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47 Rooms

GH — 5059206475


47 Rooms

HELSINKI IS A CITY OF INTERI climatic conditions, Helsinki’ indoors. The Market Hall & th & karaoke’s bars, cabarets & & beauty salons, restaurants saunas, Universities & cinema of spaces that host & nurture life. The street, a Mediterran works only during a few week described as the living—room of the time Helsinki is a city o their political users. Our prop Helsinki, 47 Rooms, extends architectural technologies th interior citizenry: i.e. walls, d machinery that defines atmo 01


Introduction

IORS. Due to its extreme ’s civic society blossoms he Observatory, museums art galleries, hotel lobbies & theatres, churches & as, all form a robust network e public life; interior public nean ideal of public space, ks each year & is often m of the city. The rest of rooms that empower posal for the Guggenheim this network using the hat construct Helsinki’s doors, windows, & the ospheric conditions. 02


47 Rooms

Chapter — I

Chapter — I Interior Citizenry Public Helsinki

47 Rooms links its interiors to Helsinki’s extended network of indoor public spaces. There are multiple connection points. The Museum’s front door opens to a new public square that extends south of the Old Market Hall Plaza in the intersection of Eteläranta & Laivasillankatu. The new square connects to the bike line & is few meters away from the Eteläranta tram stop & the rationalist lobby of the Palace Hotel. A second entrance opens to the pedestrian promenade along Laivasillankatu, which leads to modernist interiors the Olympia Terminal, but also connects to the historic hilltop Tähtitorninvuoren park & the neoclassical rooms of its observatory, & from there to the exhibition galleries of Design Museum & the Museum of Finnish Architecture. More important, 47 Rooms reserves 30% of its unassigned areas (1.500m2) to open a series of micro galleries through the city: we call them Guggenheim Pop—Ups. Located in available spaces through Helsinki, the Guggenheim Pop—Ups not only intensify the symbiosis between museum & city; they are the forums that host the discussions surrounding the Guggenheim Helsinki’s controversy; i.e. they invite the citizenry into the actual museum & demonstrate its value before it is even built.

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Interior Citizenry

Public Helsinki

Saunas Kulttuurisauna

Shops Alvar Aalto’s Academic Bookshop

Museums Ateneum´s lobby

Renovated Warehouses VR makasiinit (Pop—Up)

Rooms Guggenheim Helsinki

Event Spaces Veturitallit (Pop—Up)

Island Indoor Facilities Uunisaari (Pop—Up)

Interior Master Plan Underground Master Plan

Underground Streets Kaisaniemi tunnel

Rooms Guggenheim Helsinki

Cafes Café Ekberg

Indoor Swimming Halls Yrjönkatu

Exhibition Centers Wanha Satama

Indoor Markets The Old Market

Train Stations Rautatieasema (Pop—Up)

Citizen Appropriation Spaces Teurastamo (Pop—Up)

Indoor Beach Biitsi.fi Areena

Renovated Warehouses Kruununmakasiini (Pop—Up)

Shopping Malls Stockmann

Cultural Factory Korjaamo (Pop—Up)

Indoor Urban Gardening Turntable/ Kääntöpöytä

Art Galleries Huuto Jätkäsaaren (Pop—Up)

Underground Skatepark Kontula Skate park

Renovated Warehouses Katajanokan Tulli-ja Pakkahuoneen (Pop—Up)

Cultural Centers Kaapelitehdas (Pop—Up)

Moving Interiors Tram/Raitiovaunu

Underground Swimming Pool Itäkeskus Swimming Hall

Underground Playground Leikkiluola Indoor Playground

Floating Interiors Ferries

Cultural Centers Suvilahti (Pop—Up)

Heated Street Floors Pohjoisesplanadi

Outdoor Heated Market tents Market Square

Outdoor Barbecue Fire Cafe Regatta

Outdoor Heated Terraces MBar

Outdoor Room Guggenheim Helsinki

Indoor Rock Climbing Kiipeilyareena

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47 Rooms

Chapter — I

Chapter — I Interior Citizenry Domestic Harbur Ever since the first reclaim-areas were built in 1847, the site has illustrated the evolution of harbour-related activities: It expanded again in 1892 to accommodate larger ships, after a second enlargement in 1950s the Makasiini Terminal replaced an historical warehouse while in the early 1970s trucks substituted cargo trains connecting the Olympia Terminal & the South Port. 47 Rooms appropriates to this ever-changing infrastructural landscape yet leaves its memory undisturbed. It reuses the Makasiini terminal’s laminated wood structure of to rebuild a shed that follows the geometry of the original building. The rest of the massing mimics the profile of the old terminal ensuring that the current views from the park & the adjacent buildings are preserved. The museum also absorbs the passengers’ elevated walkway transforming it in the largest exhibition wall of the museum (to be seen from the other side of Eteläsatama) & it repurposes the towers that illuminate the site as the Guggenheim’s iconic neon signs.

City Connections Besides preserving the light tower (12), the elevated walkway (13) & the Makasiini Terminal original laminated timber structure (14), the Museum spans the site’s entire width, from the waterfront to the Laivasillankatu promenade. This singular condition makes the bridge to Tähtitorninvuoren Park unnecessary. 47 Rooms opens to the park directly. It extends the Laivasillankatu promenade with a square designed as a stage for the amphitheatre-like geometry of the park (15). Thus, the museum has two main doors that open to two new squares. One connects with the Market & the pedestrian area at the end of the Esplanadi (16), the other continues the logic of the park in the across Laivasillankatu (17). If the later invites the park’s bucolic landscape into the building, the former preserves the infrastructural logic of the harbour’s tarmac. Equipped with services equivalent to those of the museum interiors, the latter is an open-air exhibition room scaled to host large works of art, 1:1 architecture pieces, concerts, screenings & events. The East façade appropriates the passengers’ elevated walkway transforming it in the largest exhibition wall of the museum (to be seen from the other side of Eteläsatama) (18) & the South repurposes parking technologies to announce & display the museum exhibitions (19). Perfect site for a hotel, the space over the new Makasiini Terminal (20) is reserved for future developments (21). We propose an elevated pedestrian connection from the Olympia to the new Makasiini Terminal providing a direct path to the waterfront alternative to Laivasillankatu (22).

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Interior Citizenry

Domestic Harbur

City Connections

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47 Rooms

Chapter — I

Construction Process

Phase I Relocation & Dismantling of the old terminal (1), storage & treatment of the laminated timber structure (2) opening of the Construction Process Interpretation Centre (3) & temporary truck access to the Olympia Terminal cargo area (4). Phase II Reconstruction of the warehouse (5), construction of the bridge-like structure (6) & relocation of the temporary truck access to the Olympia Terminal cargo area (7). Phase III Elevated pedestrian connection from the Olympia to the new Makasiini Terminal (8), space over the new Makasiini Terminal is reserved for future developments (9), Construction of the central band of the museum (10), & relocation of the temporary truck access to the Olympia Terminal cargo area (11).

Construction Process Besides reducing the project’s carbon footprint, reusing the existing structures allows for easy relocation of the Makasiini terminal in the section of the existing building outside of the competition site, keeping the Tallinn Ferries functional during construction & providing a feasible site for future developments. The terminal’s shed will also house an Interpretation Centre to make the construction process, that uses BIM technology, more transparent to the citizens of Helsinki. The building’s infrastructural scale facilitates the use of industrialized construction solutions which reduce cost between 10-12%, & construction schedules between 32-35%, while ensuring that the vehicular traffic to the Olympia Terminal will be neither disturbed during its construction nor once it opens.

