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The Beginnings of the Long Blue Line: The Jesuits, Cincinnati, and St. Xavier College: 1840-1865 by Fr. Dennis P. Ahern S. J. (’56) February 12, 2012

Once upon a time, there was only one school in Cincinnati where a young man could receive a Catholic education. That school was called the Athenaeum, a diocesan college and seminary opened by Bishop Fenwick in 1831. After just nine years, the Bishop was no longer able to staff his Seminary/College. In August 1840, he offered the school, cathedral (St. Peter’s), residence and all the property on which these buildings stood to the Jesuits. The Jesuits came, changed the name of St. Peter’s Cathedral to St. Francis Xavier Church and renamed the school St. Francis Xavier College. From the small and difficult beginnings, there have emerged both St. Xavier High School and Xavier University. The school began to prosper at the end of the Civil War, and by 1919, what was to become Xavier University had moved from downtown Cincinnati to Avondale, and St. Xavier High School was to stay downtown until 1960. This article will trace some early Jesuit history, some early Cincinnati history, and the early and difficult years of what was then called St. Xavier College, Cincinnati (1840-1865). When Pope Paul III approved the Society of Jesus in 1540, Jesuits were seen as missionaries, men sent out to evangelize the world. Jesuits have been priests, scholastics and brothers who ministered in many places. They served as theologians at the Council of Trent, as hospital chaplains, as pastors, as directors of retreats/religious revivals, etc. In 1548, the Jesuits opened their first College at Messina, Sicily, to educate younger Jesuits and to offer education to the people of the area. The school in Messina quickly became a great success and soon there were a number of European Jesuit schools. Between 1540 and 1600, the Jesuits opened more than 200 colleges across Europe. Often at the beginning these schools had few students; princes and prelates picked up the expenses for the school and the Jesuits.1 No tuition was charged. In a short period of time the Jesuits became known as the “Educators of Europe.” Jesuits themselves were well educated; they taught ancient and modern languages, science (physics, chemistry and astronomy), math, history, literature and other academic subjects. They spread their learning and spirituality as they spread the Good News. Jesuits were adventurous in a number other ways. Francis Xavier S.J., one of the first to follow St. Ignatius, was missioned to the East and brought many to the faith. Other European Jesuits travelled to the New World exploring the territory and bringing the Good News. Among these men were: 1. John de Brebeuf S.J. and two other French Jesuits who sailed to Canada in 1625. They evangelized the natives of the Canadian, New York and Michigan regions. Twenty years later, Brebeuf and his eight companions (the North American Martyrs) gave their lives for the faith. 2. Jacques Marquette S.J travelled to the New World in 1666 to preach, explore, and map U.S. territory down through the Wisconsin and Mississippi Rivers. 3. In 1720, Pierre Francois de Charlevoix S.J., a professor at the University of Quebec, was sent by the French government to report on the French colonies in North America. He


2 and his companions travelled through Lakes Erie and Huron and then around Lake Michigan (Charlevoix, a town on the western shore of Lake Michigan was named for him) to what today is Chicago They headed down the Fox River to the Mississippi River, and on to New Orleans. From there, Fr. Charlevoix sailed to France, wrote his government report, and returned to teach in Quebec.2 4. In 1749 Joseph Pierre de Bonnecamps S.J., a cartographer and mathematician at the University of Quebec, was sent with a group of French soldiers to map the Ohio River area from Pittsburgh through Cincinnati. Completing this, he returned up the Great Miami River to Detroit, and then went back to Quebec. He is said to have celebrated the first Mass in Ohio at the confluence of the Muskingham and Ohio Rivers. He stayed for four days in Cincinnati and was the first European to draw a map of the Cincinnati area. The French soldiers on the trip with him laid claim to the Ohio River valley land for France. Soon French trappers and traders came through the St. Lawrence River to the Great Lakes region. Later English trappers and traders from Pennsylvania arrived and plied their trade in the same area. The Ohio River valley territory was given to the British by treaty in 1763 at the end of the French and Indian (the Seven Year) War.3 While Jesuit missionary work was expanding in the New World, Jesuits who ministered in Europe were facing grave difficulties of their own. Jesuit educational and pastoral endeavors had become very successful. They brought power and influence to the Society, but along with it came resentment and envy. The Jesuits became targets. The Society of Jesus was banned first in one European country then in another. In 1773, Pope Clement XIV suppressed the Jesuits worldwide. Russia was the only country not to enact the Suppression. For 40 years, Jesuit churches, schools, and libraries were emptied and confiscated. Jesuits fled for their lives. Some came to Catholic Maryland, where they worked quietly as missionaries. Among them was John Carroll S.J. He and five others formed the Catholic Gentlemen of Maryland and opened what eventually would become Georgetown University in

1789. People began to arrive in Cincinnati from Pennsylvania and New Jersey in 1788. A number were Revolutionary War veterans who were paid in land for their wartime services.4 John Cleves Symmes (a former New Jersey congressman who served in the Continental Congress) was granted a federal patent to develop one million acres of land along the Ohio River, between the Little and Great Miami Rivers. With his family he settled in North Bend, near the mouth of the Great Miami River. The majority of the settlers were Presbyterian, Methodist or Baptist. A few Catholics came from Maryland and Pensylvania.5 That same year, a group of 27 settlers from Pennsylvania and New Jersey arrived here. Benjamin Stites led them to a site, near today’s Lunken Airport, which they called Columbia. Eleven families journeyed to a site across from the Licking River which they named Losantiville. Arthur St. Clair, the first governor of the Northwest Territory and a member of the Cincinnatus Society, changed the name of the area to Cincinnati in 1790.6


3 By 1800, the entire state of Ohio contained 42,000 people, located mainly in Cincinnati and Chillicothe. In 1806, Edward Fenwick O.P. (a native of Maryland) and three other Dominicans returned to the United States from their studies in Europe. They opened St. Rose of Lima Dominican Monastery near Springfield, Kentucky (between Louisville and Lexington). Fr. Fenwick spent much of his time travelling on horseback through Kentucky and Ohio, planting the seeds of the Catholic faith. In 1811, he celebrated the first Mass in Cincinnati at the home of Michael Scott (on the west side of Walnut between 3rd and 4th Street). The first steamboat on the Ohio, the Orleans, travelled from Pittsburgh to Louisville in 1811.7 In 1815, Bishop Flaget of Bardstown/Louisville wrote in his annual letter to Rome: “In my recent journey to Baltimore, I found fifty Catholic families in Ohio. Many other Catholics are scattered throughout Ohio, but those who migrated to these regions have never seen a priest since they left their former homes. Many have almost forgotten their religion. They are bringing up their children in complete ignorance of their faith. I must leave this neglected portion of the flock on account of lack of workers, for I can scarcely send a missionary to them even once a year.”8

Figure 1: Christ Church, first Catholic Church at Cincinnati, opened in 1819 at Liberty and Vine. Source: St. Xavier School Archives

By 1817, Michael Scott dreamt of building a Catholic church in Cincinnati. He felt a priest might want to live here, if a church was built.9 Local Catholics were very poor and unable to finance a church. Bishop Flaget suggested Scott contact the wealthy Maryland Catholics for help. Money was pledged, property bought, a small (55’x30’) wooden frame church was built at Liberty and Vine St. [Catholics could erect a cemetery there, because it was outside the city, and the land was less expensive there]. The first Mass was celebrated at a packed church in 1819 on Easter Sunday with about 50 Catholics present.10

From 1810 to 1820, the population of the state of Ohio more than doubled again from 230,000 to 580,000 people. Settlers streamed in from the east and the south. Immigrants arrived from Germany, Ireland and Switzerland. For passage to the New World, many committed themselves to work as bond servants for


4 five or six year terms. Once here, they bought affordable property and hoped to repay their passage debts with money earned from their new farm production. Sadly, not everyone was successful in doing this.11 Cincinnati was named the first diocese of Ohio in 1821. Edward Fenwick O.P. was the first Bishop. The diocesan territory included the whole state of Ohio, parts of Indiana, Michigan, Illinois and parts of Wisconsin. Fr. Fenwick arrived in Cincinnati in 1823 with two other Dominicans. They rented living space in the Lytle Park area (near the Ohio River) for the huge sum of $200 a year. (Weekly collections averaged only $2.00. Obviously there were problems paying the rent). Fenwick quickly concluded that the little church was at too great a distance from the people and decided to move the church into the city. Travel was very difficult in bad weather and the winter months. Within four months of his arrival, Fenwick purchased (on credit) a 25’ lot on Sycamore between 6th and 7th and transported the little church there. While it was being moved, the church collapsed and needed to be rebuilt. A basement was now added, including four or five rooms for the Bishop and his priests. Fenwick named this church St. Peter’s; the first Mass was celebrated here late in 1823.12 The congregation grew quickly. The church was soon too small. So Fenwick sailed to Europe to beg money for a new church, plus money to support himself and the other Dominicans. He returned in 1825 loaded with ample resources: a subsidy for himself and his priests (from the Dominicans), money to buy a bigger lot and build a new church, four young missionary priests, a Mercy sister and ten trunks of religious articles. While the bishop was in Europe, Cincinnati Catholics drew up plans for the new church. An extension lot (49.5’ by 198’) on Sycamore was purchased. A new brick church (50’x 110’) capable of holding 800 people was being built upon Fenwick’s return.13 Mass was celebrated for the first time there on Pentecost Sunday, 1826. The Cathedral Church was dedicated that December. The old frame church was moved behind the new cathedral and used temporarily as a small seminary in 1829. Classes began

with 10 seminarians: four theologians and six men studying humanities. Cincinnati (and all of Ohio) continued to experience rapid growth. In 1825 the Ohio Legislature authorized the building of two canals (Cincinnati to Toledo, and Portsmouth to Cleveland). Immigrants came and built the canals. The opening of the National Pike Road from Cumberland, Maryland to Columbus, Ohio, brought more immigrants who also built the canals and helped to construct the railroads that connected the farms to the canals. Many of the immigrants (both German and Irish) were Catholic. Parishes were constructed at various work sites along the way to serve the Catholics.14 The Bishop recognized the need for an American-born and locally educated clergy. European priest candidates, in addition to their theology studies, often needed three years of study on American language skills, along with cultural training, before they were able to do pastoral ministry. Fenwick again set sail for Europe to beg money for a Cincinnati seminary. He envisioned this as an advanced literary institute that served both seminarians and college students, giving the local youth an opportunity for higher education.15 He returned in 1830 with the needed money.


5 The new seminary/college was built and called the Athenaeum, (later St. Xavier College). It opened in the fall of 1831, measuring 50’ x 130’, and was located 60’ north of the Cathedral.16 The building stood two and a half stories tall with an ample, well-lit basement containing classrooms for chemistry, physics, drawing and music. In the front, on the first floor, there were two living rooms for the Cathedral pastors and college professors. In the back there were classrooms and an assembly/study hall. The second floor front had additional space for professors; the back held a library and a student chapel. A vaulted attic served as a dormitory for boarders. Bishop Fenwick had a strong devotion to St. Francis Xavier, the missionary, and so he dedicated his seminary and chapel to him. One year later, an Episcopal residence plus a seminarian classroom was built between the Cathedral and the College.17

Figure 2: Buildings on west side of Sycamore (between 6th and 7th Street) during the 1830’s and 1840’s: (left to right) St. Peter’s Cathedral (became St. Xavier Church), the Bishop’s residence, the Athenaeum (became St. Xavier College) and a local firehouse. Source: St. Xavier High School Archives)

The faculty at the Athenaeum was made up of local diocesan clergy and mature seminarians. The Athenaeum’s brochure stated, “The college course will enhance the Greek and Latin authors—both historians and poets—which are usually read; the Hebrew, Spanish, French, and English languages, the various branches of Mathematics, Reading, Writing, Geography, and the use of the Globes.”18 As more and more Catholic immigrants arrived in Cincinnati, more demands were put upon the small number of available diocesan priests. The Bishop realized there were not enough priests to serve the needs of both the growing flock and the Athenaeum. So, from the beginning, Fenwick began asking


6 the Jesuits to come and take over his college/seminary. But the Jesuits were faced with their own manpower and financial problems. At this time the Jesuits had to turn the Bishop down.

1832 was a very difficult year in Cincinnati. Fire, flood, disease and death struck the city. At the end of January a great fire enveloped a large part of downtown from the river up to 4th Street. Early in February a huge flood (64’4”) inundated downtown (from John Street to Deer Creek, up to Lower Market and Pearl), causing loss of life and property. Food was very scarce and sold at exorbitant prices. Then the dreaded Asiatic cholera arrived. Many Cincinnati businesses closed and the local people fled to the countryside and the forests to escape the ravages of the disease.19 That September, Bishop Fenwick died of cholera while administering the sacraments in Wooster, Ohio. Father John Baptist Purcell was named to succeed him. He arrived the following year and served the Cincinnati diocese for 50 years; he became Cincinnati’s Archbishop in 1851. At the arrival of Purcell, there were 19 priests in the state of Ohio: ten diocesan and nine religious (eight Dominicans, one Redemptorist). By 1840 there were 35 priests in the diocese.20 Cincinnati’s population had climbed to over 46,000; Cincinnati was the sixth largest city in the country. From the 1820s onward, Cincinnati flourished with business and civic projects. The construction of steamboats and the building of shipyards filled Eastern Avenue from the river’s edge to Delta Avenue. The area was called Fulton to honor Robert Fulton, the inventor of the steam engine. Cincinnati became one of the country’s largest inland shipbuilding centers. Industrial noise bellowed loudly, coming from carpenters, blacksmiths, boilermakers and other craftsmen. In 1826, 48 of the 143 steamboats on the Ohio were built in Cincinnati. Between 1841 and 1850, 295 steamboats were built in Cincinnati.21 When St. Xavier College opened in 1840, some of its families lived in the Fulton area, meaning it was likely that a number of family members worked in the shipbuilding industry. Until 1840, agriculture headed Cincinnati’s economy. Going into the 1850s, transportation improvements (steamboats, canals, railroads and the National Pike Road) meant that Cincinnati’s economy continued to thrive. Farming, beer, wine, hog slaughtering and meat packing were joined by furniture building, clothing manufacturing, soap and candle making, iron and metal works, the building and storage of steamboats and banking services as some of the businesses that flourished here. (Cf. Appendix 1) According to Roger Fortin, by 1850 Cincinnati was sixth in population and third in manufacturing.22 Back in 1829, Nicholas Longworth, a wealthy Cincinnati lawyer, retired. He envisioned Mt. Adams as a place to grow grapes (like in Germany) and had dreams of bringing vineyards and the wine business to Cincinnati. He often collected lawyer’s fees in form of property (on or near Mt. Adams) rather than in money. He went to Germany and brought back different kinds of grape seedlings. All of the attempts failed, but he finally succeeded growing the Catawba grape. Other planters joined him. Grape vines transformed the hillsides of Mount Adams and East Walnut Hills. There were three banner


