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Chapter 3 The Proto – Indic Culture In India, the pre-historic period can be divided into two divisions: a. Stone Age b. Chalco-lithic Age In Europe pre-historic period is divided into four divisions: a. b. c. d.
Eolithic Age Paleolithic Age Microlithic Age Neolithic Age
In the Indian sub-continent, the evidence is lacking and so we cannot make so detailed a division of the pre-historic age. Even today in India many tribes on the main-land and also on the Andaman and Nicobarese islands they still live in pre-historic state. But still in the cultural history of India the important stages of Stone Age can be traced. a. Eolithic Age: Some experts guess that Eolithic Age stone tools were manufactured during tertiary period. In the “Airawati” (Irawaddy) river basin in Burma (Myanmar) along with Meiocene age fossils, stone tools have been discovered. In the Narmada river basin in a place called Bhutra, palaeontologists have discovered stone tools made from sandstone from Vindhya mountains and they have also discovered fossils of such extinct animals as Rhinoceros, fossils of pre-historic elephant called “Eliphas Nomadicus”, Oxen and Stone menhirs. It has not been possible to determine whether these Menhirs are man-made weapons or natural formations. In India the stone “Handaxe, Coup de-poing” (Knuckleduster) denotes the beginning of stone age culture. Perhaps this is made by Neanderthal man. The Paleolithic age began later in the Indian sub-continent. During the Eolithic Age, the hand axes were made from “Laterite Stone” of eastern coastal region1. ___________________________ Footnotes 1. Mysore Castes and Tribes Vol I. Panchanan Mitra, Pre-historic India. P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar, The Stone Age in India.
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b. Palaeolithic Age: This age is described in Europe variously as Chellean, Acheulean Mousterian, Aurignacian, Solutrean and La Madeleine. We cannot divide Paleolithic Age in this manner in India because of lack of evidence. Perhaps Indo – Negrid people made tools from “Quartzite” stone hand-axe, arrow heads, spears, catapult, knife, stone pestle and flint stones. These people used to manufacture wooden combs. These objects have been discovered in South India in such places as Guntakal, Kadur, Nyamti, Talya, Salem, Bellary, Kadapa, Kurnool, Pallavam near Godavari and Mala Prabha river basin. In Billasurgam caves near Kurnool tools belonging to La Madeleine Age and fossil remains of different types of Cyno-cephalus, Hyena Crocuta, Equus, Manis Gigantaea, hystrix, Viverra and Rhinoceros etc. have been discovered here. c. Microlithic Age: In the opinion of Dr Eichstaedt, the Wedded people drove out Indo-Nigrid people out of this region and occupied their habitat. Some felt that this culture prevailed in Brahmagiri and Chandravalli area of Mysore State2. These people manufactured small nicely polished stone tools in different shapes and made different implements. They decorated their crude mud pottery with triangular signs impressed upon it with wooden tools. d. Neolithic Age: The Neolithic Age began in India with the introduction of agriculture and matriarchal system of family by Indid people. The remnants of this age are found in Tinnevelli, Madurai and Salem in Tamilnadu, Malabar in Kerala and Brahmagiri, Chandravalli, Magadi, Anekal, Haralakote, Bellary, Raichur, Maski, Singanapur and Bijapur in Karnataka and Anantapur in Andhra. The hillocks near Bellary give evidence of the beginnings of Iron Age. There was a big Iron making foundry at Kuppagall in Bellary district. ___________________________ Footnotes 2. M.A.R. 1942
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We can see cave paintings of Neolithic Age here. In one painting we see two men lassoing a bull with ropes. There are also figures of Tiger, Star with six rays emitting, man standing near a tree, masked dancers and armed men going to battlefield in these caves. The cave paintings at Singanapura, Maski and Kurnool tell us about their lifestyle and their view of afterlife. These cave paintings are brimming with life and they also demonstrate their artistic skills. Apart from this, pottery made from potter’s wheel have been discovered at such places as Bengalur, Adichanallur, Perambur and Arikamedu etc. Near Shivaroy hills a Shivalinga made from “Gnesis” stone has been discovered. Some of these dwellers near lakes lived in wooden houses built on stilts.