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Interior Citizenry

Domestic Harbur

Guggenheim Pop—Ups 47 Rooms reserves 30% of its unassigned areas (1.500m2) to open a series of micro galleries through the city: we call them Guggenheim Pop-Ups. Located in available spaces throughout Helsinki, the Guggenheim Pop-Ups not only intensify the symbiosis between museum & city; they are the forums that host the discussions surrounding the Guggenheim Helsinki’s controversy; i.e. they invite the citizenry into the actual museum & demonstrate its value before it is even built.

SUVILAHTI Sörnäisten rantatie 22 KAAPELITEHDAS Tallberginkatu 1

HUUTO JÄTKÄSAAREN Tyynenmerenkatu 6 Galleria Huuto is an independent artist collective located in Helsinki, Finland. Currently Huuto maintains two galleries, both located at the center of Helsinki. However, Galleria Huuto is not restricted merely within these premises as it also operates at other locations in the form of various events, projects & visits. Annually Huuto organizes as many as 50 contemporary art exhibitions.

KATAJANOKAN TULLI Ja Pakkahuoneen Katajanokanlaituri 5 Old customs Warehouse was designed by architect Gustaf Nyström & built in 1901. It has one of the most impressive interior in Helsinki. Exhibitions & events are organised including Helsinki Design Week.

The Cable Factory is the largest cultural centre in Finland. It houses 3 museums, 12 galleries, dance theatres, art schools & a host of artists, bands & companies. Unique spaces are also available for rent on a short-term basis to stage concerts, exhibitions, festivals & fairs. Around 900 people work at Kaapeli on a daily basis, & each year over 200,000 people attend special events. The Cable Factory is located by the sea, yet almost in the centre of the city.

The historically unique area— combined with a sophisticated group of tenants— is creating an internationally significant cultural centre. The original buildings were designed over a century ago by Selim A. Lindqvist, who was inspired in part by the Art Nouveau architecture in Vienna. Suvilahti comprises nine buildings, two large gasometers & 2.5 hectares of open-air yard space. The cultural centre will be formed gradually as the buildings are renovated & tenants move in. Also in the area: Open graffiti wall & D.I.Y skatepark.

VR MAKASIINIT Mannerheimintie 13 The VR warehouses were a group of redbrick railway warehouses in the centre of Helsinki, used by the Finnish State Railways from their construction in 1899 until the 1980s. The warehouses were badly damaged in a fire on 5 May 2006 & were subsequently demolished in part. A small section at the end of the southern warehouse is temporarily preserved & used for some events.

TEURASTAMO Työpajankatu 2 The area was constructed in 1933 when it housed the City of Helsinki’s abattoir. Used for wholesale in the recent years, the historical compound is now being taken over by citizens, phase by phase. The historical spaces are under gradual renovation & preparing for the next chapter. Spontaneous urban culture will be nesting among wholesale bustle for some more years to come.

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VETURITALLIT Tallikatu 34 Pasila’s Old Roundhouse was built in 1899. It is used for many kinds of special events including dinners & cocktail parties. The whole area is 680m2 with 7,5m ceiling height.

KRUUNUNMAKASIINI Hämeentie 39 An old warehouse with 2000 m2 built in 1892. It is vacant since 2006 & used for temporary exhibitions. Massive brick exterior wall with wooden load bearing structure.

UUNISAARI

KORJAAMO Töölonkatu 51 a-b

Uunisaari Island is located close to the city centre, offering a tranquil & relaxing seaside atmosphere. Close to the harbour, the island can be reached in summer in a short 3-minute boat ride from the Kaivopuisto Park, & by bridge in winter time. The Uunisaari restaurant offers a setting for special occasions, such as corporate events, weddings, celebrations, meetings & conferences. There are also sauna facilities, a supervised swimming beach & a hot water Jacuzzi where you are able to relax & enjoy the beautiful scenery of the Helsinki coastline.

Korjaamo Culture Factory is one of the largest arts centres in the Nordic countries, which produces arts events across various fields including music, theatre, fine arts & talks. Newness, open-mindedness & interaction with audiences are top values in Korjaamo’s programme. It has its own gallery, Korjaamo Galleria, which produces approximately 20 exhibitions a year. During summer, Korjaamo hosts Helsinki Theatre Festival, & its garden is packed with free programme including openair theatre, gigs, DJ’s. Korjaamo has a bar & a café that is open every day.


47 Rooms

Chapter — I

Chapter — I Interior Citizenry Infraestructure

Cultural Production The North façade is a piece of cultural infrastructure. Combined with the square, it functions as machine to display large scale works, whether coming from visual arts, architecture or design. The façade does not work as a backdrop but rather as a theatre fly tower. Its blank industrial frontage hides technologies required to physically manipulate the mise en scène. Weather permitting, two 20m square rooftop modules move out & hover over the square, the main wall of the entry room folds up to open the lobby to the street. The pavement, equipped with the same museum technologies as the rest of the galleries, is ready to host open-air exhibitions, performances, screenings, & events. It redefines public space with museum-quality infrastructure.

Porto Franco The South façade takes advantage of its paradoxical nature. It fluctuates between two seemingly incompatible realities; it is both the first impression of the Guggenheim Helsinki for the visitors coming from Stockholm through the Olympia Terminal, & a background to an international open-air cargo parking lot. Its content, therefore, responds to the vehicles that obfuscate it, as much as to the pedestrian traffic Laivasillankatu. It borrows a variety of signs to both announce the museum contents & display actual content.

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Interior Citizenry

Infraestructure

Cultural Production

Porto Franco

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47 Rooms

Chapter — I

Chapter — I Interior Citizenry Constructed Nature

Double Exposure The East façade of the building appropriates the elevated pedestrian walkway as scopic technology, a mechanism of vision. As a lookout for the visitors, it offers unique views of Eteläsatama. As an exhibition wall—extended upwards to make it visible—it encloses the largest exhibition space, a room the size of the bay, to be seen from the other side of the South Port. The extreme dimensions of the walkway, 120 m long & 4 m wide, & its radical exposure to the city made it a perfect site for site-specific interventions. The expanded glass façade,120m long & 15m high, as much mirrors the city as it puts the museum on display.

Picturesque Bucolism The West façade of the building completes the Tähtitorninvuoren Park. It is designed as a stage for the amphitheatre-like geometry of the park already identified in Knut Forsberg original design from 1868. Thus, the façade, that provides an urban elevation to Laivasillankatu, also includes a public square that doubles as a second entrance to the museum, sculpture garden & stage for the park.

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Interior Citizenry

Constructed Nature

Double Exposure

Picturesque Bucolism

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47 Rooms

Chapter — I

Chapter — I Interior Citizenry

1/75 cross-section of the South façade

1/75 cross-section of the North façade

The Form is the Action

Mechanisms for the Production of Culture

Urban Artifact

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Interior Citizenry

05. 06. 07. 08. 09. 10. 11.

20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29, 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.

