faucets, showers and clothes washers all which have the potential for reuse, known as greywater. Collected greywater removes the need for the use of potable water in toilets, residents who take advantage of greywater would drastically reduce their water consumption. Someday the use of potable water for toilet flushing will become a thing of the past and both homes and businesses will consider the use of greywater and onsite water treatment. High efficiency


toilets minimize the amount of water per flush,

and take years to be implemented, greywater

some of the most efficient being vacuum toilets

use presents a solution which could be put

which use only 1.5 liters of water per flush. The

into effect quickly in commercial or residential

collection of greywater will substantially reduce

spaces.

not only the water bill, but the environmental impact. Water from flushing toilets in traditional septic tanks are used only once, and use water clean enough to drink which is outdated and an irresponsible use of an essential resource. Reducing water intake by incorporating greywater puts less stress on the water infrastructure and allows more water for useful purposes. Changing the national system would be costly

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water / energy

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WATT IS THE ISSUE? The quantity of fresh water consumed for energy

the methods that constantly hit the headlines.

production is a massive concern for todays

However, the largest strain on water resources

society. Even more alarming, it is predicted by

according to the IEA’s forecast is coal-powered

the International Energy Agency (IEA) to double

electricity and bio-fuel production. We are

within the next 25 years.

putting too much energy and money into these

It is assumed the worst water consumers for

energy methods to ensure a sustainable future  

energy production would be fracking and

of fresh water.

systems, rather than investing in renewable

high-pressure hydraulic fracturing, as these are

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COAL POWER

BIO-FUEL

Steam driven coal plants have always required

Biofuel is the second largest energy stress of the

the most amount of water. “They are the back-

future. The IEA predicts an incredible surge with a

bone fuel for electric generation” (IEA) and are

242% increase in water consumption by the year

responsible for fueling 41% of power around  

2035. This figure is even more worrisome when

the world. The coal power producers are spend-

you compare it with how much energy biofuel is

ing a lot of money improving their technologies,

actually contributing. It is a very modest amount

although their new methods are consuming more

as biofuels such as ethanol and bio-diesel produce

fresh water than ever.

less energy per gallon than petroleum based fuels.

It is clear that coal plants do not ensure a sus-

Today these biofuels account for more than half

tainable future for fresh water. They use up too

of the fresh water consumed for primary energy

much fresh water and damage the environment.

production (the production of fuels only and not

We need to make the switch to renewable energy

electricity) and provide less that 3% of energy that

as quickly as possible. Using technologies such

fuels cars, trucks, aircrafts and ships. By the year

as wind and solar photovoltaic power, which

2035, fuel processed from plant material will be

have minimal water needs, (they account for

responsible for using more then 72% of water in

only 1% of fresh water consumption.) Natural

primary energy production.

Gas is also a better option. Whilst currently responsible for fueling 23% of today’s electricity worldwide, it is only responsible for 2% of   energy water consumption.

Steam driven coal plants have always required the most amount of water. “They are the backbone fuel for electric generation.”

20

20 3

10

5

-International Energy Agency

Coal Power

57%

Bio-fuel

18%

Coal Power

52%

Energies fresh water consumption. -International Energy Agency, current policies scenario 56  |  The Future of Water  |  SFSU  |  Advanced Graphic Design

Bio-fuel

31%


GEOTHERMAL

Generating Station

Heat from the earth can be used as a renewable energy source in many ways, from large and complex power stations to small and relatively Cold water pumped down

Steam and hot water

simple pumping systems. This heat energy, known as Geothermal Energy, can be found almost anywhere—as far away as remote deep wells in Indonesia and as close as the dir t in our backyards. The most common current way of capturing

Geothermal Energy Plant

the energy from geothermal sources is to tap into naturally occurring “hydrothermal convection” systems, where cooler water  seeps into Earth’s crust, is heated up, and then rises to the surface. When the heated water is forced to the surface, it is relatively simple to capture that steam and use it to drive electric generators. The largest geothermal system now in operation is a steam-driven plant in an area called the  Geysers, just north of San Francisco, California.

