the future of water
May 2013 2 | The Future of Water | SFSU | Advanced Graphic Design
This report is a product of the San Francisco State University Department of Design and Industry Advanced Graphic Design 3 course. The Department of Design and Industry is an inclusive learning environment that promotes creativity and scholarship, and mirrors the wide range of cultural, artistic and scholarly interests in the San Francisco Bay Area.
Contacts Stacy Asher Course Instructor email@example.com Joshua Singer Visual Communication Design Coordinator firstname.lastname@example.org
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Contents Executive Summary
The Future of Water
Alexander Hopson + Justin Soong Mobility
Gabriel Bentley + Federico Dejesus Wellness
Judy Chu + Alisha Piccirillo Nourishment
Anthony Buada + Celeste Freitas Shelter
Stella Cunanan + Carly Leung Entertainment
Dana Lui Waste
Gabriella Medina + Lindsey Millen Energy
Eliza Bolger + Dan Crannery Commerce
Pichamon Chamroenrak + Madeleine Lucero- Simmons Governance
Sarah Groshans + Thrudy Regan Security
Ghazal Modarresi + Derek Wong
Conclusion 50 Contacts 54 Front + Back Matter / Ivonne Calderon
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Twelve urban systems are common to every city throughout the world: water, information, mobility, wellness, nourishment, shelter, entertainment, waste, energy, commerce, governance, and security. These systems are highly interconnected, and can be characterized by the flow of physical resources and related services into, out of, and within the bounds of the city. The following text examines the intersection of water and each additional urban system.
In this modern age, it is
Although we are often
A pioneer of environmental
increasingly necessary and
encouraged to save
movements, San Francisco
difficult to track the social,
water by replacing our
is integrating tap water
health, and environmental
showerheads and toilets
accessibility into the urban
effects of the water we
there are significant dangers
consume. People are
being largely ignored. We
must seriously consider
aware of how their choices
how we move water from its
regarding water impact
source to our homes and
every aspect human life.
offices as well as where it is transported after use.
Water is a valuable resource
Water is considered one of
Using water for entertainment
to humans, plants and
the very basic requirements
affects the amount of water
animals. It is what keeps our
for life and is a necessity
available to us in the future.
bodies running and the world
for survival. However, in
We may not need to worry
connected. Water is present
the modern age, water is
about the amount of water we
in the food we consume as
often overused in providing
have now, but it will become a
well as the environment that
comfort. The hotel industry
in particular uses copious amounts of water to create a sense of luxury.
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As drought, population
The quantity of fresh water
With the drought in California
growth and water shortages
consumed for energy
getting worse every year,
in America become an
production is a massive
the topic of water ownership
increasing threat, California
concern for todays society.
must confront the biggest
Even more alarming, it is
important as well. The public
contributor to water waste,
predicted by the International
should be questioning who
water distribution loss. An
Energy Agency (IEA) to
owns the water and why they
average of seven billion
double within the next
have the right to sell it.
gallons of clean, treated
drinking water is lost daily due to poor infrastructure.
Local examples of
Water security is crucial to
organizations that regulate
our survival. The process
water use are highlighted in
of obtaining and enjoying
this chapter. These programs
the water we have access
demonstrate the potential of
to is sometimes taken for
governance to save our water
granted, and may cause
supply and quality.
problems in the future.
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IntroDuCTION Urban areas are diverse in a multitude of ways, including climate, culture, and the design of the built environment. In spite of these dissimilarities, the urban systems that underlie each city remain relatively constant. Every city in every country has devised a system for managing its inhabitants’ access to water, information, mobility, wellness, nourishment, shelter, entertainment, waste, energy, commerce, governance, and security. Different cities have different approaches to organizing the flow of and access to these twelve systems. A consideration of the relationships between the different urban systems reveals compelling insights about the capacities and priorities of a city, its leaders, and its inhabitants. Water, one of the most basic human needs, has come to occupy an increasingly complex role in city management. A necessity for health and nourishment, a means for recreation, a factor in waste removal and treatment, and a topic rife with political and environmental discussion, water maintains a critical relationship with each element of the dense network of interrelated activity that comprises urban life. We invite you to use the following pages as a resource for engaging more deeply with the water system within our own city of San Francisco.
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water + waste
2 | The Future of Water | Arup Foresight
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Arup Foresight | The Future of Water | 3
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water / information
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The problem of information
“Bottled water is the most environmentally responsible consumer product in the world.” —Nestlé Waters Ad
In recent years it has become important to
This results in many well-meaning consumers
track the social, health, and environmental
falling victim to “greenwashing,” a technique
effects of the water we consume. People are
companies use to build up an environmentally
becoming increasingly aware of how their
friendly brand image which may misrepresent
choices regarding water impact every aspect
their actual environmental impact. In October
human life. However, this awareness can have a
2008, Nestlé Waters advertised a bottle design
paralyzing effect. With so many questions and
that used less plastic, claiming bottled water
not enough credible information, we often find
was “the most environmentally responsible
ourselves unable to make truly effective choices
consumer product in the world.” However, even
Nestlé Waters (in direct contradiction to its own claims) stated in a Corporate Citizenship Report
For example, how can we make environmentally
released that same year that the majority of their
sustainable choices about our drinking water?
plastic bottles ended up as solid waste.
Many of us understand the importance of clean water, but are often conflicted when faced with
a decision of choosing bottled water over
Nestlé was eventually taken to task by environmen-
tap, weighing environmental concerns over
tal groups for creating a misleading narrative
perceived quality and safety of water. With
about their product, but they remain a prime
the sheer volume of information out there, it
example of how mishandled information has
becomes difficult to discern a credible source.
the potential subvert even our best intentions.
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source check list Endless amounts of resources are available with
Look for information about the author; what’s
the click of a button. We live in a time when
his or her point of view?
anyone can publish anything on the Web and
What’s the purpose or motive of the content?
‘anything’ might pop up in your search. The Internet
Is the information objective?
has created an environment where information is
How accurate is the information. Can it be verified?
plentiful, but not consistently correct. Because
Are the sources credible? What
solid resources and quality information are at
institution (company, government, university,
a premium, it is more important than ever to
etc.) has funded or sponsored the information?
thoroughly evaluate the content we come across.
How current is the information? Check dates.
Information on vast, general topics like “water” might seem infinite but focused and useful information on topics like “clean water” is now at a premium. It has become more important for us to educate ourselves about water using reliable and trustworthy resources and to keep the topics focused.
Can you trust what you know about water?