7 grape harvests: 1853, 1858 and 1859. In 1859, Ohio was named the largest wine producing and distributing state in the country. However, the Ohio wine industry stopped abruptly in 1860, when an invasion of the black rot blight descended and ruined the vines. With the impending Civil War hostilities, Longworth and the other local vintners were unable to hire an adequate number of workers to bring their vineyards back to life. Cincinnati’s wine industry simply died.23 Bad news came to the Athenaeum in 1837 when the country was gripped in a major financial panic and a resulting depression. Enrollment suffered. Boarding students were no longer accepted. Near the end of the 1839 school year, Bishop Purcell suspended all classes, and moved his seminarians to the country (to the Lytle farm in Brown County). The Bishop became more determined than ever to get the Jesuits to come and take over the Athenaeum, despite having failed in all his previous attempts.24 On August 10, 1840, Bishop Purcell wrote to Fr. Peter Verhaegen S.J. (the Vice-Provincial of the Missouri Jesuits) and offered his Cathedral, residence, Seminary, the Athenaeum, and the land on which these buildings stood to the Jesuits in order to become a Jesuit college, church and residence: “I propose then, V. Revd. and Dear Friend, to give up to you forever, on condition that they should ever be held sacred for church and school, the College, Seminary, and the Church, with the real estate on which these buildings (which I now occupy) are located—that you may have a college and a parish church to be served by your Society in perpetuity. This property is about two hundred feet square….We are now in treaty for a lot [at Seventh and Plum] on which we propose to build a new Cathedral. If you think fit to employ them, I can employ under your direction, as teachers, in the College, in Cincinnati, twelve seminarians—and even one or two French priests, whom I expect from over the waters, this month or next, to remain with you until you could dispense with their services, or until they should know English well enough to be useful in the Missions.”25 On September 10, Fr. Verhaegen S.J. responded to Bishop Purcell, accepted the offer and affirmed the transfer: “From this time, we trust in God, the Athenaeum will be worthy of its motto: ‘Sacred to religion and to arts.’ The building is being fitted up, extensive improvements are going on, in and around it, and as soon as they are completed, the school will commence on a scale not hitherto reached by this institution. To the many inquiries of parents and guardians, we would say that the classes will be reorganized in the most efficient manner by the 1st of November. A select number of boarders, about thirty, can be accommodated.”26 Fr. Verhaegen, then wrote to Fr. Roothan S.J., the Jesuit Superior General in Rome: “I have appointed Fr. Elet vice rector of the new institution. I also sent Frs. Pin and Gleizal, Messrs. Van der Eycken (Oakley) and Duerinck, and Brothers De Meyer,


8 Schlienger, and Dugan. Since, however, there are not a sufficient number of professors, the Bishop will lend a hand by allowing certain seminarians to assist Ours in teaching as long as will be necessary.�27 By the end of September, eight Jesuits arrived in Cincinnati. They fixed up the school building. They changed the name of the church to St. Francis Xavier Church. The school became St. Francis Xavier College, in order to more clearly reflect its Jesuit character. St. Xavier was now called a college. In 1840, this word meant something very different from what we understand the word college to mean today. Today a U.S. college begins after high school and often embraces a four year program culminating in a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree. Back then, a college (collegium in Latin), meant a European-style school offering a six year classical course that integrated primary, secondary, and post-secondary classes. Student ages ranged from age 6 to 18. Those under 12 were placed in a preparatory or primary department. At about 12, the six year classical education program ensued. The first three years (called humanities) were roughly the equivalent to today’s high school, and the second three years (poetry, rhetoric and philosophy) would be closer to current American college programs. Upon the successful completion of this six-year program, a student would receive a Bachelor of Arts degree (diploma). Less than three percent of the students remained long enough to graduate.28 All registered students at St. Xavier College (no matter what their age) were called college students.29 [No separate high school diplomas were issued or awarded until 1916.] The faculty was predominately Jesuit; but there were always lay teachers at the school. In the first year, a layman named Mr. William Gilmartin taught Rhetoric and English Literature (until at least

1843). In the fall of 1841, Mr. John B. Stallo joined the faculty as professor of German Literature (18411847). He stayed at St. Xavier for six years. In addition, three to five diocesan seminarians also helped teach. As far as the early curriculum, Mr. Karl Hauck (a history teacher at St. X from 1962-1999), describes the classical program and the new business program inaugurated by Fr. Elet in the fall of 1841 in this way: Each student was admitted to [the college] at the level of his competency. Those in the Classical program studied Latin and Greek, Poetry, Rhetoric, Chemistry, Botany, Mathematics, Physics, Psychology [called Mental Philosophy], and Moral Philosophy [called Ethics]. Additional courses [Spanish or German] could be taken without charge. In the spring of the first year, 1841, German Literature and Bookkeeping courses were added to the curriculum as evening courses for people who worked during the day. That fall, a four year Business (Mercantile) course was introduced, including courses in the English and French Languages, Writing, Geography, History, Mathematics, and


9 Bookkeeping. A Certificate [of Achievement] was issued for the Mercantile course at the completion of four years of study.) ...There was no precise line between secondary and collegiate instruction…During these years it appears that St. Xavier College students were not required to take Greek, Latin, or other foreign languages. [Many students, however, did take Latin, Greek, and other foreign languages.]30 The daily order may safely be described as rigorous. The rising bell rang at 5. Morning prayers followed, then a study period until 7. Mass was celebrated, and breakfast followed at 7:30. Students had a short break before class, which started at 8 a.m. The first class was a mandatory penmanship class. Latin class began at 8:30; Greek at 9:30; and English at 10:30. At 11:30 the upper level students studied chemistry or physics, while younger students took classes in history, including geography and the use of the globes. The main meal was served at 12:15, followed by a period of recreation until 1:45. Then there was a study period until 2:30. French class began at 2:30. Math started at 3:30. At 5 there was an optional German class (and in some years a Spanish class), or one could study. At 7:15 there was a short moral lecture (homily), followed by a light supper. Prayers were said at 8:30, followed by lights out.31 Thursday was always a day with no classes. Students could spend the entire day in recreation. Other than Thursday, however, there were only two regularly scheduled holidays during the school year: the Feast of Francis Xavier (December 3) and George Washington’s birthday (February 12). By way of showing how few official holidays there were in the country, Congress finally recognized Thanksgiving as a national holiday in 1941. Saturday was always considered a class day. There were review classes in the morning, and Christian Doctrine was taught on Saturday afternoon. On Sundays, the students came to St. Xavier Church for Mass. On the first Wednesday of each month the college had a mandatory assembly when academic premiums were announced and awarded. The top six students in each academic discipline would be announced to all. The top student in each discipline received a blue ribbon with a star. The second-best student received a blue ribbon. In like fashion the most diligent student received a red ribbon with a cross. The second most diligent received a red ribbon. For the next month these students proudly wore their awards around school. Report cards were sent home every third month. From 1840 to 1865, there were some 2,350 students at St. Xavier College. The names of most of these students were listed in the Registry which included the student’s name, father’s name, home address, age at registration, religion, course (preparatory, classical, mercantile), and assorted remarks. About fifty names appeared twice—students who registered, left, came back and registered again. In addition there is an Index roster of St. Xavier students from 1840 to 1981 compiled by Mrs. Florence Hauck, the mother of Mr. Karl Hauck, the long-time and now retired history teacher at St. Xavier. She


10 compiled this Index using our old Rolodex and index card files. The Index contains names of students listed in the Registry plus a few other names not included there. The Index also lists the length of time a student spent at St. Xavier. 2,257 student names appear in both of the sources. The Registry and a copy of the Index are kept in the St. Xavier High School Archives. From 1840-1854 St. Xavier College functioned as both a boarding and a day school. During the first 14 years, 1,378 students attended the College. 486 were boarders; 852 were day students. From

1854-1865 972 day students attended. Boarding students no longer attended St. Xavier. A breakdown of the registered boarders reveals the states and countries from which they came. About 40 more boarders came from the north than the south, and a significant foreign contingent. Boarders From the Southern States: Louisiana 150 Kentucky (not NKY) 13 Mississippi 13 Missouri 13 Tennessee 9 Virginia 9 Arkansas 1 Georgia 1

From the Northern States: Greater Cincinnati 124 Rest of Ohio 69 Indiana 24 Pennsylvania 12 Michigan 8 Illinois 3 Massachusetts 2 New York 2 West Virginia 2 New Mexico Territory 1

Total: 209 Total: 247 Table 1: Home areas from which the boarders came. Source: Registry

From Other Countries: 32 Mexico 12 Cuba 3 England 3 France 3 Germany 3 Ireland 3 Italy 1 Spain 1 Puerto Rico(Spain) 1 Total: 30

In January of 1854, a decision was made to close the boarding school, effective the following September. Many reasons were given behind this decision, including: (1) financially, St. Xavier College was continuing to experience a mounting debt; (2) new Jesuit colleges were doing well in other U.S. cities, such as: Louisville, Bardstown, St. Louis, Grand Couteau, New Orleans, Washington D.C. and New York City. The Jesuit schools were competing for students; (3) parishes now had their own grade schools and were trying to fill them first to pay off the parish debt; (4) there were fewer young Jesuit scholastics available to teach for more than a few years (they were then sent to study theology and to prepare for ordination). Schools did not want to let their scholastics go because they might not be able to find adequately trained teaching replacements; (5) virulent anti-immigrant and anti-Catholic attacks (from the Nativist and the Know-Nothing parties) were intensifying; (6) racial tensions were escalating and causing parental fear both here and around the nation. (7) Fewer parents wanted to send their sons away to school. For these and other reasons, the St. Xavier College board felt it necessary to close the boarding school. Following the closing of the boarding school, a decided majority of St. Xavier College students came from the Greater Cincinnati area. Many came from Over-the-Rhine, as well as from Covington and Newport, KY. From the late 1850s on, increasing numbers of students came from areas outside Cincinnati’s central basin. Students came from St. Michael’s Parish in Lower Price Hill, Storrs Township (along River Road and up to Our Lady of Victory Parish in Delhi), St. Francis de Sales parish in Walnut


11 Hills (prosperous German farmers). Some students came from outlying areas like Oakley, Madisonville, White Oak and even from Milford, Fayetteville and Clermont County. A small number came from Norwalk (4), Hamilton (3), Marietta (2), Lancaster (2), and Cleveland (1). The age at which a student first registered at St. Xavier, his length of his stay at school, and his age when he left school, is very instructive. Between 1840 and 1851, 127 students between the ages of 5 and 8 enrolled at St. Xavier. From

1851 to 1865 there were only seven registered students under age nine. From 1840 to 1851 there were approximately 125 students ages 16 and up at the school. From 1851 until 1865, only ninety-eight students above 16 enrolled at school. (Cf. Appendix 3) The majority of students at St. Xavier started school between ages 11 and 14. More than 1500 students were in this category. (Cf. Appendix 3) How long did students stay at St. Xavier? According to the Registry/Index, about 950 students left during or at the end of their first year of study. Close to 400 students left during or at the end of their second year of study. A departure date was not listed for another 400 students. More than likely their stays were also brief, bringing the total to about 1,700 students who left school in two years or less. (Cf. Appendix 4) Among the reasons why students left school was the fact that no one had to go to school. (There were no laws of compulsory school attendance at that time.) Most felt school was a waste of time. It was more helpful to learn farming, carpentry or some other good use for their hands. To be sure, the young were urged to learn to read, write and count, but these were not mandated skills. Today we learn to read, write and count in grade school if not before. Finishing high school was not common until the early 20th century. A second reason for not attending school was the fact many students came from immigrant families who could not afford to send their sons for six years of schooling. Young people were needed at home to help build the family home and barns, to work the farm, or to help run the family business. And at the time it was considered a luxury of the rich to learn about one’s own culture, history and literature. Learning about the cultures of others in the world (both past and the present) was even more reserved for the rich. It should not be surprising that 60 percent or more of the students left school within two years, with 70 percent or more leaving after three years. From 1840 to 1865 only 65 students (2.7% of the 2,350 students) stayed at St. Xavier College long enough to receive a Bachelor of Arts diploma. Seven of these students received the degree of Master of Arts. (Cf. Appendix 8: What St. Xavier College Graduates Did After Graduation, pg 43-45); 192 students stayed in school for three or more years (from ages 12-16) and likely completed the Humanities (high school) portion of the curriculum. (N.B., The only degrees awarded at this time were the A.B. and the M.A. Separate high school diplomas were awarded beginning in 1916 at St. Xavier.)


12 There was a second academic department at St. Xavier. In March of 1841, a German course and a bookkeeping evening course were offered to those who worked during the day. By the following fall, a four-year Mercantile (Business) Department had been developed. This program highlighted Accounting and Math. The Classical languages (Latin, Greek) were replaced by French and German. At least 110 students registered for the Mercantile program; 85 of these stayed for four years. They were awarded Mercantile (Business) Certificates of Achievement. (Note: students in the Mercantile Department were not awarded diplomas or degrees. And, unfortunately, there are no extant records or lists of the names of students who received these certificates.) There were also students at St. Xavier who were eventually awarded their academic degrees, but not at St. Xavier. These were the students who studied at the college, but when they completed their Humanities (high school) course at St. Xavier, they entered the seminary. There they finished their studies, received their degrees and were ordained. Between 1840 and 1868, there were 20 diocesan and 15 Jesuits priests who followed this path. One noteworthy example of this would be Henry Moeller, who studied Humanities at St. Xavier. He then entered the Archdiocesan seminary, finished his Philosophical and Theological education, and in 1875 was ordained. In 1904, he was named Archbishop of Cincinnati, following Archbishop Elder. Today Moeller High School bears his name. Concerning the teachers and the subjects they taught, the teachers’ names and subjects taught were gathered from the Missouri Province catalogues of 1840-1865. The year of birth of each Jesuit was found in the Necrology for the Missouri, Chicago, Detroit, and Wisconsin Provinces. From this the age of the Jesuit each year when he taught was calculated and entered as a superscript after the Jesuit’s name. Ages were not available for former Jesuits or lay teachers. The names of the lay teachers and subjects they taught were found in St. Xavier communications sent to parents of prospective students. (Cf. Appendix 5: Teachers and subjects Taught) Most Jesuits taught at St. Xavier during their 20s or 30s. By the time they turned 40, they were administrators, were sent to other schools, worked in other ministries (e.g., among the Native Americans), or they had decided to leave the Jesuits. Administrators at St. Xavier tended to be a little older, but not always. (Fr. DeBlieck had just turned 27 and was newly ordained when he became Rector/President at St. Xavier in 1848.) Jesuit brothers were often the senior members of the Jesuit Community. At least one brother worked at St. Xavier College into his 70s. In the first few (four) years of the school it was normal for teachers to remain with the same class all day long and teach all subjects. Students were divided and grouped by ability and learning experience. Many early St. Xavier students were placed at an elementary level which all teachers could teach.33 Just as there were students at St. Xavier from a number of countries and cultures, so also were the Jesuits who came from many countries. Of 154 Jesuits serving in the Midwest, 45 were Irish, 42 Belgian, 16 from Holland, 11 from Italy, nine from France, two from Spain and only one born in the United States.34 Language was a problem at times. Efforts were made to help all Jesuits develop a mastery of English.


13 There was also a story told about the Notre Dame de Namur Sisters who arrived in Cincinnati in 1840. Only one spoke English. She had to travel from classroom to classroom teaching all the lessons to the students. Then the other sisters would come in to repeat the lesson and drill the students. Once the other sisters learned enough English to communicate the lessons, they would teach the students.35 The names of the lay teachers (in CAPS) and the classes they taught at St. X. are listed below. In Appendix 5 a number of empty boxes appear. Some of these teaching spots were probably filled late (by a late hire or a late Jesuit assignment that did not make the Province Catalogue). It might also be that in a given year there were not enough returning students to warrant a separate class in a given subject. 1840-43

MR. GILMARTIN

1842-43 1842-43 1845-47 1850-51 1850-52 1851-53 1859-61

MR. McCOY MR. J.B. STALLO MR. J. B. STALLO MR. ROSIENKIEWICZ MR. H. BOLLMAN MR. COLLIER MESSRS. BRUSSELBACH AND GEROLD MR.PIKET & SON MR. BRUSSELBACH MR. GEROLD MR. PIKET & SON MR. BUTLER

1859-61 1863-65 1863-65 1864-65

English Literature Rhetoric & Belles Lettres Rhetoric & Belles Lettres German Literature German Literature Music Music and Band Director Drawing Music Drawing Music Drawing English

Table 2: Lay teachers, the years and the subjects taught. Diocesan seminarians also helped in the early years, but we don’t have names, dates or subjects. (Materials from Midwest Jesuit Archives, St. Louis, MO)

Note that there were few Spanish classes (and only between 1850 and 1854). German Literature was taught starting in 1841, (obviously to those students who already knew some German.) Regular German I and II classes were not taught until 1845. French was taught beginning in 1842. The popularity of the Classical Languages had many ups and downs. Some years there were no Latin or Greek classes (e.g., during the Civil War). There were years when there was only one Latin Class. In other years there were two, three, four, five, or six classes. The Latin teacher also taught Greek.