Lightweight CLT panel t=400mm w=1.2m h=12m CLT slab panel t=250mm w=1.2m h=10m Raised floor Double glazing glass Pre-existing walkaway Double glazing glass screen Mullion Overhead rolling door w=6.6m h=4.5m Makasinii terminal existing laminated wood structure Low pressure HVAC vents Acoustic insulation board Galvanized grating Water collector Polished concrete screed t=150mm Insulation 90mm (floor heating) Structural concrete t=250mm HVAC Duct Pedestrian pavement Vehicular pavement Pilings foundation

1/75 cross-section of the East faรงade

12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

Sun-shade grille Double glazing glass sky light Interior movable louver Multiwall polycarbonate with nanogel infill t=70mm Thermal Cushion ventilation vents Tridimensional Polonceau truss system Maintenance platform Esparto threads for acoustic absorption Auto-tuning daylight LED lighting system Movable rooftop tread Three layer ETFE cushion with adjustable solar protection w=6.6m l=20m Track lighting system Secondary Track lighting system h=7m Overhead folding door w=16m h=6.5m Glass revolving door r=3.2 Aluminium honeycomb panel t=2+20+1mm Insulation t=140mm Insulation t=400mm Lightweight CLT panel t=400mm w=1.2m h=8m

1/75 cross-section of the West faรงade

01. 02. 03. 04.

The Form is the Action

As Found Decorated Shed

Industrial Vernacular

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47 Rooms

Chapter — I

Chapter — I Interior Citizenry Reflections

02

01

06

07

08

15


47 Rooms Interior Citizenry

Chapter Reflections —I

03

04

01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. 07. 08. 09. 10.

05

Front facade Walkway double exposure Parking sign Work Sunbathing on stairs overlooking Tähtitorninvuoren The view from the road The Guggenheim’s sign Picnic outside Mirror image Loading dock & storage

10

09

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47 Rooms

Chapter — I


47 Rooms

Chapter — I


Conversation 01

Every time I am invited to talk at a conference that is somehow related to architects I start my speech with a quote from George Bataille’s “Against Architecture” that they often dislike: If you don’t enjoy a book, you simply don’t read it, but architecture forces you to experience it; It forces you to a certain circulation, to the use of specific spaces etc…and in that sense, it is a device that determines everything else. Another point is that over the last thirty years there has been an obvious evolution in terms of art, and artistic practices, but I’m not sure there has been the same evolution in terms of the architecture of museums.

seo Reina Sofia, we might say that Sabatini’s original building works better that the new one. I do think that there should be a reflection about the fact that a spectator’s experience is not the same as a consumer’s experience; or about the question of what art practices make sense today, and the fact that they don’t find a place in institutions because they are too centered in the market culture and therefore missing out on what is happening.

In Art, there are neoliberal market policies on one side and additional practices on the other. In modern times, both were related but now they are not. There was a breaking point in the 70’s, in which Architecture played a role…but I am not sure that it was the one we would think of. I have been making exhibitions for the last 35 years and always, always—and I have worked with Richard Meier, Jean Nouvel, I have exhibited in a Frank Gehry’s building etc.—buildings that were not designed as museums worked better for me. Especially if we are talking about contemporary art exhibitions. It could actually be the opposite if we talk about modern art instead. When you talk about art with big names in architecture, at least with the ones I have work with— broadly speaking—their art references often are late modern: Pollock, Franz Kline, Tapies, Jeff Koons, Lichtenstein etc. These are authors whose works are based in big gestures that are great for the picture, but that don’t necessarily talk about architecture as a place, or as somewhere where other kind of experiences could happen. And here is where we should think about the promenade as an aesthetic experience although there are definitely others. The architecture of museums had emphaticized the walk as something spectacular, as if you would go to a gallery just to see something like a Lichtenstein. This point of view is conservative. It talks about architecture but not about a place. So for me, as a museum director, in this post-media time where the most important thing are the processes and not the results; where we could have therapy art in the museum, such as Lygia Clark’s work or black boxes etc. How to harmonize these different types of art and the architecture that host it is a pending subject that the Bilbao Guggenheim or many others institutions don’t manage to resolve. That is why when, for instance, you use a factory for an exhibition, to start with it has an anachronistic side that ends up functioning better than a new building. That is why we always ended up slightly modifying the museums I have been a director of—in let say a classic way, closing areas etc.—even in the Mu47 Rooms


Interview by the authors of GH-5059206475

Manuel Borja—Villel Director of the Museo Reina Sofía (MNCARS), Madrid

47 Rooms


47 Rooms

Chapter — II

Chapter — II Well—Tempered Identity Institutional Weather

Historically, Guggenheim museums—with the exception of the Peggy Guggenheim Collection palazzo in Venice—have leant on strong iconic features to define their identity. New York’s vertical urbanity, Bilbao’s post-industrial landscape & Abu Dhabi’s eclectic skyline required it. Strong formal features were the strategy to both fit in, & differentiate from the museum. Helsinki is an opportunity to continue this tradition of radical contextualism while shifting away from objecthood in favour of atmospheric conditions. 47 Rooms proposes a strategic shift, already successfully tested in the BMW Guggenheim Lab: to embrace the urban conditions of Helsinki by focusing on its interior climates rather than its external morphology. The goal is to create different kind of Guggenheim identity, one defined by its internal weather.

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Well—Tempered Identity

Institutional Weather

New York

Helsinki

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47 Rooms

Chapter — II

Chapter — II Well—Tempered Identity Thermal Onion

All art museums around the world share identical interior weather conditions, 22ºC ±2.5ºC, with relative humidity of 51% ±5%. The benchmark dates back to the late 1970s & has been severely questioned in recent scholarship due to conditioning costs, energy concerns & scientific evidence that preservation is connected with stablility rather than a specific combination of temperature & humidity. The standard however still prevails, burdening museums located in cold climates with brutal acclimation costs.

1 — Exhibition

7 — Offices

01.1 Exhibition Galleries

07.1 Administrative Offices 07.2 Curatorial, Exhibition Design, Publications, Archivist Offices 07.4 Education Offices 07.5 Marketing & Development Offices 07.6 Conference Rooms 07.7 Shared Work Room/Copy Room/File Storage

2 — Programs & Events 02.1 02.2 02.3 02.4 02.5 02.6 02.7 02.8 02.9

Flexible Performance/Conference Hall Green Room Control Room/Projection Booth Simultaneous Translation Booth Movable Stage Platform Seating, Stage, & Equipment Storage Technican Office Dressing Rooms Multifunction Classroom/Laboratory

8 — Collections Storage & Management

03.1 Project Space &/or Atrium

Art Storage Shipping/ReceivingCrate Storage Uncrating/Staging Shared Art Prep/Conservation Studio & 8.5 Equipment Storage 08.6 Registrar, Conservation, Exhib. Design & Tech Offices

4 — Visitor Services

9 — Maintenance & Operations

04.1 04.2 04.3 04.4

09.1 09.2 09.3 09.4

3 — Multi-purpose Zone

Visitor Screening/Bag CheckCoat Check/Lockers Ticketing & Information Deak Storage

5 — Retail 05.1 Museum & Design Store 05.2 Stock Room & Offices 6 — Dining 06.1 06.2 06.3 06.4 06.5 06.6 06.7 06.8

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Cafe/Bar Formal Restaurant Kitchen Catering Prep/Staging Area Receiving Offices Trash Room Storage

08.1 08.2 08.3 08.4

Security Office/Control Room Custodial Office IT Server, Workroom, & Staff Offices Supply, Equipment, & Seasonal Furniture Storage 09.5 Landscape & Grounds Maintenance 09.6 Equipment Staff Lunch Room/Lounge 09.7 Locker Rooms 10 — Miscellaneous 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7

Lobbies (Art) Circulation Restrooms Mechanical/Electrical/Plumbing Art Loading Dock General Loading Dock Partitions, Structure, Shafts, Stairs, Elevators


47 Rooms

Chapter — II

47 Rooms respects the standard yet includes a bioclimatic strategy that eases its load on the building life-cycle: the thermal onion. The building’s climate areas are optimized according to access levels. Each room has different conditions of temperature & humidity. The closer a room is to the main exhibition hall, the closer its climatic conditions are to the museum’s ideal. The temperature of the perimeter rooms is not as high as the core of the building (16º C, +/- 4º C, in the entry lobby), reaching comfort temperature gradually as you reach the larger exhibition space, which is maintained at a temperature of 22ºC ±2.5ºC, with relative humidity of 51% ±5%. Since energy loss grows exponentially with temperature difference, it is much more efficient to have several layers of climate control, than to temper a building homogeneously.