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water education and Awareness sources In a sobering tale about water consumption
“processed” water to the tune of over half a
Robert Glennon’s Unquenchable: America’s
billion bottles of water every week.
Water Crisis and What To Do About It confronts
wasteful water usage in America by documenting the many inefficient elements of the nation’s
Project Wet is a website that contains
everything you need to know about water. It is a teaching tool for schools or the home for
In The Big Thirst: The Secret Life and Turbulent
kids in a wide range of ages. Filled with solid
Future of Water, Charles Fishman sets out to
information, a lot of data and a wide array of
change the way we think about water by exploring
additional resources, Project Wet is totally
our strange and complex relationship with it.
committed to conveying the truth about water. www.projectwet.org
Alex Prud’homme’s The Ripple Effect: The Fate of Fresh Water in the Twenty-First Century
California Water Awareness is an informative
is a collection of local water stories that have
source that presents a wide range of water-
major global implications.
related issues, challenges, and solutions pertaining to California and San Francisco.
The Atlas of Water, Second Edition: Mapping
It has great potential for helping Californians
the World’s Most Critical Resource by authors
rediscover the importance of water through
Maggie Black and Jannet King is a compelling
tangible examples of water programs, sources
visual guide to the state of water that uses
of drinking water and many more topics about
vivid graphics, maps, and charts to explore the
water usage. Learn more about your water at
complexities of human interaction with water.
Free Range Studios has published videos
The United States Geological Survey presents
on educational topics that are entertaining
the widest spectrum of information related to
and informative for all age groups. The Story
water in the United States. The USGS is the
of Bottled Water is a video that explains how
ideal starting point for research. This website
demand for products such as manufactured water
is filled with resources to understand our water
bottles is created. The beverage industry has
situation and how to treat water resources
persuaded Americans to consume expensive
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water / mobility
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Water System Inefficiency Although we are urged to save water by re-
these problems are beginning to be addressed,
placing our showerheads and toilets, there are
but some remain. San Francisco Public Utili-
pressing dangers being largely ignored. How
ties Commission which runs the Hetch Hetchy
we move water from its source to our homes
Regional Water System, does not publish the
and offices as well as where it is transported
efficiency of their system. However, Tokyo
after use requires some serious consideration. Currently, San Francisco’s water originates primarily within Yosemite National Park, in the Hetch Hetchy Valley. About 15% of the water comes from other sources downriver, but the majority makes the complete 167 mile trip. The
Tokyo, as of 2006, has one of the most efficient water systems in the world, but still wastes the equivalent of the water used by 455,556 San Franciscans.
water is considered clean enough that it is not filtered (with the exception of the water added
has made water system efficiency one of their
from downstream sources) and the entire
major priorities. So far they have drastically
system is gravity-driven, which saves money
reduced systemic water losses from leaks
that would otherwise be used for pumping the
and theft to just 3.6%. While this is far better
water through the system.
than the 20% losses Tokyo had in 1956, it still means the city loses about 68 million cubic
Despite these positives, San Francisco, along
meters every year. Considering the average
with most other major cities, still wastes a large
San Franciscan uses 108 gallons per day, the
amount of water on a systemic level. Some of
Tokyo system is wasting the daily equivalent of
The smallest leaks are the most dangerous because they often go undetected for a long time.
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the water used by 455,556 San Franciscans. If
hear. Tokyo has made use of extensive system
San Francisco’s water loss were to reach as
monitoring that makes pinpointing leaks much
low a level as Tokyo’s, it would still be losing
easier. They monitor flow during the lowest
the equivalent of the water used by about
demand hours, typically at night, which allows
47,970 San Franciscans. Improving efficiency
them a much better picture of where losses are
of shower heads and toilets can be helpful,
occurring. San Francisco has been upgrad-
but the benefits still pale in comparison to the
ing to smart meters that monitor the system
gains that could be had by focusing on the
every hour, meaning that implementing similar
water losses in the delivery system.
methods is possible. Additionally, Tokyo has been replacing pipes proactively, and using
Tokyo has made use of several methods to
new materials such as ductile cast iron, which
reach their system efficiency levels. First and
has magnesium to create a more flexible pipe,
foremost is the implementation of rigorous
thereby requiring less repairs.
leak detection. Existing leak detection is typically done by using specialized listening equipment to hear the sounds of leaks, but this often misses the most dangerous leaks: the small ones, because they are so difficult to
Monitoring systems can help detect and pinpoint leaks as well as helping to prevent water theft which means better, cheaper water for the consumer.
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reuse water Most citizens of San Francisco are aware that their fresh water resources come from Hetch Hetchy. Yet because of the lack of infrastructure for reuse, waste is inevitable. After water is used, it is carried to the water treatment plant and then released into the ocean. What if recycled water could be reused for other purposes such as watering our gardens, washing our cars, or even entertainment? Greywater is the leftover water from baths, showers, hand basins, washing machines, and other clean sources. How can we use greywater? We need to have a separate system that would only be used to distribute greywater to San Francisco’s underground water system.
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We have to limit the use of our water reserve
Association of Plumbing and the Mechanical
and think about how we can reduce the use
Official’s Uniform Plumbing Code has
of fresh water. As part of the Water System
standardized the system by using color as a
Improvement Project, San Francisco is working
way to differentiate the pipes. Specifically,
to collect greywater and use it where possible.
recycled water pipes will be purple instead of
Recycled water is used water that has been
blue, as that is the color typically used for fresh
filtered for the purpose of non-potable use.
Once the system is completed, water would be collected from the houses, buildings, and
In the home, the system will have separate
other places that use fresh water and then
piping for fresh water and recycled water.
transported to the water treatment plant before
Fresh water will be used in the kitchen and
making its way back to be reused.
showers. Recycled water will be used in
With so many pipes underground, how can
separate colored faucets outside the house for
we discern which one are freshwater and
use when washing cars and watering the lawn.
washing machines and toilets as well as having
which are recycled water? The International
“In 2002, San Francisco voters’ approval of Propositions A and E authorized the financing for the 40 WISP projects to be constructed within the city.” —spur.org
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water / wellness
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hydration is Life The number one indicator of wellness in
In an urban location such as San Francisco,
a community is access to clean water for
many water fountains are broken and unusable.
hydration. A pioneer of environmental
Durable and low maintenance water station
movements, San Francisco is implementing
designs are essential for public drinking
tap water accessibility in the urban landscape
fountain installations. Since hydration is a
to promote drinking tap water instead of
necessity and reducing plastic water bottle
bottled. San Francisco has exceptional tap
consumption is a priortiy, both civic and
water sourced from the Hetch Hetchy snow
community sponsored programs are emerging
melt in Yosemite National Park. With high
in San Francisco to encourage hydration by
quality tap water available, the challenge is in
offering access to clean tap water for drinking.
design and delivery to urban public spaces.