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HYDROELECTRIC POWER This form of clean power is produced by flowing

There are currently three hydro electric power- 

water, from which energy is captured and turned

houses within the Hetch Hetchy Power system

into electricity. It is a highly efficient energy

that provide electricity to San Francisco

producer that emits no harmful emissions.

municipalities, residents and retail customers, as well as additional energy for neighboring

The most common type of hydroelectric power

districts. This system generates 1.6 billion

plant uses a dam on a river to store water in

kilowatt-hours of clean, greenhouse gas-free

a reservoir. Water released from the reservoir

energy annually; it produces no harmful

flows through a turbine, spinning it, which in turn

radioactive byproducts, nor does it leave 

activates a generator to produce electricity.

any waste behind.

Unlike fossil-fueled power plants, Hydroelectric energy facilities generate electricity without producing any pollutant emissions or greenhouse gases.

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water / commerce

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Privatization of water With the drought in California getting worse every year, the topic of water ownership becomes more important as well. The public consumes water but doesn’t always know who they are purchasing their water from. In addition, the water bottle industry is exploiting the natural resources which are supposed to be free to the public.

UTILITIES Water privatization is when companies own   the rights to a body of water. The main water providers in the Bay Area are public utilities EBMUD and The San Francisco Public Utilities

Ownership in California Private

Public

10%

90%

Commission. Ninety percent of water in the United States is provided by public utilities while about ten percent is served by private companies.   The most surprising fact about public versus private water is that public services are 20% cheaper than private ones in California. Nationally, public is 33% less. Private companies are taking over water rights of locals who are living above or near the water source. Montara and Moss Beach had to pay $11.1 million to American Water, one of the

Utility

biggest private utilities, to obtain the rights to their water supply. Private If private companies do not make enough money charging the public for water, they may abandon the

Public

33%

67%

area completely. In 2000, the Bolivian people took a stand against World Bank, a private company who had significantly increased water rates. A public utility eventually took back power after World Bank left the country because of rioting and their profits being too low.

Land 61  |  The Future of Water  |  SFSU  |  Advanced Graphic Design


“Since nature gives water to us free of cost, buying and selling it for profit violates our inherent right to nature’s gift and denies the poor of their human rights.” —Vandana Shiva, environmental activist

COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS There are many misconceptions about private

major corporations involved have worked very hard

utility values. People assume that it is cleaner

to keep the public uninformed in order to maintain

since they are dealing with fewer peoples’ needs.

their profits.

The private companies care less about quality and more about profit because these companies report

Many people don’t realize that privatization

to stockholders not consumers. The same ethical

also includes the sale of bottled water. The

code applies to being protective of the environment.

largest bottled water brands in the United

These companies would rather keep the water for

States are surprisingly owned by soda compa-

manufacturing purposes than sell to the public.

nies, Pepsi and Coca-Cola. Most companies

With little regard for the public or environment, it is

tling. Selling the public water that they could

hard to believe that the population would allow

get from their own tap may seem ridiculous,

water privatization to continue. Many people

but the public spent $21.7 billion on bottled

aren’t aware of these water rights issues. The

water in 2011– perpetuating the profitability of

bottle tap water directly or filter it before bot-

this market.

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“Companies such as Coca-Cola and Nestlé suck up millions of gallons of water, leaving the public to suffer with any shortages.” —Jeffrey Green

PRIVATE EXPLOITATION The bottled water industry is perhaps one of the

exhausting the resources, causing environmental

most lucrative industries. For decades, bottled

damages, and jeopardizing local communities.

water corporations have exploited groundwater and commodified and made a profit from natural

In addition, bottled water companies are regu- 

resources, which are supposed to be accessible

lated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

and free to everyone.

which does not require them to publish water quality tests, while tap water is strictly regulated

Bottled water is one form of privatization. In fact,

by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

it is the most exploitive form of privatization

Also, “large multinational beverage companies

according to Ashley Powdar, a Research

are usually given water-well privileges (and even

Associate for the Council on Hemispheric Affairs.

