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T h e O N LY j o u r n a l i n A s i a d e d i c a t e d t o L a n d F o r c e s
In This Issue
Director General Artillery Lt General K.R. Rao spoke to SP’s Land Forces on the modernisation efforts of the artillery and the conceptual changes being visualised by him in the artillery doctrine.
The pace of modernisation of our infantry has been pathetic. Redtape, lack of funds, lack of decisions, lengthy procurement procedures, barriers of DRDO and at times conflicting in-service views are contributing to this.
E d i tor ial Lately there has been a fair amount of discourse in the media and among the army officers, serving and retired, regarding the somewhat unwarranted media onslaught on the senior hierarchy of the army despite the fact that it was the army itself which had ordered the Sukna probe. Be that as it may, now that the matter has been put into the grinding judicial process it can be unequivocally stated that while no one has gained, the image of an excellent institution, the Indian Army, has taken an undeserved beating. It is in this background that the new Chief of the Army Staff, General V.K. Singh has taken over this onerous responsibility. He faces daunting tasks and challenges. Foremost among them is the slow pace of modernisation of the army. The budget for the army is reducing every year in real terms and meagre allotments of capital funds followed by surrenders at the end of each year due to endemic delays in procurement has a cascading effect which is affecting the operational effectiveness of the army. The saga of artillery guns, air defence guns and missiles, and night fighting equipment are the cases in point. The new Chief has an impeccable professional record and it seems that the expectations of the military and the public at large from him are enormous. He has to therefore tread with care. He must attempt what he can effectively tackle in two years while simultaneously giving a fillip to the long-term plans. Modernisation of the force and restoring the image and morale of the rank and file could be the two key result areas (KRA). At higher levels of command and leadership, dignity and honour lies in sacrificing personal interests for the sake of the organization which directly influences the subordinates. Finally, there is the aspect of civil-military relations which affects the second KRA. In this regard, Kanti Bajpai in his recent article on the subject states, “Military personnel, given their expertise, should staff the Defence Ministry positions and positions in the National Security Council. The appointment of a one-point advisor in the person of a Chief of Defence Staff remains to be done.” It is high time that our political leadership become more conscious of these vital issues.
Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor
LT GENERAL (RETD) P.C. KATOCH
Real-time imagery is crucial to our national security. The initiative perforce will have to be taken up by the MoD, MHA and Ministry of Science and Technology in conjunction with the military, RAW and IB.
LT GENERAL (RETD) P.C. KATOCH
F ir s t E x c l u s i v e
Challenging Photograph: PIB
April-May • 2010
The Chief must aim at making the army a powerful organisation in all respects; alleviating the concerns of all personnel of the army and veterans; and bringing the fun back into the army, keeping in mind the old adage ‘a happy army is a powerful army’ LT GENERAL (RETD) VIJAY OBEROI
ssumption of command by a new Army Chief is an important event, both for the army and the nation. It is no different for General V.K. Singh, the 24th Army Chief of independent India. The importance of commanding the Indian Army is not just because of its size, but more importantly it is the only organisation that has full faith in our polity, on account of its professional ethos and the alacrity with which it responds to evolving situations.
These perceptions, coupled with the prevailing security environment, bring with them overwhelming responsibilities. All Army Chiefs have no doubt assumed command with varying challenges and distinguished themselves during their tenures. Some have done so with panache, while others could at best be termed as also-ran.
The ground reality is not encouraging. Nearly half the army is committed to fight-
ing various insurgencies and a proxy war. The combat potential of the army is at an all-time low of nearly 50 per cent and there has hardly been any modernisation in recent years. The budget for the army gets reduced every year in real term; the government continues to keep the military out of the policy formulation loop; the deteriorating civil-military relations do not bode well for the safety and security of the nation; there have been several recent incidents that have tarnished the image of the army and could have been Continued on page 3
2/2010 SP’S LAND FORCES
E x cl usive
Photographs: SP Guide Pubns
Director General Artillery Lt General K.R. Rao spoke to Editor-in-Chief Jayant Baranwal and Lt General (Retd) V. K. Kapoor, Editor, SP’s Land Forces on the modernisation efforts of the artillery
SP’s Land Forces (SP’s): What conceptual changes are being visualised by you in the artillery doctrine in context of the recently formulated joint operational doctrine?