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The others resided in the caves and few others lived in plain ground near lakes with wind-brakes encircling their huts. Some pursued agriculture in fertile areas of South India. These people indulged in fishing on lakes and rivers in their catamarans and canoes. They also experimented with slash and burn cultivation in the thick forests of South India. Their passion for hunting game continued in Neolithic age. They had learnt to make yarn from spindle, and they could weave rough cotton fabric. They were building structures with huge granite stones (megaliths),
(white burial pits), stone
circles and stone burial chambers similar to the Neolithic man’s activities elsewhere in the world (from Ireland to America during this period). They manufactured grinding stones, knives, arrow heads and sling shot stones of Gnesis, quartzite and Chert stones. In metallurgy Iron was first produced in South India according to few experts. Copper and Gold were already in use. They had developed terraced fields to grow rice crop. The dead bodies were disposed in different ways like burial, cremation, leaving it in deep forest, keeping it in the hollow of a tree trunk, throwing the dead body into river or lake and covering it with stones. We could deduce from rock paintings that these people had immense faith in Blackmagic and witchcraft. The matriarchal family system may have given birth to Mother Goddess worship. Men and women decorated themselves with body painting and wore various body ornaments made of terracotta stone, bamboo and metallic things. They wore anklets, necklaces, nose rings, earrings and studs and Bangles on their person. Womenfolk were assigned domestic work, agriculture and pottery work. It is speculated that menfolk pursued such professions as fishing and hunting, but they were governed by womenfolk in daily life. During Neolithic age coconut, canoe, pan leaves and boomerang weapon reached India from Polynesia. e. Copper-Stone Age: The Indus Valley Civilisation was discovered in 1922. It was variously described as “Indo-Sumerian”, “Chalcolithic” or “Indus Civilisation”3. ___________________________ Footnotes 3. Marshall, Mohenjo Daro and the Indus Civilisation, Mackay, The Indus Civilisation.
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Because of inadequacy of these titles, the historians began to call it as “Proto-Indic” or “Harappan” Civilisation. In 1880 A. D. Cunningham collected several seals from the Harappan site. But in 1922 R. D. Bannerjee showed to the world the eminence of Harappan culture. Then onwards such archaeologists as Vatsa, Sahini, Majumdar and Mackey strived hard to show the antiquity of Harappan Civilisation.
Development of European Civilisation through the ages Time
Danube Cucuteni Hisarlik
Minoan IV Minoan III
Minoan II (b) Minoan II (a)
Cucuteni Hisarlik A I
Minoan I (b) Minoan I (a)
Epipely Yolid Neolid
4500 BC 5000 BC 6500 BC
7000 BC 10000 BC © www.srikanta-sastri.org
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Dynasty 12, 13, 14,15,16,17 18
Kassite Babylon I dynasty Isin Larsa
Dynasty 10, 12,
Dynasty VII, VIII, VI, V, IV
Dynasty III, II, I
Mesnepada A Anepada
Pre- Dynastic rule
Marinda Tacia Badarin
Ur II, III Tombs
Playnooka Nevaks brick reserve slip pot Jamadal Naser pot
Plano Tomb A convex brick Tombs Jamdat Nasar Pot Ochre Grey Flood stage Flood Alubaidi pottery Flood Alubaidi
Tomb Multi-colour pot Red temple Pottery [Rectangular brick white temple Alubaidi pot (Halaf)]
7000 BC 10000 BC © www.srikanta-sastri.org
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Susa Luristan 3 Luristan 2 Luristan
1 2500 BC
Abu temple sin temple
Sin temple I Reserve slip pot
3500 BC 4000 BC 4500 BC
Jamdet Nasr Pot Urak
Susa D Polychrome Polychrome pots pots
Susa II Susa C Susa B
Reserve slip Reserve slip Rectangular pot pot bricks Seals Seals Grey, black colour pots Flood Polychrome pots Ordinary pots
Grey, black Tomb colour pots Multi-colour Flood pot Grey, black Susa I A colour pots Flood
7000 BC 10000 BC
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Assyrian nade-ali (Systhan) Sisthan
Micope Tsarskaya II
2500 BC 3000 BC
Temple I Layer 3 ur wark Culture layer 4
Temple III Temple II
Grey colour pottery
7000 BC 10000 BC
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Giyan I -II