tax breaks) over citizens because they create

Multinational water companies usually gain water

jobs, which is apparently more important to the

ownership by purchasing water rights from local

local governments than water rights to other

communities in developing countries. “The com- 

taxpaying citizens.”

panies monopolize water reservoirs, often the only locally available potable water resource that a community has. They then sell the water back to the community at a price too expensive for many residents to pay.” Furthermore, private abuse of groundwater in the U.S. has been aided by several common law rules such as the English rule of absolute owner-  ship and the reasonable use rule, allowing the bottling companies to excessively extract ground-  water. The corporations’ large withdrawal of groundwater results in over-pumping aquifers,

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The Big THREE In the United States, the consumption of bottled water has increased by 8 to 20 percent annually

U.S. 2006 Beverage Market

since 1992, despite the fact that bottled water is by no means safer than tap water and it is much more costly. In fact, bottling companies generate about $35 billion per year, and in 2006 bottled water represented 14.4% of the U.S. beverage market share, making it the number two drink in the nation. Due to an increase in consumption, bottled water is now the number one drink in the nation, surpassing carbonated soft drinks. As for the bottled water market share, Coca-Cola, PepsiCo and Nestle are the largest corporations in the industry. Coca-Cola and PepsiCo own 50 percent of the bottled water market. Water sources for these brands are not open to public scrutiny and the companies are frequently accused of providing misleading and false claims.

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Bottled water holds the second largest share of the U.S. beverage market at 14.4% in 2006.


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water / governance

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With a wastewater treatment plant underground and an on-site rainwater harvester, the building reduces its monthly bill by almost 30%.

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water governance in the bay area Water is a natural resource that may seem like

the SFPUC headquarters building. Located

it’s going to last forever, but the reality is that

in the heart of San Francisco, the building is

one day we might not have enough water for

considered one of the most highly efficient

everyone in our community. This is especially

buildings in the country. With a wastewater

worrisome considering our population is

treatment plant underground and an on-site

growing at a rapid pace. So who is taking

rainwater harvester, the building reduces its

responsibility for making sure that we don’t get

monthly water bill by almost 30%. After the

to this point? Who is governing our water today

wastewater has been treated on-site it goes

in San Francisco?

back to the plumbing system and is used for flushing toilets. The rainwater that has been

The San Francisco Public Utilities Commission

collected is used to irrigate plants and trees

(SFPUC) manages all the water services in the

around the building.

San Francisco, Alameda, Santa Clara and San Mateo counties and it’s committed to

The SFPUC is also trying to persuade

shape the future of the Bay Area into a water

homeowner’s to install these systems that

conscious community. The SFPUC’s goal is  

reduce water usage and waste. Benefits from

to diversify and expand the city’s water sup-

implementing water saving systems at home not

ply by implementing wastewater recycling

only include reducing their monthly water bill

and harvesting rainwater systems in as many

but also means that less energy will be used to

buildings and homes in the Bay Area as possible.

treat greywater. There will be lower sewer flow and more water available for our fast growing

A great example of how these systems work

population.

and have been successful in saving water is

Learn how to install a rainwater harvester at home. Search for “Green Dean TV: Install a Rain Harvester!” on Youtube.

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Resources provided by the San Francisco Green Business Program apply to water conservation within the home as well as a business.

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Prioritizing water What makes it possible to motivate everyone

practice standard is galvanized when people are

from the largest corporation to the individual at

unified through a program or organization such as

home to conserve water, save money, and take

SFGB. This model is effectively ensuring a viable

responsibility for their environmental impact?

future of water and a healthy planet.

What programs or rules are currently working to change the landscape at the intersection of water

Though directed at businesses large and small,

conservation and governance?

the SF Green Business program is also beneficial to individuals. The resources and standards

Examining a local government program that

upheld by the SFGB are relevant to water

regulates and rewards ecofriendly business is a

conservation within a home as well as within any

good place to begin addressing these questions.

type of business.