K.R. Rao: The joint doctrine formulated in 2006 contains the fundamental principles by which we will employ our war fighting capability to conduct successful joint operations in the future. This document serves as a linkage between application of military forces and other components of national power. In keeping with the thought processes in the doctrine, the artillery has to enable achievement of its goals. Conceptually, within artillery, we now speak of degradation and destruction rather than neutralisation (which is a thing of the past). We have to enhance battlefield transparency in depth and ensure destruction and disruption of the enemy at longer ranges. Artillery has to play its part in projection of power in the new security environment the nation is facing. SP’s: We are procuring the 145 Ultra Light Howitzer (M 777, 155mm Caliber 39) in a government-to-government deal from the US. How soon is this deal likely to materialise? Does it involve transfer of technology for local manufacture?
Rao: Procurement is under progress through the Foreign Military Sale (FMS) route. The equipment is shortly to be put through trials. Once trials are completed, negotiations take place and an agreement is arrived at between the US government and Government of India, the induction will commence. It is visualised that it will take a minimum of one year for this to happen. The deal does not envisage transfer of technology at this stage. SP’s: RFPs have been issued for the Towed 155mm, 52 Caliber Howitzer and the SelfPropelled (Wheeled and Tracked) Howitzers. When is this programme likely to fructify and how long would the induction take?
Rao: Yes, RFPs have been issued for towed and wheeled SP Gun. The RFP for Tr System will be issued shortly. The trials for various 155mm, 52 caliber weapon system are to commence shortly. Induction will only commence when trials are completed and a suitable choice is made. This process will take approximately two years. SP’s: What are the other modernisation plans in the offing and in the long run?
Rao: Based on the directives issued by the Chief of the Army Staff, the modernisation programme for Indian Artillery has been put into motion. Modernisation is an all-round, all-encompassing holistic process. It involves improving surveillance and battlefield transparency capability through aerial and ground-based sensors. It involves development of rockets and missile systems, besides the guns which are under acquisition. It also involves modernising command and control systems. Some indicators in this direction are
‘Modernisation is progressing’
SP’S LAND FORCE S 2/ 2 01 0
the recent acquisition of long-range surveillance systems, induction of BrahMos Missile, Smerch and Pinaka Rockets. In the long run we are looking at extending our reach as also improving accuracies through precision guided munitions. Modernisaton also involves developing our HR potential which is very much in focus. We can confidently state that our modernisation programmes are progressing satisfactorily and the desired goals are being achieved. SP’s: What changes do you propose in the existing modernisation plans in order to conform to the latest trends?
Rao: As outlined earlier, we are in the process of acquiring latest technologies with impeding inductions. Further, acquisition plans for the three services have inbuilt mechanisms by which adjustment necessitated due to improvement in technology are enabled. In every acquisition plan there is a scope to add new schemes which can cater for changes in technology. Thus, we constantly make corrections and update our acquisition processes to keep pace with the newest technology. We have made many mid-course corrections in the current plan itself. For example, we have already upgraded the quality of ammunition being procured with an emphasis on maximising effect at the target end with pinpoint accuracy to reduce collateral damage. Also, our battlefield surveillance systems of the future are coming in with the latest technologies. SP’s: Is the artillery acquiring any precision guided munitions in addition to the already available Krasnopol ammunition for use in urban and other areas where the likelihood of collateral damage is greater?
Rao: Precision guided munitions (PGMs) is a family of ammunitions which requires guidance to strike the precisely designated target. Krasnopol belongs to the same family of ammunitions which the Indian Artillery possesses in its kitty. However, PGM is an old technology and now the development has gone to newer levels of SMART ammunition in which the bomb/shell has the pin- point coordinates of the target and a global positioning system (GPS)/Inertial Navigation System (INS) in its nose. The bomb/shell hits the target with pinpoint accuracy. We are in the process of assessing this variety of ammunition for procurement. This includes both rocket and gun ammunition. SP’s: The modernisation plan with respect to battlefield surveillance and target acquisition is progressing well. What are the capabilities that we are trying to acquire?