1840-44: one 1849-50: six 1857-59: three

1844-46: two 1850-51: four 1859-61: five

1846-47: three 1851-52: three 1861-64: zero

1847-48: two 1852-54: six 1864-65: one

1848-49: five 1854-57: two

Table 3: Number of Latin and Greek classes taught each year. Cf. Appendix 5.

Shortly after St. Xavier College opened, Bishop Purcell bought property at 8th and Plum St. for a new diocesan cathedral. It was to be called St. Peter in Chains Cathedral. While it was being built, Bishop Purcell resided and presided at St. Xavier Church. The new Cathedral was dedicated in July, 1845.36


14 In the spring of 1841, a Kentucky Jesuit, Fr. John Larkin S.J., gave a talk in Cincinnati on the hot button issue of Temperance. He maintained that the common and popular anti-alcohol pledge was not a promise binding under sin, but simply a pious resolution. Many Cincinnati Catholics, along with their Bishop, disagreed, believing strongly in total abstinence. They saw the pledge as binding under sin. At the 1843 Bishops’ Synod in Baltimore, the other American bishops sided with Fr. Larkin.37 In the fall of 1841, extracurricular clubs began at Xavier. The oldest was the Philopaedean Society, a group started among the upper level students to promote public speaking and debate. Three other clubs started within a few years, each having a Greek name. The Philhermenian Society aided the younger students in public speaking. The Euterpean Society, promoted the use of music to assist with the dignity and spirit of religious, national and literary festivals. The Himiroletic Society was formed to help students with the pronunciation of the French language.38 In the middle 1840s, Sodalities started at St. Xavier. These were associations of students who met regularly to pray together, learn about prayer, and to perform community service. The groups usually placed themselves under the patronage of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Sodalities were very popular at St. Xavier well into the middle of the 20th century. On March 2, 1842, the General Assembly of the State of Ohio adopted a resolution to incorporate St. Xavier College for 30 years. By this incorporation, St. Xavier College was allowed to grant degrees (Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts). Our first graduate (in 1842), a Mr. William Gilmartin, received a Master of Arts degree. He was a lay teacher at St. Xavier who was teaching English Literature, Rhetoric and Belles Lettres. (A Master of Arts degree was earned after the Bachelor of Arts degree by an additional one or two years of private study, followed by a successful examination of educational progress at St. Xavier.) Graduation ceremonies were scheduled for the end of the school year, usually during the second week of July. The ceremonies usually lasted two or more evenings. They were open to the public, and all St. Xavier students and the faculty were expected to attend. Students from each educational level gave presentations highlighting their growth in knowledge. All graduating students were expected to give a talk or presentation, some in English but others in Latin, Greek, French or German. The audience was occasionally treated to a skit or drama. Music was performed by students between the various talks and presentations. At the 1850 graduation, students performed “The Xavier Quick Step,” a piece written by Mr. H. Bollman, a layman who was professor of Music and Director of the college band.39 On the final evening, diplomas, certificates and academic awards were distributed. In the early years, the school library possessed 6,000 volumes, and had “an extensive collection of specimens of Conchology and Mineralogy,” as well as Chemical and Philosophical *Physics+ apparati.40 By 1864 the library had almost doubled the number of volumes it originally possessed. Mr. Duerinck S.J., one of the eight original Jesuits who came to Cincinnati in 1840, arrived with a reputation for possessing great financial management skills. Beyond this, he was known as a very good botanist. A plant which he discovered was given the name Prunus Duerinckus. At Xavier he set up a well-


15 regarded botanical museum (display), featuring specimens and drawings of both local and distant trees, leaves, flowers and plants, etc. Visitors flocked to view the exhibit, and in all likelihood the display influenced some prospective students to enroll at the college. At this time many other Jesuit schools in the country had museums with attractive scientific displays.41

1841-1842 once again highlighted problems with the country’s unsettled banking system. There was a country-wide depression. Like 1837, Cincinnati once again experienced economic riots.42 In the summer of 1843, Fr. Pin S.J., who taught Chemistry, Physics, and served as Assistant Principal, decided to leave the Jesuits. Additionally, the diocesan seminarians who were teachers returned to their seminary in Brown County. The administration had to find replacements for them. There was a mansion in Walnut Hills (about a mile from where the current St. Ursula Academy stands today) which Bishop Purcell used as a villa for his seminarians from 1831-1839. The Bishop also planned to one day make it his own residence and possibly use it as a seminary. When the Jesuits arrived in 1840, he let them use the so-called Purcell Mansion as a place to recreate and relax. The Jesuits bought the mansion in 1844. St. Xavier students now began using it to recreate on Thursdays. Normally students walked the 2.25 miles up Gilbert Avenue (the easiest grade to climb) to McMillan, and then out McMillan to Salutaris/Moorman. In bad weather they came by omnibus (a horse-drawn carriage with rows of seats in the back). The students often spent their day at the mansion playing a game called rounders or town ball, the predecessor to today’s baseball. (In the summertime, boarders, for a fee, could remain at the mansion instead of travelling long distances to their homes.)

Figure 3: The Purcell Mansion in Walnut Hills: the site of Thursday student recreation. (No class on Thursday.) It became the site of St. Xavier College Preparatory (1847-1849). Students up to age 13 lived and studied here. Drawing: Midwest Jesuit Archives, St. Louis, MO.


16 In November of 1848, Fr. DeBlieck penned a letter to his friend, Fr. Druyts, saying: “This is Thursday morning and all our boys have gone to the hills to play ball; the [school] yard is as quiet as the garden of a Capuchin convent and I have a few moments to spare in which I intend to spend in scribbling to you a few of my incoherent thoughts…”43 In 1846, in order to meet the needs of the overflowing immigrant congregation at St. Xavier Church (parishioners were mostly Irish and some German), the back of St. Xavier Church was lengthened 40’ to Leslie Alley, the N-S alley parallel to Sycamore and Main Streets, between 6th and 7th St. In 1847, the state of Ohio was separated into two dioceses, Cincinnati and Cleveland. In the summer of 1847, the Jesuits fixed up the mansion property44 so that the younger students up to age 13 could live and study there. For two years the mansion became the site of the Preparatory Department. Classes and study hours were arranged to provide these young pupils with extra time for exercise. A matron watched over the neatness and cleanliness of the students, and was in charge of wardrobe and laundry. The experiment failed. Reasons may include: the cholera, the fact that the students were separated from their brothers/friends down town, and the students felt the school was too far out in the country. The younger students did not want to spend all their time in the country. In the early 1850s, when the mansion was no longer used as a school, the Sodality was still organizing May processions to the Mansion to honor Mary. After 1854 the property was seldom used. It was eventually subdivided into lots and sold in 1873. In the fall of 1847, Fr. Elet was summoned to Rome for a Jesuit meeting. At this meeting, he was asked to fill another position: Vice-Provincial of Missouri. His own choice would have been to spend the rest of his days ministering to the needs of the Native Americans out west. But this was not to be. Fr. Elet served as Vice-Provincial of Missouri for just three years, and died of tuberculosis in 1851. Previous to coming to St. Xavier, he had served as President of St. Louis University.46 As Vice Provincial he initiated the process by which the scholastics would complete their early teaching years and then move on to Theology and Ordination. This part of Jesuit formation took 10 years set up. (Remember, schools did not want to lose their scholastics, for fear that they would not be able to find adequately trained replacement teachers.) 45

Fr. John Blox S.J., a Belgian Jesuit, was named Vice-Rector at St. Xavier succeeding Fr. Elet. He remained in this position for just one year. He opened the Preparatory Department in Walnut Hills, appointing Fr. Aelen S.J. as Director the first year, and Fr. George Carrell S.J. in the second year. He bought property on Sycamore St., between 7th and 8th St. to build a parish boys’ free school. This school opened in the fall of 1848 with 400 boys who were taught by Jesuits. A parish girls’ free school (for 600 girls) had opened in 1847. The girls were taught by Notre Dame de Namur Sisters.47 Fr. Blox was recalled to the Maryland Province (apparently because he had admitted many boys to the College who were illqualified.48)


17 During the 1840s, the majority of the Jesuits who were missioned to Cincinnati either taught at St. Xavier College or worked at St. Xavier Church. Other Jesuits ministered in different ways, e.g., as chaplains to the sick and dying, or as directors of parish missions/retreats. A number of Jesuits, at the request of Bishop Purcell, served as pastors of diocesan parishes and lived in the parish. The parishes included: St. Mary’s in Covington (1841), Corpus Christi in Newport (1845), 49 St. James in Brownsgrove (White Oak) in 1846, St. Philomena, a downtown German parish (1849), and in parishes located in Chillicothe, OhiO. 50 When Jesuit authorities in Rome heard about Jesuits living in diocesan parishes, the Jesuits were asked to return to live with the Jesuit community. 51 In 1848, some Jesuits living in Germany (e.g., Fr. Francis Xavier Weninger S.J., Fr. F. X. Wippern S.J., Fr. Christopher Genelli S.J., and others) petitioned Rome to be sent as missionaries to America. Political unrest existed at the time in Germany and Jesuits were not welcomed. Rome approved the move. Frs. Weninger and Wippern were missioned to St. Louis and then sent to Cincinnati. Fr. Weninger was well-known in Europe as a director of successful parish missions (retreats/revivals). Fr. Wippern became Principal at St. Xavier. While Fr. Weninger taught Theology for two years, from then on he pursued his successful retreat giving and mission work throughout the country for a number of years. 52 (Two years later, Fr. Genelli, returning to Austria from St. Louis to care for his health, stopped in Cincinnati, caught cholera and died.) It is interesting to note that Fr. Weninger’s first English homily in this country (1849) was given to a black congregation in Florissant, MO. Then in 1852 he preached a mission in Louisiana to slaves from three plantations. (In the Index of Fr. Garraghan’s three volume work, The Jesuits of the Middle United States, Fr. Weninger is listed 13 times for his work with the blacks.) He did much more than this. In 31 years, he preached more than 800 mission/retreats and spoke 30,000 times in German, French and English. He is said to have heard 50,000 confessions each year. Between 2,000 and 3,000 people became Catholic because of him. He travelled some 200,000 miles while giving retreats. He wrote pamphlets and books explaining the Catholic faith to many different audiences and to people of all age groups. 53 When he finished a retreat or mission, he would return to the St. Xavier Jesuit community in Cincinnati to prepare for his next retreat/mission. It is likely that during these times of preparation he spent time with Cincinnati’s black population, most of whom lived very near St. Xavier Church in Bucktown (i.e., along Eggleston Avenue). In 1849 when Fr. John DeBlieck S.J. was appointed as Rector/President at St. Xavier (at age 27), there were already signs pointing to a number of growing problems that would last through the 1850s: 1. 2.

With the opening of the St. Xavier Parish School for boys, fewer young boys of the parish were registering at the College. In addition to St. Xavier Parish, many other local Catholic parishes had now opened their own grade schools. People in these parish felt obliged to help their parish to pay off parish school debts. Parents enrolled their sons in the parish schools


18 3.

4.

5.

6.

Jesuit boarding colleges throughout the Midwest and the South (St. Louis, Grand Couteau, Mobile, Louisville, and Bardstown) were prospering. Parents now had educational options for their children closer to home. St. Xavier still owed money to pay for the purchase of the Purcell Mansion, and the conversion of the mansion into an attractive school/campus, the enlargement of St. Xavier Church, the building of the parish school for boys, and so forth. The Jesuit operation in Cincinnati was on the slope sinking into a deeper and deeper debt. Complaints were heard frequently about the dirtiness of the downtown Cincinnati area (pigs in the streets, noxious industrial smoke and pollution, inadequate lighting inside the school, unhealthy living conditions for boarders in the attic dormitory, etc). Virulent anti-Catholic and anti-immigrant activities were surfacing and picking up momentum, led by the Nativist Movement and the Know Nothing Party. A riot broke out in 1854 when Cardinal Bedini visited Cincinnati from Rome. Violence erupted when some 6,000 angry men on their way to attempt to burn down the new cathedral, marched past the college. A two pound rock was hurled through the window of the President’s room. (Fortunately, Fr. DeBlieck was out of town.)

Bigger than these festering problems, a cholera epidemic descended on the Midwest with a vengeance in the summer of 1849. More than 4,000 Cincinnatians died of the disease, while St. Louis lost 10,000 of its citizens. 54 In addition the cholera returned the next three summers. Remarkably, only one student from St. Xavier College died of cholera. He was struck while returning home to Mexico when school finished in July. (He was buried along the shores of the Mississippi River.) During the time of the plague, many Jesuits ministered to the sick and dying, ignoring the threat of infection to themselves. In three years, four Jesuits lost their lives to cholera in Cincinnati: 1.

2.

3.

Fr. Angelo Maesseele S.J. was a teacher of physics, mathematics and rhetoric at St. Xavier. He ministered at the city hospital and the pest house. He died on July 11, 1849, at the age of 39. Fr. Christopher Genelli S.J. was an Austrian Jesuit from St. Louis who was a scholar/writer. On his way home to Austria to take care of his own health issues, he stopped for a short visit in Cincinnati, contracted cholera, and died in two days. (August 12, 1850) Mr. Julius Johnston S.J., a much loved scholastic of great promise, died at the age of 41. He was a practicing lawyer in Virginia who moved to St. Louis. There he became Catholic, married and had two daughters. When his young wife died, he took great pains to insure his daughters’ education and future, and resolved to join the Jesuits. As a novice, he taught in St. Louis and was missioned to St. Xavier College to teach philosophy and rhetoric. While teaching a full load, he studied theology on the side. In his final year, he was asked to serve as Dean of Discipline (a position rarely given to scholastics). On June 8, 1852 he preached at St. Xavier Church in place of an ill


19

4.

Rector. Afterwards, he went out to the Purcell Mansion for a rest. The next day he contracted cholera and died on June 10. Brother William Hayes S.J. died at age 26. At the college for only two years, he was the caretaker of the Purcell Mansion property. He contracted cholera on July 14, 1852, and died the next day. 55

In 1850, Cincinnati grew to an Archdiocese and John Baptist Purcell was named Archbishop. In the early 1850s, there was an attempt to bring back the study of Latin and Greek and to better implement the Ratio Studiorum (the Jesuit plan of organizing curriculum, ordering classes and administrative methods). Because of the decreasing enrollment in the 1850s and other reasons, the change took a number of years to implement. And as Fr. Coen S.J., a Jesuit in St. Louis, said in a letter to Rome: “It will take time to convince the youth of America, even in a well-organized college, that the study of ancient languages is of any use to them; we shall never be able to get along without teaching a special course for such as are preparing for a career in business.” 56 In the 1850s, Ohio’s railroads connected most of Ohio’s major cities. Major (east-west) rail lines connected Cincinnati to the large cities along the Eastern seaboard. At the end of June 1851, Fr. George Carrell S.J. (age 48) succeeded Fr. DeBlieck as Rector/President. He was the first native-born American to guide the destiny of St. Xavier College. Previously he had been Rector/President (and Professor of Philosophy) at St. Louis, Pastor of St. Xavier Church (Cincinnati), Director of the Preparatory Department at the Purcell Mansion, and Pastor of a Jesuit parish in Chillicothe. Early in his term as Rector/President he built the Carrell Building which included two new dormitories, new chemistry and physics labs, a new museum and classrooms for the grammar and commercial classes.) During his tenure the school suffered: 1. 2.