Many public water fountains in San Francisco are broken or unusable.
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“Water is a human right allotment that must not be charged for. Scarcity of water should not affect peoples right to clean water.” —Global Tap Mission
Essential for life, drinking enough water also
In addition, hydration detoxifies the internal
reduces stress, but dehydration creates stress
system of the human body, reduces heart
in the body which in turn generates thirst.
disease and allows the kidneys to filter toxins
Maintaining hydration allows for necessary
properly, lowering the risk of kidney stones.
body regulation such as:
Since the brain is comprised of 90% water,
• Maintenance of body temperature • Lubrication of joints and muscles • Moisture of air in lungs
drinking water keeps the brain hydrated and a person functioning. Sometimes people mistake hunger for thirst, turning to food rather than a glass of water. Eating more than what they
• Elasticity of skin • Protection of vital organs • Absorbency of nutrients
really need creates the potential for overeating and ultimately, obesity.
• Transportation of nutrients and oxygen into cells
A vicious cycle Being dehydrated can cause physiological
signs of stress, which in turn tends to cause more dehydration. If you are thirsty you are already dehydrated. How can a city promote wellness by providing access to clean tap water that citizens and visitors will use?
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WATER accessibility In an effort to reduce waste and promote free
Global Tap stations are popping up across
public access to clean drinking water, San
the city as well as the nation. Depending on
Francisco has installed nine ADA compliant
the location, many people are not aware of
Global TapTM bottle refill stations. Carrying re-
the station’s function or do not carry reus-
fillable water bottles and drinking tap water has
able water bottles with them. The Global Tap
become more prevalent among San Francisco
station located in Yerba Buena Park, where
residents and the Global Tap stations are an
many pedestrians pass by, is barely used. The
example of a civic, industry, and community
dispenser did create interest, as people were
looking at it and interacting with it in curiosity.
Municipal and community supported programs are emerging in San Francisco to encourage hydration by offering access to tap water refill stations.
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Water Refill Stations TM
Locations for accessing clean and free tap water. Map data provided by Tapit and Global Tap.
Another industry and community level project
and hydrate on the go. There are currently
has emerged with a different solution to tap
92 participating locations in San Francisco
water access. TapitTM, an organization that
and TapIt is quickly becoming a popular
works in conjunction with local cafes and
eateries to provide free tap water refills to the public within their storefront, is an alternative
The above map displays the Global Tap
to outdoor water dispensers. This initiative
and TapIt locations in San Francisco. These
is beneficial to the establishments as they
projects have different approaches but the
gain more traffic. TapIt then promotes these
same goal of providing hydration by offering
locations to the public via their website and
free, clean, environmentally and socially
smartphone applications so people can locate
responsible tap water.
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water / nourishment
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“There are more than 80 ‘regulated’ contaminants and more unregulated toxins, like the rocket fuel component perchlorate, which are present in most tap water.” —www.globalhealingcenter.com
WHAT’S IN YOUR WATER? Water is a valuable resource to humans, plants
are very high. Tap water is used for many
and animals. It is what keeps our bodies running
activities such as cooking, gardening,
and the world connected. Water is in the foods
showering and washing clothes. Even after the
we consume as well as environments that
process of filtering water, there are still
surround us. However, is the water we consume
a few contaminants that make their way
safe? Unlisted chemicals are being dumped into
through the system and end up in the tap
our water systems everyday. Many individuals
water we utilize. Chemicals like nitrate, arsenic,
aren’t aware of the toxic chemicals that are in
chlorine and fluoride are among the various
the water they drink and use which can lead to
contaminants found in tap water. Garden hoses
serious health issues.
and sinks contain the highest levels of lead which can cause serious health issues for all
Many people perceive commercialized bottled
ages. Some symptoms of lead poisoning are
water as safe and pure because it is advertised
muscle pain, kidney failure, memory loss and
as such. However, according to a test by The
brain damage. In 2005, the Environmental
Environmental Working Group, 38 low-level
Protection Agency (EPA) found Perchlorate,
contaminants were found in the 10 tested
a rocket fuel chemical which is used for
brands of bottled water. An average of eight
fireworks and explosives, in 153 drinking
chemicals including disinfection byproducts
(DBPs) Caffeine, Tylenol, nitrate, industrial
Chemicals & Containments In Drinking Water
Eye, liver, kidney or spleen problems; anemia; increased risk of cancer
Anemia; decrease in blood platelets; increased risk of cancer
bottled water was presented due to the notion
of high production cost of bottled water and
Liver problems; increased risk of cancer
bottle” was the slogan for the concept.
Increased cancer risk, and over a long period of time, stomach problems
Tap water is easily accessible and widely used,
Hair or fingernail loss; numbness in fingers or toes; circulatory problems
Nervous system damage
chemicals, arsenic, and bacteria were all detected. The plastic used to fabricate bottled water contains bisphenol A (BPA), a toxin that can cause structural brain damage, altered immune function and stimulates prostate cancer cells. In San Francisco, the idea of banning
harm to the enivornment. “Think outside of the
but the chances of running into contaminants
For more listed chemicals and contaminants, visit: http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/index.cfm#List
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Citizens have the right to know whether their drinking water is safe, as mandated in the 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act.
water filters Water treatment plants in the United States
apartments. These outdated pipes carry lead
are some of the best treatment plants
and other heavy metals that also significantly
in the world. However, even in the United
compromises the quality of our water.
States, contamination of drinking water sources does occur more than one might
With known contaminants found in our
think. Microbes, pollutants, and chemicals
municipal drinking waters, we can ensure
includ-ing pharmaceuticals are some of the
quality water by investing in a home water
major concerns. Microbes are easier to treat
filter. Home filtration systems can eliminate
in water systems, pollutants and chemicals
heavy metals, chemicals, pollutants,
are becoming a pressing issue as they are
parasites and bacteria. Since there is a
sometimes part of the treatment process.
wide range of home filters, it’s important to
For example chloramine, a combination of
check your local water quality to see what
chlorine and ammonia used for disinfection
pollutants are most prevalent. It is stated that
and killing microbes, stays in the water. Is
citizens have the right to know whether their
there another way we can treat water without
drinking water is safe, as mandated in the 1996
the use of chemicals?
amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. Requesting or downloading a report from your
Although contaminants are found in water,
water company is the best way to determine
the typical water treatment processing plant
your water quality. Another water filter to
in the U.S. is advanced in comparison to
consider is a shower filter for your bathroom.
other countries. The majority of people have
Our skin is the largest organ and can absorb
access to drinking water without a high risk
chemicals which come in contact with it.
of becoming ill due to poorly treated water.
