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A JOURNAL ON SPORT AND RECREATION

VOL. 2 NO .4 - MARCH 2015

CLUB DEVELOPMENT

20 YEARS AFTER DEMOCRACY

DEEPENING THE SCOPE OF KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION SHARING IN SPORT AND RECREATION


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A Journal on Sport and Recreation


FOREWORD BY THE MINISTER

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EDITORIAL COMMITTEE

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PREFACE

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A FOCUS ON CLUB DEVELOPMENT: FROM POLICY TO PRACTICE

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PROF PAUL SINGH GOVERNANCE WITHIN CLUB STRUCTURES

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DR. ROBIN PETERSEN CLUB DEVELOPMENT TOOL KIT

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MR. BARRY HENDRICKS INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE ON SPORT GOVERNANCE

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MR. MICHAEL PEDERSEN CLUBS FOR SOCIAL CHANGE

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MR. GERT POTGIETER INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT FOR CLUB DEVELOPMENT

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MR. JOHN O’CONNOR CLUB DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM: LESSONS LEARNT FROM WESTERN CAPE

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MR. BENNETT BAILEY A PERSPECTIVE ON DISABILITY - A CASE OF WHEELCHAIR TENNIS

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MS. KAREN LOSCH A PERSONAL EXPERIENCE IN A CYCLING CLUB

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MS. MAROESJKA MATTHEE

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BY THE MINISTER OF SPORT AND RECREATION SOUTH AFRICA

Mr Fikile Mbalula, MP

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am delighted to receive the fourth edition of the ThinkSport Magazine focusing on club development. The ThinkSport Magazine is a platform for deepening intellectual discourse and promoting the theorisation of sport and recreation. We are advancing and escalating this discourse in order to highlight the significance of sport and recreation in driving an active and winning nation. Through sport we seek to address the social ills and promote positive behaviour. In the same vain it is within this context that we emphasize the need for adequate resourcing and funding of sport and recreation in line with our National Sport and Recreation Plan. Clubs and hubs are key to grassroots development of sport and an important foundation towards high performance. The National Sport and Recreation Plan is the reference point for the establishment of an integrated sport delivery system. Government in all spheres must drive the development of skills in and off the field. That must take place in schools, community clubs, universities and colleges. We have started already interesting initiatives and implored the provinces to bolster club development at grassroots, taking into consideration existing resources. Considering the prevailing financial situation, the Department realises that key funding priorities need to be identified and in this regard the following are key strategic areas we are pursuing: • Development and maintenance of sport and recreation facilities; • Transformation in sport; • School sport; • Community sport; and • Recreation. The basis for selecting these priorities was the fundamental value placed on them in both the National Development Plan (NDP) and in the Medium Term Strategic Framework (MTSF). The following policy directives have been scrutinised and pronouncements regarding sport and recreation extracted.

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The NDP recognises that sport plays an important role in promoting wellness and social cohesion, and treats sport as a cross-cutting issue, with related proposals in the chapters on education, health and nation building. The NDP sets out five long-term nation building imperatives for South Africa. These are as follows: • • • • •

Fostering constitutional values Equal opportunities, inclusion and redress Promoting social cohesion across society Active citizenry and leadership Fostering a social compact.

Sport and recreation contribute substantially to promoting social cohesion across society and detailed initiatives in this regard are captured in the Medium Term Strategic Framework. It is acknowledged that sport and physical education are an integral part of a child’s development and with this in mind the Department of Basic Education (DBE) and SRSA have taken important steps to reintroduce sport in schools. The NDP recommends that this should be expanded so that all schools develop and maintain infrastructure for at least two sports. All communities should have access to sport facilities and encourage the formation of amateur leagues. The NDP proposes an initiative to encourage South Africans to walk, run, cycle or play team games on the second Saturday of every month. The extensive network of formal and informal sporting clubs can be mobilised to organise these events. Expanding opportunities for participation in sport will help to ensure that sports teams represent all sectors of society. It will also ensure that South Africa produces results that match its passion for sport. The NDP recognises health as being everyone’s responsibility, including city planning officials. Many functions of a city government, like providing pedestrian walks, cycling lanes, open parks and street lighting, can have a positive effect on physical activity which is essential for achieving health outcomes. Although there is alignment between the NDP and the DBE Action Plan and Vision for Schooling in 2025, it does identify, amongst others, that sport, school health, arts and culture require attention. The NDP encourages sport and physical education. They are an integral part of the holistic development of a learner. Schools are where talent is identified, career choices made (including careers in sport) and habits learnt. Given the growing problem of obesity, the habit of leading an active life-style can be developed at a young age through participation in sport. The NDP states that the best place to instil changes in lifestyles and behaviour is at school. To this end the following proposals are made: • •

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Physical education should be compulsory in all schools Every school in South Africa should employ a qualified physical education teacher thinkSPORT - March 2015 - CLUB DEVELOPMENT - 20 YEARS AFTER DEMOCRACY


• • • • • •

Schools should have access to adequate facilities to practice school sport and physical education All schools should be supported to participate in organised sport at local, district, provincial and national levels School health promoting teams should be established in each district and should visit schools regularly A culture of wellness must be established in communities and at work Every ward should have adequate facilities for basic exercise and sporting activities There should be incentives for employers to provide opportunities for employees to exercise and have access to information about healthy eating.

The NDP recognises that it is difficult to get different groups to agree to work together, even if it is in their collective interests. In divided societies like South Africa, levels of trust are low and groups tend to prioritise their immediate sectoral interests. When parties do agree, it can be difficult to keep them to the terms of agreement. The National Planning Commission (NPC) suggests the public signing of an agreement which represents an important symbolic commitment by leadership and a public statement of what is important. It is further suggested that this should not be a once-off event. Leaders of sport and faith based organisations, unions, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), cooperatives, student organisations, governing bodies, traditional leaders and traditional healers should discuss the agreement and address obstacles to implementation. South Africans need to be more physically active and make it part of their culture. Every month there should be a day dedicated to physical activity where everyone is encouraged to take part in a physical activity. Such a day should be widely publicised in the media. Celebrities, government, business, sports people and other leaders should promote and support physical activity to stimulate a healthy culture. But the conditions for a culture of physical activity also need to be taken care of. I congratulate all the persons who contributed immensely to this edition by preparing these thoughtful articles. I thank the internal Team from the Department of Sport and Recreation South Africa. Let the debates continue until the South African sporting landscape is totally transformed and developed. Mr Fikile Mbalula, MP Minister of Sport and Recreation South Africa

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EDITOR IN CHIEF Prof. Paul Singh Chief Director, Sport Support Services Sport and Recreation South Africa

INTERNAL EDITORIAL COMMITTEE Ms Sumayya Khan Ms Siphesihle Mtshali Mr Max Fuzani Mr Manase Makwela Dr Bernadus Van Der Spuy Dr Ruth Mojalefa Mr Mankopane Manamela (Secretariat) EXTERNAL REVIEW PANEL

Â

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Mr Sibusiso Mseleku Ms Safoora Sadek Mr Zamikhaya Maseti Dr Chitja Twala

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his edition of the ThinkSport Journal focuses on the theme of Club Development. As 2014 was the year in which South Africa celebrated 20 years of freedom and democracy, SRSA decided that the sub theme would be 20 years after Democracy. The Department considers clubs to be the foundation or primary level in the hierarchy of the sport development continuum. Numerous reports have indicated that clubs are on the decline countrywide. As a National Department of Sport, it was felt that SRSA had to intervene by finding out precisely the reasons for the decline or non existence of clubs in communities, the challenges experienced by clubs, models of best practice utlilised by successful clubs and recommendations for improving the status quo. These critical areas have been addressed in articles by invited authors listed in the table of contents. On behalf of my editorial committee, I would like to express my gratitude to all the authors for sacrificing their time and making the effort to write their articles, even though many of them had not had the opportunity of writing formal articles for a long time. I would also like to acknowledge the hard work put in by my editorial committee to edit the content and language of the articles. I trust that this edition of the journal will assist practitioners of sport countrywide to revive and resuscitate clubs so that communities can benefit optimally from the services that can be provided via sport and recreation. Prof Paul Singh

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TWENTY YEARS OF FREEDOM AND DEMOCRACY: A FOCUS ON CLUB DEVELOPMENT; FROM POLICY TO PRACTICE PROF PAUL SINGH

Sport and Recreation South Africa Regent Place, 66A Queen Street, Pretoria 012 304 5258 / paul@srsa.gov.za AUTHOR’S PROFILE Professor Paul Singh is the Chief Director, of the line function Sport Support Services at Sport and Recreation South Africa (SRSA). He is responsible for the following Directorates: Sport Support; Scientific Support; Infrastructure Support; Major Events; International Relations; and Research. He has occupied this post since 2010, prior to which he was a full Professor of Sport Management and Head of the Department of Sport and Movement Studies at the University of Johannesburg. He has several scientific and non-scientific publications to his credit and serves as Honorary Professor of Sport Management at two Universities. ABSTRACT This paper provides an overview of the strategies and policies of Government that relate to the central theme of this edition of the journal, namely Club Development. The point of departure is a brief background to celebrating twenty years of freedom and democracy in South Africa. The main reasons for dedicating this edition to such a celebration are provided. The key overarching policy giving direction to all Government Departments is the National Development Plan which sketches the key priorities that Government has set for the country over the next twenty years. Strategy and Policies specific to the National Department of Sport and Recreation that relate to club development and the engendering of social cohesion and development of a national identity and this article presents the position of Government on the theme. The author attempts to set the scene and provide the canvas on which the various contributing authors paint the picture of the status and way forward on club development. INTRODUCTION This edition of the ThinkSport Journal, acknowledges our celebration to mark 20 years of freedom and democracy in South Africa. The 27th April 2014 started the country’s fifth term of democratic governance and for those born in 1994, 1995 and 1996 they had the opportunity to vote in a national election for the very first

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time in their lives! All South Africans will recall the momentous events leading up to 27th April 1994 and should take this opportunity to reflect on the next 20 years, and the kind of South Africa we collectively want by 2034. At the same time, while we acknowledge that we still face many challenges, we must also be mindful that we do not take our achievements for granted. The excellent achievements of the country must be brought back into our national memory and psyche. We must engender social cohesion and a national identity that is representative of our rich and diverse culture (GCIS, 2013). THE CLUB DEVELOPMENT THEME The central theme selected for this edition is Club Development. Clubs are the fundamental building blocks or primary units in our sport system. Coming as they do at the lowest rung of the hierarchy of sport structures, they are in the closest proximity and in the most advantageous position in any community to identify and begin to nurture sporting talent to high performance levels as well as add value and to make a difference in the lives of citizens. As in some areas of the entertainment industry such as music and dance, well resourced and empowered clubs are the backbone to ensuring sustainable delivery of services and social cohesion at the local community level. The rationale for identifying and focusing on this theme is that it is widely reported and experienced in South Africa that in a period when the demand for services relating to sport and recreation is on the rise, the existence of clubs has been rapidly declining. In many localities, there are no formal clubs in existence or operation. It was thus decided, nationally, to prioritise a massive revival of the club system in all communities, so that while fun, games and diversion activities may be played, the social development priorities of Government may be addressed simultaneously. GLOBAL TO LOCAL POLICY FOCUS Worldwide, there is increasing acknowledgement that sport and recreation has the potential to promote social inclusion, prevent conflict, and to enhance peace within and among nations, as recognized in the White Paper on Sport and Recreation (2011:48). In this regard the United Nations General Assembly has adopted a series of resolutions on Sport for Development and Peace (2011:48). Also in South Africa we have experienced how national sports teams can be an inspiring force for peaceful change. But it is not only our national teams that have this potential - the use of sport to promote peace is also extremely effective in programmes at the community level, since they directly involve those affected by conflict and social tensions. thinkSPORT - March 2015 - CLUB DEVELOPMENT - 20 YEARS AFTER DEMOCRACY

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THE NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN The youth are at the centre of our country’s development as we move towards our Vision 2030. South Africa needs a young generation who can contribute to the social and economic development of the country. The National Development Plan (NDP), the country’s vision for the next 20 years, singles out young people as key to the development of the country. The NDP highlights that South Africa’s youthful population presents an opportunity to boost economic growth, increase employment and reduce poverty (National Planning Commission, 2011). It also recognises that young people bear the brunt of unemployment and that ways to urgently reduce it and provide young people with broader opportunities must be sought. It proposes the strengthening of youth service programmes and the introduction of new, community-based initiatives to offer young people life-skills training and entrepreneurship training (National Planning Commission, 2011). In other words, we cannot continue in the sport sector with a “business as usual” attitude. We have a responsibility to utilise sport as a vehicle to bring about the social change we desire. We have to be innovative and introduce game-changing initiatives or approaches as we enter the next decade of our freedom and democracy, where the demand for services spirals while resources dwindle. In other words, we have to do more with less, while also ensuring that we increasingly make sport and recreation opportunities accessible to the people of South Africa. Of the five long-term nation-building goals set in the NDP for South Africa, the one that is directly related to our vision is the ‘promotion of social cohesion across society through increased interaction across race and class’. The many major international events, such as the 2010 Football World Cup, are a good example of what and how these goals can be achieved. We were all part of that experience, and should be able to reflect on and relate to it. THE VISION OF SRSA Sport and Recreation South Africa has the vision of ‘an active and winning nation’ where participation levels and international success in sport are increased. Further, sport is recognized as a basic human right and as an important contributor to an enhanced quality of life for the citizens of this country, of all ages and ability levels. Sport is also seen as ‘fostering inclusive citizenship and nation building.’

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This vision is positioned within the wider transformational agenda which has prioritised inclusive citizenship; nation building; physical well-being; skills development; and job creation. THE WHITE PAPER ON SPORT AND RECREATION Strategic objective 11 in the White Paper on Sport and Recreation (SRSA, 2011a: 36) deals with clubs, stating that “A network of club structures integrated into provincial and national sport structures spanning urban and rural areas across the country forms the basis of sports provision in any sport system. Sports provision, development and excellence will not be possible if there is not a strong foundation of club structures in place.” The first policy directive emanating from the policy statement is to “Promote and support club development to ensure that an integrated and sustainable club structure is in place as the foundation of the South African sport system.” The second policy directive is to “Support the formation or revitalisation of clubs and leagues at a local level in conjunction with National Federations and their recognised structures by introducing programmes and procuring sports equipment and attire.” This strategic objective thus lends credence to the preceding motivation for the heightened emphasis and focus on club development as a national priority for sport, and it finds expression as strategic objective 10 in the National Sport and Recreation Plan. THE STRATEGIC PLAN OF SRSA According to the 2014-2019 Strategic Plan of the Department, in collaboration with National Federations, initiatives to support and strengthen existing clubs have been brought together at SRSA under one programme to maximise the impact of these interventions. SRSA launched a pilot club development system based on the concept of franchising in 2013 in Kwa Zulu-Natal Province, with eThekwini as an urban area with netball, football, athletics included in the sample while in Limpopo Province, Mopani District was a rural pilot with netball and football forming part of the sample. This is in the process of being evaluated, whereafter a decision will be made on its efficacy and further implementation. Support to the franchisees included, amongst others: (1) assistance with start-up and administration costs to ensure the sustainability of their sport; (2) assistance with office space for the franchisee to operate from; and (3) basic office equipment, sport specific equipment and training to the franchisee (SRSA; 2014). PUTTING POLICY INTO PRACTICE: THE SPORT FOR CHANGE PROGRAMME An appropriate example of the impact that clubs can have on the experiences and living conditions of local people in communities is the Sport for Change

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Programme implemented by SRSA in partnership with the Development Bank of Germany (KfW). The Sport for Change Programme is a 2010 World Cup legacy initiative implemented by SRSA and supported by the German Government though their Development Bank, KfW (SRSA, 2011b). The aim of the Sport for Change Programme is to utilise the potential of team sport as a catalyst for transmitting life skills to youngsters in order to reduce violence and other social ills. The original focus was on violence prevention only and the Programme was called “Youth Development against Violence through Sport”. After the first year of implementation SRSA decided to rename the Programme “Sport for Change”. The target group remained the same, namely girls and boys of school going age living in poor and disadvantaged urban and rural areas. The idea was to offer children the opportunity to have fun and to learn through play (SRSA, 2011b). The Programme comprises the following three components: Component 1: Construction of local/community based sport facilities (kickabouts, pitches and courts) where football and other ball sports (such as netball, cricket, baseball and volley ball) can be played by children and young people, as well as the provision of certain basic sport equipment; Component 2: Operation and maintenance of the newly constructed sport facilities by municipalities with support from local committees; Component 3: Training and educational activities in sport and for transmitting values and life skills to boys and girls that use the facilities, specifically with regard to violence prevention, conflict resolution and HIV/AIDS (SRSA, 2011b). Municipalities, in collaboration with local communities and development partners, implement individual projects. Component 1 (provision of facilities and equipment) is funded through grants made available to SRSA by KfW on behalf of the German Government. The grant funding made available for this purpose amounted to about R40 million. Component 2 (operation and maintenance of facilities) is the responsibility of municipalities, with the active involvement of local communities. Component 3 (training and educational activities) is the responsibility of municipalities, but with the support of Development Partners, such as the provincial Departments of Sport and Recreation, GIZ and Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs) that do sport training and arrange educational activities for young people (SRSA, 2011b).