3. 4.

the loss of Mr. Julius Johnston (a scholastic) and Brother William Hayes, casualties of the cholera epidemic. a marked decrease in enrollment of boarders. The number of boarders decreased to 77 in 1852-1853, two thirds of whom (53) were French speakers from the Southern U.S. or Latin American countries.) In 1853-54, the number of boarders decreased again to 57. the Know-Nothing Party and the Nativists were becoming troublesome. (Cf. pg. 19) Under Fr. Carrell, the school met with intensified financial difficulties with which he was unable to cope. Garraghan says that Fr. Carrell:


20 “was seen as resigned and making no effort to fortify and encourage his Jesuit community. For the rest he is exact, regular, restrained, well thought of by everyone, paternal to those below him, but full of firmness.” 57 In 1852, Fr. William Stack Murphy S.J., the new Missouri Vice-Provincial, made a formal visitation to St. Xavier. In his report to Rome, he wrote: “The day school and the boarding school are going down before our eyes. The institution has never been flourishing in the true sense of the word. During its first years it enjoyed a factitious prosperity produced by means that were artificial, and so to speak, blustering. To begin with, a boarding school is entirely out of place there; the premises, anything but suitable, somber looking dormitories under the roof, poorly lighted, and sunken (basement) classrooms. Our poor scholastics find themselves imprisoned as it were with some sixty pupils.” 58 In the 1852-54 school years, there were difficulties maintaining a uniform rule of discipline among the boarders and the day students. It was becoming more and more difficult to continue on many levels, and thoughts of abandoning the whole Jesuit ministry at the college were being considered. (Fr. Peter DeSmet, the famed Jesuit missionary of the American West, was one of the few Jesuits who encouraged keeping St. Xavier College open.) 59 In 1853, Archbishop Purcell had to fight legislation which, if passed, would have forced Catholic students to attend public schools for a minimum of three months a year. Fortunately, the bill did not pass. Then in December 1853, Fr. Carrell resigned as Rector/President of St. Xavier, and was named the first bishop of the newly formed Covington diocese. While the college was having its problems, the parish was thriving. Even with the extension of the Church in 1846, the parish continued to overflow. The Jesuits soon purchased a Protestant church on Sycamore between 5th and 6th Street, where the famous Purcell/Campbell debates were held in 1837). The church was renovated and named St. Thomas. The Jesuits celebrated Mass there and ministered both at St. Thomas and St. Xavier to overflowing immigrant crowds. 60 The difficult decision to close the boarding school of St. Xavier College was made in January of

1854. There would be no more boarders coming to St. Xavier after that July. The hope was that the decision would save the Jesuits both men and money. Many of the boarders were able to arrange transfer to other Jesuit boarding schools at St. Louis, Bardstown, and farther South. However, the color line was drawn strictly in Southern schools and some boarders (especially those of color) were unable to gain entrance to these schools. Black students began to look to places in Canada and Latin America in order to continue their studies. 61 When the school year opened in the fall of 1854, a report written in Woodstock Letters described the new brand of students:


21 “Most of our students come from other parts of the city than our own parish, quite a number from Covington and Newport, across the river in Kentucky. Of the classical course, the five upper classes, containing in the aggregate more than seventy boys, about one tenth are from our parish. They are nearly all Catholic, mostly of German parentage. As a class they are quick, intelligent, and extremely studious, often needing to be restrained *rather+ than urged on.” 62 Fr. Isidore Boudreaux S.J. (age 35) succeeded Fr. Carrell in the fall of 1854. He also had to deal with continuing financial difficulties and religious bigotry. Even with the closing of the boarding school, financial difficulties did not go away. The school still owed $25,000. According to Garraghan, the school was so poor it was unable to purchase lamps for poorly lit areas. Enrollment dropped to 90 students. Fr. DeSmet continued to push the idea that St. Xavier needed to remain open. He wrote to Fr. Roothan, the Jesuit Superior General in Rome, in January, 1855: “The financial state of the college gives us a great deal of concern. The debt amounts to $25,068 dollars…To put an end to all disquiet we ought to take out a loan on the realestate and place ourselves under shelter of one or two good Catholic creditors.” 63 In September 1856, Fr. Maurice Oakley S.J. was announced as the new St. Xavier College Rector/President. Fr. Oakley (known formerly as Mr. Van der Eycken) was one of the original Jesuits missioned to St. Xavier in 1840. He was a talented musician, artist, and mathematician. He had previously been Rector/President at the college in Grand Couteau, LA. He had wiped out a $20,000 debt and increased the enrollment at Grand Couteau. The future for St. Xavier looked bleak in his eyes, but a letter from Fr. DeSmet buoyed his spirits: “St. Xavier’s will and must flourish and shall continue in spite of the petty little obstacles and prejudiced minds to hinder its progress…What you should do is this—redouble your courage and attention to further the progress of the students.…It would be a veritable calamity, to my mind, were we to abandon this place where our Fathers have bedewed with their sweat for many years and with good result.” 64 A national monetary collapse occurred in 1857. This collapse became a depression which lasted into the Civil War years. 65 The depression meant that the college would continue to have major difficulties paying off its debts. Fr. Oakley began his tenure with a determined effort to improve the financial status of the college. He made some much-needed repairs to the college buildings and attempted to secure for the college a more favorable position in the eyes of the public. As this plan was progressing, he set himself to the task of erecting a new a new and bigger college/parish church. 66 An accident occurred in 1860 while the church was being torn down. The north wall of the old church collapsed on the workers (mainly parish volunteers), and killed 13 of them. As the news spread


22 through the city, a hostile crowd of several thousand gathered at the church, and rumblings against the Jesuits were voiced. City officials cordoned off the area with police, and the brother-porter at the front door of the residence was replaced by a policeman. Fortunately, the occasion went by without any further incident. Later on, an investigation cleared the Jesuits of any responsibility of negligence in connection with the disaster. The new church (180’ x 74’) was completed without further mishap and opened in 1861. 67 Laymen continued to teach special courses in the school, like music and drawing. Professors Eich, Brusselbach, and Gerold (organist) had charge of the Music Department. Messrs. Collier and Piket (the architect of the new St. Xavier Church), directed the Drawing/Architecture class. 68 In the years 1853, 1858 and 1859, Mt. Adams vineyards produced record grape harvests (2,000 acres were planted with grape seedlings; 568,000 gallons of wine were produced). Ohio was now the largest wine-producing and distributing state in the country. Pike’s Opera House (4th and Vine) opened to great applause. In September of 1859, both Steven Douglas and Abraham Lincoln came to Cincinnati to deliver campaign speeches following the Lincoln-Douglas debates. Street cars were introduced in Cincinnati. The Civil War began with the bombardment of Fort Sumter on April 21, 1861. For the most part, the college was able to carry on as usual, with the exception that the school year ended in June rather than in July. There were, however, some difficulties maintaining regular classroom activities. Discussions arose again about closing the school. Most St. Xavier students were too young to serve in the military but were able to help the local Home Guard units. They set up defensive fortifications, dug trench lines, and assisted in any way they could. 69 In July of 1861, Fr. Oakley S.J. was succeeded by Fr. John Schultz S.J. (age 45). Fr. Schultz was from Alsace-Lorraine, and he guided the school through the Civil War years. When he arrived, he was met with a dire situation: “Student enrollment had leveled off to around 100. The Athenaeum building had grown old and dilapidated, and was inadequate for the purpose for which it was intended and applied. The new church had risen up behind the college, and one half of the [Jesuit] house was left in almost Egyptian darkness. It was not an unusual occurrence to carry on by lamplight even in the middle of the day… One can see the city as a whole only on Sunday or national holidays…As to keeping clean that is next to impossible…The portion of the city north and east of the college is perfectly deluged with factories, the smoke of which, when the wind blows from that direction, can almost be cut with a knife.” 70 In December of his first year, Fr. Schultz wrote his annual letter to Rome. Among other things, he commented that there were not enough confessors available on Saturdays and Sundays to minister to the crowds at the Church. He was pleased with the recent revision of studies—almost all students were now studying Latin and Greek. And he was consoled that the Archbishop was showing the Jesuits the utmost kindness. 71


23 The war effort was ratcheting up in Cincinnati. Only four percent of the city’s population was born in the south; about 50 percent of the community had been born in Europe. Cincinnati’s industrial production of packed meats, candles, soap, furniture, leather goods and foundry castings was economically bound to the established cities of the north and northeast, and to the emerging commercial centers on the western frontier…. Cincinnati was fast becoming the principal city in the Midwest that both manufactured and shipped needed supplies to the Union forces. Orders for Army supply wagons, ambulance vehicles, uniforms and leather goods kept shops and mills busy during both day and night shifts. Pollution increased and darkness was cast by the new church over the school and community buildings. When the 1862-63 school year began, only 90 of 153 students showed up for class. Some teachers also did not show. Classes in French and German, along with writing classes had to be called off. That September, word circulated that the Confederate Army was coming north and had captured Lexington, Kentucky. There were no troops stationed between Lexington and Cincinnati. Worried, the State of Ohio declared martial law. All schools were closed. Special passes had to be obtained to travel from one section of the city to another. Alumni were volunteering to serve in the Union Army; some of them gave their lives in the war. (Cf. Appendix 7) Most students were too young to volunteer for the army, but were assisting the Home Guard. A temporary pontoon bridge was built over the Ohio River to deliver military supplies into Kentucky. A flotilla of steamboats was converted into gunboats in nearby Fulton. The gunboats stood guard in front of the Public Landing. A week later, Ohio called off the state of martial law; relative quiet returned to the city and the classroom as the Confederate forces retreated farther south. 72 During the school year, the Jesuit community suffered frequent sickness. Healthy teachers shouldered extra teaching responsibilities. On the first day of 1863, the Emancipation Proclamation took effect. A short while later an important step for the future of St. Xavier College occurred. Property was purchased at the corner of 7th and Sycamore (100’ frontage on Sycamore and 160’ frontage on 7th). During the next four years the college acquired all the adjacent lots. The Carrell building was torn down and a much needed faculty residence was built on the spot. (The cornerstone was laid in 1867.) 73 In March of 1863, President Lincoln authorized a draft. All males aged 20 to 45 had to register. Exemptions could be obtained but only for occupational reasons (e.g., needed telegraph operators, railroad engineers, judges and some government workers), cases of only sons or of existing mental or physical disability. City and state both had quotas to fill. If a quota was not met, a lottery was held to fill up the roster. One could buy his way out of service with $300 (to pay for his substitute). The average annual wage at the time was $300. 74 Several Jesuits at St. Xavier (along with the Auxiliary Bishop of Cincinnati) were of draft age and subject to the draft. Parishioners feared they would lose Sunday Mass priests and the school would have


24 to close. So they took up a collection to pay for substitute soldiers for the Jesuits. It turned out eventually that none of the Jesuits were drafted. (The case of the bishop was not pursued.) As the school year ended in July of 1863, Cincinnati invoked martial law a second time. Fortifications were drawn up to defend against Morgan’s Raiders, who were advancing from the South. But like the previous fall, the attacks never materialized. Morgan was captured. The Confederate forces suffered defeats at Gettysburg and at Vicksburg, and no more Confederate attacks were aimed at Cincinnati. Back in 1840, the original tuition was set at $40 for day students in the six-year classical program ($24 at $6 per quarter for the four-year mercantile program). Boarders paid at total of $130 for tuition, room and board (plus extra fees for washing/mending ($15), stationery ($5), physician fees ($5), etc.) There were lab breakage fees, fees for extra courses (like music, dancing, drawing and a few language fees). Because the prices escalated rapidly during the Civil War (and money was devalued), tuition was raised from $40 to $60 for the 1863-1864 school year. 75 During the final year of the Civil War, the student body increased to 190. The school now had the largest number of students enrolled since the closing of the boarding school in 1854. On April 9, 1865, the Civil War ended when Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox. Five days later, President Lincoln was assassinated. Jefferson Davis was captured on May 10. And it is estimated that at least 620,000 Americans lost their lives during the Civil War. By this time the collection of books in the school library had grown to more than 10,000 volumes. 76 In 1865, most Catholic parishes in the country were nationality-based. The Germans had their parishes, the Irish had theirs, etc. What about the blacks? In Cincinnati in 1860, there were 3,731 African Americans in an overall population of 161,044. By 1870 the numbers had grown to 5,896 blacks in a total population of 216,239. The numbers represented 2.3 and 2.7 percent of the total Cincinnati population. Very few of these blacks, perhaps 100, were Catholic. They wanted their own parish, their own pastor, and their own school, just like every other Catholic.77 So, black Catholics made their request. (Note: blacks themselves made the request, not members of the clergy or hierarchy.) Because many blacks lived within St. Xavier Parish (along Eggleston Ave.), they approached Fr. Walter Hill S.J. (the new Rector/President at St. Xavier College) and Fr. Driscoll (St. Xavier Church’s longtime pastor).78 Frs. Hill and Driscoll supported the proposal and brought it to Archbishop Purcell. (At this time there were only two black parishes in the entire country: St. Francis Xavier Parish in Baltimore and Blessed Martin de Porres Chapel in Washington, D.C.)79 Archbishop Purcell approved of a black parish in Cincinnati. So, Fr. Hill sought out Fr. Weninger, the well-known itinerant Jesuit preacher (who contributed much money to the College through his


25 preaching, retreat and mission work), and asked him to raise the money needed ($4,000) for the new parish.80 Fr. Weninger, with his many contacts throughout the world, was happy to accept. He raised the money quickly through the generosity of the King Louis I of Prussia and many other donors. St. Xavier Parish now purchased a building for the new church/school. It was located on the north side of Longworth, the east-west alley between 5th and 6th Street, between Elm and Race.81 The building had previously been a public (free) school. The new parish/school was to be called St. Ann’s and Fr. Hoecken S.J., a Dutch Jesuit, was named the first pastor. Fr. Hoecken had spent many years ministering to Native American tribes.82 When he arrived in Cincinnati, Fr. Driscoll showed him around to all the hospitals (Two Catholic hospitals were located downtown: Good Samaritan and St. Mary’s in the West End). He also took Fr. Hoecken up to Rohs Hill Hospital in Clifton Heights (known as the pest house--a place for those with contagious diseases) and to the local jails. Fr. Hoecken was introduced and shortly was well known and loved.83 In 1868, Fr. Weninger continued to help Black Catholics financially. He organized the Peter Claver Society in Cincinnati (a fund raising group named after the Jesuit who ministered to the slaves brought from Africa to Colombia). Wealthy white German-American Catholics (St. Xavier graduates included) who were interested in helping the parish start a school were the backbone of this Society.84 Two Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur came to teach the girls the first year. (There were 21 girls at the school the first year.) A year or two later a lay woman was hired to teach the boys.)85 In early 1873, St. Ann’s was seemingly doing well. A company (the U.S. Express Co.) located on the north side of Longworth St. offered to buy the parish land, for $300 per front foot. The St. Xavier College Board of Trustees met and took up the matter. Some, believing the parish to be a failure, were in favor of accepting the company’s financial offer. Fr. Driscoll was against this. He assured the trustees that the parish had been successful. There had been over 100 converts to the faith in the seven or eight years St. Ann’s had been in existence. In the end, however, the board decided to approve the signing of the papers necessary for the transfer of the property. (Apparently the sale was never completed.) But In the fall, St. Xavier Church bought a former African Episcopal Methodist Church. It was located on New Street (the alley directly across [east] from the front doors of St. Xavier Church, between 6th and 7th Street. It was a bigger piece of property. The St. Ann name was kept; the parishioners were once again within the St. Xavier parish boundaries.86 Fr. Weninger persuaded the Archbishop to set up a special yearly collection in the Archdiocese to aid the poor black Catholics. Fr. Weninger felt that one dollar a year from each Catholic in Cincinnati would generate enough money to financially stabilize the parish. The collection was to be taken up on the first Sunday of October (the Sunday after the Feast of the Holy Angels) as a second collection. Eventually, this collection became an annual national collection to help for poor blacks and Native Americans. (Cf. Archbishop Purcell’s 1878 Letter to the Archdiocese in Appendix 9) The Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur continued to teach in the school. By the 1880s, the Jesuits at the college argued that as long as there was a black congregation and church within the limits of St.