Attaching a shower head filter can prevent
In San Francisco, the majority of water comes
or lower your exposure to contaminants.
from snowmelt of the high Sierra Nevada. The natural cleanliness of this water is jeopardized
Obtaining a water filter for your home is
by the extensive distance it travels in pipes
essential to protecting your health from
made of contaminants and heavy metals during
contaminants that most water treatment
its journey to the Bay Area.
plants in the United States do not process out. This ensures the safety of the household
Another threat to the quality of the water are older pipe systems found in many homes and
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consuming the water.
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water / shelter
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the hotel industry Water is considered one of the very basic
the United States is between 382-787 liters
needs of life and is necessary for survival.
per day; compared to about 300-380 liters the
While many homeless in San Francisco
average person uses at home. According to the
struggle to obtain water for survival, the
San Francisco Guardian, there are approxi-
hotel industry is overusing drinking water
mately 32,952 hotel rooms in San Francisco.
to provide comfort and luxury. Many hotels
If at full capacity there could potentially be
consume large amounts of water to achieve
upwards of 26 million liters of water being used
a luxurious atmosphere. The average water
in San Francisco hotels.
consumption of one guest per hotel room in
Water used in hotels and other lodging businesses accounts for approximately 15% of the total water use in commercial and institutional facilities in the United States. –
American Water Works Association Research Foundation.
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Hotel Nikko uses low flow toilets which can save 6 million gallons a day.
san francisco green hotels The Hotel Nikko: Changed to low flush toilets
They are also attempting to eliminate use of
(3.5 gallons to 1.5 gallons) which can save six
million gallons per day. Hotel Drisco: Implemented a reuse linen InterContinental San Francisco: Provides
program to reduce daily washings.
guests with real time water usage reports to educate them and to allow them to participate in
Hotel Carlton: First solar powered hotel which
the green initiative.
provides roughly 12% of energy needed to run the hotel.
Galleria Park Hotel: Replaced toilets, faucets, and shower heads to eliminate water waste.
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Arup Foresight | The Future of Water | 38
HOMELESS in the city According to the 2011 San Francisco Homeless Count, there are 6,455 homeless residents in San Francisco. Nearly half of the homeless residents are left unsheltered, living in cars or tents. Approximately 200 unsheltered homeless individuals were denied access to shelters, causing many to live in the streets. Reporter Julia Scott followed the daily routines of homeless individuals and discovered their lack of access to restroom facilities. Homeless individuals use alternative sanitary items because of the lack of water available to them Joseph Luna, a homeless man in San Francisco, carries baby wipes, shaving cream, Purell and a bit of soap for his sanitary needs. It is important for homeless individuals to have access to clean water and restroom facilities as it is a hygenic necessity for everyday life.
“In the United States, homeless individuals struggle to access running water and restroom facilities.” — Catarina de Albuquerque, U.N. Special Rapporteur
ACCESS to clean water In the United States, homeless individuals
entrepreneur plans to convert MUNI buses to
struggle to access clean running water and
shower facilities. With her latest project titled
restroom facilities. A non-profit organization
Lava Mae, the MUNI buses will provide 100
based in Houston, Texas called the I Am Water
to 200 showers each day. Having access to
Foundation offers homeless clean bottled
clean water for sanitary needs may help many
water that have words of encouragement on
homeless individuals to have a brighter and
them. San Francisco has nine GlobalTap water
fountain stations that allow the homeless to have access to drinking water. In terms of facilities, Doniece Sandoval, a Bay Area tech
“The woman I passed was crying and saying that she would never be clean.” — Doniece Sandoval, a Bay Area tech entrepreneur
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water / entertainment
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NOT NOW, BUT LATER Water and entertainment affects he amount of
could easily be reduced if people were more
water that is available to us in the future. We
aware of the wasteful nature of their activities.
may not need to worry about the amount of
Entertainment and water will be discussed
water we have now, but it will become a prob-
through three different categories: natural
lem as the population increases. The amount
water activities, man-made water activities,
of water that is wasted through entertainment
and water nutrient required activities.
WATER RELIANT ACTIVITIES Activities that require no direct interaction with water still require excessive water usage. Sports such as baseball, soccer, football, and golf require gallons of water to maintain the fields. These fields range from 90 feet to over 200 feet of grass.
2.5 billion gallons of water is used per day to feed the world’s golf courses, which is equivalent to the amount of water needed to support 4.7 billion people per day.
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NATURAL WATER ACTIVITIES Natural water activities include kayaking, surf-
wasted because we are not taking water out
ing, boating, scuba diving, snorkeling, fishing,
of the ocean, but instead utilizing the water
and riving rafting. These are all grouped into
while it is still in the natural water sources.
natural water activities because they do not
These activities have great effect on the ocean
require a water tank that is man made. Instead,
because they alter the ocean’s ecosystem.
these activities utilize areas that were already
According to scientific studies, the amount of
created by nature such as the ocean, rivers,
important species is declining in many natural
water spots. This disables the ocean’s ability
to provide clean water for the population and
People may think that natural water activities
as a result, may create a scarcity of water for
have no effect on the amount of water that is
Recent studies have shown that the human impact on oceans are far worse than what scientists predicted. 40% of the world’s oceans are heavily affected by human activities.
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A water tower can hold up to 3,170,064 gallons, the San Francisco public swimming pools total gallon per one fill is equal to approximately 1,960,786 gallons.
MAN-MADE WATER ACTIVITIES Man-made water activities include swimming
‘N Slides require the continual run of a water
pools, slip and slides, water parks, and
hose in order to keep the inflatables wet. Kids
aquariums. All these activities require that are
can play with these for hours which also means
built by man, and gallons of water to fill them.
that the hose is running for hours.