Rao: The modern battlefield requires acquisition of targets at longer ranges so that our weapon systems can destroy them before they inflict any damage on us. Towards achieving this, we have taken great strides with the introduction of state-of-the-art sur-
veillance equipment which have increased battlefield transparency. The effort is now to have a 24x7 multi-terrain capability with enhanced coverage. In this connection, we are in the process of acquiring UAVs with SATCOM systems, BFSR with mobile masts to enhance ranges, WLRs which can operate in all-terrain configurations. We are also in the process of acquiring aerostats along with other services. SP’s: How are the SATA units of the Indian Arty being modernised? Please elaborate on the changes envisaged?
Rao: Our plans for upgradation of the Surveillance and Target Acquisition (SATA)
would be the levels at which information by both video and other digital means would flow for analysis. SP’s: UAVs, UCAVs and aerostats are recognised as force-multipliers in the modern battlefield and have become important part of the weapons inventory of many advanced armies of the world. What are the plans regarding their induction and employment and would it become an all arms responsibility or will these be held by the artillery only?
Rao: UAVs have already been introduced into service and we have gained sufficient experience in handling them. Serious thought is also being given to weaponising the existing UAVs, introduction of UCAVs and aerostats in arty to augment the existing surveillance sensors. There is also a parallel plan to synergise sensors and shooters. The feasibility of allocation of a different class of UAV to arms other than artillery is under consideration. SP’s: Large number of weapon system with complex technology are going to be inducted in the artillery. What are the changes being proposed in target methodologies to meet this challenge?
Rao: With newer weapon systems being introduced, there is a constant requirement for us to review our training methodologies and we have done so. We have incorporated better training aids, better training material and more equipment training for our officers, JCOs and men. With every new equipment purchased, we insist on getting the latest training aids as part of the contract from the vendor. There is also an obligatory clause by which the vendor is required to train a select core group of people on the equipment in his facility. On a generic level, more reliance has now been placed on simulators for training. Simultaneously, better training aids in terms of computer 3D models and graphics help trainees understand the equipment better. SP’s: The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) have achieved considerable success in many fields. Private industry has also chipped in with indigenous production of multibarrel rocket launcher system. In what manner would you like to involve these organisations in modernising the Indian Artillery indigenously?
Branch are progressing satisfactorily. SATA units have been reorganised. They are now tailor-made to suit the operational requirements of the formations in various terrain. Battlefield surveillance is also being automated. Each SATA unit is being equipped with role-specific sensors. SP’s: As part of the Battle Management System, is every artillery weapon platform going to be a ‘situational awareness platform’ ?
Rao: Battle Management System is being coordinated under the aegis of Directorate General of Information Systems. Each component of the battle is being managed separately but integrated at formation HQs levels by provision of seamless data and voice communication network. In this architecture, each artillery weapon platform would also become a distributor and a recipient of the latest information and in that sense it would be a “Situationally Aware Platform”. The weapon platforms link to the observer at the battlefront, is now added by an automated architecture. However, on a selective basis, the Fire Control Centre (FCC) at the Artillery Brigade Headquarters and above
Rao: The role and achievements of DRDO and OFB are known to all. Recently, there was an initiative to involve private industry in enhancing our defence capabilities. As mentioned by you, the success achieved in development of the PINAKA system by L&T and Tata is a case in point. We would like to use this successful model for our future development and procurement. We would also like the private industry and DRDO to get into JVs with established international defence industries so that our defence capability gets an indigenous boost. SP’s: Excalibur ammunition is used by the M777 Ultra Light Howitzer. Are we acquiring this ammunition also?
Rao: At present, there are no plans of acquiring Excalibur precision munitions. SP’s: Has ACCCS been operationalised in all army formations or only in selected formations? What are the major advantages that have accrued due to its induction?