Assyria Sial K
Ranagundai V Ranagundai IV
Kulli (?) Culli
Jhakar (Chanhudaro I) (Quetta)
Moh. Daro VII
(Channu daro I) (Quetta)
Harappa II R 37 Tomb
Tomb A 2000 BC
Modern Hittite Giyan III – IV
Hisar II Sialk IV
Hisar I Sialk III Carchemish
V IV III II I
Harappa I (b) Harappa I (a)
Rig vedic age Neolithic age
Harappa Rangunadi III C b a Ranagundai II
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The remains of this Civilisation are found not only in Indus Valley, but all-over North India. The Harappan Civilisation sites have been discovered from Hindu Kush mountains in the North West to Assam mountainous region in the North-East. The sites have been identified from the foothills of the Himalayas to the Narmada Valley. Some of the other sites are in Macron desert, Jabri, Ranagundai, Surajangal, Ropar, Gumal, Kotle- Nihang, Khairpur, Alimurad, Ghasi Shaw, Kulli (culli), Mehi, Shahidumb, Ghasipur, Limbadi Samsthan, Lohumjodaro, Marunjodaro, Chanhudaro and Mohenjodaro etc. The scholars have concluded that Amri culture belonging to the Indus Valley Civilisation is the oldest and Naal, Jhakar and Jhangar cultures to be of (later) recent origin. But no site has been discovered in South India. Historians differ with each other with regard to the timeline of civilisation. Marshal fixed 3000 B. C. as the date of Civilisation. Dr Frankfort made a comparative study of Indus Valley Civilisation with Mesopotamian Civilisation, because Indus seals have been discovered at Khafj, Tel Agrach and other places and he has concluded that the date of the Indus Valley Civilisation as 2700 B. C. But the well-known scholar M. S. Vatsa has concluded in the following manner4: Harappa ‘F’ Mound: i) Modern Three Layers 3050 B. C. to 2750 B. C. ii) Middle Period: Four Layers, 3500 B. C. to 3050 B. C., older than Mohenjodaro town. iii) Most Ancient: Eighth Layer 4000 B. C. ‘J’ Site: i) Modern Period: Two Layers 3050 B. C. to 2850 B. C. ii) Middle Period: Two layers before 3050 B. C. Harappa ‘G’ Mound: i) Modern Period: Two Layers 2800 B. C. to 2700 B. C. ii) Middle Period: Third Layer 3250 B. C. There is a huge gap between third layer and the top two layers. (I & II) Harappa ‘H’ Mound: i) Two layers 2500 B. C. to 2000 B. C.
___________________________ Footnotes 4. M. S. Vatsa, Excavations at Harappa, Vol. I
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After excavations at “Chanhudaro” and “Mohenjodaro” Dr Mackey concluded that Jhakar culture with its polychrome pottery belongs to 2000 B. C. Later because of greyware pottery found in Jhankar culture he determines the date as 1700 B. C. According to him the Aryan Invasion must have taken place in 1500 B. C. The timeline fixed for Harappan Culture is 4000 B. C. to 2200 B. C. The earlier “Amri” Civilisation is fixed at 5000 B. C.
The skeletons found in Harappan Civilisation possess large craniums, small physical stature and they belong to “Proto-Australoid” race. Similar to skeletons found at Kish, Alubaidi, Aano and other places in Mesopotamia with large craniums and belonging to “Mediterranean”, “Mongol Alpine” and “Alpine Arminoid” races have been found in Harappan Civilisation. Hence, we must rule out the prevalence of Dravidian Culture of people.
Fig No. 1:
Telamark, Telagrat, Kafige
Chanhudaro, Harappa & Mohenjodaro
Proto-Indic and Ancient Eastern Cultures Marshall gives the following reasons for considering Harappan Civilisation as Dravidian. © www.srikanta-sastri.org
English Translation of “Bharathiya Samskruthi” (2019) | Page 60 Comparative Table of Indus Valley Civilisation with Aryan Civilisation People of Indus Valley Culture
The Invaders (Aryan Culture)
Town based civilisation.
Pastoral and rural life.
People used Copper, Bronze, Gold, Silver and
Used Iron in daily life.
Peace loving culture.
War mongering tribes.
Familiar with maritime trade.
No sea-faring experience and did not do business.
No trace of Horse bones.
Aryans were familiar with Horses.
These people worshipped Bulls.
Aryans worshipped Cows.
Elephants and Tigers were exotic strange animals for
Indus Valley people worshipped Shiva –
Aryans prayed to Fire God and such Gods of Nature
Pasupathi, Mother Goddess, Snake and Peepal
as Indra (lightning) and Varuna (Rain). They were not
Tree and animals. They were idolaters.