San Francisco public swimming pools are
Although many man-made water activities
equal to approximately one fourth of a water
wastefully require the use of gallons of water,
tower. Water towers typically hold water as an
man-made activities like aquariums do not
emergency storage for towns. Swimming pools
waste any water. Instead, there is a system
may be used for our own entertainment and
created where the water that is within the
health, but the continued waste of water used
aquarium is circulated through the bay.
to refill the pools could serve a better purpose. There are a total of nine public pools in the San Francisco recreation system; perhaps cutting back on the amount of swimming pools could be a start. Water parks waste water the most. These parks require a continual flow of new clean water and the pools and slides are also bigger than our typical swimming pool. One water park pool can equal up to 350,000 gallons of water per fill. Aside from water parks, water inflatables that are used at home also take up many gallons of water. Inflatables such as Slip
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The aquarium circulates water through the bay, but this activity may be gone in the future due to the lack of water.
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water / waste
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An average of seven billion gallons of clean, treated drinking water is lost daily due to poor infrastructure. -SMART PLANET
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WATER LOSS DISTRIBUTION As drought, population growth and water
waterworks technology is highly adaptable
shortages in America become an increasing
to water systems worldwide. However, as
threat, California must confront the biggest
budgets decrease, these major infrastructure
contributor to water waste, water distribution
upgrades become unobtainable, resulting in the
loss. An average of seven billion gallons of
use of data analysis becoming the most cost
clean, treated drinking water is lost daily
efficient and effective solution.
because of poor infrastructure. Due to soil movements, vibrations, materials used and
America’s infrastructures are in dire need
changes in water pressure, underground leaks
of repairs. The traditional detection system
have amounted up to fifty percent of water
that helps identify leaks is large transmission
loss rates in California. In order to learn to
testing; which often involves a hydrophone
become environmentally responsible with the
that is carried through out the pipe, listening
water we do have, its important to see what
for leaks. Though this method is helpful,
water system works best and to find available
very few utilities in California conduct leak
methods for California.
detection on their transmission mains. American Water is currently evaluating
Japan has one of the lowest levels of water
several complex methods to listen for leaks
distribution losses in the world, consistently
on large pipes including Continuous Acoustic
exceeding its own strict standards for
Monitoring. This process utilizes Itron MLOG
consumption. The majority of the country
technology which equips water service lines
receives water from public utilities and
with a leak detecting sensor that records
continues to reduce water loss by the change
sound vibrations over a four-hour loop of
in pipe materials, inspection of pipes and
time and determines the status of a leak. The
system changes. Japan has reached a high
Continuous Acoustic Monitoring is currently
of ninety-two percent reduction of leakage
being tested within California for potential
in their public utilities water system. Japan’s
solutions to this withstanding problem.
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don’t flush drinking water From source to destination, leaks in the water
Commercial structures like office buildings,
infrastructure can account for a 50 percent
hospitals, hotels and schools also allocate a
loss. Now that water scarcity is becoming a
substantial portion of water used to domestic
global dilemma, it is critical to carefully use this
and restroom use. Thirty to fifty percent of
invaluable resource in our homes. Of the re-
daily usage in these kind of buildings is used in
duced percentage of clean drinking water that
sinks, showers and by toilet use. Toilets are by
comes into our home, 26 percent goes to flush-
far the main source of water use in this catego-
ing toilets in an average American household.
ry, accounting for nearly 30 percent of indoor
Conventional toilets in the U.S. have a standard
water consumption. High efficiency toilets use
flush of 1.6 gallons, toilets pre-1980 can use
20% less water than conventional counterparts
dramatically more per flush than the modern
although vacuum toilets are the most efficient
standard. The EPA estimates that average
and use only 1.5 liters per flush, a 75% reduc-
families of four can use up to 400 gallons of
tion in water use. These toilets could save 2
water a day, which means about 100 gallons of
billion gallons per year, saving residents and
potable water is flushed into sewers and septic
businesses money and sparing that water for
tanks each day. The amount of water used in
other uses. Updating old appliances to high ef-
flushing conventional toilets, 1.6 gallons, is
ficiency toilets and appliances would save the
about the recommended daily intake for a man,
country more than three trillion gallons of water
woman and child combined. The 100 gallons
and more than 18 billion dollars per year. For
of water flushed each day in American homes
homes without these appliances, lowering the
could provide drinking water for a family of four
consumption of water can be accomplished by
for nearly two months.
fixing leaking faucets and plumbing and updating older appliances dating before 1992.
The national standard toilet flush uses six liters of water, which is approximately the recommended daily intake for a man, woman and child combined.
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The water that is diverted through faucets, showers and clothes washers all which have the potential for reuse, known as greywater. Collected greywater removes the need for the use of potable water in toilets, residents who take advantage of greywater would drastically reduce their water consumption. Someday the use of potable water for toilet flushing will become a thing of the past and both homes and businesses will consider the use of greywater and onsite water treatment. High efficiency
toilets minimize the amount of water per flush,
and take years to be implemented, greywater
some of the most efficient being vacuum toilets
use presents a solution which could be put
which use only 1.5 liters of water per flush. The
into effect quickly in commercial or residential
collection of greywater will substantially reduce
not only the water bill, but the environmental impact. Water from flushing toilets in traditional septic tanks are used only once, and use water clean enough to drink which is outdated and an irresponsible use of an essential resource. Reducing water intake by incorporating greywater puts less stress on the water infrastructure and allows more water for useful purposes. Changing the national system would be costly
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water / energy
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WATT IS THE ISSUE? The quantity of fresh water consumed for energy
the methods that constantly hit the headlines.
production is a massive concern for todays
However, the largest strain on water resources
society. Even more alarming, it is predicted by
according to the IEA’s forecast is coal-powered
the International Energy Agency (IEA) to double
electricity and bio-fuel production. We are
within the next 25 years.
putting too much energy and money into these
It is assumed the worst water consumers for
energy methods to ensure a sustainable future
energy production would be fracking and
of fresh water.
systems, rather than investing in renewable
high-pressure hydraulic fracturing, as these are
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Steam driven coal plants have always required
Biofuel is the second largest energy stress of the
the most amount of water. “They are the back-
future. The IEA predicts an incredible surge with a
bone fuel for electric generation” (IEA) and are
242% increase in water consumption by the year
responsible for fueling 41% of power around
2035. This figure is even more worrisome when
the world. The coal power producers are spend-
you compare it with how much energy biofuel is
ing a lot of money improving their technologies,
actually contributing. It is a very modest amount
although their new methods are consuming more
as biofuels such as ethanol and bio-diesel produce
fresh water than ever.
less energy per gallon than petroleum based fuels.