26 Xavier Parish, it should remain under Jesuit control. It stayed that way until 1908 when the Archdiocese took over the apostolate to the Cincinnati black Catholic community.87 There are many more happenings and events, and much more detail about these that could be added to this article. But what is contained here presents a fairly full and accurate account of what happened in the early days of St. Xavier College, 1840-1865.


27

Epilogue As the Civil War was winding down, St. Xavier College began to experience growth and a more secure financial footing. Enrollment started to boom. Between 1865 and 1870 enrollment averaged above 250 students th per year. In 1867, a new faculty residence (the Hill Building) took shape at the corner of 7 and Sycamore. That same year, the state of Ohio authorized a perpetual charter for St. Xavier College. In 1869 the Humanities Program (high school) was lengthened from three years to four, making St. Xavier College a seven-year program. In 1882, St. Xavier Church burned down on Holy Thursday night. It was rebuilt and reopened in one year. th

In 1885, St. Xavier College expanded along 7 Street, with the addition of the Moeller Building. This building extended the school from the back of the Hill Building to Leslie alley between Main and Sycamore Street. The Moeller building contained the school library, school cafeteria/lunch room, student bathrooms and showers in the basement, an auditorium on the third floor for public speaking events, plus numerous classrooms. In 1888, the Alumni Association was formed to raise money for the next addition, the Alumni Building. In 1890, the school fittingly celebrated the Golden Anniversary of St. Xavier College . The Alumni building opened in 1891. It ran north-south along Leslie Alley and connected the church to the th Hill and Moeller buildings along 7 St. The basement of this building contained Memorial Hall, named perhaps to commemorate those who lost their lives in the Civil War. At first Memorial Hall was used as a theater for dramatic presentations with a raked floor seating arrangement. Eventually, however, the floor was leveled out. Memorial Hall became not just a theater, but also an intramural and practice gym. Plays were still staged at one end. A student chapel was located on the second floor. The third and fourth floors contained Chemistry and Physics classrooms and labs and numerous other new classrooms and offices were built on all floors. th

In the early 20 century, St. Xavier College expanded out to suburban campuses in the Walnut Hills/Avondale area. First there was a school building at Gilbert and Lincoln. Then the Avondale Athletic Club was purchased. The Humanities were taught both downtown and in the suburban locations. High school diplomas were first awarded to students who completed their Humanities studies in 1916. The school curriculum was modified in 1917, giving the Humanities students the opportunity to take the Classical, the Scientific, or the General Course. (The administration helped each student choose the course of studies.) On August 29, 1919, the Humanities Department returned to the downtown campus, and the Upper Level of the College settled into Avondale. In the

1930s the Avondale campus became known as Xavier University.


28 Acknowledgements and a Request I would like to thank many people who helped me with this project. Here are some of them: Mr. Karl Hauck, a retired Social Studies teacher (1963 to 2000) at St. X., is currently school Archivist. He constantly gave me encouragement and good advice; shared his knowledge with me often and led me to a valuable primary source: The Registry of St. Xavier College: 1840-1869 . In 1981, he, along with a group of students, assembled and wrote: A Century and a Half: St. Xavier High School: 1831-1981. Mr. Karl Hauck’s mother Mrs. Florence Hauck, gathered and assembled: St. Xavier High School Student Roster 1841-1981 (Incomplete), from Index cards and a huge circular Rolodex file that was kept in the Alumni Office. Some Index cards still remain today, but the big Rolodex itself along with all its valuable information has now been thrown out. Fr. Tom Kennealy, S.J., Archivist at Xavier University and his assistant, Mr. Tim McCabe, provided access to valuable resources and information in the Xavier University Archives. They also pursued and completed a project to digitalize the The Registry of St. Xavier College: 1840-1869. Future researchers will now be able to utilize this Registry in their research. St. Xavier High School, Xavier University and the Midwest Jesuit Archives will in the near future have copies of this treasured document. Mr. David P. Miros and Ms. Mary Struckel of the Midwest Jesuit Archives in St. Louis gave me access to their Archival collection, and helped me sort through their treasured documents, articles and pictures. Ms. Emily Geisel and Mr. Justin Wilson of the IT department, Mr. Isaac Watras, Ms. Jynefir Slusher, Ms. Colleen King, along with Mr. Tony Schad and the many members of Alumni-Development Team helped me with numerous computer issues. Mr. Mark Motz provided proofreading of the document. Ms. Jennifer Donahue obtained books for me through Interlibrary Loan; Fr. Fran Daly S.J. let me borrow his copies of Garraghan’s, The Jesuits of the Middle United States; Mr. Jim Sicking (’56) lent me his copy of Lamott’s, History of the Archdiocese of Cincinnati. And last but not least, Mr. John R. O’Leary, a faculty member who taught me Geometry when I was a student downtown at St. X. He was a true gentleman and a scholar, an excellent teacher who made me think clearly and work hard. At the end of each school year, he asked students to keep in touch by sending him letters addressed to the school. He promised to write back. I feel bad now that I never wrote him. Recently, while organizing and putting up the Living Walls project, working on the “In the Line of Duty” segment, I came across clippings from local newspapers in our Archives, which he had originally cut out and saved. When he died, the O’Leary family offered the clippings (and some of the correspondence) to the school. The clippings were of St. Xavier grads serving in the Armed Forces during the Second World War; they gave details of promotions, heroic actions, injuries or death. Having these records made my research of WWII events so much easier. When I began this article on the early history of the school, I found his 1947 M.Ed. paper written for the University of Cincinnati, while he was already teaching at St. Xavier. The paper was entitled: “The Historical Development of St. Xavier High School, Cincinnati, Ohio.” I knew then that my work would be clear, well thought out, and historically accurate. May he rest in peace. To the people above and to all who helped me, I sincerely give thanks.


29 It is my hope that there will be someone to continue this research, clarify what I have said and rectify any errors I may have put forth, and write the next chapter(s) in the history of St. Xavier and the Long Blue Line. The books and articles already written would be enhanced, and a great service would be provided to both St. Xavier High School and Xavier University, their graduates, students, faculties and friends. As many of you know, the hallways of St. Xavier High School now feature composites of all graduating classes from 1921 to the present. I would love to add composite pictures of the graduating seniors of the Classes of 1916 through 1920, if these composites were taken and are available. If you know someone who has a family member who graduated in these years (even though the graduate himself is probably deceased) another family member might still have a class composite stored in an attic, basement, or among the graduate’s old objefcts. I would love to have the composite picture for a short time so I could scan it. I promise to return it to you quickly and in good shape. I would place the scanned composite in a frame, display it with the pictures already there, and expand the Long Blue Line to one more year. And if you have any other memorabilia of St. Xavier that you no longer desire to keep, the archives at St. Xavier would be pleased to have these objects to properly display them to the students of St. Xavier today.


30 Endnotes 1

When the Jesuits first opened schools, they (by reason of their Constitutions) were not permitted to charge tuition. They could charge for the room and board only. Being able to charge tuition was changed almost 300 years later. In January 1833, St. Louis Bishop Rosati wrote to Rome asking that a dispensation be given to American Jesuit schools to allow tuition charges. He realized that America did not have nobility who could underwrite the schools. Schools in democratic America were intended for the many, not for the few. It was obvious to him that American Jesuit schools would not be able maintain financial viability for any length of time without being able to collect some kind of tuition fees. In February of that year, American Jesuit Provincials also wrote to Rome asking for a dispensation to charge tuition. Pope Gregory granted the request for American Jesuit schools. Fr. Roothan S.J., the Jesuit Father General at the time, concurred and added conditions, including: first, tuition fees should be similar or less than tuition charged by other similar schools of the area; and, second, that the poor were not to be turned away or neglected simply for financial reasons. McGucken, William J., S.J. The Jesuits and Education. Milwaukee: Bruce Publishing Co. 1932. Pg. 236. John R. O’Leary, The Historical Development of St. Xavier High School, Cincinnati, Ohio, University of Cincinnati, 1947, unpublished thesis. Pages 69-70. 2 Edited by Rueben Gold Thwaites, Jesuit Relations and other Documents 1610-1791, Vol. LXIX, pg. 304ff. 3 Flanagan, Sister M. Callista Flanagan, O.S.B., Jesuit Education in the Archdiocese of Cincinnati in the Last One Hundred Years, University of Notre Dame, 1940, (unpublished M.A. Dissertation ), pg. 22. 4 Lamott, John H., History of the Archdiocese of Cincinnati, 1821-1921. New York: Frederick Pustet Co., 1921. pg. 13-14. 5 Ibid., Lamott, pg. 50 and 118. Also: Bennish, Lee, S.J., Continuity and Change, Xavier University 18311981. Loyola University Press, Chicago, 1981. Pg. 13. 6 Ibid., Lamott, pg. 115. 7 Ibid., Lamott, pg. 28 (citing the Propagation of the Faith Archives, America Centrale, Vol. III fol. 323-326, Catholic Historical Review, I, pg. 308.) 8 Op. Cit., O’Leary, pg. 23. 9 Op. Cit., Flanagan, pg. 15. Also: Garraghan, Gilbert J., S.J., The Jesuits of the Middle United States, Loyola University Press, Chicago. Vol. III, pg. 158. 10 Op. Cit., Lamott, pg, 49. 11 Ibid., Lamott, pg. 51-53. 12 Op. Cit., Bennish, pg. 13. 13 Op. Cit., Lamott, pg. 53. 14 Ibid., Lamott, pg. 124-5. 15 Op. Cit., Garraghan, Vol. III, pg. 159. 16 Op. Cit., O’Leary, pg. 28. 17 Hauck, Karl et al. A Century and a Half 1831-1981. St. Xavier High School, Cincinnati, Ohio 1981. Pg.15. 18 Ibid., Hauck, pg. 15, quoting from the 1924 Xavierian, pg. 17. 19 Goss, Rev. Frederick Charles, Cincinnati, the Queen City, 1788-1912, S. J. Clarke Publishing Co. 1912. Pg. 143. 20 Op. Cit., Lamott, op. cit., pg. 169. 21 Radel, Cliff, “Steamboats Made Cincinnati, so the city celebrates Tall Stacks,” from The Cincinnati Enquirer, October 12, 2003. And Lamott, pg. 124. 22 Fortin, Roger, Faith and Action, Ohio State University Press, 2002, pg. 66. 23 Rice, Timothy O., “Nicholas Longworth: Father of the American Wine Industry,” from Winery Insight, 2003. www.weekendwinery.com 24 Op. Cit., Goss, pg. 143. 25 Op. Cit., Garraghan, Vol. III, pg. 167. 26 Ibid., pg. 170. 27 Ibid.


31

28

McKevitt, S.J., Gerald L., “Jesuit Schools in the U.S.A., 1814-c.1970,” from Cambridge Companion to the Jesuits, edited by Thomas Worcester, S.J., Cambridge University Press, New York 2008. pg. 281-2. 29 Op. Cit., Flanagan, pg. 54. 30 Op. Cit., Hauck, . Pg. 27. 31 Ibid., pg. 28. 32 The number of Mexican students is interesting. They are listed as coming from Mexican cities like Monterey, Montezuma, Vera Cruz and Matamoros. They all arrived shortly before, during or right after the Mexican-American War. I have a hunch which I have not researched that might explain this. I suggest Mexican parents realized Mexico during wartime was not a good place to raise children. Perhaps the father of the family already had business dealings in New Orleans. He inquired there about schooling for his children in the U.S., and found out about a new Jesuit college in Cincinnati from the St. Xavier agent in New Orleans. He may also have heard from the St. Xavier agent that Ursuline Sisters had arrived in Cincinnati in 1845 to open a boarding school for girls in Brown County at St. Martin, OH. Today near St. Martin there are small towns named Monterey, Montezuma, Vera Cruz and Matamoros. Could it be that these small towns date from the 1845 to 1855 time period? And that Mexican families set up their new homes and farms in this Brown County area, sent their sons to St. Xavier College, their daughters to Ursuline Academy? Research could be done on this theory. 33 Fortin, Roger A. To See Great Wonders—A History of Xavier University, 1831-2007. Published by the University of Scranton Press. Distributed by University of Chicago Press, Chicago Distribution Center, 2006. pg. 69. 34 Op. Cit., Bennish, pg. 56. 35 Miller, Sarah E., Ohio History, Vol. 114 (2007). 36 Op. Cit., Bennish, pg.45. 37 Op.Cit., Garraghan, Vol III, pg. 183-184. 38 Op.Cit., O’Leary, pg. 36. 39 Op. Cit.,Bennish, pg. 55. 40 Ibid., pg.41-42. 41 It was typical for American Jesuit colleges at this time to have museums/displays which drew inquiring students to the schools. Georgetown was known for its telescope. Built in 1843, it was one of the earliest telescopes in this country. (Many previous Early European Jesuits were well known as astronomers who discovered stars and planets. Some stars were given the names of the discovering Jesuits.) In addition to Cincinnati’s St. Xavier College, St. Ignatius in San Francisco had a museum filled with shells and different kinds of rocks that piqued the interests of young miners to be. Students studied mineralogy, assaying and chemical analysis at St. Ignatius, San Francisco. St. Ignatius High School in Chicago had a fourth-floor museum displaying stuffed animals of the prairie (e.g., buffalo, bison, deer. etc.), a valuable collection of minerals, and displays for natural history and chemistry. The display remained there until 1959 in what is now called the Brunswick Room. At that time the exhibit was transferred to the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago. 42 Op. Cit., Flanagan, pg. 77-78. 43 Op. Ct., Garraghan, Vol III, pg. 183, note 44. 44 Ibid., Garraghan, Vol. III, pg. 180. Op. Cit., Bennish, Pg. 54. Op. Cit., O’Leary, pg. 54. 45 Op. Cit., Garraghan, Vol. I., pg. 547-549. 46 Ibid., Garraghan, Vol.I., pg. 514. 47 Op. Cit., Garraghan, Vol. III, pg 179, 181-183. 48 Ibid., Garraghan, Vol. III, pg. 186-188. 49 Ibid. 50 Op. Cit., Garraghan, Vol. II, pg. 3. Op. Cit., Lamott, pg. 229. 51 Op. Cit., Garraghan, Vol. III, pg. 53-55ff. 52 Ibid. 53 Op. Cit., Garraghan, Vol. III, pg. 194-195. 54 Op. Cit., O’Leary, pg. 39.