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Seventy-one facilities have been constructed under the Sport for Change Programme (in addition to the eight fast-track facilities). This consists of 61 sport facilities and 10 recreation facilities. Funds have also been used for the purchase of sport kits for users of the facilities. This is purchased by SRSA with KfW funds and handed over to the municipalities. CONCLUSION One is able to gauge from the Pilot Franchise Project and the Sport for Change Programme that it is possible to implement policy to address social change in communities by providing for sport and recreation, utilising a holistic and integrated approach. SRSA has developed the policies essential for sport and recreation to bring about social change, but it requires the dedicated support and efforts of all other stakeholders to translate this vision into reality. REFERENCES Government Communication and Information System (2013). Twenty Years of Freedom and Democracy Communication Framework, Pretoria, Republic of South Africa. National Planning Commission (2011). National Development Plan 2030. Our future – make it work, Pretoria, Republic of South Africa. Sport and Recreation South Africa (2011a). White Paper on Sport and Recreation, Pretoria, Republic of South Africa. Sport and Recreation South Africa (2011b). Concept Note on Sport for Change Programme, Pretoria, Republic of South Africa. Sport and Recreation South Africa (2014). Strategic Plan 2014-2019, Pretoria, Republic of South Africa.

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GOVERNANCE WITHIN CLUB STRUCTURES DR ROBIN M PETERSEN University of Johannesburg and SAFA Development Agency 072-587-1778 / Robin.petersen@safa.net AUTHOR’S PROFILE Dr Petersen is the Chief Executive Officer of the SAFA Development Agency, a Trust mandated with ensuring the implementation of the SAFA Vision 2022 Football Development Plan. He is also a Senior Research Fellow at the University of Johannesburg, Department of Sport and Movement Studies in the Faculty of Health Sciences. Dr Petersen holds a PhD from the University of Chicago, and an MA from UCT. He has held many positions in football, including CEO of SAFA, CEO of the PSL and General Manager of the 2006 World Cup Bid Company. He was a former Senior Lecturer in Religion and Theology at the University of the Western Cape. ABSTRACT This paper explores the current status of club football in South Africa in terms of a seven dimension “good governance framework” as proposed by Pedersen. Applying this framework to a high level assessment of club football in South Africa demonstrates multiple gaps and challenges in governance at all levels of club football. Pedersen argues that the Club Licensing frameworks, as mandated by FIFA, CAF and SAFA, as well as the NSL, should be rapidly implemented, and ultimately used as a developmental tool to drive football development at the base of the football pyramid. GOVERNANCE: A CRITICAL ISSUE The question of governance at all levels of sporting organisations is a critical one, and has embroiled many national, provincial, regional and local sporting associations in protracted and often messy conflicts. It has been questions of governance, for instance, that have seen Cricket SA engage in protracted disputes with its former CEO, Gerald Majola, leading eventually to the calling of a government commission of enquiry to resolve the matter. Athletics SA has been through similar trials, as have many other national federations. Football

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has had its own share of governance challenges at all levels, many of these ending in legal disputes that undermine both the spirit of the game and its core practice, significantly threatening the financial success of the sporting codes. The departure of sponsors from football, cricket, athletics and boxing, among others, is fundamentally due to questions of poor governance and resultant instability within these sporting structures. This article does not seek to address these broader governance issues that bedevil national associations, and even SASCOC itself. Instead, it will drill down to the level of club structures and, because of the author’s knowledge and background, will focus almost entirely on football club structures, assuming that in other sporting codes there will be similar challenges, although quite clearly with their own distinctive features. Further, the article is not based on any empirical research into the nature of governance at club structure level. It is drawn from the author’s own experience in the matter, and therefore is limited by this horizon. This article will engage with the nature of governance at club level, what it should look like, and how this “idea” is transgressed at many levels. It will also pose some ideas for moving forward in the issue of Club development with a focus on governance, looking at some of the ‘tools’ available to make this possible for a national association, in this instance, SAFA, to ensure and facilitate implementation. WHAT CONSTITUTES GOOD GOVERNANCE? Michael Pedersen, former Head of the World Economic Forum’s Partnering Against Corruption Initiative, is an internationally recognized expert and leader in good governance, transparency, ethics and integrity. He makes the cogent argument that it is critical to define what governance might mean in sporting organizations, as there is little agreement and much confusion on this matter (Pedersen, 2013). Pedersen then goes on to outline a helpful framework for what governance in sports organizations might consist of. He defines these on two axes: a horizontal one and a vertical one. On the horizontal axis (the breadth of sports governance) he includes three dimensions: Internal Governance, Athletic Governance, and Event Governance. On the vertical axis (the depth of sports governance) he has a further three dimensions: Preventive Governance (which includes risk assessment and mitigation as well as codes of good practice and policies and procedures), Detective Governance (which includes policy and practice implementation, breaches and detection thereof), and Sanction Governance (which includes disciplinary codes and appropriate processes for

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sanctions) (ibid: 2013). He also indicates, in the same article, that there is a fourth horizontal dimension which he feels should be included under the rubric of “Sports in Society”. The addition of this fourth dimension is, I believe, a critical component for all of sports governance. For the purposes of this paper I will utilize this dimension, despite Pedersen not having formally included it. Applying this framework to club governance, we have a comprehensive tool to analyse the current status quo of club governance, and a template for the future development of good governance structures in clubs at all levels. THE NATURE AND SCALE OF FOOTBALL CLUBS Before we do this, it is important to chart the landscape of football clubs in the country. What is critical to realize is that football clubs lie at the base of all football (outside of schools, although these in many instances come to function like clubs in many aspects). If we are to talk about football development, then we have to realise that this will not happen unless and until it finds traction at a club level. For instance, training coaches is meaningless, unless they are ultimately deployed in the club structures (recognizing, of course, that many coaches will and can be utilized in schools, non-government organisations (NGOs) and other structures that play football). But ultimately, a healthy football ecosystem must include healthy, well functioning clubs. The number of football clubs in the country has not been established, but it is estimated that there are between 20,000 and 30,000 clubs spread through 341 local Football Associations in every local municipality in the country. While many of these clubs exist only as ‘single team’ clubs, there are others that have multiple teams that make up the club, often including youth teams, women’s teams, veterans teams and so forth. Football clubs can also be distinguished between professional football clubs (which might, or should, have amateur development structures as part of them), semi-professional clubs (where some or a majority of the players are amateurs) and amateur clubs, which are the vast majority of the club landscape in the country. In strict terms, there are 32 professional clubs (16 Professional Soccer League (PSL) and 16 National First Division (NFD)) in the country, around 288 semi-professional clubs (playing in the South African Football Association (SAFA) Second Division, or the Motsepe League, and in the Sasol Women’s League). In the South African Breweries (SAB) SAFA Regional League there are over 1,000 clubs participating, and around 700 in the Women’s Regional League.

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Below this sit the thousands of Local Football Association (LFA) league clubs, where the football base is at it broadest. The majority of these clubs in South Africa are owned by individuals or a group of individuals, although there are some well-established ‘community clubs’ at an amateur level that are ‘owned’ by the members. Interestingly, such community ownership models are far more prevalent in other parts of the world – Europe and South America having many of these structures. In the Bundesliga, for example, no individual or corporate can own more than 50% of a professional club, with one or two historical exceptions. The further down the chain of development one goes, the more complex the task of governance becomes. The tools that are available for governance compliance (primarily, the Club licensing programme) only currently affect teams that play in Confederation of African Football (CAF) club competitions, which itself is a recent initiative. The PSL has embarked on a process of Club licensing, but this has a significant way to go, and the question of the relation between the SAFA Club licensing statutes and requirements and that of the NSL looms as a possible site of struggle in the future. This issue of club licensing is discussed in more detail below, to signal that it is potentially the tool that will best allow for the implementation and development of a good governance structure and culture within South African football. The club license, if it is driven down to all levels, becomes a ‘carrot and stick’ to drive good governance – a stick to drive compliance, and a carrot to reward compliance in an appropriate fashion. As was indicated earlier, this paper does not draw on any empirical research into the nature and structure of club governance in South African football. It is more about what good governance could look like at a club level, and what tools are available to drive the process. So it is to this issue that we now turn. WHAT WOULD GOOD GOVERNANCE LOOK LIKE AT A CLUB LEVEL? Using Pedersen’s framework (2013), but including the fourth horizontal dimension of “Sport in Society”, we would say that good governance at a club level would have to include the following components. INTERNAL GOVERNANCE The core element for internal governance is a legal framework for governance. This would include a Club Constitution, aligned with FIFA, SAFA, Regional and

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LFA Statutes, so that there is nothing in the constitution that conflicts with such statutes. If the Club is a privately owned structure, then company articles of association or other recognised legal frameworks must be in place. Furthermore, as the club operates within the framework of South African law, all labour law, health and safety compliance, and other necessary regulatory and statutory frameworks and policies must be in place. If we regard this as the first step to good governance, it is clear that many thousands of the clubs currently playing in SAFA structures do not have this basic document in place. There is therefore a massive task at hand, which must be driven at an appropriate and delegated level, with significant development support, to put this basic foundation into place. Pedersen (op cit) identifies other key elements of internal governance, including the structure of the board, the presence of independent directors, stakeholder representation, and the clear delineation of roles and responsibilities. At the highest level of football in the professional clubs, the FIFA Club licensing regulations, as well as those of CAF and of SAFA, specifies these in quite some detail. ATHLETIC GOVERNANCE The second horizontal dimension of good governance, according to Pedersen (2013), is “Athletic Governance”, by which he means “governance of the playing field” for football, which must include specific issues of match fixing, betting and doping. (Pedersen: op cit.). Although he does not mention it, this area would also include, in my assessment, the need for development structures and processes with clear guidelines as to the minimum eligibility requirements to compete at different levels. The higher the level of competition, the more stringent these eligibility requirements should become. Ultimately, through these requirements, any team winning promotion to the PSL, for instance, would only be allowed to accept promotion if the minimum development structures are in place. “Clubs” having only one team with no development teams or structures, for instance, would not be eligible to compete at this level. EVENT GOVERNANCE The third horizontal dimension is that of Event Governance. Every football match at every level is an event. As such it contains and entails various levels of risk, depending on the size of the event. In the aftermath of the Ellis Park

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Disaster, which took place at a club match between Kaizer Chiefs and Orlando Pirates, the Ngoepe Commission of Enquiry made recommendations that led eventually to the SAFETY AT SPORTS ANDRECREATIONAL EVENTS ACT of 2010. This Act has significant impact on all event organisers, and provides a further governance control and standard for football clubs. Furthermore, the Club licensing regulations of FIFA, CAF and SAFA also lay down various elements of compliance for football club events. Again, it must be conceded that these event guidelines and strictures, although usually in place at the professional level, are often not in place the further down the football value chain one goes. FOOTBALL IN SOCIETY The fourth horizontal dimension is that of “Football in Society”. Football clubs in England lead the way in this regard, with every professional club running extensive “community engagement” programmes, ranging from educational support, community safety initiatives, health, literacy, and general youth development programmes. This fourth dimension is not well structured in South African football clubs, although many of the professional teams do run community outreach programmes. Very few, however, are as extensive or well established as clubs in England, even at the second and third tier of English football. This element of governance highlights an important fact: Good Governance will deliver tangible good returns to the practitioner. Clubs who practice good governance reap the rewards, both financially and in football. Clubs that are well run attract sponsors, drive new revenue streams, and generate fan loyalty. Clubs that invest in athletic development (youth programmes and academies) reap the reward in a cost-effective home-grown talent pipeline that is also able to generate significant revenue for the club through player transfer. Clubs that run safe, fun, and well organised events attract and keep fans. Clubs that invest in local communities, and deliver value “beyond the pitch” also attract larger and more loyal fan bases, which in turn attract sponsors and drive revenue in a virtuous circle of success. PREVENTIVE GOVERNANCE In terms of the vertical dimensions of good governance that Pedersen (2013) elucidates, there is likewise a significant return on investment that awaits a club that practices these. Preventive governance refers in a football context to the rules of the game, the disciplinary codes and procedures, and the club licensing

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requirements that spell out the framework for compliance, and set targets for improvement. Here it is important for the development of clubs, that the governing body, SAFA, wields not only the necessary stick of compliance with rules and regulations, but also finds a way to provide the carrot of developmental support to clubs to enable them to tread the iterative path of continual improvement. DETECTIVE GOVERNANCE The second vertical dimension is that of “Detective Governance”. This includes the “execution of internal and external controls” and the ability to identify and deal with breaches of these codes. SAFA has taken the lead here in implementing a “Whistle Blowing” policy and independently run ‘hotline’. This need has been driven, in turn, by, inter alia, the ever-prevalent threat of match fixing in the promotion and relegation races that mark the ends of most seasons. Given the massive rewards that await a club owner at the PSL level (funding from the PSL of R1m per month) compared with the struggle of playing in the NFD or in the SAFA Second Division, the temptations to fix matches through bribery and coercion are great, and the ability to detect and curb these difficult. The arrest, conviction and imprisonment of Phil “Mr Jones” Setshedi in 2012 on charges of match fixing is one of the few completed successful prosecutions. SANCTION GOVERNANCE The third vertical dimension is that of “Sanction Governance”. While many of these sanctions in football are externally imposed on clubs, clubs too need to have in place their own structures of sanctions for breaches of governance, breaches of codes of conduct, etc. These must include due process of appeal, adjudication and arbitration. CLUB LICENSING – THE PRIMARY TOOL FOR GOOD FOOTBALL GOVERNANCE Club licensing is a critical element of football governance at a club level. FIFA’s Club Licensing Regulations are comprehensive, compelling and are binding on all clubs participating in FIFA events. More significantly, the statutes require the Confederations implement a similar but adapted Club Licensing regime for their tournament (the CAF Champions League etc), and also require that Member Associations (SAFA) include a Club licensing regime in its own statutes, together with the establishment of the necessary regulatory bodies to implement and enforce it.

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The SAFA Statutes on Club Licensing read as follows: “Article 79 – Club Licensing 79.1. SAFA shall operate a Club licensing system in accordance with the principles of the Club licensing regulations of FIFA and CAF. 79.2 The objective of the Club licensing system is to safeguard the credibility and integrity of Club competitions, to improve the level of professionalism of SAFA, to promote sporting values in accordance with the principles of fair play as well as safe and secure match environments and to promote transparency in the finances, ownership and control of Clubs. 79.3 The National Executive Committee of SAFA shall issue Club licensing regulations governing the Club licensing system. Inter alia, the Club licensing regulations shall stipulate to which Clubs the system applies. At a minimum, the Club licensing system must be implemented in respect of top-division Clubs which qualify for CAF Club competitions on sporting merit. Nothing herein contained shall preclude the League or any member from creating and implementing its own system which must not be inconsistent with that of SAFA, CAF and FIFA.” (SAFA: 2012) A close reading of this statute indicates that the features of Pedersen’s good governance profile are nearly all there, both horizontally and vertically. The actual club licensing requirements as developed by FIFA and CAF spell out these requirements for clubs in great detail (FIFA: 2014; CAF: 2014). While SAFA Club licensing regulations do exist, as well as those developed by the NSL for the professional game, these licensing regulations have not as yet been integrated, assessed, and approved at the necessary levels. This process is critical for the future development of a good governance framework for South African clubs, and must be prioritized by SAFA and the NSL. CLUB LICENSING AS A DEVELOPMENTAL TOOL While it is indeed the case that club licensing is regarded and utilized as a regulatory ‘stick’ in most instances, there is another way to approach this that could assist in the development of well run clubs at all levels of South African football. It is my belief that a comprehensive club-licensing programme should be implemented at all levels of South African football, right down to LFA leagues. Any club playing in a SAFA structure should be in possession of a club license, eventually.