Rao: The ACCCS Shakti equipment is under induction into field formations in a phased manner. At present, some formations have been equipped with these equipment. With the operationalisation of the ACCCS, the command & control of artillery has become automated and faster. The time required for working out the technical data and passage of orders will be reduced. ACCCS will ensure optimisation of resources and getting the biggest bang for the buck in the shortest time-frame. SP
Te c hnolog y
OF A SERIES OF SIX ARTICLES ON BATTLEFIELD MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Facing the Brunt The pace of modernisation of our infantry has been pathetic. Red tape, lack of funds, lack of decisions, lengthy procurement procedures, barriers of DRDO and at times conflicting in-service views are contributing to this. Lack of proper equipping and modernisation implies not only depleted combat efficiency, but also avoidable casualties to our soldiers. There is an urgent need for speedy and ‘packaged equipping’ of the infantry.
nfantry has traditionally been the Queen of Battle. While the importance of the man behind the machine or weapon requires no debating, conflict situations like terrorism, asymmetric and fourth generation wars, as prevailing in Iraq and Afghanistan, have heightened their importance even more. At the same time, rapid advances in information technology are revolutionising methods of fighting. Situational awareness, information dominance, jointness, net-centricity, standoff precision weapons are the buzzwords, requiring a transformed infantryman capable of dealing with hitechnology war that will be short and intense besides contending with fleeting opportunities provided by terrorists/nonstate actors/state sponsored non-state actors, who are becoming more and more sophisticated. Today’s infantryman has to be a man-machine-technology mix, a weapon platform with adequate firepower, self-protection, night fighting capability and mobility. He should have the ability to “see” the enemy or adversary much before he himself gets spotted and be networked to the required level, enabling him to effectively respond to any situation in real/near real time. The pace of modernisation of our infantry has actually been pathetic. Red tape, lack of funds, lack of decisions, lengthy procurement procedures, barriers of Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO) and at times conflicting in-service views are all contributing to this. Lack of proper equipping and modernisation implies not only depleted combat efficiency but also avoidable casualties to our soldiers. There is an urgent need for speedy and “packaged equipping” of the infantry, notwithstanding the media blitz concerning the Futuristic Infantry Soldier As a System (F-INSAS) and Battlefield Management System (BMS) which still are a couple of years away and appear to be getting unduly delayed further.
Battlefield Management System
The success in future military operations will require a telescoped decisionaction cycle and the ability to conduct operations simultaneously within an all arms group. This is very pertinent at the “Cutting Edge”; in the 400 odd Infantry and Rashtriya Rifles (RR) battalions of the Indian Army (IA), not counting the Assam Rifles (AR) and Infantry Territorial Army (TA) battalions deployed in counter insurgency (CI), low intensity conflict (LIC),
anti-terrorism (both rural and urban), internal security (IS), disaster management and in contending with new forms of unconventional warfare besides regular deployment in varied terrain along our borders and in UN missions. At present, the IA lacks an integrated system at the cutting edge; an integration tool supporting individual soldier to battalion group/combat group Commander in the Tactical Battle Area (TBA) that can provide in near real time an appropriate, common and comprehensive tactical picture by integrating inputs from all elements. Situational awareness is ad-hoc and so is the common operating picture (COP). To bridge this gap, the IA has planned fielding of the BMS at Battalion Group/Combat Group level and below as part of capability building. This would enable a faster decision process by commanders at all echelons, better the decision due to reliable operational information provided in real time and ability to quickly close the sensor to shooter loop. The BMS is to be integrated with other components of the Tactical Command, Control, Communications and Information (Tac C3I) System through the Command Information and Decision Support System (CIDSS) . Through the BMS, the IA wants to provide a command and control system spanning the TBA spreading across individuals, detachments, combat platforms, sensors, sub units, units to the Battalion Commander/ Regiment Commander; achieve faster reaction capability and flexibility in command and control by providing information automatically in the right place at the right time, thereby compressing the OODA loop; provide a strong foundation for making decisions based on near real time, consistent and well structured information, thereby enhancing the information handling capability of commanders at all levels; strengthening information exchange by having a strong messaging and replication mechanism; improving and modernising presentation of information in near real time; integrating with other command and control system. The BMS is to be a highly mobile integrated system with a high data rate, comprising a Tactical Hand Held Computer with individual soldiers and Tactical Computers at Battle Group Headquarters and combat vehicles employing application and database servers connected on a data enabled communication network, enabling a COP by integrating inputs from all relevant sources within a battle group by integrated use of GIS and GPS. The communications are to optimally utilise the bandwidth available for military communications, not interfere
LT GENERAL (RETD) P.C. KATOCH
Future Soldier programme of the US Army Natick Soldier Centre
with the legacy communication equipment, retrofitted into combat platforms and scalable to ensure its availability to all elements ranging from man-portable to fit in combat vehicles. The technology being sought is mostly available in the world market and the indigenous industry has the competence to meet system requirements. However, the project would involve customisation, integration and testing (laboratory and field conditions), validation, fielding and eventual equipping. In Phase 1, integration of the system, establishment of the test bed lab and field trials at test bed location (one combat group and three infantry battalion groups) originally planned by 2012 is delayed by more than nine months due to indecision on delimitation between the BMS and the F-INSAS. This self-inflicted delay will have cascading effect on subsequent phases of the BMS project; Phase II under which equipping was to be undertaken by 2017 and Phase III comprising change management and upgradation of the system originally planned for completion by 2022.