Pots and Cups deliberately broken (mud) have
There was no Caste system.
been found in towns. It points to the Caste system (Practice of Untouchability). 10.
They had a script for their language.
Aryans did not have a script for their language.
Marshal concludes that Indus Valley Civilisation is Dravidian and non-Aryan. This argument is a by-product of a grand illusion. In the ancient Indus Valley cities, both types of skulls have been excavated – the elongated skulls and large skulls and hence it is difficult to categorise them. In Rig Veda these towns of Aryans and Dasuyas are called “Puras”. It becomes a term. Aryans are described only as war mongers and pastoralists living in villages. Aryans worshipped both kinds of Gods – with form and without form. They were Idolators and Non-Idolators. We can deduce from Vedic hymns such as “Indra Vyam Vanija Hava Mane” indicates such persons as Bhujyu and others conducted maritime trade. So, they were a group of seafaring people. Aryans worshipped both Cow and Bull and considered them to be sacred. We do not get any evidence to prove that the worship of Shiva, Vishnu and Mother Goddess is unaryan. Dr Mackey states that artefacts connected with Horse, such as saddle, stirrups and reins have been excavated during archaeological diggings. Hence, Horse was a familiar animal to Indus Valley people. The Indus Valley people possessed an Alphabet (“Rucho Akshare Parmeyoman” – Rigveda) and numerals (“Ashta Karni Gaun” – Rigveda). Without the help of
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a script and alphabet, the study of Astrology, Poetic Meters and various other aspects of Vedic literature become redundant and pointless.
Proto-Indic and Other Cultures
Fig No. 2:
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Ancient Pottery Fig No. 3:
There is adequate internal evidence to prove that Vedic culture began in the middle of Mesolithic and Neolithic Age around 10,000 B. C. This presumption is based on astronomical and other evidences. The Harappan culture is a modern version of Vedic culture. In Rigveda, Harappa town is referred as Hariyupiya and River Ravi is referred as Yavyavati (perhaps Rigveda was composed before the founding of Harappa town).
ए तप्यत्त इन्द्रियमर्चतत येनावधीवचरतिखस्य िेषः । वज्रस्य यत्ते तनहतस्य िुष्मातस्वनातिति परमो ििार ॥ विीतिनोि् र वरतिखस्य िेषोम्याऽवतीने र्ायमानाय तिक्षन् । वृर्ीवतो युद्धररपूपीयायाां हन् । पूवोऽधाच तिय सापरोऽित् ॥ तििन्द्रितां वमीण इि साकां यव्यावत्ाां पुरुहूत श्रवस्या । व्र्र्ीवन्थ: िरवॆ पात्माना: पािा तिनिानान्यअर्ाच न्यायन् || ऋग्वेिे vi:२७:४:५:८
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In the Harappan funeral pottery we find the figures of the Crow, Dog, Bull, Peacock and a river in flood. The most common practise of disposing the dead was through cremation. Most of the funeral rites of passage of Harappan culture are mentioned in Rigveda (X – 1 – 6 – 6). So Harappan culture is an advanced version of Aryan culture6.
The Proto-Indic Civilisation extended over a vast area of Indian Sub-Continent. The Indus Civilisation was bigger than Egypt, Sumerian and Assyrian Civilisations. The size of the burnt bricks used in Indus cities conform to the size (11.75” x 5.25” x 75; 11.55” x 7.75”, 10.5” x 5.5 x 7.5”).
The inside walls of the houses are plastered with mortar. Most of the houses had one front entrance leading to a courtyard and rooms. Some of the houses had first and second floors with as many as 25 rooms. The houses had windows opening to the street. They used to reinforce roofs with strong wooden beams.
They were using different kinds of furniture inside the house, such as chairs, cots, foot stool, divans and tables. Inside the houses and also in the streets, covered drains with grates to collect solid waste at some points have been noticed. They had some kind of flush toilets. There were water wells inside the houses and also in the streets with wooden lids to cover the mouth of the wells. The town officials paid a lot of attention to hygiene and cleanliness. In the houses the dwellers used wood and charcoal fires to cook food and heat water for bathing purposes. They had separate prayer rooms (Pooja rooms) for worshipping of Gods and Goddesses. During hot summer months they slept at night-time on roof tops.