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The license should be appropriate to the level that the club plays at, becoming increasingly demanding as a club plays at a higher level. It is only with this stick that the carrot of development can be driven. For instance, requiring a licensed club to have an appropriately qualified coach, a constitution, a management structure, and youth structures with appropriately qualified and licensed coaches. On promotion to a higher-level league, the licensing requirements will increase, including such matters as the financial ability to fulfill fixtures, the quality of the pitch, etc. This licensing framework needs to be complemented by extensive developmental assistance support from SAFA, government programmes, and other developmental support structures. This would include learnerships and skills programmes in administration, coaching, governance, and the utilization of a club-development tool-kit that would provide clubs with the necessary support and training. Given the numbers of clubs, this is a mammoth undertaking. But it is one that will reap mammoth rewards. REFERENCES Confederation Africainede Football. (2014). CAF Clubs Licensing Regulations. Cairo: CAF FĂŠdĂŠration Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). (2014). Regulations, Club Licensing. Zurich: FIFA

FIFA

Pedersen, M.(2013). Sport Governance. iSportConnect, Available online from http://www.isportconnect.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id= 18753:sport-governance-what-are-we-actually-talking-about Parliament of the Republic of South Africa. (2010). Safety at Sports and Recreational Events Act. Cape Town: Parliament of the Republic of South Africa. South African Football Association (2012). Statutes of the South African Football Association. Johannesburg: SAFA.

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CLUB DEVELOPMENT TOOLKIT BARRY HENDRICKS President: Gauteng Sports Council 076 793 2955 / +27 (11) 4021972 barry@gautengsport.co.za

AUTHOR’S PROFILE Barry has always been involved in sport, representing the Eastern Province in Tennis, Squash, Judo and Athletics. He has a Bachelor of Science degree from Rhodes University. He is the chairman of Central Gauteng Squash and was chairman of Squash South Africa. He is currently the president of the Gauteng Sports Council. Barry is an accredited facilitator, and served as team manager and volunteer coordinator for South Africa at a few major international events. Since 2000 he runs a consultancy specialising in strategic planning, project management and education and training services. He is an active Gauteng squash seniors and masters league player for the Jeppe Squash Club. INTRODUCTION The term “Club Development Toolkit” refers to a set of tools designed to assist sport and recreation clubs to function better.A club is generally regarded as the foundation of structured sport in South Africa and the National Sport and Recreation Plan (NSRP) speaks of creating an “enabling environment” by providing “formal sports participation opportunities through an integrated and sustainable club structure”. The NSRP’s Strategic Objective 10 further states that: “A club is a structured, constituted base for participation in sport and serves as a vehicle for long term participant development as well as mentorship programmes to cater for high performance. A network of club structures integrated into provincial and national sports structures spanning urban and rural areas across the country forms the basis of sports provision in any sports system. Sports provision, development and excellence will not be possible if there is not a strong foundation of club structures in place.” In keeping with the 20 years of democracy and the club development themes of this Thinksport Journal, this article looks at what different sport organisations

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have done in developing and delivering toolsspecifically designed to improve the functioning of sport and recreation organisations at a club level. The article is based on the South African context and the elements in the South African sport sector that impact on sport, and the possible strategies that organisations need to consider when implementing a club development toolkit. WHAT IS A CLUB DEVELOPMENT TOOLKIT? A Club Development Toolkit is a resource or set of resources designed to improve the skills of people running sport and recreation clubs so that they work more efficiently and to improve the overall functioning of the clubs. The people referred to could be coaches, administrators, technical officials, supporters, athletes as well as parents. The topics that the Club Development Toolkit could therefore contain are briefly explained in the table below. NO

1

2

3

4

TOPIC

Starting a club

Organising the clubs finances

Marketing the club

Managing volunteers W

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CONTENT This section explains how to establish a sport and/or recreation club and is usually the first part of most club development toolkits.It deals with convening introductory and founding meetings, developing and adopting the constitution, adopting the constitution, conducting elections, recording minutes of meetings, determining club colours, establishing committee portfolios and determining the executive committee portfolio responsibilities. This section focuses on the role of the treasurer as the custodian of the club’s finances and includes topics such as setting up bank accounts, registering the organisation, producing financial statements and reporting at meetings. The focus of this section is usually on the Public Relations (PR) and Marketing function of a club. Reportedly in most clubs this function is performed by honorary members who do not always have the required skills and expertise to play this role. Other matters that this section covers are developing the brand, colours, logos and stationery as well as the recognition of the club’s name and history. Most clubs consist of volunteers. These are people who spend their personal time, at no cost to the club and without any remuneration for their services, promoting and ensuring the development and management of the club and its programmes. The important role of volunteers, their recruitment, management, recognition and awards are elements that this section usually covers.

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5

6

7

8

9

10

Managing facilities

Equipment

Fund raising and application for funds

Sponsorship

Strategic planning

Coaching

Some clubs do have facilities and therefore need to consider the cost of maintaining these facilities. These costs include capital expenditure in relation to maintenance as well as human resources required to perform the maintenance tasks. Facilities differ from sport to sport and in a generic toolkit, general aspects could be covered. However for a toolkit to be more effective the specific maintenance of the different sports facilities needs to be included. The range of training, administrative, technical and other equipment is too vast to cover comprehensively in this article. However, this section usually explains how to record equipment on asset registers as well as how to maintain and store the equipment properly. Most clubs do not have sufficient money to keep their club functional, organise events, and so forth. They thus form a fund-raising committee to raise the money they need. This section explains how to set up a fundraising committee, describes its roles and responsibilities, offers some fundraising ideas and explains how to complete formal applications for funding. Sponsorship deals with securing businesses to associate with the club. This can be a daunting task especially at club level. This section usually explains issues such as identifying businesses in the communities where club members reside or where the club plays, the identification of possible partnerships, where club members can support local businesses, the development of basic sponsorship contracts and the receipt of money or resources and reporting. Strategic planning for sport could be seen as an operation that only applies to sport federations and top clubs but, done in its simplest form could assist the club to develop its mission, vision and value statements that guide the club in its philosophy and goals. The section usually covers elements such as identification of strengths and weaknesses and the development of key areas that the club should deliver for its members. A key result of a strategic planning process is the formulation of a strategic plan (a “battle plan�) to help the club plan better and to consequently develop a business plan. The coach is the person who develops the physical and mental skills of athletes as well as developing sport strategies for individuals and teams in competitions and training. This section of the toolkit creates awareness of the role of the coach, appreciating the roles of coaches, ensuring that coaches adhere to codes of conduct and ensuring that coaches are suitably qualified to interact with the athletes.This section also includes the fundamentals of coaching such as planning, the role of the coach, setting targets with individuals, working with children, and designing training sessions.

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NO

11

12

13

14

15

28

TOPIC Running leagues, tournaments and events – competitive and social

Succession planning

Fair play

Technical officiating

Administration and communication

CONTENT This is the core of sport clubs. Most athletes join clubs to play sport and to develop themselves and their skills in relation to other athletes. Most competitive athletes want to be the best and therefore require a structured sport competition programme. This section of the toolkit could deal with running leagues and tournaments, the different types of leagues and tournaments, collecting results and posting results and rankings. The importance of planning to develop new leaders that would succeed the current set is a concept that is not employed in the broad South African sport context. The election process and the subsequent drive for positions usually creates further competition instead of a skills development process of talent identification and nurturing of that specific talent. It is no different from the development of athletes to fulfil certain roles in the sporting scenario. This section of the toolkit could create awareness of this element in the club and deal with the process and strategies of succession. Apart from the need to create a competitive environment for athletes who want to excel, the club also needs to provide an environment that is fair and without prejudice for all its members. This section of the toolkit explains sport ethics and the role that its members have in creating an environment in the club that respects people and the rules of the game. In the South African context issues such as doping, gender equality, inclusivity and race need to be explored, discussed and implemented. The tendency to win at all costs is also a topic that needs to be discussed by administrators, coaches, technical officials, athletes, parents and supporters. The referees, markers, judges, line judges, scorers and the multitude of other technical officials across the sport spectrum all have an equally vital role to play in the club. This section of the toolkit covers elements such as the role of technical officials, recognising and rewarding technical officials, the development of their skills, the identification and training of supporters and parents to fulfil these roles. The Secretary’s role is one of the most crucial roles of the club because this person is responsible for record keeping of members and all other administrative elements of the club. This section of the toolkit deals with the role of the secretary covers aspects such as administration practices, filing, recording meetings, databases, communication, policies and procedures, calling and recording meetings, setting up meetings, following the annual club programme and development of the club’s strategic plan, business plan and operational plan.

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NO

16

17

18

TOPIC

Leadership, running meetings and chairing the club

The structure of sport in communities

Other important sections

CONTENT The Chairperson of a club is its elected leader. Leaders are not different from all the other members of the club and should be regarded as equal and not more elevated than others. The word leader or Chairperson however does imply to “lead” and therefore to take responsibility for guiding the club and its members. This section of the toolkit deals with leadership, running meetings, and managing members of the committees, interpersonal skills, and resolving interpersonal disputes. The Chairperson should be acquainted with all the elements of the club and therefore should also have an understanding of all the elements of the Club Development Toolkit. All club members should understand their placement in the South Africa sport context geographically as well as in respect of the different tiers and demarcations of Government. This section of the toolkit explains the hierarchy of sport, the role of clubs, sport federations, sport confederations and Government in sport and the ultimate linkage to structures and competitions from local to international level. Other important sections of the Club Development Toolkit deal with matters such as health and safety, first aid, HIV / AIDS awareness, good governance, awards and recognition, racial and gender transformation and other policies and guidelines, recruiting parents, juniors and seniors, monitoring and evaluation (M&E) methods, systems and templates.

WHY IS A CLUB DEVELOPMENT TOOLKIT IMPORTANT? The Stichting Nationale Commissievoor Internationale Samenwerkingen Duurzame Ontwikkeling (NCDO) in its document titled “An African Football World Cup at last” states: “The United Nations (UN) reports on sport for development and peace and NGOs’ sport programmes stress the potential of sport as a tool in the pursuit of the Millennium Development Goals. However, sport does not automatically produce positive or negative effects. Good planning, sustained reflective action and quality criteria for good delivery of sport are needed to unlock the potential of sport” The importance of sport development has been noted by the United Nations as part of its eight Millennium Development Goals namely: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Achieve universal primary education Promote gender equality and empower women Reduce child mortality Improve maternal health

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6. Combat HIV and AIDS, malaria, and other diseases 7. Ensure environmental sustainability 8. Develop a global partnership for development The NSRP entrenches the development role of sport when it states: “The NSRP also acknowledges the role of sport as a tool to achieve national and global priorities”.These statements reflect on the importance of sport and the use of sport as a vehicle in changing society. The importance and role of a Club Development Toolkit can be found in the abovementioned statements. A toolkit assists in developing skills that can contribute to the development of sport through elements such as: club formation. running sport clubs, developing programmes for priority areas such as women in sport, youth in sport, elderly in sport, rural sport and other important projects. As the NCDO states: “good planning, sustained reflective action and quality criteria for good delivery” is important to the development potential of sport and the sporting people. It is thus important that a toolkit is diverse, includes various types of learning styles and methods and has a personal mentoring element attached for it to be successful. A toolkit can be used as a stand-alone resource but its potential to develop skills and accelerate development is increased substantially through interaction with tutors, facilitators, and sports people and through the practical implementation of the content of the Club Development Toolkit. A toolkit can also play a huge role in informing people of aspects of sport that they might not be aware of, such as transformation, including people with disabilities in sport, racism in sport and other important social issues. WHO NEEDS A CLUB DEVELOPMENT TOOLKIT? The question seems obvious, the heading does state “club” and therefore it is sport and recreation clubs that need a toolkit. It is important to remember that there are: 1. Different types of sport and recreation activities, each with their own specific needs and programmes which can be as diverse as chess and dance 2. Different types of clubs such as competitive sport clubs and school teams, to clubs that participate in sport, social clubs and university sport clubs 3. Different levels of clubs such as professional football clubs and local area based “amateur” football clubs that have differing programmes, facilities, equipment and competitions

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4. Multi-coded sport clubs and single-coded sport clubs All of these clubs need resources to assist in their development and a Club Development Toolkit can be one of these resources. When one looks at the membership classification of sport clubs then one realises that different people play different yet important roles in a club. These could be categorised as: athletes (the term is used generically to refer to all the people that actively participate in the competitions), the young and not so young, administrators (including chairpersons, secretaries, treasurers, marketing and public relations people, captains, league representatives, coaches and technical officials) linesmen, referees, markers, judges and time keepers, club managers, facility managers and workers, team managers, supporters, parents and social members. A Club Development Toolkit can therefore be designed to apply to all of the above people. The toolkit could be generic or it can be specific to the type of sport, type of club and the roles that the different people perform. The designers and implementers of the toolkit therefore have to determine who their target people and target clubs are and then develop the toolkit based on those clubs and individuals’ needs. HOW CAN TOOLKITS BE DESIGNED AND PRESENTED? There are many methods of presenting toolkits to the clubs and as technology evolves the forms of presentation can also change. Probably the main question that must be asked when developing Club Development Toolkits is whether the toolkit suits the needs of specific types of clubs and the people therein. As stated above, there are different types of clubs, each with their own individual needs. The differences may relate to: sports types; languages where the club is based as well as the level of language proficiency of the people in the club; technology that the club has access to, such as computers, internet, printers, cellular phones, tablets, wireless and software tools and the literacy levels of the club’s members. Below is a brief description of some design and presentation mediums for toolkits: The web site and web content downloads A simple scan of the Internet of the Sport Birmingham Club Development Toolkit (http://www.sportbirmingham.org/club/toolstohelpnewclubs) shows the emphasis is on reading material that can be downloaded from their site that deals with the following:

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• • • • • • • • • • •

Starting a club Tools to create new clubs Managing the finances Club development plan Recruitment and employment of coaches Facilities Training and development Marketing your club Club mark accreditation Ensuring your club is inclusive School club links.

This is one medium for presentation, namely the website and web pages with downloadable contentthat inform people of specific information. This presentation of information is therefore designed to inform and create awareness as well as develop knowledge of the individuals that access and read its content. The advantage of this medium is that its content is readily accessible to those with access to the Internet and can be updated quickly with new ideas and good practice models. The downside is that the vast majority of South Africans do not have access to the Internet, especially clubs and schools in the township areas and rural areas. However there is a great number of clubs, schools, libraries and club members who do have access to this type of technology and therefore this type of toolkit presentation should be implemented to cater for that segment of sport .Another advantage of this medium is that it is inexpensive to develop and maintain. The Department of Sport and Recreation South Africa has already created a portal for sport organisations that have access to the Department’s web site and the several resources it contains can be downloaded for further reading and review. Today business and a multitude of organisations have taken to youtube.com as a platform to produce and distribute short articles that are of interest to people. Sport structures could easily create short clips and educational material that could be accessed by their respective audience. Printed books and other print media The print media is perhaps the most used format for developing education and training materials in South Africa.