The San Francisco Green Business Program unites and promotes businesses of all kinds that

Note every example of how and

meet the program’s rigid standards for every

where water is used in your home or

sector of conservation.

business Use low-flow toilets, showerheads,

Water conservation is one of the focuses of the

dishwashers and washing machines

SF Green Business Program. Their strategy of rewarding and promoting environmentally friendly practice provides an effective model of water

9

1 2

00 2 80 0

7

conservation standards that can be applied to

0

8

6

CUBIC FEET

5

3

4

Learn to read your water meter & record trends in water use

the business or to the home. As environmental consciousness becomes an increasing priority in

Install water-efficient landscaping

San Francisco, businesses and individuals who operate in a “green” way will benefit immensely from saving money and saving the environment. The movement to make sustainable business

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$

$

$

$

$

Regularly check for leaks and retain records of repairs or plumbing issues


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water / security

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“There is ample evidence to suggest that contamination of U.S. water supplies could produce significant public health and economic consequences…” — Jennifer B. Nuzzo

what scares us As citizens of a free and industrialized country,

In the event of a disaster, a reliable backup

we tend not to think about the safety of our

water source would be required. Flooding

water. As long as it is clear, we think it’s

is also a threat to potable water in our

clean and ready to drink. The possibility of

neighborhoods, as floods from rain can

contaminating our nation’s water supply is

destroy a city. What are we doing to ensure

very likely. So what are we doing to protect it?

San Francisco remains resilient in the face of

Our water supply is already less regulated and

a natural disaster? The safety of our homes is

monitored compared to our agriculture supply,

also crucial and automatic fire sprinklers are

if it were to get contaminated, our source of

one way to ensure this. Residential sprinklers

water would diminish and we would need to find

are now being implemented into new houses

different ways to access water. Scarcity and

that are being built. Safety measures such as

storage comes into mind. The distribution of

this could make all the difference.

potable and non-potable water would become a heated topic

Biological threats can happen.

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Stocking up and storing for an alternative source.

bioterrorism

Scarcity & STORAGE

It is possible that drinking water could be

• Demand for water doubles every 20 years.

intentionally contaminated from the origin

• Our current 6 billion population is expected to

of the supply. It can also be contaminated through the pipes and reservoirs it is stored in. Our water systems can be compromised by biological contamination or physically by damaging the infrastructure. Additionally the water delivery systems and treatment centers could be electronically hacked. If this were to happen in San Francisco, we

rise to 8 billion by 2050. • In less than 20 years, the demand for fresh water will exceed the world supply by at least 50%. • Agriculture accounts for more than 70% of fresh water use in the United States. • A family of four would require 12 gallons of water in an emergency

would have reserves in the current eight

• 30 days supply for fresh water is required.

reservoirs located throughout the city.

• Change the stored water every 6 months.

But that can only last us so long, as we use water in our households and business everyday. The supply will end up being limited and eventually scarce.

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ResideNTIAL FIRE SPRINKLERS Although damage and injury from fire can

chance of survival. The National Fire Proetction

devastate any city, San Francisco is at greater

Association says that a fire sprinkler system

risk. According to a study done by the New York

can reduce death from fire by 83%, by helping

Fire Department on fire safety in urban areas,

contain or even extinguish fires before there is

“In all large cities, especially those of compara-

any significant damage to property. The quick

tively modern construction, the danger of fires is

response increases the time residents have to

always greater.” If a fire occurs in San Francisco

escape to safety.

whether it be because of a natural disaster, ruptured gas line, or an accident, the results

The Residential Fire Sprinkler Initiative, which

could be devastating. The homes and buildings

passed in 2010 in California, requires one

are close in proximity, making it easier for a fire

and two family homes to have a fire sprinklers

to spread from one house to another. Also, the

installed. But this initiative only applies to newly

high population in the city puts a larger number

constructed homes and not older buildings.

of people at risk.