___________________________ Footnotes 6. S. Srikantha Sastri, Proto Indic Religion.
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The streets in cities and towns were well laid out, broad and straight and usually kept clean. They had dust bins in the street corners. The Indus Valley people constructed in every big town large public bath houses for men and women. They had built special rooms for sauna bath. The heated steam and boiling water were supplied to these rooms through terracotta pipes embedded in walls (Hammams). The Indus Valley People were vegetarians and perhaps ate Fish. We know from archaeological evidence they were consuming Wheat, Rave (beaten wheat), Rice, Lotous roots, Dates, Watermelons, Ash gourds and coconuts. They prepared dresses from cotton, fibre and jute materials. They wore upper torso cloth over left shoulder and also from underneath right shoulder [The other end would be wrapped over left shoulder]. Women wore garments below waist and the upper body was exposed.
The Indus People had domesticated animals like Bull, Ox, Cow, Water Buffalo, Sheep, Elephant, Camel, Pig, Chicken, Dog, Horse and Mules. They were familiar with such wild animals as Tiger, Deer, Wild Bison, Rhinoceros, Monkey, Bear, Black Buck and such forest creatures as Snakes, Scorpions, Crocodiles, Pigeons etc. They used such metals as Gold, Silver, Lead, Tin, Copper, Nickel and Bronze. They used such precious stones as Ruby, Diamond, Pearl, Emerald, Sapphire and Topaz in Gold ornaments. They used various coloured stones to manufacture pestle and mortar, weights for measurement and beads to make necklaces.
The men and women of Indus Valley Civilisation paid a lot of attention to dress and make up with the aid of cosmetics. Some men kept long hair and beard but removed moustache. Some used to shave their heads completely and some partially. Some trimmed their hair on head, while keeping a tuft either on one side of the head or at the back. They parted the hair on the head in the middle and often tied a cloth band to the head with a ring. Women of Indus Valley Civilisation strived to be fashionable like modern day women.
The ladies of Indus Valley Civilisation used small horseshoe shaped knives as hair trimmers, eye-liners (koel) were used to beautify it, red colour was applied to lips and eyebrows were lined with colour pastels. Aromatic tree bark powder was used as face powder
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(Symplocos Racemosa tree). They applied fragrant oils to the hair. They were familiar with different hairdos. A highly polished bronze mirror was used during the process of applying make-up. They wore metallic belts around the waist, earrings and studs on their ears, Bangles, Anklets, arm bands, necklaces, nose-rings, hair pins or clips and black bead necklace around the neck was also worn by women. They also wore different kinds of turbans.
The soldiers of Harappa used bows and arrows, spears, slingshots, axes and maces in warfare. The businessmen used weights, while weighing goods in a balance, which were different from Egypt, Babylonia and Assyria. The weights existed in this ratio – 1, 2, 8 x 1/3, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 160, 200, 320, 640, 1600, 3200, 6400, 8000, 12000. The standard original weight was 13.5, 27 grams. A measuring scale has been discovered with equal markings without .003 inches difference demonstrating the uniform precision of scales. They perhaps used the copper and silver coinage, but they have not been discovered. There are figurines on pottery depicting boats sailing on high seas. The Indus Valley seals with figures and alphabets have been discovered in Sumeria, Babylonia, Egypt and various other countries in the Middle East. They exported corals, pearls, Nilagiri stone, Gold, Cotton and Pepper to these countries. They were doing business with people in South India, but no Indus seals have been discovered beyond Maharashtra state.
The people of Indus Valley were fine craftsmen. The Chanudaro town was famous for its beads and toy factories. They often made very small beads from semi-precious stones, on one-inch thin wire or thread, where 80 to 100 beads could be strung. They could drill a small thin hole through which only a human hair could pass through.
They had evolved dance and music as a cultural activity. They had both string musical instruments and percussion instruments. A particular multi-string instrument resembles modern day Veena. They used clash cymbals to keep rhythm and played various kinds of drums. They fashioned delicate statues out of mud and stone. Some nude dancing statues of women and men have been found in Harappan town. The Harappan pottery with intricate
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colourful decorative motifs have been found belonging to different periods. The Indus Valley seals are intricately carved with delicate figures and alphabets depicting the lifestyle of this great civilisation. They also played many indoor board games such as Chaduranga or Chaturanga, Parchisi, Nine Men’s Morris, Chaukabara and various other dice games.