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Many different types of resources have been printed, including manuals and hard cover files with education and training content. As early as 1994, the need was identified for a sport education programme that would improve awareness, knowledge and skills of the administrators that run sport in clubs, especially clubs from disadvantaged areas. This type of printed sport development media is also useful for clubs from the previously advantaged communities. Elements such as governance, gender, people with disabilities, volunteer recruitment, funding for sport and other issues are constantly changing and therefore clubs need to be informed and kept up to date on these matters. Several businesses have also entered the education and training field in sport and under the guidance of CATHSSETA and the Department of Sport and Recreation South Africa have developed several education and training materials for clubs.Government, especially the Department of Sport and Recreation South Africa, has in its own manner already created material that could be part of a continuously developing toolkit. These resources have been transferred into the custody of CATHSSETA. The advantage of the printed toolkit content is that it is readily accessible to the individual or club who has received the resource. The disadvantage is that these printed materials are expensive to produce and distribute. Its effectiveness as a stand-alone resource is also limited. Important aspects that must be considered when producing printed resources is the literacy level of the people reading the resource and therefore the manner in which the resource is written, and the language in which the resource is produced considering that in large parts of South Africa English is not the main language of communication. Another aspect that needs to be considered is whether a toolkit should be produced as a single large file with all the content on file or should consist of smaller easy to read modules that could be read by specific specialist individuals like treasurers and coaches. Other forms of media that can be used to present a toolkit In today’s fast changing electronic media elements of the toolkit can also be used to inform and educate people using other technologies. There are 66.6 million cell phone subscribers compared to an estimated 40 million users which comprises about 80% of the South African population (figures provided by World Wide Work in their report Mobility 2012). Social media such as Facebook and Twitter, instant messaging such as WhatsApp and Blackberry messenger are being used actively by youth and adults. thinkSPORT - March 2015 - CLUB DEVELOPMENT - 20 YEARS AFTER DEMOCRACY

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The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) states the following regarding Dr Math, an education programme for learners: “Dr Math provides real-time support and assistance with mathematics homework and revision. The service, likened to a text-based call centre, was initiated in 2007 and has had over 25 000 registered users to date, mainly through word-of-mouth ‘advertising”. This system uses educated specialist tutors that respond directly to individuals through the programme called MXit. DO TOOLKITS HELP? Well that is the million-dollar question! There are hundreds of toolkits on the Internet. A simple search for the word “educational toolkit” delivered a staggering number of hits with well over 100 different uses of a toolkit. Like most educational resources a club development toolkit, designed correctly, can assist as an educational and skills development resource and can positively influence a person to improve the manner in which they execute their administrative, management, coaching, officiating and other sport related activities. The important aspects to consider are quality of the resource, level of the target market, relevance of the content and which other learning methods can be used to complement the club development toolkit such as mentoring, facilitation, monitoring and evaluation. What challenges do we face in South Africa? South Africa’s imbalanced past has created disparities in society and this can clearly be seen in the sporting arena. Addressing these disparities should be an important underlying theme of any Club Development Toolkit. In this vein, some of the issues that need to be considered are: • identification and selection of the people that will receive the club development toolkit; • lack of facilities in communities and schools; the level and focus of sport education at schools; • the literacy levels of youth and adults; • the languages of different provinces. the disparity between men’s and women’s sport; • the disparity between sport for able persons and sport for people with disabilities; • the priority of sports administrators and coaches in relation to home and work activities especially in disadvantaged areas;

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• the lack of experienced mentors at club level; • the lack of succession planning in administrative and other sport components such as coaching and technical officiating; • the lack of other resources to implement sport in clubs; • the sustainability of the Club Development Toolkit project . THE TARGET MARKET The people who are targeted to receive and use the toolkit are also important. Far too often people are identified to attend workshops and courses without them being part of a structured sport system. The result of a poorly executed talent identification and selection programmes could be that: - Incorrect people are selected, especially people without a basic grounding in sport activities and processes; - Levels of literacy are not considered and the toolkit is written in such a manner that the readers cannot understand the concepts and processes; - once the toolkit has been delivered the individuals who are not part of proper sport structures simply disappear. A properly designed identification and selection process could ensure that suitable individuals are selected that would understand and apply the contents of the toolkit and individuals that are directly linked to clubs could commit themselves to developing those structures (or should be required to commit). This writer can identify today the people that were identified and selected to participate in sport educational programmes twenty years ago who are positioned as sport administrators in quality work environments. One of the key contributing factors was that these people were part of a structured sport organisation and system. CONCLUSION As stated previously, a stand-alone toolkit will contribute positively to the development of individuals but the club should be guided and mentored during this process. Government, federations and sport confederations should develop a strategy of identifying specific clubs and institute a programme of monitoring and evaluation to assist clubs in their development pathway.

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REFERENCES CSIR (2007) – Dr Math: A mobile mathematics tutoring system Department of Sport and Recreation South Africa (2011). National Sport and Recreation Plan National Sports Council’s Sports Leader Manual (1996) – National Sports Council National Sport Council (1995). National Sports Council’s Club Administration Sport Birmingham (2014). Club Development toolkit –www.sportbirmingham.org Sport and Development.org –www.sportanddev.org The community club toolkit - http://www.communityclubtoolkit.com Toolkit for Sport Development (2008). CDO and contributors. NCDO (Stichting Nationale Commissie voor Internationale Samenwerking en Duurzame Ontwikkeling) United Nations (2013). MDG Acceleration and Beyond 2015 World Wide Work (2012). Mobility. World Bank (2012). Key South Africa mobile statistics - Index Mundi (2013). IDG Connect

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INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE ON SPORT GOVERNANCE MR MICHAEL PEDERSEN M INC. > change the game 22 Fjordparken, DK-6440 Augustenborg, Denmark +45 7447 1512 / changethegame@minc.ch AUTHOR’S PROFILE Michael Pedersen helps changing the game. He is an internationally recognized expert and leader in good governance, transparency, ethics and integrity. As Founder of M INC., Michael Pedersen works independently to help sport develop standards of good governance as a winning strategy for building trust, growth and performance into the future. For a more comprehensive bio, see http://minc.ch/ about-michael.html. ABSTRACT Further modernising governance standards and management practices will be an important prerequisite for further developing sport in South Africa and for effectively and efficiently implementing South Africa’s ambitious  National Sport and Recreation Plan. The contribution that this article offers for the future development of clubs in South African sport is international perspectives on sport governance for the leadership of clubs to consider. First, the article offers a business case for good governance in sport with three strategic reasons for modernizing governance standards: building trust, growth and performance. Second, the article offers a holistic framework for sport governance, comprised of a horizontal dimension and a vertical dimension. Third, the article offers inspiration by highlighting aspects of evolving good governance practices ina diverse range of sport entities, i.e. Netball New Zealand, German Football Association, 2014 South American Games and US Open. 1. THE CONTRIBUTION OF THIS ARTICLE TO THE FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF CLUBS IN SOUTH AFRICAN SPORT: INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES ACROSS SPORTS, NATIONS AND LEVELS OF SPORT During the 20 years of democracy in South Africa, sport has come a long way in supporting societal change. While significant progress has been made across sports and at all levels of sport, further modernizing governance standards and

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management practices will be an important prerequisite for further developing sport in South Africa and for effectively and efficiently implementing South Africa’s ambitious National Sport and Recreation Plan. As is the case in many countries, sport entities in South Africaare very different in terms of size, resources and specific governance challenges. That is not least the case for clubs in South African sport. For instance, some clubs have professional boards and staff, while others rely on volunteers only. Some clubs have less than 100 members while others count five or six digit membership numbers. Furthermore, some clubs even have higher revenues than the ones of certain national sport governing bodies. In acknowledging the diversity of sport entities in South Africa and subsequently the insufficiency of a one-size-fits-all approach to governance, this article does not seek to put all clubs into one box. In fact, appreciating that sport entities have a mix of similar and different opportunities and challenges, the article does not seek to distinguish between sports and levels of sport either, i.e. clubs, leagues and national governing bodies. As a contribution to future club development in South African sport, the article rather seeks to offer international perspectives on sport governance as such. Those perspectives are for the leadership of clubs in South African sport to consider, when they start the process of further modernizing governance standards and management practices. The perspectives offered comprise the business case for good governance in sport, a holistic framework for sport governance as well as selected cases of evolving international best practice in the area of sport governance. Not least the selection of cases reflect the view that sport entities across sports and nations and at all levels have a lot to learn from each other. 2. THE BUSINESS CASE FOR GOOD GOVERNANCE IN SPORT There are at least three strategic reasons why modernizing governance standards and management practices are the foundation for developing sport to its fullest potential. First of all, good governance builds trust by enabling strong relationships with key stakeholders of sport. Second, good governance builds growth by facilitating increased participation and increased revenues. Third, good governance builds performance by attracting and retaining people fit for the job, motivated and supported to perform to their full ability.

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2.1 Good governance builds trust by enabling strong relationships with key stakeholders of sport If designed in a tactical way, the process of modernizing governance standards is of as high strategic value as its specific outcome. First and foremost, by utilizing the richness of expertise and perspective of key stakeholders of sport, the process equips sport leaders with the ability to develop more robust solutions through sound 360-degree assessments of opportunities and risks than they would be able to on their own. Also, based on high levels of stakeholder engagement, transparency and accountability, the process builds trust and forges strong, lasting and mutually beneficial relationships with all key stakeholders. And, beyond being generally supportive in building performance and growth, strong relationships with key stakeholders build an early-warning system and a reputational fence in the case of a future governance-related crisis. 2.2 Good governance builds growth by facilitating increased participation and increased revenues Sportsmanship and fair play are at the heart of what makes professional athletes and amateurs take pride in practicing sport. The reputation of a particular sport influences their interest in the sport, and affects the fierce and ever growing competition for peoples’ attention and participation vis-à -vis other sports and other recreational activities. Accordingly, modernizing governance standards contributes to maintaining and increasing the participation base of a particular sport. The same applies to the general public’s interest in attending sport events and following them on TV and in other media. The bigger the participation and fan base of a sport, the easier it is to attract beneficial sponsorships and media broadcasting deals. Furthermore, as sponsors and media broadcasters expect a positive association with a sport through their investments and by no means want to be associated with a problem, good governance standards provide assurance to them that adequate measures are in place to safeguard their brands and reputation. Showcasing that sound governance standards are in place is increasingly a requirement for sports wishing to continue receiving substantial public funding too. Along the same lines, good governance standards comprise the best defense for pre-empting strict and inflexible regulatory oversight and for keeping privileges such as tax exemptions.

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2.3 Good governance builds performance by attracting and retaining people fit for the job, motivated and supported to perform to their full ability People fit for the job are not only passionate about the sport they engage in. They also have educational and professional expertise, experience, skills and a network, as well as qualities of integrity. They value doing things well as much as doing them right, inside and outside the stadium, and they view good governance standards as the foundation for teaching, motivating and reinforcing behaviors of sportsmanship and fair play. Also, they appreciate that only sports benefiting from good governance can sustainably generate the future revenue base needed to attract and retain the people most fit for the job, inside and outside the stadium, by offering competitive compensation and the most supportive environment for growing and performing to their full ability. 3. A HOLISTIC FRAMEWORK FOR SPORT GOVERNANCE Sport governance is often considered as the sum of a sport entity’s statutory rules, outlining responsibilities and procedures of its boardroom and annual meeting. That is indeed a useful starting point. However, it often adds more value to consider sport governance in a holistic way. Not only does it help sport leaders adequately identify, access and prioritize strategic risks and opportunities. It also helps them build an adequate foundation for the future development of sport. As outlined in figure1, the holistic framework for sport governance offered in this article is comprised of a horizontal dimension and a vertical dimension. The horizontal dimension comprises internal, athletic, event and ‘sport in society’ governance components. The vertical dimension comprises preventive, detective and sanction governance components.

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HORIZONTAL DIMENSION OF SPORT GOVERNANCE

Internal governance

Political and operational governance of a sport entity, i.e. rights and responsibilities of relevant internal and external stakeholders, including specific means of tackling key governance challenges such as conflicts of interest, independent board members and stakeholder engagement

Athletic governance

Governance of the playing field for professional athletes in the sport(s) that a sport entity oversees and/or is strongly associated with, including specific means of tackling key governance challenges such as doping, match-fixing and betting

Event governance

Governance of sport events that a sport entity is in charge of and/or strongly associated with, including specific means of tackling key governance challenges such as selection of hosts, host rights and responsibilities, ticketing, selection of sponsors, granting of media and broadcasting rights as well as transparency in large infrastructure projects to prepare for such events

VERTICAL DIMENSION OF SPORT GOVERNANCE

Preventive governance

Governance of a sport entity’s organizational structures, i.e. specific rules and procedures in statutes, bylaws, policies and codes of conduct Training of and communication to relevant internal and external stakeholders

Detective governance

Governance of a sport entity’s execution of internal and external controls, i.e. the actual identification and investigation of potential breaches of rules and procedures, proactively as well as reactively, including the execution of means of whistle blowing and internal and external audits

Sanction governance

Governance of a sport entity’s execution of sanctions for proven breaches of rules and procedures, including the execution of means of appeal

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HORIZONTAL DIMENSION OF SPORT GOVERNANCE

‘Sport in society’ governance

VERTICAL DIMENSION OF SPORT GOVERNANCE

Governance of projects and organizations that a sport entity is in charge of and/or strongly associated with, which aim at increasing participation in sport and/or utilizing the unique power of sport in contributing to address critical societal challenges, including specific means of tackling key governance challenges such as creating equal access to doing sport as well as creating societal progress through sport in the areas of human rights, labor standards, the environment and anti-corruption

4. REAL CASES OF EVOLVING GOOD GOVERNANCE PRACTICES IN SPORT While evolving good governance practices in sport do not offer silver bullets, there is a lot to be learned from real cases. The remainder of this article offers inspiration, perspectives and recognition by highlighting aspects of evolving good practices in a diverse range of sport entities, i.e. Netball New Zealand, German Football Association, 2014 South American Games and US Open. Additional cases are available on: http://minc.ch/sport-practice.html. 4.1 A case of evolving good internal governance practices: Netball New Zealand and its model for professionalizing the boardroom Already back in 1999, way ahead of most other sport governing bodies throughout the world, Netball New Zealand went through a comprehensive governance modernization. A particularly noteworthy outcome was the sport governing body’s decision to create a professional board comprised of only eight members (three elected members, four appointed members and its chief executive). In accordance with the governance standards that were put in place, the membership of Netball New Zealand now elects a total of three board members

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for a three year term, including the President. While there are specific nomination criteria for people to stand for election, there is no automatic board representation for specific geographical membership groups. The elected President mainly has a representational role, as it is the role of the Chairman to lead the board. The commencement of the terms in office for board members is staggered so as to ensure a rotation of board members over a three year period. The board appoints one of its members as Chairman. All board members, except for the chief executive, can serve in the board for a maximum of nine years. All board members have one vote in board meetings and are entitled to request a secret ballot for any voting. At the beginning of every board meeting, board members are asked to declare any potential conflicts of interest related to the agenda items of the meeting, personal as well as institutional ones. Beyond reimbursement of relevant and appropriate travel expenses, board members are given a yearly honoraria payment in appreciation of their work. In 2012, board members received USD 8,500 each, while the Chair received USD 21,000. 4.2 A case of evolving good athletic governance practices: German Football Association and its model for tackling match-fixing Since 2005, German Football Federation has been collaborating with Professional German Football League and other key stakeholders to tackle match fixing in German football. Preventive governance measures include e-learning and written training material for professional players, coaches, referees and football club staff as well as their close relatives. Besides of outlining applicable rules and regulations in German law that relate to illegal betting and fraud, the training measures focus on specific rules of German Football Federation. Detective governance measures include an ombudsman and a system to detect unusual betting patterns. The ombudsman is an appointed, independent lawyer, whom any stakeholder of German football can reach out to in confidence with a view to seeking guidance or reporting a potential case of match fixing. The system to detect unusual betting patterns is based on collaboration with Sport radar. The company monitors unusual offers and demands for bets in and beyond the professional football league. Sanction governance measures are in place too. While rules and regulations in German law that relate to illegal betting and fraud are dealt with in the public judicial system, German Football Federation has two separate judicial bodies

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that consider cases of potential match fixing and the extent to which rules and regulations of German Football Federation have been violated. One body considers cases of potential match-fixing, while the other one considers appeals. 4.3 A case of evolving good event governance practices: The 2014 South American Games and their model for ticketing at international sport events To the Chilean Government and the City of Santiago, hosting the 2014 South American Games was seen as a strategic opportunity to boost Chileans’ interest in sport and to broaden it beyond what was mostly an interest in football and to some extent tennis. The thinking was that increased interest in sport would generate increased participation in and across sport. The thinking was also that increased participation in sport would eventually help the country address and reduce a critical socio-economic challenge, caused by the dramatically increasing problem of obesity. Pricing and distribution of tickets were essential parts of successfully implementing the strategy. With a view to achieving full sport arenas and stadiums, 80% of all tickets for all competitions were made available for free. The remaining 20% tickets were made available for sale to fans wanting the best seats or spaces at specific competitions. Those tickets were sold at a generally affordable price of 3-12 USD per ticket. To ensure fair and equal access to the competitions, and as a measure of preventing a black market for reselling tickets, everyone with an interest in attending competitions was given the opportunity to get or buy a maximum of four tickets for each day of the Games. The handling of the ticketing was outsourced to ‘Ticketek’. Through the company, all tickets were made available on a firstcome, first-served basis. People wanting tickets had to create a user profile on the Internet. Upon registering, they could then reserve tickets online and pick them up at special ticket distribution venues. The ticketing system was opened up to the public 40 days prior to the beginning of the 2014 South American Games. Tickets were available until the last minute of a specific competition, provided that they were not already sold out. If data indicated a high number of available tickets for a specific competition, local schools were offered to send pupils as spectators. Also, for all competitions there was an opportunity for persons without tickets to show up at the venue at the time of the actual competition. In case of no-shows, persons in line would then be let in on a first-come, first-served basis.