32

55

Op. Cit., Garraghan, Vol. III, pg. 189-192. Ibid., pg. 118-120. 57 Ibid., pg 193-195. 58 Ibid., pg. 195. 59 Ibid., pg. 197. 60 Ibid., pg. 188, note 58. 61 Ibid., pg. 196-197. Op. Cit., O’Leary, pg. 41-42. 62 Woodstock Letters, Vol. V, pg. 199. 63 Op. Cit., Garraghan, Vol. III, pg. 197. 64 Ibid., pg. 197-199. 65 Op. Cit., Flanagan, pg. 77-78. 66 Op. Cit., Garraghan, Vol. III, pg. 198. 67 Ibid. Op. Cit., O’Leary, pg. 63. 68 Op. Cit., Bennish, pg. 62-65. 69 Ibid., pg. 68. 70 Op. Cit., Woodstock Letters, Vol. V, pg. 197-199. 71 Op. Cit., Garraghan, Vol. III, pg. 200-201. 72 Op. Cit., Bennish, pg. 69-71. 73 Op. Cit., Garraghan, Vol. III, pg. 201 Op. Cit., Bennish, pg. 71 and 78. 74 Op. Cit., Garraghan, Vol. II, pg 161. 75 Op. Cit., Bennish, pg. 72. 76 By 1864, the library at St. X had grown from 6,000 volumes in 1843-44 (Bennish, pg. 74) to some 12,000 to 14,000 volumes, including: 1) a “Universial History,” translated from English to French in 125 volumes; 2) “Classical Latina” in 150 volumes; 3) a “French History of China” in 14 volumes; 4) “Greek and Latin Fathers” in 125 volumes; 5) Lord Kingsborough’s “Mexican Antiquities” in nine folio volumes; 6) Bibles of various dates and languages (including a copy of the First Edition printed in America; 7) the Lord’s Prayer in 53 different languages; 8) several volumes published within 50 years after the invention of printing. Woodstock Letters, Vol. V, pg. 62. 77 Lackner, S.M., Joseph H., “The Foundation of St. Anne’s Parish, 1866-1870,” U.S. Catholic Historian, Vol. 14, No. 2, Spring, 1996 pg. 13. 78 Lackner, S.M., Joseph H., “St. Anne’s Colored Church and School, Cincinnati, the Indian and Negro Collection for the United States, and Reverend Francis Xavier Wenninger, S.J.” U.S. Catholic Historian, Vol. 7 No. 2/3 SpringSummer, pg. 145 ff. 79 Ibid. 80 Op. Cit., Lackner, S.M., Joseph H., “The Foundation of St. Anne’s Parish, 1866-1870,” U.S. Catholic Historian, Vol. 14, No 2, Spring, 1996 pg. 17ff. 81 Op. Cit., Lackner, “St. Anne’s Colored Church and School, Cincinnati, the Indian and Negro Collection for the United States, and Reverend Francis Xavier Wenninger, S.J.” U.S. Catholic Historian, Vol. 7 No. 2/3 Spring-Summer. 82 Fortin, Roger A., To See Great Wonders—A History of Xavier University 1831-2006, Published by University of Scranton Press. Distributed by University of Chicago Distribution Center, 2006. Pg 77-78. 83 Ibid. 84 Op. Cit., Lackner, “St. Ann’s Colored Church and School, Cincinnati, the Indian and Negro Collection for the United States, and Reverend Francis Xavier Weninger, S.J.,” U.S. Catholic Historian, Vol. 7, No. 2/3, Spring-Summer, 1988, pg 147. 85 Ibid., pg. 147 and 151. 86 Fortin, Roger A., To See Great Wonders—A History of Xavier University 1831-2006, Published by University of Scranton Press. Distributed by University of Chicago Distribution Center, 2006. Pg. 77-78. 87 Ibid. 56


Appendices Appendix 1:

Leading Businesses in Cincinnati in Cincinnati in terms of number of workers. Source: Sketches and Statistics of Cincinnati in 1851, by Charles Cist. W.H Moore and Co. 1851. Pg. 49-51.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.

Laborers Carpenters Tailors Clerks Boot & Shoemakers Merchants & Traders Boatmen Coopers Bricklayers & Plasterers Blacksmiths Butchers Painters & Glaziers Grocers Molders Cabinet Makers Draymen Stonemasons Bakers Coffee house Keepers Peddlers Chair Makers Tanners & Curriers Printers Servants Physicians Finishers Machinists

7,864 2,318 1,676 1,583 1,569 1,550 950 868 809 713 672 589 533 512 485 482 428 421 327 311 303 298 298 294 278 264 255

28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52.

Engineers Stone cutters Barbers Tobacconists Tinners Barkeepers Hatters Saddlers Attorneys Cigarmakers Foundrymen Students Druggists Teachers Brickmakers Turners Cooks Teamsters Bookbinders Confectioneers Pilots Porters Boardinghouse Keepers Brewers Locksmiths (and down)

240 229 227 219 197 189 184 176 176 170 162 162 153 146 143 143 142 141 136 136 131 129 127 126 110


34 Appendix 2:

Some Rules, Regulations, Expectations for Students at St. Xavier College

(1840-1865)

Source: The Registry: St. Xavier College: 1840-1869 1.

2. 3. 4.

5.

6.

7.

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

On entering, each boarder must be provided with a uniform to be worn on public occasions. This consists of a black or blue frock coat [a knee length formal coat] and pantaloons [Ioose fitting pants gathered at the ankle], blue or black pantaloons for winter and white pantaloons for summer. Students are permitted to carry no more than pocket money, limited to 25 cents per week. Letters sent or received by students, unless from their parents, are “subject to inspection� by the President. Parents who live at a distance are requested to appoint an agent both in Cincinnati and New Orleans. The agent must be answerable for payment of all expenses. The agent is also the one to whom the pupil may be directed upon leaving the institution. Mr. Kernion of New Orleans is the regular Agent of the College for Louisiana, Mississippi, Cuba, and Mexico. He receives payments and sends youth recommended to his care by parents. Each boarder shall write to his parents, should they require it, once a month; if not required, every third month, when Bulletins [report cards] are issued, by which the parents are informed about the character, conduct, health, and progress of the student. The exercises of the College will commence in September with a solemn Mass to implore the assistance of the Divine Spirit, after which the President will address the students and read them the rules to be observed. All Professors and students must be present. It is strictly forbidden to dispose of any article in their use by selling or exchanging it for another, to introduce into the College or take away from it anything without particular or general leave from the Rector. The use of gunpowder, of tobacco in any shape, or of books not previously examined and approved of by the President, or of any other dangerous object, is forbidden under the severest penalty. It is likewise forbidden to the student, under pain of expulsion, to have in his possession obscene books or pictures, or to frequent a Grogshop for the purpose of drinking liquor. All shall study with their heads uncovered. Each student shall wash his feet once a week in the summer, and once a month in the winter. To spit on the floor is justly considered a want of cleanliness and politeness, therefore prohibited. Each boarder and half-boarder ought to have his fixed place in the refectory. No dangerous instruments, such as open knives, etc., shall be used in play. Dangerous plays and games of chance, in a word, all those which virtuous persons condemn, are forbidden. Wrestling is forbidden, and those who break the rule are to be severely punished. No student shall be permitted to withdraw himself from the sight and presence of the prefect. Students are tested in each subject once a month by their teacher. The teacher writes the names of the students in a catalogue, adding one of the following marks: Very well, well, tolerably, badly, very badly, to point out the conduct of each during the past month with regard to studies. The catalogue will be read out publicly in the presence of the Professors and students. This is followed by the distribution of crosses and medals of honor.


35 Appendix 3:

Numbers of students starting each year and their age at time of Registration. Sources: The Registry: St. Xavier College: 1840-1869. An Incomplete Index of St. Xavier High School Student Roster, 1840-1981. Compiled by Mrs. Florence Hauck. St. Xavier High School Archives.

9

Numbers and Age When Registering at St. Xavier College each year 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23+ NAG

16

8

14

12

17

7

13

8

5

5

4

1

0

1

0

0

6

15

9

13

10

19

6

12

8

10

4

1

6

1

0

0

0

8

9

1

8

6

7

7

7

6

5

1

0

1

1

0

0

1

3

7

8

12

7

16

9

12

9

8

3

5

2

2

1

0

0

15

5-8

1840-1841 1841-1842 1842-1843 1843-1844 1844-1845 1845-1846 1846-1847 1847-1848 1848-1849 1849-1850 1850-1851 1851-1852 1852-1853 1853-1854 1854-1855 1855-1856 1856-1857 1857-1858 1858-1859 1859-1860 1860-1861 1861-1862 1862-1863 1863-1864 1864-1865

TOTAL:

9

5

8

10

13

21

9

9

6

8

5

5

2

1

3

1

20

12

12

16

14

20

14

19

8

6

6

5

3

1

1

1

1

13

11

2

16

7

14

10

9

10

7

7

3

2

1

0

0

0

2

16

13

17

13

26

22

20

20

9

6

5

2

2

0

0

0

2

1

3

4

4

5

17

6

9

3

6

4

2

1

0

0

2

3

4

5

7

9

20

10

6

5

2

5

0

1

0

0

0

1

8

13

8

23

13

22

23

25

1

4

9

10

8

12

9

23 10

9

3

2

1

1

0

0

8

10

3

1

2

3

0

1

1

2

3

1

2

7

13

16

14

23

7

7

7

3

2

1

1

0

1

4

0

0

2

7

9

6

8

3

2

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4

8

4

9

21

17

1

3

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

2

2

4

7

13

22

11

7

1

3

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

5

4

15

12

6

6

2

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

3

1

1

2

1

9

5

7

1

4

0

1

1

0

0

0

1

3

1

1

1

1

5

5

7

1

3

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

16

0

0

0

3

5

5

5

5

2

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

18

0

1

7

5

6

11

14

6

4

1

0

0

1

0

0

1

24

0

1

5

1

0

0

6

0

0

0

4

6

15

2

9

3

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

17

5

12

18

8

5

5

0

1

2

0

0

2

0

1

1

5

19

40

15

8

7

0

3

1

3

1

0

0

1

7

22

26

25

9

8

2

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

120 95 202 192 336 357 278 192 119 80

48 37 19

9 8 10 155

TOTAL: 117 122 63 117 138 142 101 173 70 83 184 79 109 38 70 73 57 37 43 46 81 62 65 104 104 2260

NAG = No Age Given for Student

N.B.

There were more students than those listed here. These are students whose names appear in both the Registry (which provided their ages) and Mrs. Hauck’s Index of Students (which provided their years of attendance. Those not included in this article were listed in one or the other, but not in both sources.


36 Appendix 4:

How many years each student stayed in school for each year entered. Sources: The Registry: St. Xavier College: 1840-1869. And An Incomplete Index of St. Xavier High School Students: 1840-1981. Compiled by Mrs. Florence Hauck. St. Xavier High School Archives.

STAYED AS STUDENTS AT ST. XAVIER COLLEGE FOR

1840-1841 1841-1842 1842-1843 1843-1844 1844-1845 1845-1846 1846-1847 1847-1848 1848-1849 1849-1850 1850-1851 1851-1852 1852-1853 1853-1854 1854-1855 1855-1856 1856-1857 1857-1858 1858-1859 1859-1860 1860-1861 1861-1862 1862-1863 1863-1864 1864-1865 TOTALS:

1 2 3 4 5 Year Years Years Years Years 39 16 23 12 6 36 9 8 7 11 22 12 8 3 3 39 22 11 1 4 56 26 13 17 5 66 31 18 9 6 34 28 13 6 4 93 22 15 13 2 35 14 9 3 4 37 16 4 4 4 78 25 18 11 2 35 17 11 4 1 46 40 8 3 0 23 5 9 0 0 33 19 3 0 0 33 10 0 0 0 22 1 1 0 2 5 0 0 0 0 14 11 6 1 2 21 7 4 3 0 33 16 10 2 3 24 11 8 4 7 30 10 2 13 2 44 7 15 4 0 51 22 9 5 3 949

397

226

125

69

6 Years 5 6 1 1 3 1 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 5 0 1 4 4

7 Years 7 6 1 4 0 1 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 0 0 0 3 1 2 0

39

34

8 Years 3 1 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 16

not more than enough 8 years data* 4 2 2 36 0 11 0 16 1 16 0 9 0 13 0 25 1 4 1 16 1 48 0 11 0 12 0 1 0 15 0 27 0 26 0 30 0 7 0 10 0 12 0 4 0 6 0 28 0 10 10

395

TOTAL 117 122 63 117 138 142 101 173 70 83 184 79 109 38 70 73 57 37 43 46 81 62 65 104 104 2260

*Refers to student listed as starting in a given year, but without a given time of ending schooling. N.B. All students listed appeared in both The Registry and Incomplete Index.


37 Appendix 5:

Teachers and Subjects Taught St. Xavier College 1840-1865 (Page 1) Sources: Appropriate Missouri Province Catalogues (1840-1865) kept at Midwest Jesuit Archives, St. Louis, MO Names of the seminarian/teachers are not known. Names in CAPS (plus Bishop) are known lay teachers. The Bishop’s name is also capitalized. Superscript indicates age of the person that year. 1840-1841 39

1841-42

1842-43

1843-44

1844-45

40

41

42

43

1845-1846

1846-47

Rector/Pres. VP/Principal:

Fr. Elet

Fr. Elet

Fr. Elet Fr. Pin

Fr. Elet Fr.DeTheux54

Fr. Elet Fr.Emig36

Fr. Elet Fr. Emig37

Pastor:

BISHOP PURCELL40

BISHOP PURCELL41

BISHOP PURCELL42

BISHOP PURCELL43

BISHOP PURCELL44

Fr. Blox35

Fr. Elet45 Fr. Maesseele34 Fr. Blox36

Mr. Verdin20

Fr. Mignard35

Mr. Fastre 21 Mr. Phillips Fr. Emig36 Mr. Verdin22

Fr. Emig37

Mr. Copes23

Fr. Emig37

Fr. Emig38

Latin&Greek I Latin&Greek II

Mr. Fastre23

Latin&Greek III Lower English Grammar: Middle English Grammar

Upper English Grammar English Lit.

MR.GILMARTIN

MR.GILMARTIN

Rhetoric and Belles Lettres

MR.GILMARTIN

MR.GILMARTIN

French II

Math 2 Math 3 Alg: Calligraphy

Mr. Phillips

Fr. Mignard34

Mr. Verdin22

Fr. Emig34

Fr. Emig36

MR.GILMART IN MR.MCCOY

Mr. Fastre21

MR. STALLO Jesuit Catalogue lists 8 Jesuits (5 teachers [no subject given]:. Fr. Elet39, Fr. Gleizal31, Fr. Pin, Mr. Duerinck31, Mr. Oakley26, 3 Brothers: Br. Schlinger39, Br. Dugan41, Br, deMeyer47. They are assisted by 3 to 5 Diocesan seminarians and the lay faculty,

MR. STALLO Mr. Verdin20

Fr. Emig34

Chemistry Physics

Fr. Pin Fr. Pin

Philosophy Theo/ Scripture Catechist

Fr. deTheux53

Prefect Health

Fr. Verheyden34

Fr.deTheuw53 Mr.Duerink33 Mr. Willebois30

Mr. Levisse23 F.Boudreaux24 Fr. Mignard37 Mr. Smarius22 Mr. Roes29

Mr.Smarius21

Mr.Smarius22 Fr.Maesseele33

Jesuit Catalogue lists 7 Jesuit tutors: (no subject given: Mr. Roes23 Mr.Fastre20 Mr.Kernion23 Mr. Phillips Mr. Cassily Mr. Roelof26 Mr.Boudrx22

Fr.Verheyden

Mr. Fastre22

Fr.Verheyden35

Mr. Levisse23

MR. STALLO Mr.Kernion24 Mr. Roes28

F. Boudreaux24 Fr. Emig37 MR. STALLO F. Boudreaux24

Fr.Maesseele32

Fr.Maesseele33

Mr. Verdin22

Mr. Verdin23

27

Mr. Smarius23

Fr. Mignard37 35

MR. STALLO

Mr. Roes30 Mr.Levisse24 Mr. Verdin24 Mr. deMeester28

Mr. Fastre22 Mr.dMeester27

Fr. Mignard36

Mr. Duerinck33 Mr. Willebois30

French III

Math 1

Mr. Verdin20

Fr.Mignard34

French I

French IV German I German Lit. Elem. Math Arithmetic

44

Fr. Emig38 MR.STALLO Mr. Copes23 Mr. deMeester28 Fr. Maessele34 Mr. Verdin24

Mr. Roelof Mignard Roel

Mr.Roes38

Mr.Roelof29 Fr.Mignard36 Roel Mr.Verdin24 FrMaesseele3

Mr. Verdin22 Fr. Maesseele32 Fr. DiMaria36 Fr. DiMaria36

Mr. Verdin23 Fr.Maesseele33 Fr. Nota38 Fr. Nota38

Fr. Nota39 Fr. Nota39

Mr. Roes28

Mr.Roes29

Mr. Roes30

Mr.Roelof27

Mr. Roelof28

Mr. Roelof29

4


38 Appendix 5 Continued: (Page 2)

Rector/Pres. VP/Principal PrefUpperStud PrefLowerStud Dir. Free School

44

Pastor Prep Latin Latin&Greek Latin&Greek Latin&Greek Latin&Greek Latin&Greek

1847-1848 Fr.Elet6 Blox37 Fr. Mearns32 Fr. Emig 39 Fr. Nota40 Fr. Aelen35

I II III IV V

Latin&Greek VI Prep English Lower English Grammar Middle English Grammar Upper English Grammar English Lit. Rhetoric and Belles Lettres Prep French French I French II French III French IV German I