The Indus Valley Civilisation children played with such Terracotta toys as Oxcart, a dog with shaking head, Cat, Monkey, Bird-whistles, Marbles, balls & clubs etc. The Indus Valley Civilisation script is found on seals and pottery. The script is different from Sumerian and other ancient scripts. Hence, the language spoken in Indus Valley was different. Till this date no long text has been discovered or clay tablets with extensive writing have been found. Many scholars have compared Indus Script with Sumerian, Cretan, Ancient Chinese, Easter Island, Egyptian, Iberian, Dravidian and Indonesian languages. Their assumption is this language is non-Aryan and so it must be Dravidian. The linguist Dr Allen Ross states that Indus language is not related to Proto-Dravidian, or Munda or Burishaki languages. Despite all the available evidence some scholars claim that it is a Dravidian language. This assumption is unhistorical and goes against linguistic theories. But Dr Langdon opines that Brahmi script emerged from Indus language. Some scholars have speculated that Indus seals were used as amulets to ward off evil spirits with mantras written from Atharvaveda. We do not know whether they were used in Vedic Yagna (ritualistic worship of Fire God) or in the worship of other Nature Gods.
The religion of the Indus People allowed them to worship both Male and Female Gods. They did not build big temples for Community Worship. But every household had a place for worship. Some of the statues of Gods exhibit these features – eyes looking heavenward, nose tip gazing, nudity and striking a dance pose. They worshipped Tiger, Zebu Bull, Snake, Brahmini Kite, Elephant, Crocodile, Buffalo, Fish, Peepal Tree (Ficus Religiosa), Neem Tree (Azadirachta Indica) and Phallus and Vagina (Shiva Linga and Yoni) etc. The worship of Mother Goddess alone was not important. These religious features confirm one thing, that what we see in Indus Valley is a nascent form of Hinduism.
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The dead were disposed off in a variety of ways: Cremation, burial or leaving it in wilderness to be eaten by Vultures and Foxes. Sometimes dead bodies were thrown into rivers. The dead bodies of children were buried in urns (pots) and buried underground. The bones and ashes of the dead were sometimes disposed of in the flowing rivers. The remains of the dead were kept in pots and sealed. They were either buried beneath a tree or near the residence of the dead person. We have already discussed the funeral rites of the dead based on the interpretation of figurines on the pottery.
It is no great wonder that this Indus Valley Culture spread to Mesopotamia, Sumer and Anatolia. Around 2700 B. C. in Mesopotamia, people were manufacturing seals and beads similar to Indus Valley artefacts. The Harappan culture influenced the Sumerian culture in Jamdat – Nasir and Tel -halaf area of Anatolia. The Jakhar culture even reached Italy and Sicily. Though Indus Valley Civilisation came to an end around 2200 B. C., its impact and influence has survived till this date. Some of them are Yoga, Worship of Pashupathi and Mother Goddess and Phallic worship.
Such animals as Cow, Bull, Snake and the Peepal Tree (Ficus Religiosa) are worshipped by Hindus even today. The Indus Valley cultural influence is discernible on the ancient coins or insignia (Coat of Arms) of Royal Families and also on the carvings of the Buddha and Mahavira Statues. We also see its influence in Tantric symbols like Chakra, Triangle, Nandi Pada and worship of Foot impression in Hindu temples, Shiva, Pashupathi and NarayanaVishnu. In daily life the ordinary Indian wears Veshti (Upper Body cloth) on the left shoulder and other end is wound up under the right armpit to bring it over the left shoulder (Upavita). The Harappa Statue of Priest King wears the shawl in a similar fashion and the practice has continued for 5000 years. The other important practises that have continued are Vegetarianism, Pacifism, the overall spiritual outlook, Classical Dance, Music, Commerce, Agricultural Practises, beautification (Toilette) and sense of humour. One can trace many of the life-style practises of modern-day Indians to the Indus Valley Civilisation.
Dr S. Srikanta Sastri's Famous Kannada Work on Indian Culture & Tradition titled "Bharathiya Samskruthi" was first published in 1953 and has...
Published on Nov 10, 2019
Dr S. Srikanta Sastri's Famous Kannada Work on Indian Culture & Tradition titled "Bharathiya Samskruthi" was first published in 1953 and has...