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4.4 A case of evolving good ‘sport in society’ governance practices: US Open and its model for environmental stewardship United States Tennis Association, which is the sport governing body responsible for US Open, started its environmental work in the context of its premier tournament in 2008. Among other things, the strategic decision to do so reflected increasing fan expectations of green initiatives and burgeoning energy costs. Today, United States Tennis Association is showcasing environmental stewardship in the context of US Open in at least four different ways: 1) Minimizing direct environmental impact, for instance by matching the electricity generated during the tournament through wind renewable energy certificates. 2) Off-setting the environmental impact of player travel, for instance through offsets for travel by air as well as travel on the ground. 3) Encouraging fans to adopt environmentally responsible behavior, for instance through campaigns advocating the use of public transportation to the tournament venue and public service announcements, video messages from professional players and environmental tips for smarter living throughout the tournament. 4) Shaping evolving good environmental practices in sport in partnership with others,for instance with Natural Resources Defense Council and Green Sports Alliance.

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CLUBS FOR SOCIAL CHANGE MR GERT POTGIETER 6 La Paloma, 321 Glenwood Street, Faerie Glen, 0043 P.O.Box 1119, Faerie Glen, 0043 082 589 3899

AUTHOR’S PROFILE *Gert Potgieter was one of the sport administrators fighting for total sport integration during the Apartheid era and became an embarrassment to the government (press articles available).He has been active in township and rural sport development since 1962 and is currently still running programmes in township and rural areas. He founded numerous clubs and local sport councils during decades. As a member of the National Sport Development Committee in 1994 he was awarded recognition by the Minister of Sport, the Late Mr Steve Tshwete and two consecutive years by the Gauteng Minister of Sport, Mr Mondli Gungubela (2003 and 2004),(certificates available) for the role he played for sport development since 1994. He founded the first integrated National Olympic Academy of South Africa in 1989 and presented the Youth Programme at the Union Buildings in 1994 during the inauguration of Mr Nelson Mandela as our country’s first democratic President. He is a former Olympian and still is the only South African athlete who broke a world record three times. He founded his NGO-NPO, Altus Sport in 1995, reaching out to developing communities in township and rural areas. He focuses on unemployed youth, capacitating them on employability, sport management and Olympic education. ABSTRACT The article is a compelling and deeply insightful account of club development and social change after 20 years of democracy. In defiance of some negative issues still in existence, there are positive and welcomed activities taking place for clubs to take advantage of. In this regard the article points out the desire and current actions to again incorporate physical education into the school system, CATHSSETA’s NQF making provision for 8 credits of their Level 5 system, the 2011 Government’s White Paper on Sport, stipulating the importance of local authorities’ responsibilities towards sport clubs, and the implementation of the National Sport and Recreation Plan (2011). The Reconstruction and

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Development Programme (RDP). made sound and valuable recommendations to address and facilitate the legacies of Apartheid such as inequalities, mobilizing resources, activities to reflect the country’s demographics, and making available sport facilities at schools and communities and sport to play an integral role in education. It emphasizes the importance of making available sport facilities in schools, townships and in rural areas. This is where talent can be identified. Clubs contributed towards social change. INTRODUCTION To let oneself in to elaborate, or provide detail on the theme: “Club development – 20 years after democracy” justifies at least a tertiary honours degree as club development would differ from club to club, region to region and province to province and could also be divided into different scenarios such as township clubs, rural clubs and traditional town and city suburbs clubs. However, before dealing with the different scenarios, the clock is turned back to the beginning of the 20 years of democracy. At the onset of democracy in 1994, the ANC which was the ruling party in government at the time, based its political and socio-economic transformation agenda on its Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP). This document made sound and valuable recommendations to address and facilitate the legacies of Apartheid such as inequalities, mobilizing resources, activities to reflect the country’s demographics, making available sport facilities at schools and communities and sport to play an integral role in education (RDP, 1994: 72-73). If implemented, these envisaged actions would have benefitted our clubs tremendously. However, these actions did not materialize as planned. For example, the RDP recognized the importance of physical education but this was phased out at tertiary level educational institutions. Physical education is currently picking up momentum again and this expertise could be reached out to clubs (Frantz, 2008: 39-43). On 2014, July 17, the Minister of Sport and Recreation, Fikile Mbalula, included the following extract in his speech during the budget vote debate: “Our consistent call to have physical education de-linked from the subject life orientation, and made a stand-alone subject has been ignored and disregarded. We strongly and firmly believe that physical education is key to ensuring that sport at schools becomes an integral part of the curriculum.

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“We believe that there should be dedicated teachers for physical education. It remains our call that the Department of Basic Education should ensure that there is adequate availability of skilled physical education educators in all schools and a dedicated period for physical education, outside of life orientation, on which learners must be assessed, with particular focus being on schools in rural areas.” “After centuries of separation during which the main beneficiaries of government contributions were allocated to the establishment sector which accounted for only 20% of South Africa’s population, 35 million of our country’s neglected potential athletes cherished tremendous expectations for what democracy could positively achieve after 1994.” (SRSA White Paper, 2011) With this morbid picture in mind a new sport Ministry was established on 1 July 1994 and we witnessed an official policy on sport and recreation through the Government’s White Paper as announced by the then National Minister of Sport and Recreation, the Late Mr Steve Tshwete. Under the theme: “Getting the nation to play”, the following objectives were set: • Increasing the levels of participation in sport and recreation activities. SRSA in partnership with Youth Development through Football (YDF), contributes towards the development of sustainable mass-sport promotion and mass-sport participation schemes, with a strong emphasis on sport for development. (Youth Development though Football, 2013) • Raising sport’s profile in the face of conflicting priorities • Maximizing the probability of success in major events • Placing sport in the forefront of efforts to reduce the levels of crime The policy made provision for eight priorities of which “Club development” was one, making provision for: o Implementing policy o Increasing participation o Capacity building o Making representations to provincial federations o Identification and development of talent o Providing a unique social support structure. Several structures were formed to realise the above-mentioned objectives and priorities. Some of these structures continue to exist and others have been phased out. Some of these structures are described below.

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UNITED SCHOOL SPORT ASSOCIATION OF SOUTH AFRICA (USSASA) USSASA was founded in 2005 and made excellent progress in generating an interest in sport in schools. However this structure was later phased out and today clubs act as the custodians of school sport participants. Unfortunately it is obvious that the current school sport system is not working. Schools organize their own events and very few learners affiliate to clubs. SRSA has, since 2012, introduced the South African School Sport National Championships with the aim of identifying the talent of a young person from the school level. The intention is to allow the identified youth to take part nationally and finally internationally (SA School sport Championships, 2013). TRADITIONAL TOWN AND CITY SUBURB CLUBS The years 1994 to1996 experienced an exodus of club expertise and many clubs were phased out. This is reportedly due to executive officials of the club struggling to implement transformation and affirmative action initiatives . The clubs that did continue in the city suburbs and bigger towns were reportedly managed by club administrators who addressed the challenges of transformation. For example, transformation in line with Government’s new policy required that clubs and other sport structures change their Constitutions to more explicitly state their commitment and practices in respect of “nondiscrimination”, “equality”, “non-sexism”, “nonracism”. SRSA has also developed the National Sport and Recreation Plan with the scorecard which serves as a tool to measure transformation (SRSA, 2011). Although some black club administrators were elected on these dominantly white clubs’ executive committees in the suburbs there were many obstacles to their effective participation. Most black committee members could not regularly attend meetings held in the suburbs as transport from the townships to the suburbs was costly.. Another “obstacle” was that some constitutions stated that should a member be absent for two consecutive meetings, without an apology, he/she would automatically be removed from the committee. Stronger clubs such as rugby and cricket later provided transport remuneration for attending meetings. As a result of lack of funding, constructive leadership and entrepreneurship, many clubs stopped functioning and there are fewer clubs in all provinces.

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TOWNSHIP AND RURAL SPORT CLUBS While city and suburban clubs were phasing out, there was an upsurge of clubs being established in townships. However, many of these new clubs did not last long. They phased out due to a lack of club management training, sound leadership and funding. The gap,reminiscent of the Apartheid days, between “township” clubs and “suburban” clubs, continued. Unfortunately this phenomenon is still seen today in certain areas. Clubs founded in the townships seldom had a quorum at their meetings as many clubs were managed by only two or three executives who had a passion for sport. Another common practice that impacts on clubs in townships is that of sporting codes identifying sport talent in the townships but then removing the athlete from the township to the cities where they receive expert coaching, get enrolled in top schools and receive educational bursaries. This creates the impression that one can only reach top sport if one leaves township structures. It is really sad to sketch a somber picture of club development in our township and rural areas since 1994, as indicators show that more clubs are being phased out than new ones founded. The phasing out of clubs and bad state of club affairs is devastating for future development as the current situation is not developing and should be urgently and seriously addressed. NATIONAL SPORT CONGRESS (NSC) With the founding of the National Sport Congress (later National Sport Council) in the early 1990s, local, regional and provincial sport councils were founded to which clubs and federations affiliated. As clubs are the basic unit of sport, an appeal was made to local authorities and local sport councils ensuring that sport is accessible to all people, creating facilities on local level and making funds available to clubs and talented individuals (Financial and Non Financial Support Framework, 2011). To make sure that transformation in sport from club (grassroots) level is taking place, questionnaires by the Regional Sport Councils were sent to clubs via sport federations in the middle 1990s. For the first time clubs and federations had to deal with questions such as: • Tick off how many Blacks, Indian and Brown persons are members of the club/federation • What positions do persons of colour serve on your committee? • Do you have a plan to qualify Black officials (coaches, referees, etc.)?

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Response from clubs and federations was not satisfactory and questionnaires were not again distributed. The sport federations were not active enough in the township and rural areas to really guide and train club administrators. The will of federations to be active in townships and rural areas was and still is there, but due to the lack of funds and human resources this important function is not materializing how it could be. Amazingly many NGO’s utilizing sport as a medium to reach their goals are active in the townships and rural areas. Certain provincial sport departments even threatened to penalize federations with reduced funding but also this strategy did not help the situation. Whites were not found in ethnic geographic groupings of Black, Brown and Indian communities/ sport structures. Blacks increasingly affiliated to suburb and larger town clubs, but did not last long. Committees of national and provincial sport federations represent the colours of the rainbow but it would be significant to conduct a national survey to ascertain what the situation at club level is today. 1. Since 1994, the clubs contributed to social change. This statement is supported by the Youth Development through Football (YDF) project. YDF is uses the popularity of football to promote youth development, particularly that of disadvantaged girls and boys, and to involve them in non-formal education and other support measures. YDF focuses on four main areas of activity: Capacity Development; Tools for Youth Development through Football; Networking Support; and Promotion & Events. Furthermore, the systematic reviewing of the success of all operations through Monitoring and Evaluation forms an integral part of YDF (SRSA, 2013: Youth Development through Football (YDF) Project) The project primarily targets disadvantaged young people in the age group of 12 to 25 years in South Africa and 9 other African countries. YDF interacts with NGOs and government institutions that use the social and educational potential of sport for youth development; nevertheless, skilled local personnel in sports, youth and educational institutions and departments, football coaches, social workers and peer leaders play a crucial role as intermediaries (SRSA, 2013: Youth Development through Football (YDF) Project) . So far, 162 YDF Instructors from different South African provinces and 9 other African countries have been trained in the YDF Toolkit. The trained instructors themselves have implemented training courses for more than

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1 565 coaches from 375 organisations which are implementing the YDF approach through the coaching of children and youths (SRSA, 2013: Youth Development through Football (YDF) Project) . The YDF approach has directly touched the lives of 62 917 young girls and boys in South Africa and more than 55 748 in the other 9 African partner countries. Of these, approximately 40% are girls. In addition, the number of youths who have been reached indirectly, through the support of partner organisations for example, is estimated at around 14 833 in South Africa and 52 030 in the other countries. This includes an additional multiplier effect of 1565 toolkit trainees’ from 375 organisations also implementing multiple programmes (SRSA, 2013: Youth Development through Football (YDF) Project) The YDF approach not only initiates changes in the lives of individuals, but also leads to long-term social changes through altered social behaviour and the motivation to become involved in voluntary work. This is because imparted values such as tolerance and fairness are fundamental social skills for democratic development, participation and integration. Bogopa (2001) supports the importance of social change as a result of sport. He stated that sport development is important because it creates opportunities for individuals. For example some individuals began practising sport at an early age and ended up becoming professionals, earning a living from it. The author further indicated that sport also keeps the youth away from the street particularly from deviant behaviour which may lead to criminal activities. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. It remains a fact that most of our clubs at grass root level in the township and rural areas still experience difficult times to act sustainably and should be more focused upon by local authorities, federations, sport councils and the business sector (Financial and Non Financial Support Framework: 2011) 2. Where possible that school and tertiary sport facilities be made available to clubs 3. Schools and clubs to work closer together, particularly with regard to talent identification and development of school athletes to become club members 4. Creating incentives to involve more women and girls at clubs (Financial and Non Financial Support Framework: 2011)

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5. Club administration training to be undertaken with regard to club and event management, entrepreneurship, leadership, marketing, media, life skill values (code of conduct), etc. 6. Training and qualifying of club coaches and referees should be given priority. 7. Erection of sport centers (multi-purpose sport facilities) in various parts of townships and rural areas to be utilized by the broader community, which could lead to the founding of more clubs. In doing so communities could become more active in sport. This is supported by SRSA 2014-2019 Strategic Plan emphasizing the importance of sport which contributes towards the active and winning nation. 8. More action plans to be put in place to involve persons with a disability and the aged 9. South African Sports Confederation and Olympic Committee (SASCOC) via national and provincial sport federations, develop a criterion for good practice at clubs, thus establishing which clubs comply with the criterion Financial and Non Financial Support Framework: 2011) It should also be mentioned that since 1994 numerous workshops, seminars and indabas were conducted addressing the shortcomings, lack of transformation and affirmative action, during which substantial resolutions were reached consensus upon. Those resolutions are reflected in the departmental strategic document (SRSA Strategic Plan, 2014-2019) for implementation purposes. The score card that has been developed measures transformation. Currently SRSA is focusing on 16 codes and one indigenous game which have been prioritized and rolled out in schools. They are classified as follows: athletics, basketball, boxing, chess, cricket, football, goalball, gymnastics, hockey, netball, rugby, softball, swimming, table tennis, tennis, volleyball and one indigenous game. These codes have been chosen due to their history of bringing back medals from the various Olympic Games (Bailey, 2012) Clubs are the cornerstone of federations and a vital part of the pyramid foundation but are in dire need of funding. Although it is the responsibility of federations, provincial sport departments, local authorities and local sport councils to make sure that clubs are founded and officials trained, funding remains a problem (Financial and Non Financial Support Framework, 2011). The year 2013 was an historical year as SASCOC gave recognition to provincial sport councils. The year 2014 saw the establishment of provincial sport, subregional and local sport councils. The latter and sport clubs should work closely thinkSPORT - March 2015 - CLUB DEVELOPMENT - 20 YEARS AFTER DEMOCRACY

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together and address problem issues. Although clubs should take “ownership” of their clubs, club management training, coach’s and referees development, facilities, equipment need funding as stated before. This is supported by UniSA (2014) at a club development workshop which focused on club committee succession planning, club fundraising and sponsorship, club financial management and committee roles and responsibilities. The 2011 Government’s White Paper on sport, stipulates the importance of the local authority’s responsibility towards sport clubs, that is: 1. Funding of its principal agencies namely; clubs and individuals. 2. Building, upgrading, maintenance and management of facilities. Not all local authorities adhere to these vital responsibilities. CULTURE, ARTS, TOURISM, HOSPITALITY AND SPORT SECTOR, EDUCATION AND TRAINING AUTHORITY (CATHSSETA) Another “injection” for clubs was CATHSSETA’S new National Quality Framework (NQF) making provision for 8 credits at Level 5 (Unit standard 252182) on “Establishing sustainable organizational structures for sport. Already some club administrators completed the first phase successfully and were found competent. This training provides club administrators of all backgrounds with skills development and educates those with dreams of higher education. CHALLENGES WITH SOLUTIONS Minister of Sport, Mr Fikile Mbalula, introduced National Sport and Recreation Plan (NSRP) for the fiscal years 2014-2019, to restructure and revitalize the development of sport and Recreation. (NSRP, 2011) More importantly, the Plan makes provision for a Transformation Charter and Scorecard. The sport sector sincerely trusts that the focus would not only be centered on the elite national and provincial structures, but that the club level (community/grassroots) also receive the necessary attention it deserves. The signs are there that SRSA is serious with the future of sport in South Africa. We cross fingers that the NSRP would obtain the necessary funds (R9 billion) to implement the plan and that the measured and evaluated outcomes being met with distinction. CONCLUSION In conclusion we can undoubtedly state that the most delightful development after 1994, is the fact that our clubs are now free of discrimination.