It was very evident to the IA deployed as part of the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) in Sri Lanka that the Sri Lankan infantry soldier was far better equipped in comparison to its Indian counterpart in every aspect from head to toe, be it the helmet, combat dress, web equipment, belt, boots, raincoat/poncho, personnel weapon, quality of maps, etc. Had the LTTE not been fighting with the AK-47/ AK-56, perhaps our infantry would have even continued with the 7.62 mm SLR. The situation has improved somewhat since then but only slightly. Modification 4B to the war establishment (WE) of a Standard Infantry Battalion was approved in 1998, but is yet to be implemented in all infantry battalions. This programme is to give more firepower and night capability to the Infantry including improved anti-tank guided missiles (ATGMs) with night capability, battlefield surveillance radars (BFSRs), hand held thermal imaging (HHTIs) devices, individual night sights, disposable rocket launchers, anti-material rifles (AMRs), under-barrel grenade launchers (UBGLs), sniper rifles, etc. The procurements under Modification
4B had to be shared with the RR battalions that needed the same urgently because of their permanent deployments in J&K but were not authorised such equipment and weapons till end 2009; a typical example of extreme bureaucratic intransigence. There have been improvements in the Mechanised Infantry. The BMP-2 ICV and the 81 mm Carrier Mortar Tracked Vehicle (CMTV) are getting fielded but complete equipping of all Mechanised Infantry units will take many years. The F-INSAS programme, which is to ensure a dramatic increase in lethality, survivability and mobility while making the infantry soldier “a self-contained fighting machine”, is based on the Land Warrior system of the US Army and Future Soldier programmes of other nations. This is to be developed in three phases: Phase 1 (by 2012) comprising weapons, body armour, clothing and individual equipment, Phase II comprising the target acquisition system and Phase III comprising the computer sub system, radio sub system, software and software integration. F-INSAS will provide the infantryman with latest weaponry, communication network and instant access to information on the battlefield. It will include a fully networked all-terrain, all-weather personal-equipment platform, enhanced firepower and mobility for the digitalised battlefield of the future. The infantryman will be equipped with mission-oriented equipment integrated with his buddy soldier team, the sub-unit, as also the overall command, control, communications computers, information and Intelligence (C4I2) system. Complete fielding in all infantry and RR units is likely to be completed by 2020 or so.
The BMS and F-INSAS programmes are to be developed concurrently; BMS under information systems and F-INSAS under the infantry. BMS was conceived at battalion/regiment level pan army (including for the infantry) and comprises of communication, non-communication hardware and software. The lowest level to which the system will be connected is the individual soldier / weapon platform and highest level with Battalion/ Continued on page 13
SP’S LAND FORCE S 2/ 2 01 0
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P r o cur ement
Low Bid Compromise
Should we let the L1 factor continue to be a major decisive factor for defence procurements, deluding ourselves under the pretext of being “cash strapped” when annually thousands of crores of the defence budget is being surrendered. Prudence demands that not only should we review the significance of the L1 factor, but also replace it with the “Best Technology Bid” factor. LT GENERAL (RETD) P.C. KATOCH
he L1 or “lowest bid” factor has ruled the roost in defence procurements in India since times immemorial. It is but natural that countries, especially the cash-strapped developing ones, take the L1 factor into account in order to optimise defence acquisitions and modernise their armed forces. At the same time, should we let the L1 factor continue to be a major decisive factor for defence procurements for the Indian defence forces when globally it is acknowledged that technological advances have revolutionised warfare and technological superiority will be a major battle winning factor in future? Should we blindly submit to the British legacy of L1 bids, deluding ourselves under the pretext of being “cashstrapped” when annually thousands of crores of the defence budget is being surrendered coupled with the increasingly widening gap in RMA (Revolution in Military Affairs) led combat capabilities between India and China, the requirement to be prepared for a two-front/two and a half front war and the continuing retrograde defence modernisation trends in India over the last decade? Prudence demands that not only should we review the significance of the L1 factor but perhaps replace it with the “best technology bid” factor.