Installing fire sprinklers in an existing home only costs a few thousand dollars and the security it

While smoke alarms can alert residents of a

provides residents makes it well worth it.

home that there’s a fire and they should escape, residential fire sprinklers can increase the

“In all large cities, especially those of comparatively modern construction, the danger of fires is always greater” —NYFD

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Flooding and SAfety at Home With the recent climate change and rising sea

by the residents of New Orleans who lost their

levels, California is at a higher risk of flooding.

homes after Hurricane Katrina, but this design

This especially applies to low-lying urban areas

can easily be altered for other flood prone areas.

like San Francisco, where so many homes

The base of the house is designed like a raft,

are surrounded by water. The SF Bay keeper

which is connected to steel masts and can break

estimates that 270,000 people in the Bay Area are

away from the ground. The shape of the concave

at risk of flooding that would also cause $62 billion

roof allows it to collect rainwater which is stored

worth of damage to shoreline developments and

in a cistern. The house can also generate its own

associated infrastructure. Flood preparedness

electricity even during a storm. It not only helps

and safety during a flood is an important issue for

decrease the damage to the home from flooding,

citizens of San Francisco. While there are ways

but allows residents to be able to stay in the

to keep safe during a flood such as making an

house until they get rescued.

emergency kit or haiving an evacuation plan, in places like the Netherlands and Belgium where

Although other floating houses have been built

floods are a frequent occurrence, architects have

in other parts of the United States, none have

designed a floating homes designed to withstand

been implemented in California. Due to the risks

flood waters.

of rising water levels and storm activity, housing design in San Francisco would be wise to adapt

One example is the Float House, a collaborative

elements of New Orleans Float House. This

design by the architecture and urban planning

could potentially save significant sums of money,

firm Morphopedia in the Netherlands and

decrease flooding damage done to the home and

students from UCLA. This project was inspired

ensure the safety of residents.

Hurricane Katrina victims awaiting rescue after flooding in New Orleans (Aftermath in New Orleans, Wikimedia)

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Conclusion The trends in graphic design are proving that the practice is no longer limited to simply layout, type, and discrete artifacts. Critical and divergent thinking, transdisciplinary collaboration, as well as the call to design working for social good (rather than the expectations of consumption) are reshaping and expanding the practice. How can graphic design education, and specifically curriculum, engage students in these new practices as well as create experiences resulting in real outcomes outside of the idealized confines of the classroom? This publication is a result of the collaboration of students in the Advanced Graphic Design class at San Francisco State University and a world leader in engineering, design, and planning. Students worked with the engineering firm’s research group, whose work raises awareness about the major challenges affecting the built environment and to think more creatively about the long term future. Over the course of the semester students explored the issues and social implications of water in the city of San Francisco. Utilizing design research exercises, prompts, and direction, students created this “Thought Piece” for internal distribution to engineers. This collection of visual narratives articulates for engineers and urban planners, water’s diverse social and cultural impacts in the urban environment, raising awareness of important issues that are not typically considered in their discipline or processes. This publication represents an overview of the project and it’s incorporation of design research methods, social engagement, and transdisciplinary collaboration with industry.

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78  |  The Future of Water  |  SFSU  |  Advanced Graphic Design


Report Sources Information

Wellness

Polaris Institute

Brookfalls Water CA http://bit.ly/12dsmVw

http://bit.ly/11vOFXd

Water First International

The U.S. Geological Survey

http://bit.ly/Zw6uHN

http://water.usgs.gov/

What is ADA?

Project Wet

http://1.usa.gov/ZS0V6g

http://projectwet.org/

Global Tap

The California Water Awareness

http://globaltap.org/index.php

http://wateraware.org/

Drink Tap

San Francisco Water Sources

http://drink.sfwater.org

http://bit.ly/18g38cq

Outdoor Tap Water Stations

Library of Georgetown

http://bit.ly/108idZU

http://bit.ly/11xmQ0W

Tap It Water

Clean Water Action

http://www.tapitwater.com/

http://bit.ly/ZwKnRG

Water and Stress Reduction

http://bit.ly/ZgxgAx

Mobility Water Power Sewer

Nourishment

http://bit.ly/18g3W0I Sierra Club

Huffington Post

http://bit.ly/ZMjc6l C40 Citites Climate Leadership

http://huff.to/18g5nfV

Toxins In Our Drinking Water

http://bit.ly/ZMjhqN Environmental Protection Agency http://1.usa.gov/ZMjlGX SPUR http://bit.ly/ZNNp4Y Irrigation and Green Industry http://bit.ly/10QgO0b Governing http://bit.ly/10QgRJk