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The clubs are open to everyone irrespective of race, colour, gender, religion, economical standing and political choice. Let dedicated sport administrators drive clubs to the heights where they belong and contribute towards the aim of making South Africa an active, healthy and winning nation of body, mind and soul. REFERENCES Bailey, B. (2012). Comparing the talent identification systems of the SASCOC Bogopa, D. (2001) Sport development: Obstacles and Solutions in South Africa Department of Sport and Recreation: KwaZula-Natal Province: Transformation and Development) Financial and Non Financial Support Framework: 2011 Frantz, J.M. (2008). Introducing physical education into schools: The view of teachers and learners. Journal of Community and Health Sciences SRSA Budget vote Speech: 2014 SRSA, 2013: SA School Sport Championships SRSA, 2013: Youth Development through Football (YDF) Project SRSA, 2011: National Sport and Recreation Plan SRSA, 2014-2019: Strategic Plan SRSA White Paper, 2011 UNISA Sport, 2014: Training for club officials

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INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT FOR CLUB DEVELOPMENT MR JOHN O’CONNOR Institute of Sport, 498 Cliff Avenue, Waterkloof Ridge, Pretoria, 0181, (+27) 12 347 2594 / info@issport.co.za AUTHOR’S PROFILE John O’Connor is the former South African National Director of School Sport in and the Chief Officer of the USSASA Trust. He was the founding Managing Director of loveLife for five years. He is now the Managing Director of the Multinational Prosperity Fund and director and member of the Board of the Institute of Sport. ABSTRACT Club development is a sub-set of sport development which generally falls under the broad framework of development in its broader context. It also has to fit into the design construct of being scientifically informed and socially relevant. Club programmes must be guided by the principles of generally accepted sport development standards in general, in a variety of contexts and pointed target groups. What is a club? A club is an institution that must function within the context of how any other institution, such a school, factory, clinic, police station etc. would function. On the other hand the broad objective of a club is to produce regular recreational activity for a group of people. The added bonus is that it may even ensure that such activity focuses on fit, healthy and well coached athletes or players, competent coaches, administrators and technical officials, volunteers, organisers and supporters. The focus of this article is to demonstrate the importance of a well designed and developed programme and the necessity of a balanced focus on both “people” and the “institutional” development of clubs. Imagine a South Africa, in 2020, where a Minister of Sport visits the rural area of the Cholumqa Village in the Eastern Cape and the people of that community demand more resources to develop sport. Imagine the minister taking out his smart phone, clicking the CLUBMARTTMSport MIS (management information systems) App and instantly, at his finger tips, pops up the club and school sport

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data for that community ... “the village has twenty-seven clubs, two athletic clubs, five netball clubs, twelve rugby clubs and eight soccer clubs. Fifteen of the clubs attained Green Level status in the 2019 club-grading survey, seven attained Bronze Level status and five attained Gold Level status. 81% of the clubs scored low on the performance indicator category of “HR Development” of coaches and referees and in 65% of the clubs frequency and regular play is recorded as one game per month in the “Participation” performance category and 47% of the clubs do not have a basic facility where they can practice or train regularly as per the “Infrastructure and Assets” performance category on the Club Grading Chart.” A geo-log appears and the location coordinates and state of maintenance of the all the sports facilities in the village of Cholumqa appears in a flash.” Imagine a South Africa, in 2020, where the President of the South African Rugby Union (SARU) drives through the township of Mdantsane in the Eastern Cape, on a Wednesday afternoon and wants to visit the school rugby league games in play that afternoon. He clicks on the CLUBMARTTMSport Link App and he instantly receives a full fixture list of schools who are playing, the age groups in which they participate, the venues where the games are being played, with Google Maps and coordinates, the profiles of the talented players per team as well as historical data of previous games and log positions of all the schools in Mdantsane. Imagine a South Africa where Shakes Mashaba or the Coaching Director of South African Football Association (SAFA) can, at the press of a button, load the latest technical coaching information and video clips to all registered SAFA football coaches in South Africa and they can access it in free Wi-Fi zones or with minimal data costs. Imagine a world where coaches for all U/15 Netball teams can start their own chat rooms and share information and expertise. or where a rural cricket star can upload his game videos, vital statistics and medical records into a safe and secure portal for talent scouts to observe and analyse and where such information is immediately accessible to a professional cricket union or club in South Africa, Australia, the UK and the West Indian Islands. The impact and magnitude of the aggregation and convergence of data and other information and technology makes all this possible today. There are few development programmes for sport in South Africa that have succeeded and can show true results and sustainable outcomes primarily because they were not well designed and developed from an empirical scientific base and secondarily because the target group, objectives and the programme output were misaligned. Grassroots, mass based programmes are supposed to

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have outcomes such as more clubs, more codes of sport and more coaches and lean towards a more quantitative measurement as an indicator of success while elite sport programmes are supposed to seek results such better athletes, higher levels of coaching, and better scientific support as qualitative measurement success indicators. South Africa’s sport development, in broad terms, is further hampered and retarded by narrow “transformational agendas” focused on a narrowly defined race based categorisation instead of empirically grouped cohorts of people that fit specific criteria as part of their development needs. The type of developmental needs for working class communities, mainly from township or rural settings, with a LSM (living standards measure) of 1-5, with an unemployment rate of 24% and no post-school educational institutions in close range, is very different from that of an upper middle-class community, with a LSM of 7-10, an unemployment rate of 6% and multiple variants of higher education and post-school institutions in close proximity. The expectation of frequent, high volume and high level sport participation of a survivalist community is unrealistic and out of sync with their basic needs for food, transport and shelter. Juxtaposed to that, the training of the second cohort of people mentioned in basic sport administration would be a waste of resources since this group is already self actualised with general high levels of education and invariably in professional management positions where administration is a subset of their daily function. Whether it is the Minister of Sport and his/her Department, the chairman of a club, the coach of a national team or an athlete, the world has changed. We as South African sport administrators must catch up and provide a pointed and targeted service to every person in every club, taking into cognisance the vast and rapid development in technology coupled with age defying, tried and tested models of well designed programmes. CLUBMARTTM is such a programme that has combined basic systems, tools and processes for institutional development wrapped into an ISO 9000 type framework and then modernised to fit into the Y-generation of “techno savvy and hip” young people who have forgotten what it is to write in cursive. CLUBMARTTM is arguably South Africa’s most innovative programme for club development. HOW DID IT START? It started with an idea and a team of people at the Institute of Sport in Pretoria, who wanted to do more than just train people in SRSA vetted and CATHSSETA accredited programmes for Sport Administration, Sport Management, Sport

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Coaching, Event Management, Sport Governance and Coaching Science. What was believed to be the central focus of sport development , namely training people, did not produce the results on the sport fields. Results such as better clubs, more people in more frequent sporting activities, playing more often. The large majority of the “trained people” could simply not apply their newfound skills and knowledge in the context of their daily lives in a sport organisation. This lead us to the notion that institutional development is probably our blind spot, the thing that nobody notices until someone tells you and you have an Archimedes moment. HOW DO WE TACKLE THE SUBJECT OF INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT? We need to search for models of successfully managed institutions and copy that model. Brilliance is borrowed, as a wise man once said. WHAT DO “SUCCESSFULLY MANAGED” INSTITUTIONS HAVE IN COMMON? They all have well designed, developed systems and processes for delivery of product development or service delivery. They all follow industry benchmarks for production, such as ISO 9000 standards. They all measure frequently and put processes in place to intervene in areas of weakness or poor performance. They all celebrate success in line with empirical evidence. They all design or reverse engineer processes in line with a particular outcome or desired result. They all understand that some people are doers and other people are designers. They all embrace technology and modernity. They are all receptive to innovation and partnerships with enterprise and commerce. They all build and grow their organisations in step-by-step processes with measurable achievements. They all adopt a learning cycle. WHAT HAPPENS IN ORGANISATIONS THAT NEVER ACHIEVE SUCCESS? They don’t measure. They have no standard setting processes. They assume that trained people can apply their knowledge in any given situation. Their strategic objectives, outcomes and outputs are misaligned. They want to create the next Olympic Gold Medallist when their real jobs are to produce more clubs and more participants that play more often. The CLUBMARTTM Programme began with the development of a “practice management toolkit”: A toolkit to put into the hands of the trained or untrained sport organiser, sport leader or administrator. A ready-to-use set of resources and tools such as systems, guidelines, checklists, forms, tools, policy documents,

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operational procedures, etc. that people can use, can modify and amend to their own peculiar set of circumstances. An easy-to-use tool that can be adapted without much effort and with little investment in time and expertise, with the intent of achieving an entire organisational and administrative back-office for the club or institution. These resources range from models of Club Constitutions, to Financial Policies and Procedures, Tournament and Event Guidelines and Checklists, Templates, Member Registration Forms, Funding and Sponsorship Proposals, pro forma Lease Agreements and so on. The outcome of the dual process of training people and capacity building of institutions is a much more desirable developmental outcome. So in summary, “It is not good enough to train people alone without providing them with the tools and resources to fulfil their daily tasks.” The CLUBMARTTM Programme was then overlayed with a design construct with a two way vantage point: Firstly, for the person in the club who must use the toolkit to develop and grow his/her club: secondly, for the person at a Federation or in a Department of Sport who is the Club Development Officer with a management and support function over a group of clubs. The programme was carefully developed to achieve the outcome for two people, with very different objectives and agendas, to be able to synchronise their output in such a way that it achieves a singular outcome, a well resourced, well developed, regular participating club. What was also included in the design stack, what is now an intellectual trademark is the GAMPHIFTM Chart. This is South Africa’s first club grading system that follows a systems thinking approach and is developed along the lines of a TQMS (Total Quality Management Systems) model for ISO 9000 type standards of attainment ladder. The performance indicators are carefully categorised into the following seven constituent parts, hence the pneumonic or acronym GAMPHIF, which stands for Governance, Administration, Membership, Participation or Play, Human Resources, Infrastructure & Assets and Finance & Funding. Like all TQM systems, there are clear criteria for achievement at each level of achievement in this quality system. The achievement levels are Green (entry level), Bronze (intermediary level), Silver (advanced level) and culminating in Gold (excellence level). This grading of the management system allows for a self and peer review mechanism where a club or clubs can self assess their achievement against specific standards and use the CLUBSMARTTM Toolkit to assist them to achieve new standards of accomplishment. It can also be used as an external system of grading or measurement of clubs and the results can be used to reward or

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incentivise clubs. It can also be used to motivate clubs to grow and develop in a structured, targeted way and the GAMPHIFTM Chart serves as a wonderful yardstick for a club’s development. For any large club development programme, performance evaluation is highly recommended and the CLUBSMARTTM programme has developed a training programme for CLUBSMARTTM assessors to perform this function. The programme has now expanded in line with modern technology based social media, e-learning and telematics and is now available on a digital platform with a number of Apps and back end databases. It is a Social Media App for clubs, club members, coaches, sport organisers and federations to communicate and share information, schedules and event calendars, league information, player profiles, meeting dates and much more. It is a database with a user registration system and a Sport MIS App for clubs and individuals to load and store club information, such as the information required for the GAMPHIFTM grading as well as, crucially, to upload and record weekly league fixture results. The CLUBSMARTTM Platform or Portal has a built-in trading platform, with sport shops, video stores, libraries and bookstores available online with a safe to use e-wallet payment system. Club loyalty programmes in South Africa with huge revenue spin-offs for federations, is finally a reality. When all the boxes are ticked off the programme design construct, Club Development Programme - tick, Practice Management Toolkit - tick, Club Grading System - tick, Club Grading Assessors - tick, Club Awards System - tick, Club Measurement for Development - tick, Modern ICT Communication Tools tick, Real-time Data - tick, League Monitoring - tick, Learning Portal for Coaches - tick, the final thing that remains is to ensure that such a programme finds itself in a well-defined and implementation delivery mechanism. In essence, the project management of a well designed programme, is an essential ingredient for success. The project direction, authority and structure must be given primary attention in the project management set up and are key elements often overlooked in the haste to deploy conventional project management tools and systems. Clubs are the nucleus of sport, they are the common denominator on which the systems of all unions, federations and sport organisations are built. National and International sport organisations require the same components of the GAMPHIFTM Chart to govern and manage their organisations successfully. A sport is only

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as good as its clubs, yet club development hardly features on the budget of most federations and most clubs do not have a well constructed programme to manage their clubs. CLUBSMARTTM is such a programme. It was designed and developed for South Africa, so that doers can get on with their jobs and the designers are constantly looking at new designs and new innovations in order to make sport grow and prosper.