1 — Exhibition

7 — Offices

01.1 Exhibition Galleries

07.1 Administrative Offices 07.2 Curatorial, Exhibition Design, Publications, Archivist Offices 07.4 Education Offices 07.5 Marketing & Development Offices 07.6 Conference Rooms 07.7 Shared Work Room/Copy Room/File Storage

2 — Programs & Events 02.1 02.2 02.3 02.4 02.5 02.6 02.7 02.8 02.9

Flexible Performance/Conference Hall Green Room Control Room/Projection Booth Simultaneous Translation Booth Movable Stage Platform Seating, Stage, & Equipment Storage Technican Office Dressing Rooms Multifunction Classroom/Laboratory

8 — Collections Storage & Management

03.1 Project Space &/or Atrium

Art Storage Shipping/ReceivingCrate Storage Uncrating/Staging Shared Art Prep/Conservation Studio & 8.5 Equipment Storage 08.6 Registrar, Conservation, Exhib. Design & Tech Offices

4 — Visitor Services

9 — Maintenance & Operations

04.1 04.2 04.3 04.4

09.1 09.2 09.3 09.4

3 — Multi-purpose Zone

Visitor Screening/Bag CheckCoat Check/Lockers Ticketing & Information Deak Storage

5 — Retail 05.1 Museum & Design Store 05.2 Stock Room & Offices 6 — Dining 06.1 06.2 06.3 06.4 06.5 06.6 06.7 06.8

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Cafe/Bar Formal Restaurant Kitchen Catering Prep/Staging Area Receiving Offices Trash Room Storage

08.1 08.2 08.3 08.4

Security Office/Control Room Custodial Office IT Server, Workroom, & Staff Offices Supply, Equipment, & Seasonal Furniture Storage 09.5 Landscape & Grounds Maintenance 09.6 Equipment Staff Lunch Room/Lounge 09.7 Locker Rooms 10 — Miscellaneous 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7

Lobbies (Art) Circulation Restrooms Mechanical/Electrical/Plumbing Art Loading Dock General Loading Dock Partitions, Structure, Shafts, Stairs, Elevators


47 Rooms

Chapter — II

Chapter — II Well—Tempered Identity Weather Buffer

Helsinki is full of examples of semi-acclimatized areas & condensed thermal onions. Inside 47 Rooms, the double & triple doors found in Helsinki’s commercial galleries expand to become entire chambers. The transition through multiple climatic conditions, rather than a first step to enter the building, becomes the museum identity.

1 — Exhibition

7 — Offices

01.1 Exhibition Galleries

07.1 Administrative Offices 07.2 Curatorial, Exhibition Design, Publications, Archivist Offices 07.4 Education Offices 07.5 Marketing & Development Offices 07.6 Conference Rooms 07.7 Shared Work Room/Copy Room/File Storage

2 — Programs & Events 02.1 02.2 02.3 02.4 02.5 02.6 02.7 02.8 02.9

Flexible Performance/Conference Hall Green Room Control Room/Projection Booth Simultaneous Translation Booth Movable Stage Platform Seating, Stage, & Equipment Storage Technican Office Dressing Rooms Multifunction Classroom/Laboratory

8 — Collections Storage & Management

03.1 Project Space &/or Atrium

Art Storage Shipping/ReceivingCrate Storage Uncrating/Staging Shared Art Prep/Conservation Studio & 8.5 Equipment Storage 08.6 Registrar, Conservation, Exhib. Design & Tech Offices

4 — Visitor Services

9 — Maintenance & Operations

04.1 04.2 04.3 04.4

09.1 09.2 09.3 09.4

3 — Multi-purpose Zone

Visitor Screening/Bag CheckCoat Check/Lockers Ticketing & Information Deak Storage

5 — Retail 05.1 Museum & Design Store 05.2 Stock Room & Offices 6 — Dining 06.1 06.2 06.3 06.4 06.5 06.6 06.7 06.8

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Cafe/Bar Formal Restaurant Kitchen Catering Prep/Staging Area Receiving Offices Trash Room Storage

08.1 08.2 08.3 08.4

Security Office/Control Room Custodial Office IT Server, Workroom, & Staff Offices Supply, Equipment, & Seasonal Furniture Storage 09.5 Landscape & Grounds Maintenance 09.6 Equipment Staff Lunch Room/Lounge 09.7 Locker Rooms 10 — Miscellaneous 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7

Lobbies (Art) Circulation Restrooms Mechanical/Electrical/Plumbing Art Loading Dock General Loading Dock Partitions, Structure, Shafts, Stairs, Elevators


47 Rooms

Chapter — II

Rooms follow a pragmatic enfilade sequence: Entry, gift shop, main lobby, exhibition spaces, education areas & auditorium, also accessible from Laivasillankatu, which allows a reversal of sequence. The restaurant is accessible from the lobby & the street, & has independent access to the exhibition galleries. The offices, located in a second level overlook Laivasillankatu.

1 — Exhibition

7 — Offices

01.1 Exhibition Galleries

07.1 Administrative Offices 07.2 Curatorial, Exhibition Design, Publications, Archivist Offices 07.4 Education Offices 07.5 Marketing & Development Offices 07.6 Conference Rooms 07.7 Shared Work Room/Copy Room/File Storage

2 — Programs & Events 02.1 02.2 02.3 02.4 02.5 02.6 02.7 02.8 02.9

Flexible Performance/Conference Hall Green Room Control Room/Projection Booth Simultaneous Translation Booth Movable Stage Platform Seating, Stage, & Equipment Storage Technican Office Dressing Rooms Multifunction Classroom/Laboratory

8 — Collections Storage & Management

03.1 Project Space &/or Atrium

Art Storage Shipping/ReceivingCrate Storage Uncrating/Staging Shared Art Prep/Conservation Studio & 8.5 Equipment Storage 08.6 Registrar, Conservation, Exhib. Design & Tech Offices

4 — Visitor Services

9 — Maintenance & Operations

04.1 04.2 04.3 04.4

09.1 09.2 09.3 09.4

3 — Multi-purpose Zone

Visitor Screening/Bag CheckCoat Check/Lockers Ticketing & Information Deak Storage

5 — Retail 05.1 Museum & Design Store 05.2 Stock Room & Offices 6 — Dining 06.1 06.2 06.3 06.4 06.5 06.6 06.7 06.8

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Cafe/Bar Formal Restaurant Kitchen Catering Prep/Staging Area Receiving Offices Trash Room Storage

08.1 08.2 08.3 08.4

Security Office/Control Room Custodial Office IT Server, Workroom, & Staff Offices Supply, Equipment, & Seasonal Furniture Storage 09.5 Landscape & Grounds Maintenance 09.6 Equipment Staff Lunch Room/Lounge 09.7 Locker Rooms 10 — Miscellaneous 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7

Lobbies (Art) Circulation Restrooms Mechanical/Electrical/Plumbing Art Loading Dock General Loading Dock Partitions, Structure, Shafts, Stairs, Elevators


47 Rooms

Chapter — II

Chapter — II Well—Tempered Identity Rooms & Doors

Rooms A thermal onion presupposes a system of stable spatial conditions that keep the climate independent & constant. 47 Rooms contains nine rooms of 20x20m, twenty-seven of 6.5x6.5m six of 10x10m, two of 120x4m & one of 32x120m that do so. The public square north of the site is room 46, Eteläsatama no 47. The 32x120m room hosts the exhibition spaces that can be combined or divided as needed. The rest offer an alternative notion of flexibility based on a rigid set of spatial conditions rather than temporal partitions. Over time, the rooms’ dimensions won’t change, though the way they are used will, opening to new functions not prescribed in the design.