http://bit.ly/12dtJDv

Care2: Water Bottled http://bit.ly/11SBd03 Why Plastics Can Make You Sick

http://bit.ly/ZS1sVN CDC Water Treatment http://1.usa.gov/18dVrX4 Free Drinking Water http://bit.ly/12YiW2U Info Wars Toxin Consumption http://bit.ly/161dEb2 Environmental Protection Agency

http://1.usa.gov/16qO5QH California Department of Public Health http://bit.ly/18sbhKN

79  |  The Future of Water  |  SFSU  |  Advanced Graphic Design


Shelter

Energy

Homeless

Light Bulb Savings Calculator

http://bit.ly/155OQ2a

http://on.natgeo.com/18927pg

I am Waters Foundation

Energy Challenge

http://bit.ly/11y5AIP

http://on.natgeo.com/10026MX

Market Place

Water Demand for Energy

http://bit.ly/13HFeFR

http://bit.ly/11S4kBZ

Venture Beat

Active Coal Mining

http://bit.ly/1891pIG

http://bit.ly/10oL62F

Huffington Post

Geothermal

http://huff.to/15VSZF8

http://1.usa.gov/104KZKF

Entertainment

Geothermal Energy http://bit.ly/11WRYse

San Francisco Recreation and Parks

The USGS

http://sfrecpark.org/

http://on.doi.gov/1619qjv

Protect Planet Ocean

Hydroelectricity

http://bit.ly/ZhwJOA

http://bit.ly/12p4fDe

WaterWorld California

Boulder Colorado

http://bit.ly/155Q1yz

http://bit.ly/17yAEMs

The Water Information Program

Hetch Hetchy Power

http://bit.ly/12eTX8L

http://bit.ly/13NOGYw

Waste Water Conservation Methods http://bit.ly/ZNIkcS Water Conservation and Water Recycling http://1.usa.gov/1891TOT Transmission Main Leak Detection http://bit.ly/14LeWqs Smart Planet http://smrt.io/12McfRx Water Eduction http://bit.ly/15VTter

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Commerce  Public and Private Water  http://bit.ly/10oLY7q  SF Gate: Water Wars   http://bit.ly/11y9xgH  The Wall Street Journal  http://on.wsj.com/13HKae7  Best and worst bottled waters   http://usat.ly/14Lnr4Z  Bottled Water Statistics  http://bit.ly/Yiheed  Water and Sustainability   http://bit.ly/ZSHF8C  Activist Post   http://bit.ly/YihlXj      Other Sources:    Water Privatization Trends in the United   States: Human Rights, National Security, and   Public Stewardship by Craig Anthony Arnold (2009)   Governance  San Francisco Green Business  sfgreenbusiness.org  Smart Building  http://bit.ly/131ivpE  The South Farmingdale Water   sfwater.com

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Security  FLOAT House 

http://bit.ly/Ya3XSR   Fire Sprinkler Initiative   http://bit.ly/16fKZii  Enduring Lessons  http://bit.ly/Ya41lp  Climate Change Adaptation   http://bit.ly/ZwLiS1  Hurricane Katrina  http://bit.ly/14LpaHx  The Biological Threat to U.S.   http://bit.ly/12W5jSP  Food and Water in Emergency  http://1.usa.gov/12W5ldx  CDC Eathquakes  http://1.usa.gov/155Tj4W  Our Drinkable Water Supply is Vanishing   http://bit.ly/ZYM1b3  Climate and Capitalism  http://bit.ly/18964KF  Sprinkler System  http://bit.ly/13HLmho   

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83  |  The Future of Water  |  SFSU  |  Advanced Graphic Design


The Future of Water