German II German Lit. Spanish I Spanish II Spanish Lit. Elem. Math

1848-1849 Fr. deBlieck27 Fr. Mearns33 Fr. deLeeuw38 Mr. Verdin26 Fr. Carell45

1849-1850 Fr. deBlieck28 Fr. Wippern34

36

1850-1851 Fr. deBlieck29 Fr. Wippern35 Mr. Johnston39

Mr. Verdin27 Fr. Maesseele37

Mr. Acmal30

37

30

Fr. Carell Mr. Roelof30

Fr. Maesseele Mr. Roelof31

Fr. Maesseele

Fr. Driscoll

Fr. Emig39

Fr. deBlieck27 Fr. Mearns33 Mr. Verdin26 Mr. deMeester31 Mr. Shepperd24

Fr. deBlieck28 Fr. Mearns34 Mr. Verdin27 Mr.dMeester32 Mr. Shepperd25

Fr. deBlieck29 Mr. Carreda Fr. Mearns35

1851-1852 Fr. Carrell48 Fr. DeLeeuw41 Fr. Carrell48 Mr. Garesche27

Fr. Acmal32 31

Fr. Driscoll

Mr. Keller24 Mr. Masselis31 Mr. Shepperd27

Mr. Schmidt Mr. Beckwith26 Mr. Watson26 Mr. Smarius24

Mr. Levisse27

Fr. Blox37

Mr. Levisse26 Mr. Watson27 Mr. Garesche24

Mr. Garesche25

Mr. Shepperd26 Mr. Heylen22 Mr. Keller23

Mr. Acmal26

Mr. Diels27

Mr. Diels28

Mr. F.Boudreaux29

Mr.dMeester29

Mr. Johnston37 Mr. Johnston

Mr. Beckwith26 Mr. Fastre24

Fr. Messea33 Fr. Mearns33

Mr. Smarius24 Mr. Diels26 Mr.dMeester29 Mr. Verdin25 Fr. Emig39

Mr.Diels27

Mr. Johnston38 38

Mr. Keller25 Mr. Masselis32 Mr. Heylen24 Mr. Swagers Mr.Shepperd28 Mr.Lalumiere30 Fr. I.Boudreaux34

Swagers/Vertongen Mr. Keller24 Mr. Niederhorn28 Mr. Beshor Mr. Swagers Mr. Coveney39

Fr. I.Boudreaux34

Mr. Stuntebeck21

Mr. Keller25 Mr. Shepperd28 Mr. Lalumiere30 Mr. Swagers

Mr. Johnston

Mr. Johnston39

Fr. Carrell48 Mr. Garesche27

Mr.Garesche28

Fr. Mearns34 Mr. Levisse27 F.Boudreaux28 Mr. Diels28

Fr. Wippern35

Mr.Masselis31

Mr. Masselis32

Mr. Masselis30

Mr. Keller24 Mr. Garesche27

Fr. I. Boudreaux34 Fr. Sautois43

Mr. Heylen22

Mr. Masselis31

Mr. Masselis32

Mr. Masselis30 Mr. Schmidt Mr. Carreda Mr. Masselis30 Fr. DeBlieck29 Fr. Mearns35

Mr. Niederkorn28 Fr. Ehrensberger

Mr. Niederkorn29 Fr. Horstmann40 Mr. Keller25

Mr. Masselis28 Mr. Masselis28 Mr. Tscheider30

Fr. Driscoll32

Mr. Heylen22 Mr. Masselis29

deBlieck27Carred

Mr. Schmidt Mr. Carreda

Mr. Watson27

Fr. deBlieck28 Mr. Levisse27

Mr. Beshor Niederkorrn28 Beshor

Mr. Garesche28

Ehrensberger Swagers Mr. Vertongen duMortie41Garesche27 Coveney Shepperd27 Mr. Masselis31 Mr. Coveney39 Fr. deLeeuw41 Fr. duMortier41 Mr. Garesche27 Fr. duMortier41 Fr.Ehrensberger

NiederkornSwagers Mr. Garesche28 Mr. Shepperd28 Mr. Heylen 24

Music

Fr.deBlieck29 Fr.Wippern35 MR. BOLLMAN

Fr. Carrell48 Fr. I. Boudreaux33 MR. BOLLMAN

Boudreau34 Carrel49 Keller25Swagers MR. BOLLMAN

Drawing

MR.ROSENKEWICZ

MR. COLLIER

MR.COLLIER

Arithmetic Math 1 Math 2 Math 3 Alg Calligraphy

Chemistry Physics Philosophy TheoScripture Catechist

Mr. Beckwith26

37

1852-1853 Fr. Carrell49 Fr. deLeeuw42

25

Diels/Verdin Fr.Masseele35 Mr. Roes31 Mr. Roes31 Duerink38 Diels Fr. Aelen35

Fr. Masselis28 Mr.deMeester31 Mr. Garesche24 Masselis28 Carre Mr. Tscheider30

Shepperd/Roes Fr. Masselis29 Mr.dMeester32 Mr. Garesche25 Fr. Masselis29 Mr. Carreda

Fr. Nota40

Mr. Garesche24 Mr. Garesche24 Fr. deBlieck27 Fr. Weninger43

Mr. Garesche25 Fr. deBlieck28 Fr. Weninger44

Fr. Blox 37 Fr. Nota40

Fr. deBlieck27 Mr. Johnston37

Fr.deBlieck28 Mr. Acmal29

Fr.Maesseele35

29

Mr. F.Boudreaux Mr. Garesche26 Mr. Stuntebeck21 Mr. Shepperd26 Mr. Masselis30

Mr. F.Boudreaux29 Mr. Garesche26 Fr. Wippern35

Fr. duMortier42 Fr. duMortier42 Fr. duMortier42


39 Appendix 5 Continued:

Rector/Pres VP/Principal PrefUpperStud PrefLowerStud Dir. Free School Pastor Latin&Greek I Latin&Greek II Latin&Greek III Latin&Greek IV Latin&Greek V Latin VI Prep English Lower English Grammar Middle English Grammar Upper English Grammar English Lit. Rhet Belles Lettres French I French II French III German I German II German III & Lit. Spanish I Elem Math Arithmetic Math 1 Math 2 Alg Math 3 Calligraphy Chemistry Physics Philosophy Catechist

Health Prefect

(page 3)

1853-1854 Fr. I. Boudreaux35 Fr. Keller26 deLeeuw43 Beckw Fr. Keller26 Fr. Acmal33 Fr. Driscoll33 Fr. Masselis33 Mr. Heylen25 Mr. Lalumiere31 Mr. Garesche29 Fr. Nogues31 Fr. Nogues31 Mr. Lalumiere31

1854-1855 Fr.I. Boudreaux36 Fr. Keller27

1855-1856 Fr.I.Boudreaux37 Fr. Keller28

1856-1857 Fr. Oakley42 Fr. Keller29

1857-1858 Fr. Oakley43 Fr. Wippern42

1858-1859 Fr. Oakley44 Fr. Kuhlmann37

Fr. Acmal34 Fr. Driscoll34 Fr. Masselis34 Mr. Heylen26

Fr. Acmal35 Fr. Driscoll35 Mr. Heylen27 Fr. Masselis35

Fr. Acmal36 Fr. Driscoll36 Fr. Keller29 Fr. Horstmann44

Fr. Acmal37 Fr. Driscoll37 Fr. Masselis37 Fr. Wippern42 Fr. Oakley43

Fr. Acmal38 Fr. Driscoll38 Mr. Coppens Mr. Schmidt28 Fr. Oakley44

Fitzpatr/Keller27 Mr. Heylen26

Mr.Roest32 Fr.Oakley41 Mr Fitzpatrick Fr.Keller28 Mr.Heylen28 Fr. Lawlor30

Roest33/Hayes29 Fr. Oakley42

Hayes30Higgins19 Fr. Lawlor32 Mr. McGill27 Fr. Arnoudt46

Mr. McGill28 Mr. Venneman

Fr. Hayes30

Fr.I. Boudreaux36

Fr. Keller28

Fr. Keller29

Mr. Higgins19

Fr.I. Boudreaux36 Mr. Heylen26

Fr. Arnoudt44 Fr. Masselis35

Fr. Arnoudt45 Mr. Roest33

Fr. Oakley43 Fr. Wippern42

Fr. Horstmann42

Fr. Horstmann43 Fr. Masselis35 Fr. Keller28

Fr. Horstmann44 Fr. Kuhlmann35 Fr.Keller29

Fr. Wippern42 Fr. Kuhlmann36 Fr. Masselis37

Mr. Venneman Mr. Coppens Fr. Lawlor33 Mr. McGill28 Fr.Arnoudt47 Mr. Coppens Fr. Levisse36 Fr. Kuhlmann37 Mr. Schmidt28 Mr. Venneman

Lawlor31McGill26

Fr. Wippern42 Mr. McGill27 Mr. Higgins19

Fr. Levisse36 Mr. McGill28 Mr. Venneman

Fr. Lawlor32

Fr. Kuhlmann37

Fr. Kuhlmann35

Fr. Hayes30 Fr. Kuhlmann36

Mr. Schmidt28 Mr. Coppens

Fr.I.Boudreaux36 Fr. Maes36

Mr. McGill26 Mr. Hayes29 Fr. Lawlor31

29

Mr. Garesche Fr. i. Boudreaux35 Mr. Nogues31 Mr. Heylen25 Fr. Horstmann41 Mr. Niederkorn30 Fr. Maes36 Fr. Masselis34 Fr. Horstmann41

Fr. Keller27

Fr. Horstmann43

Fr. deLeevuw43 Fr. Masselis34 Fr. duMortier43

Masselis35 Lawlor29 Mr. Heylen26

Mr. Kuhlmann34

Fr. duMortier43 Fr. Costa38 Mr. Heylen25 Fr. deLeeuw43 Fr. Masselis34 Fr. duMortier43 Fr. duMortier43 Costa38/Garesche29 Fr. I Boudreaux35 Fr. Maes36 Mr. Heylen25

Fr. duMortier44

Fr. duMortier45

Fr. Costa38

Fr. Horstmann44 Mr. Roest33

Fr. Arnoudt47

Fr. Masselis35 Fr. Lawlor29

Fr. Masselis36 Fr. Lawlor30

Fr. Lawlor31 Mr. McGill26 Fr. Kuhlmann35

Fr. Masselis38 Mr. McGill27 Fr. Kuhlmann36

Fr. Lawlor33 Fr. Levisse36 Mr. Schmidt28 Fr. Kuhlmann37

Lawlor29Heylen26 Masselis35Keller27

Masselis36Keller30 Lawlor30Heylen27

Lawlor31McGill26 Hayes31

Fr. Hayes30 McGill27Higgins19

Fr. Oakley42

Fr. Oakley43

McGill28 Schmidt28 Coppens Venneman Fr.Tschieder40


40 Appendix 5 Continued:

(page 4)

1859-1860

1860-1861

1861-1862

1862-1863

1863-1864

1864-1865

Rector/Pres. V.P./Principal Dir. Free School Pastor Latin&Greek I Latin&Greek II Latin&Greek III Latin&Greek IV Latin&Greek V Lower English Grammar Middle English Grammar Upper English Grammar English Lit.

Fr. Oakley45 Fr. Kuhlmann38 Fr. Acmal39 Fr. Driscoll37 Mr. Coppens Mr. Schmidt29 Fr. Oakley45

Fr.Oakley46 Fr. Kuhlmann39 Fr. Acmall40 Fr. Driscoll40 Mr. Coppens Fr. Oakley46

Fr. Schultz45 Fr. Kuhlmann40 Fr. Acmal41 Fr. Driscoll41

Fr. Schultz46 Fr. Garesche37 Fr. Acmal42 Fr. Driscoll42

Fr. Schultz47 Fr. Garesche38 Fr. O’Neill35 Fr. Driscoll43

Fr. Schultz48 Fr. Garesche39

Mr. McArdle Fr. Arnoudt49 Fr. Heylen32

Mr McMenamy

Mr.McMenamy

Mr. Coppens

Mr. Patton

Mr. Roos27

Mr. McArdle

Mr. McArdle

Mr. Roos26

Fr. Levisse40

Fr. Schmidt33 Mr. Ward33 Fr. Zeeland Mr. Murphy Fr. Fastre40

Fr. Nogues42 Mr. McMenamy Mr. Roos26 Mr. Butler Mr. Miles33

Fr. Lawlor34

Mr. Coppens

Mr. Coppens

Fr. Halpin

Mr. Higgins26

Rhetoric and Belles Lettres French I French II German I German II German Lit. Elem. Math Arith Bookkeep

Fr. Arnoudt48

Fr. Arnoudt49

Fr. Fastre38

Fr. Fastre39

Arnoudt48Coppen Fr. Levisse37 Fr. Kuhlmann38 Mr. Schmidt29

Fr. Heylen32 Mr. Coppens Fr. Kuhlmann39 Mr. Schmidt30 Fr. Horstmann Fr. Kuhlmann39 Fr. Lawlor35

Mr. Patton Fr. Arnoudt50 Kuhlmann40 Roos26 Fr. Fastre38 Mr. CoppensRoos26 Fr. Coveney49 Roos26 Patton

Fr. Fastre39

Fr. Zeeland Mr. Higgins25 Fr.Garesche38 Fr.Arnoudt58 Fr. Nogues41 Fr. Schmidt33 Fr. Fastre40 Mr. Venneman dMester Franck26 Fr. Nogues41 Mr. Murphy35

Fr. Schmidt34 Mr. Venneman Mr.Roos26

Fr. Heylen32

Fr. Coveney 49 Mr. McMenamy Kuhlman40 Heylen33 Mr. Coppens

Fr. Garesche42

Math 1 Math 2 Math 3 (Alg) Calligraphy Chemistry Physics Astronomy Philosophy Catechist Music Drawing and Architecture Health Prefect

Mr. McArdle Fr. Heylen31 Fr. Arnoudt48 Mr. Coppens

Fr. Kuhlmann38 Fr. Levisse37 Fr. Lawlor34 Fr. Kuhlmann38 Mr. Schmidt29 Mr. Coppens LawLevisseMcArd Mr. Schmidt29 Fr. Kuhlmann38 Fr. Arnoudt48 Fr. Heylen31 CoppensSchmidt McArdle BRUSSELBACH & GEROLD PIKET & SON Fr. Tscheider41

Mr. Schmidt30 Mr. Coppens 30

Mr. Schmidt KuhlmannSchmidt Mr. Coppens Fr. Heylen32 HeylenSchmidt McArdle BRUSSELBACH & GEROLD PIKET & SON

40

Fr. Kuhlmann Fr. Heylen33

Fr. Heylen33 CoppensRoosPatto ArnoudtMcMenam

Fr. deMeester44

Mr. Venneman Fr. Kuhlmann41 Mr. Roos27 Mr. Ward32 Mr. Ward32

Fr.Callaghan

Fr. Arnoudt58 Fr. Schmidt40 Fr. Schmidt40

Fr. Arnoudt59 Fr. Schmidt34 Fr.Schmidt34 Fr. Schmidt34 Fr. Fastre41

BRUSSELBACH & GEROLD PIKET & SON

BRUSSELBACH & GEROLD PIKET & SON

Fr.Buysschaert

Fr. deMeester45

Fr.Nogues42 Mr.Miles33 Fr. Nogues42

Fr.Garesche39 Fr.Schmidt34 Mr. Miles33

Fr. Buysschaert Fr. Arnoudt51 Fr. Kuhlmann41 Fr. Kuhlmann41

Fr. Driscoll44 Fr. Arnoudt59

Fr. Nogues42


41 Appendix 6:

Some of the reasons given for why a student leaves St. Xavier. Source: St. Xavier Registry (1840-1869). Note: Reasons were listed just for period where boarders were present 1840-1854.