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Well—Tempered Identity

Rooms & Doors

Doors The thermal onion also presupposes a system of opening & closing that both isolates the rooms & makes them penetrable. They seem to be pure & simple openings, but operate like a system of levies & floodgates that control the transfer of humidity & temperature. 47 Rooms’s 89 doors, appropriated from industrial architecture specialized in atmospheric control & high levels of circulation (refrigerated logistic canters, wholesale food markets, industrial laboratories, chemical production, etc) keep the different climates in place.

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47 Rooms

Chapter — II

Chapter — II Well—Tempered Identity Interior Worlds

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Well—Tempered Identity

Interior Worlds

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04

01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. 07. 08. 09. 10.

Waiting in the entry door The gift shop years later Rooms The roof of the entry roof opens Participatory LAB Empty galleries Loading dock Auditorium as a grand stair Working in the education dep Setting the table for dinner

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47 Rooms

Chapter — II

Chapter — II Well—Tempered Identity The Dry Wall Conundrum Dry wall is probably the most ubiquitous material in the art museum, especially in the absence of a permanent collection. The persuasive uncertainty about what contemporary art is, & what spaces might be suited to it produces vast containers for huge artwork. Yet, a medium size museum like Guggenheim Helsinki, with 4.000m2 of exhibition galleries, needs to negotiate the success of spaces such as Park Avenue Armory or the Tate Turbine Hall against the need for small scale shows. 47 Rooms unifies all the required gallery spaces in an elongated shed, 120m long, 32m wide & 12m high. Prepared to host massive site-specific interventions & wallless exhibitions, the gallery it is also equipped with all the systems that reinforce the flexibility of drywall partitions: A combination of indirect natural & a grid of artificial lighting suspended from the ceiling, a solid ground in which to fix the partitions, a homogenous network of power supply through the floor plate & an acclimatization system that works independently from the floor plan subdivision.

01. 02.1 02.2 02.3 02.4 03. 04. 05. 06.

31

On Space Time Foam by Tomas Saraceno. HagarBicocca, 2012 Groovy Spiral by Dan Graham. Lisson Gallery, 2013 Deodorized Central Mass With Satelites by Mike Kelley. MoMA PS1, 2013 Take your Time by Oliafur Eliasson. MoMA PS1, 2008 Memory by Anish Kapoor. Guggenheim museums in Berlin & New York 2008 Murder of Crows by Janet Cardiff & George Bures Miller. Park Avenue Armory Show, 2012. Chambres d’Amies. Curated by Han Joet. Museum van Hedendaagse Kunst, Ghent, 1986. Les Immatériaux. Curated by Jean François Lyotard & Thierry Chaput. Centre Georges Pompidou, 1985. Interior Installation Display by Lina Bo Bardi. Museum of Art of Sao Paulo 1957-68


Well—Tempered Identity

The Dry Wall Conundrum

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01

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47 Rooms

Chapter — I

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47 Rooms

Chapter — I

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47 Rooms

Chapter — I

Conversation 02

I think of museums as activators. There is a lot that a museum can do to activate cities and architectural debates and culture…These points engage with my idea that curating architecture could be a way of prolonging criticism and therefore that exhibitions are tools to trigger debates and do research that interacts with the architecture field. I do see the display, or the way you design an exhibition, as a form of transmitting a specific message.

that can offer materials on a regular bases to fill up that space in the local scene will probably be very small. I would defend almost micro spaces that then can be occupied by the work of one (local or less well known) artist at a very quick pace and with just one intervention.

The architecture of museums obviously conditions the way you present (architectural) exhibitions. The white box is always slightly distorted because we are hardly ever talking about the idea of a perfect ideal white cube. What we are talking about is spaces that are intendedly neutral and that you can re-shape constantly in order to produce new intentions. So what happens in the MoMA is what happens in other museums…(learning this) has been a very interesting process for me… for example, I had to make successive exhibitions with works from the collection, and each show is totally different from the previous one because I do have the freedom to build false walls and therefore to change the space and the display using different colors in the walls, graphic design that contribute to create a different mood of atmosphere. So for me it was never just to have a white cube. It was about the ability to transform that white cube in whatever you want (…) The problem is that that the typical idea the architects have regarding the creation of a flexible space through movable panels and so on, is normally very impractical from the point of view of construction and the use of space. And at the end the most practical ends up being plasterboard walls that allow you to produce different shapes, spaces and formats. Mostly, shows now are based on that typology with slight differences. They might have structures that allow us to build these walls that could be linked by certain modules or whatever you want so that the space is really open to transformations (…)

42

In their recent proposal, Diller, Scofidio and Renfro made attempts to precisely respond to the situation in which you have different spaces and scales to respond to quicker program that would involve local artists but also different audiences... I think this is also an interesting reflection; If you want to have younger artists or artists that are not so well known, the best way to guarantee that they can be part of the program is to actually offer smaller spaces that can be programmed in a faster turnover, and that have different characters and that can even interact with public space. Because if you are offering bigger spaces, then probably the number of artists 47 Rooms


47 Rooms

Chapter — I

Interview by the authors of GH-5059206475

Pedro Gadanho Curator, Architecture & Design MoMA, New York

43 47 Rooms


47 Rooms

Chapter — III

Chapter — III Politics of the Sauna Climatic Disagreements

Finnish saunas are one of the most advanced models of public interior spaces. Conceived as meeting places for naked bodies, their users assume extraordinary levels of intimacy that question accepted notions of public sociability. But more importantly, saunas use participation to define weather conditions. Pouring water over the rocks in the stove, a group of people, not necessarily familiar to each other, negotiate collective levels of comfort that range from 70ºC to 90ºC & from 5% to 20% humidity. 47 Rooms appropriates this logic to define the climatic conditions of its interiors. The HVAC defines the Guggenheim Helsinki identity, yet not as top-down imposition. Rather, the interior climate is negotiated by a civil society trained & habituated to define its public arenas this way. Thus, according to its function, each room accepts different degrees of climatic negotiation. They range from the lobby, which allows for constellation of microclimates in constant flux while, to the larger exhibition space, that maintains a temperature of 22ºC ±2.5ºC, with relative humidity of 51% ±5% & leaves no space for interaction. The museum includes atmospheric conditions that are non-negotiable; they define 47 Rooms material decisions. It also admits different degrees of participation in the management of the interior weather which require technologies that invite users to take atmospheric responsibility.