CLUB DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM:

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CLUB DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM: LESSONS LEARNT FROM WESTERN CAPE MR BENNETT BAILEY

Department of Cultural Affairs and Sport Protea Assurance Building, Green Market Square, Cape Town 8000 / 021 483 9631 / 083 663 7374 / Bennett.Bailey@westerncape.gov.za AUTHOR’S PROFILE Bennett Bailey is currently a Deputy Director at the Department of Cultural Affairs and Sport (DCAS) for the Sport Promotion Unit under the Directorate of Sport and Recreation in the Western Cape. He manages the Club Development Programme and has been instrumental in the revitalization of sport at club level as well as the empowerment of sport clubs in communities to become self- sustainable. ABSTRACT The purpose of this document is to illustrate the critical importance of the Club Development Programme being pivotal to the development of sport in the Western Cape.The governmental organization responsible for the development of sport in the Western Cape is the Department of Cultural Affairs and Sport (DCAS). Currently at this Department, the Club Development Programme forms part of the Sport Promotion Directorate. Within this Directorate, Club Development has a direct link and relationship with the remaining programmes of this Directorate. Method: The method used for the purpose of this research is an observation on the current function of the Club Development Programme at the Department and the impact it has had on sport in communities. Conclusion: In order to create structure in sport and create stability in communities, the Club Development Programme forms a system that enhances sport performance, empowers sport participants and combats social ills in communities. INTRODUCTION A Club is defined as an association dedicated to a particular interest or activity (oxford dictionaries, 2015). In this case, the particular interest would be sport. In terms of sport, a club is a structured, constituted base for participation in sport and serves as a vehicle for long term participant development as well as mentorship programmes to cater for high performance (NSRP, 2012). thinkSPORT - March 2015 - CLUB DEVELOPMENT - 20 YEARS AFTER DEMOCRACY

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In South Africa, sport abides by the policy documents: The White Paper on Sport and Recreation in South Africa (which in this document will be referred to as the White Paper) and the National Sport and Recreation Plan of South Africa (which in this document will be referred to as the NSRP). The White Paper illustrates the vision for sport in South Africa while the NSRP outlines the way of implementation of the White Paper.The preamble of the NSRP states that one of its strategic objectives is to reconstruct and revitalize the delivery of sport and recreation towards building an active and winning nation that equitably improves the lives of all South Africans (NSRP, 2012). The Club Development Programme is a programme implemented in line with the White Paper and the NSRP. It is a system that aims at assisting sport clubs within the Western Cape to become self-sustainable. It supports clubs in the development of its structures and participants and strengthens the link of Clubs as part of the Sport Continuum. BACKGROUND “Sport remains a highly contradictory enterprise that, on the one hand, brings people and communities together, albeit for short periods of time…On the other, it divides people through its very nature of having winners and losers… The question we must continually examine is who are the winners and losers…“ (Nauright 2005: 213). With reference to the introduction of this article, a sport club is formed on the basis of persons with a particular interest. The progress of a sport club is dependent on the individuals nominated to be responsible for the operations of that sport club. Belonging to a sport club develops a strong sense of belonging and sense of purpose (vichealth, 2015). With many sport clubs being developed in communities, it is important to note the common benefits belonging to a community has to that of belonging to a sport club. In a community, people share a common history (future communities, 2015). The shared tradition, the shared knowledge of old experiences, or old stories of experiences handed down, is one of the intangible things which make people feel they belong somewhere (future communities, 2015). As sport clubs form a foundation for sporting structures, communities form the foundation for provinces. As much as the current state of communities is due to the impact history has had on it, the current state of sport clubs reflects the impact of the history of sport within those communities.Keim argues that “despite the

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scrapping of discriminatory laws, the “racial character” of most residential areas has remained more or less intact” (Keim, 2003, p.11). Sport being practiced under racial boundaries from as early as the 19th century and unification processes taking place during the early 1990`s meant that sport in south Africa was being played within racially segregated borders for more than 100 years. During this time, various groups have begun its own sporting structures and social traditions (Keim, 2003, p.27).Although there have been efforts to transform sport after the country became a democracy, it came with its own challenges. CLUB DEVELOPMENT AS A MEANS TO ADDRESS SPORT INEQUALITIES With the dawn of the newly elected democratic government, financial and strategic support and guidance were most needed as a means to overcome the entrenched legacies of apartheid social engineering (McKinley, 2010, p.84). Instead what happened was that the government started pursuing macroeconomic policies (McKinley, 2010, p.84). In practical terms this meant that public resources available at local level for sports were virtually wiped off the map (McKinley, 2010, p.84). This resulted in an increase in sport being privatized (McKinley, 2010, p.84). Infrastructure at municipal level and public schools could not be adequately addressed, training programmes for community and school coaches were left in the hands of volunteers and the provision of basic equipment and grassroots development programmes for townships and school-going youth sport participants had to rely, for the most part, on individuals, sympathetic community groups and hoped-for support from the private sector (McKinley, 2010, p.84). While researching the state of sport in South Africa post-apartheid era, Sport and Recreation South Africa (SRSA) realized that sport structures were dying in South Africa. This realization led to the establishment of a Club Development Programme(CDP) within the Department in 2006/07. The purpose was to support National and Provincial Federations in the establishment of club structures. The National Sport and Recreation Act 18 of 2007 states that “all national federations must develop its sport or recreational activity at club level”(SRSA, 2007, p.4.). SRSA will seek to provide coordination, leadership and support through the provision of resources and specialist services which impact on all sports and recreation, while passing more responsibility for daily issues to the National Federations (NF`s).

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The Club Development Programme will therefore continue to support national and provincial federations in the establishment and revitalization of clubs by delivering the programme in partnership with national and provincial federations through Service Level Agreements between SRSA and Provincial Departments and identified national and provincial federations (SRSA, 2007, p.4.). IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CLUB DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME In 2004, MakhenkesiStofile stated the following: “We are strongly arguing here for a focused attention on the schools and community clubs in building a broad base for talent scouting, developing and nurturing. This is the mass that will transform society and de-racialize it. We must go back to Wednesday afternoons as school sports days. But this cannot happen by chance” (Desai, 2010, p3). It is noted in the statement above of the power sporting clubs have to transform sport. As Stofile indicates, it cannot happen by chance and needs hard work. Illustrated below is the Club Development strategy utilized for the implementation for the Club Development Programme: CLUB DEVELOPMENT 5 YEAR PLAN The responsibility of the Club Development Programme for the 5 years is outlined below: Basic equipment • Senior • Junior Conduct the following courses

Year 1

• Basic Administration training • Coaching Course • Technical Officials Training Transport (criteria) Pay • Registration fees Two teams only • One Senior and one Junior *Monitoring

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Clothing (gear) • Senior • Junior Conduct the following courses • Event Management • Lifeskills Year 2

Governance Transport (criteria) Pay • Registration fees Two teams only • One Senior and one Junior *Monitoring

Tracksuit • Senior • Junior Conduct the following courses • Facility management • Sport specific training • Coaching • Technical Year 3 Transport (criteria) Pay • Registration fees Two teams only • One Senior and one Junior *Monitoring

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Maintenance • Clubs to receive a replenishment of support on what they received in Year 1 - 3.

Year 4

Transport (criteria) Pay • Registration fees Two teams only • One Senior and one Junior *Monitoring Evaluation • Clubs are evaluated and those deemed as self-sustainable move off from the Club Development Programme and makes way for new clubs to be registered. • Clubs may apply to stay part of the programme where necessary.

Year 5

Transport (criteria) Pay • Registration fees Two teams only • One Senior and one Junior *Monitoring

STRUCTURING OF CLUBS As indicated above, the Club Development Programme offers courses which assist with the empowerment of its members to effectively run the club. According to Hoye et al., to be an established organization such as a sports club, the following obligations need to be fulfilled: (i) holding annual general meetings; (ii) lodging annual statements of financial and non-financial data; (iii) reporting any changes to key officers; (iv) having accounts audited; (v) providing certain information to members on request and (vi) communicating with government any resolutions that alter its name, purpose or legal status (Hoye et al., p.14).

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With this type of structuring, accountability can take place and sporting clubs will become more organized leading to an increase in its efficiency and effectiveness. FRANCHISES Franchising means the right to operate a business of license under specific conditions (Franchoice, 2015). According to the National Club Development concept from SRSA, the franchise concept is applied to the Club Development Programme. This will depend on the level of expertise of each club. Clubs can enter this franchise programme at different levels depending on its readiness (means of sustenance). THE WAY FORWARD The structure of the Club Development Programme at Provincial Level (DCAS) needs to stay aligned to the structure at National Level (SRSA). At National Level (SRSA), the Club Development Programme forms part of the Directorate: Client Support, Liaison, Events & Facilities and should remain as is at a Provincial Level as it is already aligned. The toolkit (Year 1 -5) provided by the Club Development Programme will form an analysis of how the club benefitted from the programme. Franchising to be rolled out in the Western Cape. The Club Development Programme to be implemented in accordance to the NSRP as part of federations and to strengthen the pathway of participants. i.e. Clubs, Academy System & Federations. CONCLUSION The Club Development Programme forms one of the three legs of the Sport Promotion Component. The heartbeat of the Sport Promotion component is the servicing of sport via the federations. As federations can only exist via their affiliated clubs, removing the Club Development Programme (the heart) will debilitate the entire functioning of sport in the Western Cape and interfere with the pathway of athletes. REFERENCES Desai, A. (2010). The Race to Transform: Sport in Post-Apartheid South Africa. South Africa: HSRC Press. Future Communities. (2009). Factors Necessary for a Sense of Community to Exist. [Online] Available from: http://www.futurecommunities.net. [Accessed: February 2015]

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Fran Choice. (2012). Definition of Franchising. [Online] Available from: http:// www.franchoice.com. [Accessed: February 2015] Hoye, R./ Nicholson, M. &Houlihan, B. (2010). Sport and Policy: Issues and Analysis. Oxford: Elsevier Ltd. Keim, M. (2003). Nation Building at Play: Sport as a Tool for Social Integration in Post-apartheid South Africa. Oxford: Meyer & Meyer Sport. National Sport and Recreation Act 18 of 1998. (2007). Retrieved from http://www. srsa.gov.za/MediaLib National Sport and Recreation Plan. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.srsa.gov.za/pebble Oxford Dictionaries. (2015). Definition of club in English from the Oxford dictionary. [Online] Available from: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition [Accessed: February 2015] Vic Health. (2010). A Sporting Chance: The inside knowledge on healthy sports clubs. [Online] Available from: http://www.vichealth.vic.gov.au [Accessed February 2015].

20 YEARS AFTER DEMOCRACY: A PERSPECTIVE ON DISABILITY -

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A CASE OF WHEELCHAIR TENNIS MS KAREN J LOSCH Wheelchair Tennis South Africa 94 Percheron Road Beaulieu, Johannesburg 010 001 008 / Karen@tennis.co.za

AUTHOR’S PROFILE Karen is the Manager of Wheelchair Tennis South Africa (WTSA), a position she has held since February 2008. In this position Karen is responsible for growing and developing Wheelchair Tennis in South Africa. ABSTRACT Disability is estimated to affect about 10% of the world’s population, and 80% of those live in developing nations. Despite these harrowing statistics, people living with a disability often face social barriers and discrimination. Sport is however one of the greatest tools to foster inclusion, promote well-being and break down barriers. Wheelchair Tennis is one of the sports available to persons with a physical disability. Over the past 10 years it has grown in popularity and caters for all levels of players - from recreational to professional. Participation at clubs and schools has increased, as have activities, but the sport has still managed to move from a feel good sport to being recognised as a mainstream sport. Like all disability sport, there are a number of barriers preventing participation, growth and acceptance of the sport at club and national level. This can only be addressed if government, the media, and the federations work together. A PERSPECTIVE ON DISABILITY “Disability is any physical or mental condition that limits a person’s movements, senses or activities. The term disability is conventionally used to refer to attributes that are severe enough to interfere with, or prevent, normal day-to-day activities.” (www.un.org). According to the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, “persons with disabilities include those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which, in interaction with various barriers, may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others.” Disabilities can be permanent, temporary, or episodic. They thinkSPORT - MARCH 2015 - CLUB DEVELOPMENT - 20 YEARS AFTER DEMOCRACY

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can affect people from birth, or be acquired later in life through injury or illness. The World Bank estimates that 10% of the world’s population, have a disability (World Bank, 2004, and that 80% of these people live in developing nations (www.un.org). If families of persons with disabilities are included, at least 25% of the world is directly affected by disability (Peters, 2003). In many countries, including South Africa, beliefs and attitudes towards people living with a disability have changed over the past ten to fifteen years. In 2003, Sports and Recreation South Africa (SRSA) created Disability Sport South Africa (DISSA), an organization formed to give people with a disability self-pride through sports and accomplishments. One of the goals was that South African athletes with disabilities could have a chance to earn incomes good enough to provide for their daily needs, and also to foster a sense of security and confidence among the South Africans with disabilities and their families. Despite this important milestone, persons with disabilities still face societal barriers and disability still evokes negative attitudes and discrimination in many societies. The individuals concerned and their families continue to experience stigma, disempowerment and social and economic marginalization (McCarthy, 2011). The cost of this exclusion and discrimination is enormous in terms of lost opportunities and poor quality of life for individuals and their families, and lost potential for society given the social, economic, and cultural contributions these individuals might be making under more equitable and inclusive circumstances. SPORT AS A TOOL FOR THE INCLUSION Sport for persons with disabilities is not a new concept, but its full potential as a powerful, low-cost means to foster greater inclusion and well-being for persons with disabilities is only beginning to be realized. Sport, gymnastics specifically, was first used in Sweden in the late 1800s as a means of therapy for persons with disabilities (Sherrill, 2004. Since then, sport for persons with disabilities has blossomed to include more than 17 international games, including three Olympic-level competitive games targeting athletes with disabilities — the Deaflympics (for those with hearing impairments), the Paralympics (for those with all other forms of physical disabilities such as limb loss and blindness), and the Special Olympics (for those with intellectual disabilities) (de Pauw, 2005).

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Sport works to improve the inclusion and well-being of persons with disabilities in two ways — by changing what communities think and feel about persons with disabilities and by changing what persons with disabilities think and feel about themselves. The first is necessary to reduce the stigma and discrimination associated with disability. The second empowers persons with disabilities to recognize their own potential and advocate for changes in society to enable them to fully realize it. The community and individual impact of sport also helps reduce the isolation of persons with disabilities and integrate them more fully into community life. Sport also changes community perceptions of persons with disabilities by focusing attention on their abilities and moving their disability into the background (de Pauw, 1995). The person with disabilities can be seen in a positive context accomplishing things that had previously not been thought possible (Parnes, 2007). A good example is Lucas Sithole being able to play tennis with only one full limb and a stump. Sport also changes the person with a disability in an equally profound way. For some, it enables them to make choices and take risks on their own. For others, the gradual acquisition of skills and accomplishments builds the self-confidence needed to take on other life challenges such as pursuing education or employment. Sport also provides opportunities for persons with disabilities to develop social skills, forge friendships outside their families, exercise responsibility, and take on leadership roles. Through sport, persons with disabilities learn vital social interaction skills, develop independence, and become empowered to lead and make change happen (Fukuchi, 2007). WHEELCHAIR TENNIS - A SPORT AT EVERY LEVEL Wheelchair Tennis is one of the sports available to people living with a physical disability. According to the International Tennis Federation it is one of the fastest growing wheelchair sports in the world (www.itftennis.com/wheelchair) and in SA. It integrates very easily with the non-disabled game since it’s played on any regular tennis court, with no modifications to the size of the court, racket or balls. Wheelchair tennis also follows the same rules as non-disabled tennis, as endorsed by the ITF, with the only exception being that the wheelchair tennis player is allowed two bounces of the ball. Adding to its appeal is the fact that it can be played regardless of age, gender, or level of skill. It is one of the disability sports which promotes integration, and

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allows a person with a physical disability the opportunity of playing with and competing against a non-disabled player, be it in a social club or with a family member. Although wheelchair tennis has been played informally in South Africa since around 1985, it was only really formalised into a sport in 2005 when Airports Company South Africa came on board as a sponsor and the association, Wheelchair Tennis South Africa (WTSA), was formed. For the purposes of this article we will look at the incredible journey this sport and its athletes have taken over the 20 years of Democracy (1995-2015). In the years before WTSA, Kevin Smith, Dave Venter and a few individuals got together to play and enjoy the sport. They formalised an association - Wheelchair Tennis Association of South Africa, which they registered with the International Wheelchair Tennis Federation, and affiliated to South African Sport for the Physically Disabled (SASAPD). As this was done as a secondary sport to basketball, and in their spare time, only a few events were hosted annually and the sport eventually died out. It was only in around 2000 that Kevin contacted Holger Losch to assist with growing and developing the sport. At that stage Holger was coaching able bodied players, ran over 50 able bodied ranking tournaments and ran the able bodied players association. It was from this time that wheelchair tennis events and exhibitions were then included with many of the able bodied senior tennis events, and the sport started in earnest. In 2003 the International Tennis Federation sent John Noakes to South Africa, and Airports Company South Africa came on board as a sponsor in 2004. The sponsorship started with a donation of wheelchairs but progressed to being Airports Company South Africa’s flagship CSI programme. Over the past 10 years this sponsorship has allowed WTSA to grow the sport in communities and develop players who are amongst the best in the world. Today more than 500 players receive coaching each week at more than 50 active centres, schools and clubs across South Africa. Amazingly, South Africa has more than 70 players on the world rankings, surpassed only by Japan. Furthermore, we are one of only 2 countries globally to have at least one top 15 player in all 4 categories - men, women, quads and juniors. Considering that the sport is so young, South African players have raced up the world rankings. Among some of the top spots are:

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• •

Lucas Sithole, South Africa’s number one quadriplegic player who has achieved a personal best ranking of world number two, and was the first player from Africa to win the US Open Grand Slam singles title Kgothatso Montjane (fondly known as ‘KG’), South Africa’s number one woman player who has achieved a personal best ranking of number five in the world Evans Maripa, South Africa men’s number one male player, is now ranked 13 in the world and has beaten 2 top 10 players in the past 6 months. Mariska Venter who ended 2013 as the world no 1 junior girl.