Dismissed Immoral/impious language 12/25/42 (2 students) Age 16 Obstinate disobedience 11/26/42. Age 15 Disobedience and slandering institution 3/43. Age 15 Drawing his knife at prefect 6/43. Age 16 Disorderly conduct at night in streets. Age 15 Immorality 3/28/45. (2 students) Ages 12 and 17 Dismissed w/o possibility of return. 10/1/45 Age 12 Pulling a gun on teacher. No age given Habitual truancy. Age 10 Absconded 6/16/50; no readmission. Age 17 Dismissed for going to bad houses. Age 15 Ran out of class 11/27/51. Dismissed 11/30/51. Age 13 Obstinate disobedience. 9/25/54. Age 12 Expelled for theft 10/12/62. No age given Sent away Sent to Louisville. Father didn’t provide for board. Age 14 Sent away for fighting in the street. Age 13 Sent away 3/11 for non-application. Age 12 Sent away in January 1843. No age given Taken away because his bill was too large. No age given Not willing to conform to discipline of institution. Age 12 Was requested to stay at home Because of bad reputation of sister. Age 11 Want of cleanliness. Age 15 Seemed deranged in mind. Age 11 Not willing to follow discipline, 4/44. Age 12 Disrespect, stubbornness, and disaffection. Age 17 Non-attendance at examinations. Age 10 Suspected of immorality, July 1843. Age 16 Died Died. Age 14 Drowned. Buried at Purcell Mansion. Age 5 Died on way to New Orleans. Age 18 Died. Age 25 Sick 3/45. Died 4/4/45. Age 46 Arrived with mortal disease. Died w/in week. No age Drowned. Age 13

Quasi dismissed Disobedience, insulting language. Age 12 Elopement. No age given Left Came for a few days only. Age 9 Came for only half a day. Age 13 Left, displeased of being told to study. Age 19 Left 11/43. Reason: hard times. Age 19 Left 12/43, being displeased with his teachers. Age 12 Took to his heels 10/13/44. Age 16 Withdrawn by father. Teacher pulled his ear. Age 6 Left to enter business. 5/16/51. Age 15 Left quickly; rather fickle-minded. Age 20 Recalled home, 5/7/51. Age 13 Recalled home on death of father. Age 14 Left without notice. Age 10 Incorrigible runaway, staid a few days. Age 11 Came to this school by mistake. Age 12 Ceased coming after two/three weeks. Age 13 Went to California, Easter 54. [Gold Rush?] Age 12 Gave up, very backward in English. Age 21 Homesick. 9/53. Age 15 Would not come on Sundays, or study catechism. Age 10 Sent to Emmitsburg. Brothers improving. Ages 10 & 11 Never appeared after registering. Age 10 Never appeared after first day. Age 15 Comes for half the day. Age 15 Taken away. Desired to study Greek. 1853. Age 12 Ran away. Joined Union Army, wounded 1863. Age 14 Left, would not come on Sundays/study catechism. Age 10 Ordered South, February 1863. No age given Left, because of accident to his eye. No age given Stayed one month; is incapable of study. Age 16 Could not come in winter. (Lived in Newport). Age 13 Other Does not attend as regular student. Age 12 Called to France by Emperor Napoleon. Age 12


42 Appendix 7: Some known casualties of the Civil War; previously students at St. Xavier College UNION FORCES: James C. Beard

Attended St. Xavier College 1849-1851. He was killed in action at Kennesaw Mountain, while on the march to Atlanta with General Grant (1864).

John C. Dowling

Attended St. Xavier College 1854-1855. He died of wounds suffered in the Battle of Fredericksburg.

John A. Finn

Attended St. Xavier College 1847-1848. He died in a drowning accident, while accompanying General Burnside to Richmond(1862).

Charles H. Foster

Attended St. Xavier College 1843-1847. He was killed in action at Stone’s River(1862).

Steven McGroarty

He graduated from St. Xavier College in the Class of 1847 and became a Cincinnati lawyer. When Civil War began, he volunteered for the Union Army. He enlisted three times, was wounded 23 times. With each wound he was promoted and thereby rose in rank to Brevet Brigadier General by the end of the war. After the War, President Johnson appointed him a tax collector for the IRS. He was elected Clerk of Courts in Cincinnati, but before he could begin serving his term, he died (1870).

James A. Meyers

Attended St. Xavier College 1847. He died of wounds.

Timothy Moriarty

Attended St. Xavier College 1856, and died at Point Lookout Mountain (1864). CONFEDERATE FORCES

Charles Bryant

KIA

[needs further research.]

N.B. With an alphabetized record of the pre-Civil War St. Xavier College students (St. Xavier High School Archives), research could easily be done to determine the names of more St. Xavier casualties of the Civil War era. Archivist and former St. Xavier History teacher, Mr. Karl Hauck, informs me that the downtown Public Library has a 13-14 volume work (compiled during the Depression) that lists all known Ohio Civil War casualties. Working with the alphabetized list of students from 1840-1865, and with the volumes at the Public Library, this task should be relatively easy to accomplish.


43 Appendix 8: What St. Xavier College Graduates Did After Graduating Source: An 1875 publication to the parents of prospective students. Midwest Jesuit Archives St. Louis, MO Year of Graduation 1842 1843

Name William Gilmartin John Goodin

1844

Timothy O'Connor John B. Stallo

1845 1847

Robert P. Farris Joseph A. Maggini Franklin P. Thomas William Doherty Junius H. Browne Joseph Darr Jerome Hackett Steven P. McGroarty John J. Quinn

1848

John J. Arons Louis Damarin Edward F. Dickinson Anderson Leonard

1850

Thomas Lonergan John Albrinck John McMahon William J. Barry

1851

Charles Disney William Disney Joseph Dobmeyer Henley Drummond Joseph Finn Lesin Haydel Josiah Kleinpeter Henry Lange Peter C. Nogues Joseh E. Schmidt Charles Schmidt

1849

Emile Doueming

Degree M.A. A.B. M.A 1849 A.B. M.A.

Age at Graduation 18 24 19

(Page 1)

Occupation After Graduation Professor, St. Xavier College, Cincinnati Merchant, St. Louis Superior Court Judge, Cincinnati, OH Professor, St. Xavier College, Attorney, Judge, Cincinnati, OH Clergyman, St. Louis, MO Unknown Unknown Physician, M.D., Cincinnati Writer for Periodicals, New York, NY

A.B. A.B. A.B. A.B. A.B. M.A. 1850 A.B. A.B. M.A. 1849 A.B.

17 18 19 16 17 20 17 20 22 18

A.B. M.A. 1852 A.B. A.B.

15 20

A.B. A.B. M.A. 1850 A.B. A.B. A.B. A.B. M.A. 1854 A.B. A.B. A.B. A.B. A.B. A.B. A.B. A.B. A.B. A.B. A.B. M.A. A.B.

20

Attorney, Congressman, Sandusky, OH Attorney, Pensacola, FL

15 19 19 16 20 15 19 22 20 18 28

Physician, M.D. St. Louis Pastor, Holy Trinity Church, Cincinnati Attorney, Dayton, OH Theology Professor, Mt. St. Mary of the West, Cincinnati Attorney, Cincinnati Attorney, Cincinnati Attorney, Cincinnati Attorney, Mobile, Alabama Physician, M.D., New York, N.Y. Physician, M.D., St. Louis, MO Unknown Pastor, Cumminsville, OH Jesuit, St. Gall's, Milwaukee, WI Unknown Attorney, Louisiana

20

24 22 19 21 18

Hotel Proprietor, Texas Professor at Spring Hill College, Alabama Lawyer, Brevet Brigadier General, U.S. Army Tax Collector,Elected Clerk of Courts, Cincinnati Physician, M.D., Cincinnati, OH Jesuit, President, St. Mary's College, Kansas Physician, M.D. Merchant, Portsmouth, OH

Physician, M.D., New Orleans, LA


44

Appendix 8 Continued: (Page 2) (Page 2)

1853 1854 1857 1860

Peter Huette

A.B.

Frederick Ihmsen Alfred Korte Phillip Rheinhardt Edward A. Dawson William H. Nourse James H. Payton Frederick Elberg Anthony Dobmeyer Michael Dobmeyer

Charles Moorman

A.B. A.B. A.B. A.B. A.B. M.A. A.B. A.B. A.B. M.A. 1862 A.B. A.B. M.A. 1862 A.B. M.A. 1862 A.B. A.B. A.B. M.A. 1865 A.B. A.B. A.B. M.A. 1866 A.B. A.B. A.B. M.A. A.B.

Cornelius W. Murphy

A.B.

Dennis Donovan Francis Hoeffer Anthony Walburg 1862

1863

Michael McDermott Patrick McDermott Christopher Nugent Charles Siefert Aloysius Bosche Francis H. Cloud William Gray Joseph Lavery John Luken

Louis O'Shaughnessy Michael Rooney 1865

1866

Caspar Lieb Henry Oskamp Francis Rattermann Gerhard Zurwellen John J. Carberry Charles Dengler James A. Dowling William T. Kinsella Henry Moeller

1868

Augustus Homan

M.A. 1865 A.B. A.B. M.A. 1865 A.B. A.B. A.B. A.B. A.B. A.B. M.A. 1870 A.B. A.B. A.B.

A.B. M.A. 1872

Merchant, Louisville, KY 15 17 17 22

23

Merchant, Pittsburgh, PA Tax Collector, Cincinnati Unknown Attorney, Cincinnati Jesuit Professor, St. Louis U. Physician, M.D. Physician, M.D. Music Dealer, Cincinnati Music Dealer, New York Clergyman Attorney, Judge, Chicago Resident Pastor, German Catholic Orphan Asylum, OH Rhetoric Professor, St. Xavier Jesuit Theology Student, Woodstock, MD Physician, M.D., Cincinnati

19

Agriculturist, Fair Oak, OH Jesuit Theology Student, Woodstock, MD Insurance Agent, Cincinnati

18 17

Attorney, Cincinnati Merchant, Cincinnati Pharmacist, Richmond, IN

18

Attorney, Brookville, IN Attorney, Cincinnati, OH

20

17

17 20

20 24

City Editor of Enquirer, Cincinnati Physician, M.D., Quincy, IL Jesuit, Professor of Philosophy (Physics) St. Louis University, St. Louis, MO Jeweler, Cincinnati Merchant, Cincinnati Clergyman, Fort Wayne, IN Merchant, Cincinnati Attorney, Covington Jesuit, St. Ignatius College, Chicago Jesuit, St. Ignatius College, Chicago Jesuit, Professor, Florissant, MO

Pastor, Church of the Atonement, Cincinnati


45 Appendix 8 Continued: (Page 3) James T. McDonough John F. Schoenhoft William Wenning 1869

Frederick Brummer J.F.X. Hoeffer Charles Lavery Augustus Luken Marin Luken

1870

Henry Nurre Francis DeNeal Guido Egley Michael Garrigan Gabriel King Herman Wilken

A.B. A.B. A.B. M.A. 1870 A.B. A.B. A.B. A.B. M.A. 1873 A.B. M.A. 1873 A.B. A.B. M.A. 1874 A.B. A.B. A.B. A.B.

18

18 18 22 19 23 20 17 21 20

Unknown Assistant Pastor, Holy Trinity, Cincinnati Physician, M.D., Cincinnati, OH Pastor, Reading, OH Jesuit, St. Xavier College, Cincinnati Teacher, Cincinnati, OH Pharmacist, M.D. Richmond, IN Physician, M.D. Cincinnati, OH Merchant, Cincinnati, OH Attorney, Cincinnati, OH Bookkeeper, Cincinnati, OH Attorney, Cincinnati, OH Medicine, Cincinnati, OH Unknown


46 Appendix 9: Circular Letter of Archbishop Purcell regarding a Second Collection for poor black Parishes. Source: Xavier University Archives September 9, 1877 The object to which we now call the attention of our dearly beloved in Christ, the Reverend clergy and all the faithful of our diocese, is the religious condition of the colored people since their emancipation. It is the subject which appeals to the conscience of every Catholic, especially of every pastor of souls. As all know, the colored people are not favorably received in the midst of the congregations of the whites. The condition of their children is worse. Colored children are nowhere admitted into the schools of the whites, so that almost necessarily they are sent to some sectarian school at the risk of losing their faith, since Protestants are ever on the watch for them. Schools should therefore be provided to which the children of Catholic colored parents may be sent, but from which at the same time children of Protestants should not be excluded: that is, that thus their salvation may be secured. These schools also serve as churches on Sundays for the adult colored Catholics, that they too may comply with their religious duties, until a church can be erected for their use. The beneficial results of such an undertaking have been witnessed in Cincinnati, where St. Ann’s chapel and school were hardly opened when it at once became evident that the colored children knew how to turn to their advantage the opportunities given them of receiving a proper training. They prove this every year by public examinations and exhibitions to the astonishment and delight of the citizens of Cincinnati. Now, in order to raise a fund to pay the teachers, a society of zealous Catholics was established under the patronage of Blessed Peter Claver; and this society has been approved and enriched by many Indulgences by Our Holy Father, Pius IX. To become a member of this truly praiseworthy Association, all that is required is to offer one dollar, once for all, for the important object of providing for the religious wants of the colored race in this country. Besides the merit of this good work, and the participation in the Indulgences granted by the Holy Father, a Mass is said every week in honor of St. Ann for the temporal and spiritual welfare of the members of the Peter Claver Society. Deceased members also share in the benefit of this Mass. We therefore exhort our Reverend Clergy to invite the Faithful of their respective congregations to join this society, and to send the money and subscriptions of those who desire to be admitted into it to Rev. Father Otto Jair, O.S.F., St. John’s Church. Green St. Cincinnati. But to place the whole movement on a permanent and thoroughly efficient basis for all time to come, we must provide for a continuous and regular source of revenue. For this purpose we hereby prescribe that every year, on the Sunday after the Feast of the Holy Angels, a collection to be taken up at all the services in every church, the proceeds to be divided into two equal portions, one to be appropriated to the parochial schools of the congregation itself, the other to be sent also as above for the benefit of the colored people in our Diocese. Our faithful people will be the more ready to heed this appeal, if their pastors, in recommending the collection, tell them what efforts Protestants are making and what sums of money they spend to attract Catholic colored children


Appendix 9 Continued: (Page 2)

47

and their parents. Lord alone knows how many of the emancipated slaves who once were Catholics under Catholic masters have since been led astray with their children from the way of salvation. This appeal then is not so much an appeal to the good will of the Catholics as to their conscience. Indeed, how can we remain inactive when we behold such destruction of souls and such maneuvers on the part of the Protestants? Moreover, as this plan and the proposed manner of its realization can in no way become burdensome to any congregation or interfere with its interests, we are led to hope that all the Most Reverend and Right Reverend Prelates of the U.S., seeing the success obtained in our Diocese, will by their authority extend it over the whole country, for th4 benefit of the colored race, for the Greater Glory of God, the good of the Church in America and the salvation of souls entrusted their care, a work so warmly recommended to them by the Holy See in its address to the Fathers assembled in the last Plenary Council. John B. Purcell, Archbishop of Cincinnati

History of St. Xavier (The Early Years)  

Early history of St. Xavier High School researched and written by Fr. Dennis Ahern, S.J.

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