33


Politics of the Sauna

Climatic Disagreements

34


Chapter — III Politics of the Sauna Technical Sandwich 20x20

47 Rooms Chapter — III

35


36 Sun-shade grille Double glazing glass sky light Interior movable louver Multiwall polycarbonate with nanogel infill t=70mm Thermal Cushion ventilation vents Tridimensional Polonceau truss system Maintenance platform Esparto threads for acoustic absorption Auto-tuning daylight LED lighting system Movable rooftop tread Three layer ETFE cushion with adjustable solar protection w=6.6m l=20m Track lighting system Secondary Track lighting system h=7m

14. Overhead folding door w=16m h=6.5m 15. Glass revolving door r=3.2

B — The museum walls are built using a 8x2.5m panel sandwich of Cross-laminated-Timber (CLT) & insulation which grants 0.10-0.20 U-values.

12. 13.

05. 06. 07. 08. 09. 10. 11.

01. 02. 03. 04.

A — The Roof is a combination of two air pillows. The lower one is triple layer EFTE cushion. The second, topped by a multiwall polycarbonate with nanogel infill encloses the roof structure, controls the level of natural light & allows for multiple climatic configurations.

31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.

Galvanized grating Water collector Polished concrete screed t=150mm Insulation 90mm (floor heating) Structural concrete t=250mm HVAC Duct Pedestrian pavement Vehicular pavement Pilings foundation

C — The concrete slabs incorporate floor heating/cooling systems connected to the district heating system.

Aluminium honeycomb panel t=2+20+1mm Insulation t=140mm Insulation t=400mm Lightweight CLT panel t=400mm w=1.2m h=8m Lightweight CLT panel t=400mm w=1.2m h=12m CLT slab panel t=250mm w=1.2m h=10m Raised floor Double glazing glass Pre-existing walkaway Double glazing glass screen Mullion Overhead rolling door w=6.6m h=4.5m Makasinii terminal existing laminated wood structure 29. Low pressure HVAC vents 30. Acoustic insolation board

16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.

Politics of the Sauna Technical Sandwich 20x20


Chapter — III

Technical Sandwich 32x120

Politics of the Sauna

47 Rooms

37


38 Sun-shade grille Double glazing glass sky light Interior movable louver Multiwall polycarbonate with nanogel infill t=70mm Thermal Cushion ventilation vents Tridimensional Polonceau truss system Maintenance platform Esparto threads for acoustic absorption Auto-tuning daylight LED lighting system Movable rooftop tread Three layer ETFE cushion with adjustable solar protection w=6.6m l=20m Track lighting system Secondary Track lighting system h=7m

14. 15. 16. 17.

Overhead folding door w=16m h=6.5m Glass revolving door r=3.2 Aluminium honeycomb panel t=2+20+1mm Insulation t=140mm

B — The museum walls are built using a 8x2.5m panel sandwich of Cross-laminated-Timber (CLT) & insulation which grants 0.10-0.20 U-values.

12. 13.

05. 06. 07. 08. 09. 10. 11.

01. 02. 03. 04.

A — The Roof is a combination CLT panels & insulation together with a system of controlled skylights.

31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.

Galvanized grating Water collector Polished concrete screed t=150mm Insulation 90mm (floor heating) Structural concrete t=250mm HVAC Duct Pedestrian pavement Vehicular pavement Pilings foundation

C — The concrete slabs incorporate floor heating/cooling systems connected to the district heating system.

Insulation t=400mm Lightweight CLT panel t=400mm w=1.2m h=8m Lightweight CLT panel t=400mm w=1.2m h=12m CLT slab panel t=250mm w=1.2m h=10m Raised floor Double glazing glass Pre-existing walkaway Double glazing glass screen Mullion Overhead rolling door w=6.6m h=4.5m Makasinii terminal existing laminated wood structure 29. Low pressure HVAC vents 30. Acoustic insolation board

18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.

Politics of the Sauna Technical Sandwich 32x120


47 Rooms

Chapter — III

Chapter — III Politics of the Sauna Notes from the Engineering Department

Bioclimatic Behaviour One of the guiding ideas, embedded in the very core of the proposal is the achievement of outstanding but low energy demanding indoor conditions. Following this idea the project has been developing two essential qualities: heat & light: Onion like room disposition that evolves from the exterior, through lower climatically demanding spaces to the climatically most rigorous space of main exhibition hall situated in the centre of the building. This strategy of highly protective layers that creates different climatic enclosures around the most sensitive room guarantees important energy savings & appropriates comfort conditions. Lantern like roof allows a great amount of high quality skylight in all the rooms but the main exhibition hall. Thus, the daylight, so appreciated in the Finish culture, is the great protagonist of the non-exhibition spaces in the museum. As the translucent roofing solution lets the daylight in the building during the day, it converts the building in a lighthouse during the night events. These two concepts converge in the design of highly translucent but thermally performative roofing system. The building is conceived with highly insulating outer envelope. CLT structural panels together with a 15 cm thermal insulation, resulting in U values of 0,15 W/(m2 K). The translucent roof contains by two multi-layered membranes that conforms a thermal cushion. The thermal performance of this assembly with U values below 0,7 W/(m2 K) for exterior & below 3,0 W/(m2 K) for interior membrane, allow a good thermal performance & results in an extraordinary & uniform daylight factor of 25%. The HVAC system, worked out in accordance with the bioclimatic strategy, is oriented in conditioning both spaces occupied by visitors & by artworks. Heating is provided to the spaces by radiant floor system – the most human body friendly & also suitable for affording climate conditions for art. Displacement ventilation is used in order to guarantee properly the air quality requirements without excesses in energy demand. The thermal energy required for HVAC will be provided by hilly efficient & environmental friendly Helsinki District Heating & Cooling system. The energy behaviour of the museum has been optimized by using transient building energy simulation based on geometric modelling of whole the building & its HVAC

installations, thermal characteristics of applied materials & solutions, for Helsinki climate. The results proved the advantages of the adopted design strategy & achievement of two qualities mentioned initially. The average primary energy demand of HVAC for the different spaces of the Museum is 67 kWh/m2, year. Together with lightning & equipment we expect to be below 100 kWh/ m2, year, a value much lower than the limits prescribed by the Finish law for tertiary buildings (170-240 kW7m2). At the same time, for Helsinki climate & given use, the performance of the Museum may be considered a near Zero Energy Building after the upcoming European legislation. Preliminary Study of the Structure 1 — Exhibition hall The exhibition hall is located inside the existent nave. Its structure is composed of laminated timber porticos. Two different interventions are expected to be developed in this area: In the first place, it is necessary to verify if the resistance capacity of the existing porticos is suitable to support the modifications planned in the project. Among these modifications, it is expected the replacement of the existing roof finishing, placing instead the current finishing CLT panels. Furthermore, if the resistance capacity of the porticos is not enough to support the new charges of the project, it will be necessary to design a reinforcement system for the existing structure. In the second place, it is expected to disassemble the existing structure to execute the new foundations. The new foundations will be located in the level determined by the new project & it will be designed according to the geotechnical report. Afterwards, the structure will be assembled again over the new foundation. 2 — Rooms The rooms are places with different uses such as laboratories, shops, offices or auxiliary areas. The rooms are covered by a gable roof, & the place between the roof & the false ceilings works as a thermal cushion which isolate the building from the outside. The structure of the rooms is composed by vertical CLT panels with interior ribs to reach 40cm thickness. These panels receive the beam loads & are responsible for guarantee the stability of the whole structural system. The beams which cover the rooms are crossed beams. They support the loads from the polycarbonate cover as well as