We believe that part of the success of WTSA lies in the continued sponsorship from Airports Company South Africa, which has provided us with the stability needed to establish a solid community programme, and offer competitive opportunities to as many players as possible. Over the past few years we have also had sporadic assistance from the National Lottery Distribution Trust Fund which has provided the opportunity to purchase equipment and expand the programme. Besides the obvious benefit and need of funding, sports programmes can only develop and grow if they are played both recreationally and professionally. About 2-3 years ago Wheelchair Tennis reached an important milestone - we had grown the number of players, clubs / centres in the majority of regions so as to enable events and competitions on a regional, national and international level. The regional activities focused on fun and mass participation, while national and international events were provided for those who want to take their tennis more seriously. We now run regional camps and competitions between the schools and clubs no less than 2-3 times per year. This coupled with the Schools Games has added to the excitement and level of activity in the regions. Schools and clubs have also started to take on the responsibility of arranging inter-school and inter-club events on their own and are looking to improve the level of skill of their players. Players have also joined traditional tennis clubs in their regions where they play socially or play competitively in leagues. Although controversial, we believe that by improving players to a level where they can be included in traditional able bodied clubs, they have access to a preferred sport within their communities, and can be fully integrated in a way to break barriers and promote integration. It is however important to note that without

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communication and the sharing of knowledge on how to include someone with a disability, people’s preconceived fears of the unknown hinder inclusivity. When a disabled individual is welcomed and accepted as an equal on the sports field, this goes a long way to reduce the stigma associated with disability, increases self-esteem, self-confidence and social skills, thus leading to increased selfworth, These and other skills can be transferred to other spheres of life, including seeking employment, further helping to build self-sufficiency. THE REALITY Although the above paints a rosy picture for making sport accessible and inclusive for all, there are numerous challenges to implementing sport programmes for persons with disabilities. Some of the challenges we face include transportation, which is generally not accessible, making it difficult for persons with disabilities to travel to sport activities, clubs and facilities are mostly not accessible, and where accessible facilities are available, it may be difficult to secure playing time because sport for persons with disabilities is not considered a priority. All of these challenges are not unique to Wheelchair Tennis and must be addressed if sport is to be effective as a tool for inclusion and improving the lives of individuals with a disability. We believe that in order to really make a difference to the lives of individuals living with a disability, and to promote inclusion we need to move Disability Sport from a feel good add on, to a main stream sport. The sport must be accessible to all participants who would like to take part, and at the top end SA’s Paralympic heroes receive the same coverage and support as their able bodied counterparts. There is no quick fix but we believe the various stakeholders need to work together: • Government can ensure sport stadiums, and sports venues are accessible. Legislation to make clubs and public spaces accessible needs to be enforced and possibly provide subsidies to help with these changes. Government can also support national and international events hosted in South Africa thereby promoting sport as a tool for social change for persons with disabilities and others, e.g. the Airports Company South Africa Wheelchair Tennis SA Open. Finally it needs to encourage corporate sponsorship of sport programmes for persons with disabilities, develop a tourism infrastructure around disability sport and ensure that community centres are physically accessible and can be reached by accessible public transportation.

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• Media can ensure that disability is portrayed in a positive light in place of one of dependence, inactivity, and isolation. They can provide a platform to include the coverage of persons with disabilities in high-performance competitive sport in the sports section, with other elite athletes, rather than the “life” or “culture” sections of newspapers. Media can also ensure that the national and international disability events are given airtime on the free to air channels, and not only celebrated and covered when it’s the Paralympics, when disabled role models engaged in sport are celebrated. • Education can train physical education teachers about disability to reduce the stigma and foster inclusion. • Federations can ensure that clubs receive the correct information and knowledge and that the process is facilitated. Events and activities need to include both able bodied and disabled events, and individuals with a disability need to be included in all training programmes, including coaching, technical and officiating. Federations can also ensure that funding applications include events and activities to promote inclusion and promotion of that sport for the physically disabled I am certain the above will not only grow disability sport in the clubs and communities, but will break down barriers to inclusion and produce real heroes that inspire our nation. REFERENCES Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (18 March 2008). A/ Res/62/170, entered into force 3 May 2008, online: UN <http://www.un.org/depts/ dhl/ resguide/r58.htm> [Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities]. “Initiatives” Disability Sport South Africa. [http://www.dissa.co.za initiatives]. Retrieved 2 February 2015 DePauw, K. & Gavron, S. (1995). Disability and Sport (Illinois: Human Kinetics). DePauw, K. & Gavron, S. (2005). Disability and Sport, 2d Ed (Illinois: Human Kinetics). Fukuchi, A. (2007). “My Hope for an Inclusive Society” in Sport in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. [Fukuchi, “Hope”]. McCarthy, R. (2007). “Sport and Children with Disabilities” in Sport in the United

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Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (International Disability in Sport Working Group, Centre for Study of Sport in Society, Northeastern University, at 13, online: International Platform on Sport and Development <http:// www.sportanddev.orgdata/document/document/336.pdf>.[McCarthy,“Sport”]. Parnes, P. Hashemi, G. (2007). “Sport as a Means to Foster Inclusion, Health and Well-Being of People with Disabilities” in Literature Reviews on Sport for Development and Peace at 21, online: SDP IWG <http://iwg.sportanddev.org/ data/htmleditor/file/Lit.Reviews/literaturereviewS DP.pdf>. [Parnes, Foster Inclusion]. Peters, S. (2003). Education for All: Including Children with Disabilities (WorldBank) online:WorldBank<http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EDUCATION/Resources/ Education-Notes/ EdNotesDisability.pdf>. Sherrill, I. (2004). “Young People with Disability in Physical Education/ Physical Activity/Sport In and Out of Schools Technical Report for the World Health Organization” (World Health Organization) at 4, online: ICSSPE <http:// www. icsspe.org/portal/download/YOUNGPEOPLE.pdf>. [Sherril, “Young People”]. Sport and Persons with Disabilities. Fostering Inclusion and Well-being. Chapter 5 pg 169-192. Online: http://www.un.org. Retrieved 2 February 2015 World Bank, Disability & HIV/AIDS (World Bank: 2004), online: World Bank / Home/Topics/Health/PublicHealth/ HIV/AIDS/Disability <www.worldbank.orgl>. [World Bank, Disability].

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CLUB DEVELOPMENT AND MY PERSONAL EXPERIENCE MS MAROESJKA MATTHEE 33 James Crescent, De Tuin Brackenfell, 7560 I started cycling when I was 16 years old. My dad was an avid cyclist his entire life. He saw that I was into bikes and riding with the boys around the block,doing tricks from when I was little. So when I was old enough, he built me a racing bike, but he waited to ensure that the racing aspect of the sport was something that I wanted to do. In my opinion, boys and girls sometimes get too pressured into riding/racing their bikes, and forget to enjoy it first. Everything revolves around getting onto the top step of the podium at too young an age. By the time the athletes reach in their late teens,they decide that the pressure is just too much and decide to call it a day before even going into the Elite ranks. I think the right club would really help athletes, young ones in particular. I joined Tygerburg Club when I started cycling. At that time it was just to get into the sport and meet like-minded people. After about 6 months being with this club, I decided to try out track cycling. I got onto the track and I was hooked from the word go! That adrenaline rush that the g-force1 gives you when entering the banking at speed, was just incredible. I contacted my club regarding a bike that I could buy, and so I got hold of a good second hand bike. The club had a very good Elite team that they were looking after. They weren’t really focused on bringing new talent up in the ranks. All their time and effort was used for the Elite team. Once I met a lot more people in the track fraternity, I also met the Club president of Bellville Cycling Club. He spoke about the development programme that they were running and asked if I was interested. I grabbed the opportunity and I moved over to the Bellville Club. 1 Gg-force stands for either the force of gravity on a particular extraterrestrial body or the force of acceleration anywhere. It is measured in g’s, where 1 g is equal to the force of gravity at the Earth’s surface, which is 9.8 meters per second.

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They were really good with getting the younger riders onto their bikes and always making sure they know why they ride their bikes. They always gave very good ground principles, and always ensured that the riders learn how to control their bikes. They had a lot of skills clinics, and they were also very focused on sportsmanship. We had a lot of group rides,I can remember I was always looking up to the Elite cyclists on the group rides. They were always there to give a helping hand and give advice where they could. I raced my first Track Nationals when I was 17. I can remember it being so scary to race against big, strong girls. One Elite rider of Bellville Club came to me, and told me that this being my first National Champs, I should learn as much as I can from it and walk away with positive thoughts and motivation to train harder. That is exactly what I did. As another year went past, it was time for another National Champs. My preparation wasn’t too great but I was enjoying it a lot. I think, at the end of the day, that’s the really important part. To enjoy it! Well, I surprised myself that year. I walked away with 1Gold and 3 Silver medals. The day I won the Gold, I remember the Club President coming to me and saying“ your new bike will be waiting for you in Cape Town”. I was over the moon! Once back in Cape Town, I was one of the riders that started training with the top guys in the club. Bellville had a really good structure for athletes, moving them up in the ranks. You had your beginners, intermediate riders, and then the top guys. We had good, structured training from a coach. It was always very clear to the younger guys and girls that the club and management was tracking their progress, so at any time, they can get called into the top athletes training group. They were really focused on the track, and they were firm believers that all youngsters should first ride track to develop their riding skills to set a good platform. I trained with them for a year and could really see a big improvement in my riding. For the first time I was actually training properly. I knew it was going to be a tall order moving into the Elite category for the next year. I gave it everything I had in training, learning new things from the other Elite guys in the club all the time. The following year’s National Champs was incredible! My first year as an Elite rider, I went in with the mind-set that I will only learn. This will be a great experience for me, I thought. With the help of the Bellville cycling club I rode the best equipment that was out there. Don’t want to go against Lance here....but it’s definitely about the bike! My first year Elite I won 3 Gold, 1 Silver and 1 Bronze

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medal. I surprised myself and everybody around me! The Club was very proud, and I owed a lot of that to them. After taking a bit of a break after Track Nationals, the guys started training hard again. This time, there were even higher goals, and exciting things that were shared with the Elite team. The track team were registering a trade team to go and race in a World Cup in England. . From being a normal club rider 3 years previous, to actually being in a trade team to race at the highest level was surreal. I knew it would take a lot of training and sacrifice, but I was more than up for the challenge. I was training extremely hard, and unfortunately sometimes things don’t always work out the way we want it. I started feeling worse in training and racing. My performance was going backwards and I was sick all the time. I was still so determined and the time was just getting closer to the World Cup. I eventually went to Jeroen Swart, a Sports Doctor at the Sports Science Institute. He was worried that I had Glandular Fever and tested for that. The test came back positive. I really thought things went from the highest of highs to the lowest point ever! After having a good chat with him, I felt better. At least we could pick it up, and I knew why I was feeling bad all the time. Unfortunately there’s no quick fix for Glandular fever, only rest. I was off the bike for about 4months. I started riding slowly again to ensure that I don’t push my body too hard, too soon. I made a good come back towards the end of the year, and thankfully the National Champs had been moved to September of the next year, giving me enough time to prepare. The Elite team of Bellville took a bit of a break and I found myself without a Sponsor. I approached Owen Lloyd from Team Intellibus for a ride. He agreed to give me a kit and see how I performed at the next Nationals. Team Intellibus was THE team to be in at that time. They had most of the best track riders: Endurance riders and sprinters, all having numerous SA titles behind their names. After a good performance at Nationals, I was in the team! Extremely grateful for the opportunity, I formed part of Team Intellibus. I had some very bad luck over the next couple of years. I fractured my pelvis in training doing motor pace efforts behind the bike (Kids, don’t do that at home!). It took me a while, but I recovered from the fracture, only to have yet another crash, this time in racing. I fractured my elbow. In fact, that evening of the racing Owen came to me and shared that the team will be going to race in a World Cup in Glasgow, Scotland.

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I was so happy! Something to train for to get me back into form. As the evening went on, unfortunately the bad luck also did. I was out for 4weeks and couldn’t go to the World Cup. Disappointment can’t even begin to describe what I was feeling. It’s all part of racing I guess! This is our sport, and it comes with risks. I made yet another good come back to racing. Concentrating also a bit more on the road, it helped my track racing a lot. In 2013 I won 7 Gold and 1 Bronze at Nationals, making it my most successful SA Champs. At the end of 2013 City Cycling Club approached me to ride for them on the road. They will be entering a Junior men, Elite Ladies and Veteran men teams for the Summer League. It was great to see a club such as City Cycling Club putting up Elite riders and focusing on the development coming through from the Juniors. I mean this a Club who not only focus’ on the “fun riders” but they look after the Elite riders as well. It was a successful season for us in the Ladies team, we secured the Team Competition and the overall win for the Summer league. High performance club structure is something that I have been exposed to on the track and on the road. I feel we have the depth to grow and develop young athletes from a club structure. I’ve seen it in numerous clubs. City Cycling Club has really been putting up a good run with racing in club structure and growing the riders to compete at league level. Coming back to the track side of things, regarding developing an athlete,the track gives you the foundation to work from. Last year when I was in America racing in T-town, PA, I got to see how things were run at the Valley Preferred Cycling Centre. I was amazed at how young they begin the kids with skills, technique, and knowledge of racing. It is on a very “social” note, not taking it extremely serious, and still letting the kids be kids. In South Africa, we tend to focus a lot on the fun riders. The mass participation. Let’s be honest, that is where the money is I might be stepping on some toes here, but race organisers are just in it for the money. Don’t get me wrong, it’s a business at the end of the day, but they lose sight of the fact that they need to look after the racing side of things and not just where the masses are. On any given weekend in the Summer you can go to either a mountain bike event or a road event in any province. A “fun ride” as they would call it.

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We have the largest timed bike race in the World, and we brag about it. Yes, sure, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s something to claim and to proclaim but this is where South Africa and other countries like America, Australia, New Zealand and Europe are very different. In Australia you need to look very hard to find a fun ride to go ride. Their focus is so much on the High Performance athletes. They donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t care about catering for the masses, they care about creating structure, and infrastructure to support Elite level athletes (Bonham & Wilson: 2012). The same applies to America. Kids grow up in high performance centres around the country. They are exposed to professionalism from a young age and the importance of the development of high class athletes. Europe can be open for discussion and I can write 20 pages on how good they do things over there. Over there, they cater for everyone. From novice type fun rider racing to le Tour de France riders. In South Africa, in my opinion, the Clubs are doing everything in their power and within their budget to try and develop high profile athletes, but we need to get it through to the bigger organizations that they have to invest in what the Clubs are trying to do, and try and support the Elite athletes more than the mass participation riders. In other words, make less money, and see more Elite riders going through the ranks and giving back to them. It is easy to say the government needs to pay this way forward, but the reality is that this is not Australia! If we have other affiliations that have the money, why not get involved in developing the best that is to offer in South Africa? The event companies should be more involved with the Clubs and the vision of the Clubs to develop High performance athletes. Today, I say thanks for Clubs like Bellville Cycling Club and to City Cycling Club for putting in so much effort into the Elite level of cycling in South Africa.

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THINK SPORT JOURNAL • CLUB DEVELOPMENT - 20 YEARS AFTER DEMOCRACY

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thinkSPORT - March 2015 - CLUB DEVELOPMENT - 20 YEARS AFTER DEMOCRACY

ThinkSport Journal - March 2015  

Deepening the scope of knowledge and information sharing in sport and recreation in South Africa.

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