It is clear that coal plants do not ensure a sus-
Today these biofuels account for more than half
tainable future for fresh water. They use up too
of the fresh water consumed for primary energy
much fresh water and damage the environment.
production (the production of fuels only and not
We need to make the switch to renewable energy
electricity) and provide less that 3% of energy that
as quickly as possible. Using technologies such
fuels cars, trucks, aircrafts and ships. By the year
as wind and solar photovoltaic power, which
2035, fuel processed from plant material will be
have minimal water needs, (they account for
responsible for using more then 72% of water in
only 1% of fresh water consumption.) Natural
primary energy production.
Gas is also a better option. Whilst currently responsible for fueling 23% of today’s electricity worldwide, it is only responsible for 2% of energy water consumption.
Steam driven coal plants have always required the most amount of water. “They are the backbone fuel for electric generation.”
-International Energy Agency
Energies fresh water consumption. -International Energy Agency, current policies scenario 56 | The Future of Water | SFSU | Advanced Graphic Design
Heat from the earth can be used as a renewable energy source in many ways, from large and complex power stations to small and relatively Cold water pumped down
Steam and hot water
simple pumping systems. This heat energy, known as Geothermal Energy, can be found almost anywhere—as far away as remote deep wells in Indonesia and as close as the dir t in our backyards. The most common current way of capturing
Geothermal Energy Plant
the energy from geothermal sources is to tap into naturally occurring “hydrothermal convection” systems, where cooler water seeps into Earth’s crust, is heated up, and then rises to the surface. When the heated water is forced to the surface, it is relatively simple to capture that steam and use it to drive electric generators. The largest geothermal system now in operation is a steam-driven plant in an area called the Geysers, just north of San Francisco, California.
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HYDROELECTRIC POWER This form of clean power is produced by flowing
There are currently three hydro electric power-
water, from which energy is captured and turned
houses within the Hetch Hetchy Power system
into electricity. It is a highly efficient energy
that provide electricity to San Francisco
producer that emits no harmful emissions.
municipalities, residents and retail customers, as well as additional energy for neighboring
The most common type of hydroelectric power
districts. This system generates 1.6 billion
plant uses a dam on a river to store water in
kilowatt-hours of clean, greenhouse gas-free
a reservoir. Water released from the reservoir
energy annually; it produces no harmful
flows through a turbine, spinning it, which in turn
radioactive byproducts, nor does it leave
activates a generator to produce electricity.
any waste behind.
Unlike fossil-fueled power plants, Hydroelectric energy facilities generate electricity without producing any pollutant emissions or greenhouse gases.
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water / commerce
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Privatization of water With the drought in California getting worse every year, the topic of water ownership becomes more important as well. The public consumes water but doesn’t always know who they are purchasing their water from. In addition, the water bottle industry is exploiting the natural resources which are supposed to be free to the public.
UTILITIES Water privatization is when companies own the rights to a body of water. The main water providers in the Bay Area are public utilities EBMUD and The San Francisco Public Utilities
Ownership in California Private
Commission. Ninety percent of water in the United States is provided by public utilities while about ten percent is served by private companies. The most surprising fact about public versus private water is that public services are 20% cheaper than private ones in California. Nationally, public is 33% less. Private companies are taking over water rights of locals who are living above or near the water source. Montara and Moss Beach had to pay $11.1 million to American Water, one of the
biggest private utilities, to obtain the rights to their water supply. Private If private companies do not make enough money charging the public for water, they may abandon the
area completely. In 2000, the Bolivian people took a stand against World Bank, a private company who had significantly increased water rates. A public utility eventually took back power after World Bank left the country because of rioting and their profits being too low.
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“Since nature gives water to us free of cost, buying and selling it for profit violates our inherent right to nature’s gift and denies the poor of their human rights.” —Vandana Shiva, environmental activist
COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS There are many misconceptions about private
major corporations involved have worked very hard
utility values. People assume that it is cleaner
to keep the public uninformed in order to maintain
since they are dealing with fewer peoples’ needs.
The private companies care less about quality and more about profit because these companies report
Many people don’t realize that privatization
to stockholders not consumers. The same ethical
also includes the sale of bottled water. The
code applies to being protective of the environment.
largest bottled water brands in the United
These companies would rather keep the water for
States are surprisingly owned by soda compa-
manufacturing purposes than sell to the public.
nies, Pepsi and Coca-Cola. Most companies
With little regard for the public or environment, it is
tling. Selling the public water that they could
hard to believe that the population would allow
get from their own tap may seem ridiculous,
water privatization to continue. Many people
but the public spent $21.7 billion on bottled
aren’t aware of these water rights issues. The
water in 2011– perpetuating the profitability of
bottle tap water directly or filter it before bot-
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“Companies such as Coca-Cola and Nestlé suck up millions of gallons of water, leaving the public to suffer with any shortages.” —Jeffrey Green
PRIVATE EXPLOITATION The bottled water industry is perhaps one of the
exhausting the resources, causing environmental
most lucrative industries. For decades, bottled
damages, and jeopardizing local communities.
water corporations have exploited groundwater and commodified and made a profit from natural
In addition, bottled water companies are regu-
resources, which are supposed to be accessible
lated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
and free to everyone.
which does not require them to publish water quality tests, while tap water is strictly regulated
Bottled water is one form of privatization. In fact,
by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
it is the most exploitive form of privatization
Also, “large multinational beverage companies
according to Ashley Powdar, a Research
are usually given water-well privileges (and even
Associate for the Council on Hemispheric Affairs.
tax breaks) over citizens because they create
Multinational water companies usually gain water
jobs, which is apparently more important to the
ownership by purchasing water rights from local
local governments than water rights to other
communities in developing countries. “The com-
panies monopolize water reservoirs, often the only locally available potable water resource that a community has. They then sell the water back to the community at a price too expensive for many residents to pay.” Furthermore, private abuse of groundwater in the U.S. has been aided by several common law rules such as the English rule of absolute owner- ship and the reasonable use rule, allowing the bottling companies to excessively extract ground- water. The corporations’ large withdrawal of groundwater results in over-pumping aquifers,
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The Big THREE In the United States, the consumption of bottled water has increased by 8 to 20 percent annually
U.S. 2006 Beverage Market
since 1992, despite the fact that bottled water is by no means safer than tap water and it is much more costly. In fact, bottling companies generate about $35 billion per year, and in 2006 bottled water represented 14.4% of the U.S. beverage market share, making it the number two drink in the nation. Due to an increase in consumption, bottled water is now the number one drink in the nation, surpassing carbonated soft drinks. As for the bottled water market share, Coca-Cola, PepsiCo and Nestle are the largest corporations in the industry. Coca-Cola and PepsiCo own 50 percent of the bottled water market. Water sources for these brands are not open to public scrutiny and the companies are frequently accused of providing misleading and false claims.