the false ceiling & 4 points to hang loads up to 2000 kg for each. Some rooms have mobile roof panels, making the room an outdoor place. The offices are located in a second level spanning over the passage of cargo vehicles to the port. The structure in this area will also be CLT panels. These panels will work as beams & interior partitions, with a total span of 12m. BIM BIM is no longer a tool only for architects, experts & programmers. BIM is now the only way to connect the architecture with its users. BIM is a filter. The information comes in & out & it is transformed in order to be easily understandable & manipulated. All the citizens’ desires are processed through this new BIM concept to become actual editable parameters which change the architecture according to people’s, architects & all the other participants’ wishes. But this new concept achieves much more. Time is a new parameter which helps us to understand not only, how the future of the architecture will be, but also the past. BIM 4D connected to people. Which means that BIM 4D is a holistic technology that allows architects to expand their designing concepts to people, & people actively participate in the designing process: a two-way pro-cess. This new concept is applied to several levels of participation. BIM technology as supporting element of the project at all levels. 1 — BIM 4D For people: Construction phase. This tool will help to visualize the transformation of the building site through its construction phase in real time & in 3D. Moreover, it will serve as a tool to test that the construction premises were, are & will be accomplished: the non-interference of the construction of the museum with the use of the port, the non-interference with the pedestrian paths with the use of the terminal & truck ways, etc. It is an actual but easily understandable interface of the BIM model. 01. The Atmospheric tool: This tool will be developed in the same way as the previous one, a down-loadable application, & it is presented in three versions. 02. The citizen’s version: This version can be downloaded by the citizens & tourists of Helsinki. Its use is very similar to the constructive tool: a visualization of the interior spaces & their atmospheric

39

conditions as well as the data related to their climatic & light characteristics organized in layers that change according to the timeline. 03. The visitor’s version: As well as including the version for the citizen, it will give the user the possibility of participating in the interior atmospheres (once again, parameters one can interfere with: opening & closing windows, moving thermal benches & curtains, spraying water vapour to increase relative humidity, etc.) & it will make the tools available for the user to directly affect the atmospheres. 04. The curator’s version: This version is a simulator. The curator could decide the threshold of atmospheric transformability, which will be directly visualized over the spaces. Sectional Scheme 01. Multiwall polycarbonate with nanogel infill t=70mm 02. Thermal Cushion ventilation vents 03. Esparto threads for acoustic absorption 04. Auto-tuning daylight LED lighting system 05. Three layer ETFE cushion with adjustable solar protection w=6.6m l=20m13. Track lighting system 06. Track lighting system 07. Secondary Track lighting system h=7m 08. Low pressure HVAC vents 09. Intake HVAC vents


Politics of the Sauna

Notes from the Engineering Department

Bioclimatic Strategies

Structure

BIM

Sectional Scheme

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47 Rooms

Chapter — III

Chapter — III Politics of the Sauna Micro—Participatory Climates Using ordinary off-the-shelf architectural technologies, 47 Rooms extends the logic through which Helsinki’s population already tempers their more intimate public spaces, & by extension construct their interior citizenry. Imitating the logic of the Sauna, each room’s final climatic conditions include certain degree of negotiation between the institution & its visitors. The mechanisms to invite the visitor to engage with the interior weather include: (1) furniture heated using the district heating system; (2) potted plants that change the humidity levels of a room according to its proximity to AC vents; (3) solar/thermal curtains to create micro climates within a room, (4) Green houses with its own independent heat/cooling source that allow the micromanagement of a climatic bubble within a room; (5) Individually managed environmental ethnologies’ hanging from the celling substructure, (6) Swimming-pool-like retractable rooftops that can open three rooms to the weather outside; & (7) the software SPACES which, integrated in the BIM model & connected the HVAC, gathers information of the visitors environmental preferences & adjusts the weather conditions accordingly.

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Politics of the Sauna

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47 Rooms

Chapter — I

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47 Rooms

Chapter — I

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47 Rooms

Chapter — I

Conversation 03

If we play with the idea of introducing the climate into the museum, it would be important to understand it as something metabolic, that is, a museum that is immersed in a way of life. In a place like Finland, they have darkness, winter…Many times the forms of participation that we have in our heads are mediated through a type of, let say “school of samba” that we have invented, and that works very well in warm places, but not in cold climates. I lived for a year in Malmö, Sweden. In Malmö there was a public library that was all made of glass¸ where you could stay inside for a long time looking up and seeing the snow falling on top of you since it was basically a glass cube. It was the nicest space that I have ever been in. You felt as if you were participating in the winter and making it your own. In those climates, people also go to museums in a different way. In Switzerland it is the same; it’s cold, there is snow… you are looking not only for a cultural visit but also to stay longer, longer than in other places (…) The idea of thermal comfort is very interesting. It is a different concept from patrimony. Patrimony is conservation and investigation of things that you find important in order to “re-state”, so that we become aware of something specific. Climatic control in museums is a much more interesting option that to go back to my previous point, would mean that the whole museum should work in a metabolic way. It would have to be a metabolism related with clime, with a psychological character so that the exhibitions that you organize will need to interact with it. As a curator you never have that tool and it would be fantastic to have it. But there is a danger. The Enlightenment showed us that everything that is easy or comfortable is worse that what is not. I don’t agree with this. But how can we break with this concept in an intelligent way? (…)

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It would be very interesting to invent a myth. For instance thinking that the Guggenheim went to Helsinki looking for a model. The Guggenheims went to Venice looking for a paragon. If Guggenheim looks in Helsinki for a new model—not one it already has, ready to export—but that looks for it, and that will take into consideration more than one myth…Finland is a very special country, especially in terms of its culture. The idea of nature, and what is the nature that we are part of? What then would be the nature that the Guggenheim is part of once in Helsinki? We could think that the Guggenheim could be a museum that travels there and that acquires a certain intelligence as years goes by, and that after that, it ends up being a super intelligent museum for the city. Finnish people have lost cultural hegemony, just as they lost the Northern Council with the financial recession, that was a wonderful council for the arts that ran in the 80’s and 90’s, this is why it would be great that the Guggenheim museum could be a (Rousseau’s) candide museum, as Peggy Guggenheim was candide going to Venice looking for something she didn’t already have. That is more interesting that open a franchise. (…)

I think that the selection of architectural materials in the design and construction of museums is fundamental. How hard the museum’s materials are affects a great deal— for instance the idea of sound. Some materials have an echo and a resonance that is unbearable and makes intimacy impossible. That’s why it is better when floors are softer, walls are not that white, forms are more neutral, and scales are not microscopic or gigantic. It’s great when you go to an exhibition opening with 300 people and you don’t hear echoes or steps because the floor and the wooden walls absorb everything so that you can have a conversation. Now, light and temperature are more important than the walls. You can always manipulate walls but temperature, sound and light are different things (…) 47 Rooms


47 Rooms

Chapter — I

Interview by the authors of GH-5059206475

Chus Martinez Head of the Institute of Art at the FHNW Academy of Art & Design, Basel

57 47 Rooms


47 Rooms

Chapter — IV

Chapter — IV Collection of Atmospheres Learning from Guggenheims

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Collection of Atmospheres

Learning from Guggenheims

The Guggenheim Foundation exhibits its collection in three types of atmospheres. The reference collection’s 20th Century avant-garde masterpieces require highly controlled atmospheres of 22ºC ±2.5ºC, with relative humidity of 51% ±5% & no natural light, conditions achieved in the Annex Galleries in the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum & the classical galleries in the second floor of the Guggenheim Bilbao, & similar to the domestic rooms of the Peggy Guggenheim Collection in Venice. The atrium of Wright´s Building, the Serra Gallery in Bilbao or the former Guggenheim Las Vegas main gallery regularly host site specific installations, performances & large scale (usually post—1960s) pieces that accept more relaxed atmospheric conditions, interaction with the public & les controlled natural light. Finally, the recent BMW Guggenheim Lab, has engaged natural atmospheres in New York, Berlin & Mumbai exploring collective events, participatory processes & relational art. 47 Rooms expands these three conditions adding a range of interior climates. 44


47 Rooms

Chapter — IV

Chapter — IV Collection of Atmospheres Curatorial Hygrometry

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Collection of Atmospheres

Curatorial Hygrometry

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01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. 07. 08. 09. 10.

Light control Art landscape Juaneli Genos Helsinki fashion week Occupied lobby Open theatre Elevation Temporary partition Terminal art Opening night at the walkway

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47 Rooms

Chapter — IV

Chapter — IV Collection of Atmospheres Layered, Superimposed, Stratified Museums Expanding the range of Guggenheim’s climatic interior conditions has a twofold goal: First, it includes the hygrometric chart in the list of curatorial strategies, acknowledging its mediatory role in art spaces. Temperature & humidity have successfully avoided institutional criticism for years, maintaining its status of objective conditions. Second, it opens up the list of acceptable climatic conditions in the museum. This is not a purely transgressive move; different institutional atmospheres will eventually engender different art practices & perhaps, new aesthetic paradigms. But more importantly, a multiplicity of climatic conditions within the same museum will allow various museums to live together the same building. Thanks to individualized climatic conditions, combined with direct access to the exterior & autonomous management, each room can operate separately or in countless combinations. Individual visitors, families, local art scene, high school visits, young audiences, international tourists, groups of friends… If the fragmentation of contemporary audiences requires new museums to endlessly customize of its contents, 47 Rooms is a machine to provide singular & ever-changing experiences simply by opening & closing doors to different climates. Beyond its active inclusion of design & architecture in its program—probably two of the frilled most interested in atmospheric conditions in recent years—, the museum will represent a new model within the global Guggenheim constellation, offering an opportunity for the foundation to develop a museum of the future with radical, multidisciplinary approaches to engaging new audiences with culture at large. The Guggenheim Helsinki will become a curatorial innovation reference centre for the other Guggenheim museums.

01. Staff Circulation 02. Art Circulation 03. Visitors Circulation

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Collection of Atmospheres

Layered, Superimposed, Stratified Museums

Multiple Museums Plant

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47 Rooms

Chapter — I

64


47 Rooms

Chapter — I

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Conversation 04

I have often work with let say precarious situations, in places that are not thought as to present art, and I think that even though the topic of the exhibition display is popular now, I believe it is not necessary because art and or work of art are not asking for it. The argument that it brings the public closer to the art work, in my opinion is a complete nonsense. What is important, and what is completely out of focus in mainstream institutions, is actually the art work or the artist. The one who provides content for the museum is actually the last in the row. Big institutions build around them so many layers of merchandise, educational program, activities for children etc. that at the very end, they are a 10% about the real art. This is a caricature of course, but I do think that institutions today should go back to that very source, to the needs of the artist and the artwork and not to the need of a curator. It’s very simple in my opinion. How would I do it? I don’t have a method. I have done it in the past eliminating the architectural devices that make the architecture of a gallery generic in order to recover their original state of a space for instance.(…) I think that the idea of design a specific climate on an exhibition space is very good--especially if related with a local phenomenon--because you are distinguishing the typology of the museum by doing it. It is a way of approaching a complex problem. And of course it is important to be aware of the danger of the Luna-Park-ization of the museum, that the museum should be everything today. I’m quite critical with this. But to be able to change the climatic conditions of an interior could be very interesting. I curated an exhibition of one piece by Luz Broto at the Secession building in Viena. In it, she decided to record every two hours the temperature of the street and reproduce it in the exhibition space. The work itself was a registration of data where the employees of the museum had to go to the street every second hour to measure the temperature outside, and regulate it in the show through very basic heating devices. What was interest and ing in that work, is that it implied the public space within the institution. You might read it as a political manifest to include the daily life as part of the institution itself…and without any visuals, there were not visuals at all. You could only feel it, not see it. This type of work is very discreet. Some people did not see it, especially when it was not cold outside. In those moments it was less visible. (…) We don’t live in a time anymore when size matters. So Size Does Not Matter. Another slogan that I like very much is that this is The Age of Less. And I think that one should low for expectations that could be defined as Low Resolution as its Best. So these altogether, are really key words for the institution to become the op-

posite model to the neoconservative fantasy of the big spectacular museum which we might say that is quite from the 90’s. We need to differentiate between contemporary art and post-contemporary art. We are now in a time of post-contemporary art. Contemporary art appeared in the 60’s and was a product of a small community. Post-contemporary art is very much related to the market economy. That is the difference. The art of art fairs is all post-contemporary art because it is directly linked to markets. It is another type of art. And it is important to distinguish that you have several types of art. You have the artist, or you have the artist-artist, or you have the market-artist…they are active in different kind of fields. And I think that museums, should distinguish themselves not by offering a panorama within art, but to specialize themselves And when a museum specializes itself, the architecture could become specialized as well for that very aim. I consider this as something that could give a new direction in the institutional discourse. I can give you three examples very different from one another. The first one is the Museum La Congiunta, Giornico (CH) by Peter Märkli, a Swiss architect. It is a museum where you have to go for a bar to get the key. You go there, there is only one door, there is no light, no electricity, no heater, there is nothing it is only a volume made of concrete and it exhibits the work of only one artist. It is fantastic. It is an experience. An experience is what every institution wants to offer, but buy organizing those circus around art and the artist, they end up not achieving it. Of course this museum is in a very small village on the Italian size of Switzerland so it is a journey to go to that museum, it is part of the visit. An opposite example is the 21st Century Museum of Contemporary Art in Kanazawa (JP) by Sanaa. Which is an extremely designed museum and a much bigger place. By its circular floorplan and its labyrinthine circulation you lose completely orientation. You are wondering around in the museum with the artwork as orientation , therefore, you look at it differently. The third one is Le Musée Précaire Albinet in Aubervilliers (FR) by the artist Thomas Hirschhorn. It’s a place where he organized eight solo exhibitions of artists like Marcel Duchamp or Fernand Léger, showing one work of each of them. After the project finished, the lightning, the wooden panels etc. that were used for the show were given back to the community in a bingo game. The museum dissolved, evaporated. This model is interesting because it talks about the temporality of museums. When we build them we think that they are forever, but nothing is forever.

47 Rooms


Interview by the authors of GH-5059206475

Moritz K端ng Independent Curator of Contemporary Art & Architecture

47 Rooms


47 Rooms

WEATHER ENTER

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Conclusion

RS THE MUSEUM

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Chapter I. 03—16 Interior Citizenry Chapter II. 17—32 Well—Tempered Identity Chapter III. 33—42 Politics of the Sauna Chapter IV. 43—48 Collection of Atmospheres

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