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Bottled water holds the second largest share of the U.S. beverage market at 14.4% in 2006.
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water / governance
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With a wastewater treatment plant underground and an on-site rainwater harvester, the building reduces its monthly bill by almost 30%.
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water governance in the bay area Water is a natural resource that may seem like
the SFPUC headquarters building. Located
it’s going to last forever, but the reality is that
in the heart of San Francisco, the building is
one day we might not have enough water for
considered one of the most highly efficient
everyone in our community. This is especially
buildings in the country. With a wastewater
worrisome considering our population is
treatment plant underground and an on-site
growing at a rapid pace. So who is taking
rainwater harvester, the building reduces its
responsibility for making sure that we don’t get
monthly water bill by almost 30%. After the
to this point? Who is governing our water today
wastewater has been treated on-site it goes
in San Francisco?
back to the plumbing system and is used for flushing toilets. The rainwater that has been
The San Francisco Public Utilities Commission
collected is used to irrigate plants and trees
(SFPUC) manages all the water services in the
around the building.
San Francisco, Alameda, Santa Clara and San Mateo counties and it’s committed to
The SFPUC is also trying to persuade
shape the future of the Bay Area into a water
homeowner’s to install these systems that
conscious community. The SFPUC’s goal is
reduce water usage and waste. Benefits from
to diversify and expand the city’s water sup-
implementing water saving systems at home not
ply by implementing wastewater recycling
only include reducing their monthly water bill
and harvesting rainwater systems in as many
but also means that less energy will be used to
buildings and homes in the Bay Area as possible.
treat greywater. There will be lower sewer flow and more water available for our fast growing
A great example of how these systems work
and have been successful in saving water is
Learn how to install a rainwater harvester at home. Search for “Green Dean TV: Install a Rain Harvester!” on Youtube.
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Resources provided by the San Francisco Green Business Program apply to water conservation within the home as well as a business.
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Prioritizing water What makes it possible to motivate everyone
practice standard is galvanized when people are
from the largest corporation to the individual at
unified through a program or organization such as
home to conserve water, save money, and take
SFGB. This model is effectively ensuring a viable
responsibility for their environmental impact?
future of water and a healthy planet.
What programs or rules are currently working to change the landscape at the intersection of water
Though directed at businesses large and small,
conservation and governance?
the SF Green Business program is also beneficial to individuals. The resources and standards
Examining a local government program that
upheld by the SFGB are relevant to water
regulates and rewards ecofriendly business is a
conservation within a home as well as within any
good place to begin addressing these questions.
type of business.
The San Francisco Green Business Program unites and promotes businesses of all kinds that
Note every example of how and
meet the program’s rigid standards for every
where water is used in your home or
sector of conservation.
business Use low-flow toilets, showerheads,
Water conservation is one of the focuses of the
dishwashers and washing machines
SF Green Business Program. Their strategy of rewarding and promoting environmentally friendly practice provides an effective model of water
00 2 80 0
conservation standards that can be applied to
Learn to read your water meter & record trends in water use
the business or to the home. As environmental consciousness becomes an increasing priority in
Install water-efficient landscaping
San Francisco, businesses and individuals who operate in a “green” way will benefit immensely from saving money and saving the environment. The movement to make sustainable business
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Regularly check for leaks and retain records of repairs or plumbing issues
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water / security
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“There is ample evidence to suggest that contamination of U.S. water supplies could produce significant public health and economic consequences…” — Jennifer B. Nuzzo
what scares us As citizens of a free and industrialized country,
In the event of a disaster, a reliable backup
we tend not to think about the safety of our
water source would be required. Flooding
water. As long as it is clear, we think it’s
is also a threat to potable water in our
clean and ready to drink. The possibility of
neighborhoods, as floods from rain can
contaminating our nation’s water supply is
destroy a city. What are we doing to ensure
very likely. So what are we doing to protect it?
San Francisco remains resilient in the face of
Our water supply is already less regulated and
a natural disaster? The safety of our homes is
monitored compared to our agriculture supply,
also crucial and automatic fire sprinklers are
if it were to get contaminated, our source of
one way to ensure this. Residential sprinklers
water would diminish and we would need to find
are now being implemented into new houses
different ways to access water. Scarcity and
that are being built. Safety measures such as
storage comes into mind. The distribution of
this could make all the difference.
potable and non-potable water would become a heated topic
Biological threats can happen.
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Stocking up and storing for an alternative source.
Scarcity & STORAGE
It is possible that drinking water could be
• Demand for water doubles every 20 years.
intentionally contaminated from the origin
• Our current 6 billion population is expected to
of the supply. It can also be contaminated through the pipes and reservoirs it is stored in. Our water systems can be compromised by biological contamination or physically by damaging the infrastructure. Additionally the water delivery systems and treatment centers could be electronically hacked. If this were to happen in San Francisco, we
rise to 8 billion by 2050. • In less than 20 years, the demand for fresh water will exceed the world supply by at least 50%. • Agriculture accounts for more than 70% of fresh water use in the United States. • A family of four would require 12 gallons of water in an emergency
would have reserves in the current eight
• 30 days supply for fresh water is required.
reservoirs located throughout the city.
• Change the stored water every 6 months.
But that can only last us so long, as we use water in our households and business everyday. The supply will end up being limited and eventually scarce.
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ResideNTIAL FIRE SPRINKLERS Although damage and injury from fire can
chance of survival. The National Fire Proetction
devastate any city, San Francisco is at greater
Association says that a fire sprinkler system
risk. According to a study done by the New York
can reduce death from fire by 83%, by helping
Fire Department on fire safety in urban areas,
contain or even extinguish fires before there is
“In all large cities, especially those of compara-
any significant damage to property. The quick
tively modern construction, the danger of fires is
response increases the time residents have to
always greater.” If a fire occurs in San Francisco
escape to safety.
whether it be because of a natural disaster, ruptured gas line, or an accident, the results
The Residential Fire Sprinkler Initiative, which
could be devastating. The homes and buildings
passed in 2010 in California, requires one
are close in proximity, making it easier for a fire
and two family homes to have a fire sprinklers
to spread from one house to another. Also, the
installed. But this initiative only applies to newly
high population in the city puts a larger number
constructed homes and not older buildings.
of people at risk.
Installing fire sprinklers in an existing home only costs a few thousand dollars and the security it
While smoke alarms can alert residents of a
provides residents makes it well worth it.
home that there’s a fire and they should escape, residential fire sprinklers can increase the
“In all large cities, especially those of comparatively modern construction, the danger of fires is always greater” —NYFD
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Flooding and SAfety at Home With the recent climate change and rising sea
by the residents of New Orleans who lost their
levels, California is at a higher risk of flooding.
homes after Hurricane Katrina, but this design
This especially applies to low-lying urban areas
can easily be altered for other flood prone areas.
like San Francisco, where so many homes
The base of the house is designed like a raft,
are surrounded by water. The SF Bay keeper
which is connected to steel masts and can break
estimates that 270,000 people in the Bay Area are
away from the ground. The shape of the concave
at risk of flooding that would also cause $62 billion
roof allows it to collect rainwater which is stored
worth of damage to shoreline developments and
in a cistern. The house can also generate its own
associated infrastructure. Flood preparedness
electricity even during a storm. It not only helps
and safety during a flood is an important issue for
decrease the damage to the home from flooding,
citizens of San Francisco. While there are ways
but allows residents to be able to stay in the
to keep safe during a flood such as making an
house until they get rescued.
emergency kit or haiving an evacuation plan, in places like the Netherlands and Belgium where
Although other floating houses have been built
floods are a frequent occurrence, architects have
in other parts of the United States, none have
designed a floating homes designed to withstand
been implemented in California. Due to the risks
of rising water levels and storm activity, housing design in San Francisco would be wise to adapt
One example is the Float House, a collaborative
elements of New Orleans Float House. This
design by the architecture and urban planning
could potentially save significant sums of money,
firm Morphopedia in the Netherlands and
decrease flooding damage done to the home and
students from UCLA. This project was inspired
ensure the safety of residents.
Hurricane Katrina victims awaiting rescue after flooding in New Orleans (Aftermath in New Orleans, Wikimedia)
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Conclusion The trends in graphic design are proving that the practice is no longer limited to simply layout, type, and discrete artifacts. Critical and divergent thinking, transdisciplinary collaboration, as well as the call to design working for social good (rather than the expectations of consumption) are reshaping and expanding the practice. How can graphic design education, and specifically curriculum, engage students in these new practices as well as create experiences resulting in real outcomes outside of the idealized confines of the classroom? This publication is a result of the collaboration of students in the Advanced Graphic Design class at San Francisco State University and a world leader in engineering, design, and planning. Students worked with the engineering firm’s research group, whose work raises awareness about the major challenges affecting the built environment and to think more creatively about the long term future. Over the course of the semester students explored the issues and social implications of water in the city of San Francisco. Utilizing design research exercises, prompts, and direction, students created this “Thought Piece” for internal distribution to engineers. This collection of visual narratives articulates for engineers and urban planners, water’s diverse social and cultural impacts in the urban environment, raising awareness of important issues that are not typically considered in their discipline or processes. This publication represents an overview of the project and it’s incorporation of design research methods, social engagement, and transdisciplinary collaboration with industry.
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Report Sources Information
Brookfalls Water CA http://bit.ly/12dsmVw
Water First International
The U.S. Geological Survey
What is ADA?
The California Water Awareness
San Francisco Water Sources
Outdoor Tap Water Stations
Library of Georgetown
Tap It Water
Clean Water Action
Water and Stress Reduction
Mobility Water Power Sewer
http://bit.ly/18g3W0I Sierra Club
http://bit.ly/ZMjc6l C40 Citites Climate Leadership
Toxins In Our Drinking Water
http://bit.ly/ZMjhqN Environmental Protection Agency http://1.usa.gov/ZMjlGX SPUR http://bit.ly/ZNNp4Y Irrigation and Green Industry http://bit.ly/10QgO0b Governing http://bit.ly/10QgRJk
Care2: Water Bottled http://bit.ly/11SBd03 Why Plastics Can Make You Sick
http://bit.ly/ZS1sVN CDC Water Treatment http://1.usa.gov/18dVrX4 Free Drinking Water http://bit.ly/12YiW2U Info Wars Toxin Consumption http://bit.ly/161dEb2 Environmental Protection Agency
http://1.usa.gov/16qO5QH California Department of Public Health http://bit.ly/18sbhKN
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Light Bulb Savings Calculator
I am Waters Foundation
Water Demand for Energy
Active Coal Mining
Geothermal Energy http://bit.ly/11WRYse
San Francisco Recreation and Parks
Protect Planet Ocean
The Water Information Program
Hetch Hetchy Power
Waste Water Conservation Methods http://bit.ly/ZNIkcS Water Conservation and Water Recycling http://1.usa.gov/1891TOT Transmission Main Leak Detection http://bit.ly/14LeWqs Smart Planet http://smrt.io/12McfRx Water Eduction http://bit.ly/15VTter
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Commerce Public and Private Water http://bit.ly/10oLY7q SF Gate: Water Wars http://bit.ly/11y9xgH The Wall Street Journal http://on.wsj.com/13HKae7 Best and worst bottled waters http://usat.ly/14Lnr4Z Bottled Water Statistics http://bit.ly/Yiheed Water and Sustainability http://bit.ly/ZSHF8C Activist Post http://bit.ly/YihlXj Other Sources: Water Privatization Trends in the United States: Human Rights, National Security, and Public Stewardship by Craig Anthony Arnold (2009) Governance San Francisco Green Business sfgreenbusiness.org Smart Building http://bit.ly/131ivpE The South Farmingdale Water sfwater.com
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Security FLOAT House
http://bit.ly/Ya3XSR Fire Sprinkler Initiative http://bit.ly/16fKZii Enduring Lessons http://bit.ly/Ya41lp Climate Change Adaptation http://bit.ly/ZwLiS1 Hurricane Katrina http://bit.ly/14LpaHx The Biological Threat to U.S. http://bit.ly/12W5jSP Food and Water in Emergency http://1.usa.gov/12W5ldx CDC Eathquakes http://1.usa.gov/155Tj4W Our Drinkable Water Supply is Vanishing http://bit.ly/ZYM1b3 Climate and Capitalism http://bit.ly/18964KF Sprinkler System http://bit.ly/13HLmho
82 | The Future of Water | SFSU | Advanced Graphic Design
83 | The Future of Water | SFSU | Advanced Graphic Design