There is a paradigm shift in the nature of conflict. Modern-day conflicts have expanded to include sub-nationalities, terrorists, insurgents, religious fanatics and ethnic interests. South Asia is in the centre stage of sub-conventional conflict and instability. The entry of non-state actors has added a new dimension to low intensity conflicts. Responses to such challenges need to be addressed in a focused and credible manner. The conventional armed forces need to maintain edge by upgrading technologies. Intelligence and security agencies need to coordinate nationally and internationally and cooperative security as strategy needs to be enforced at regional and international levels. It is said that RMA cannot be limited only to systems since recent technological advancements actually require revolutionary changes in the manner in which we conduct our military business since RMA encompasses the entire military organisation and the technologically advantaged combatant may often face an enemy network that is quite elusive. However, technology does have an immensely important role in future wars. Military transformation includes network centricity as an essential ingredient plus miniaturisation of technology, enabling single platforms to do multiple tasks, particularly in the sub conventional and irregular environment. Cyber and space are the new frontiers besides Network Centric Warfare.
India faces a number of security threats in the form of militancy in Jammu & Kashmir, the Northeast, left-wing extremism, rising unemployment and economic disparities,
SP’S LAND FORCE S 2/ 2 01 0
Stagnation of defence modernisation over the past successive years has serious ramifications for national security unsettled relationships with its neighbours, fractious nature of its polity, nuclear proliferation, jihadist terrorism, comparatively low levels of human security, technology and poverty index. Obama’s Af-Pak policy is arming Pakistan to the hilt and the unethical China-Pak collusion as also the aggressiveness of China is ominous.
Our Ministry of Defence is the only Ministry that regularly surrenders part of the defence budget annually, advertently or inadvertently to permit diversion of funds elsewhere. The government needs to realise that this practice is at the cost of national security and that lack of modernisation results in avoidable loss of life albeit lives may have little value to some in India. Last year, Rs 7,000 crore from the defence budget was surrendered. As always, this surrendered portion of the defence budget was from the capital budget of the MoD meant for fresh acquisitions and modernisation. So how does it affect the military? Existing states of our poorly equipped infantry and antiquated air defence weaponry by themselves indicate the criminality of surrender of defence modernisation funds. It is for such reasons the erstwhile Chairman Chiefs of Staff Committee had said that we are in no position to take on China. The hollowness of being prepared for a two front / two and a half front war is thus obvious. Defence budget allocations are dismally low. There was a time when the French Defence Forces were in similar state until President Charles De Gaulle took the strategic decision of allocating 8-10 per cent of the GDP towards defence for a continuous decade and France emerged as a global force. In India, the services have been asking for increase in the defence budget, to at least 3-4 per cent of the GDP but their demands have gone unheeded. Insufficient funds are available for military modernisation and these too are not fully utilised. Of the Rs 147,344 crore Defence Budget allocated this year, only Rs 60,000 crore is capital expenditure. How much of this will get surrendered is not difficult to guess; Rs 7000-8000 crore on the average. The claim that defence budget has been increased by four per cent needs to be viewed in the backdrop of eight per cent inflation and that the latter will only keep rising. The money allocated for modernisation and re-equipping has actually reduced from the previous year. Compared to China’s seven per cent and Pakistan’s five per cent, India’s defence budget in proportion to its GDP continues to be low. The government appears to be oblivious to the long-term consequences and the
fact that our economic prosperity hinges on national security.
The responses to challenges facing us needs to be addressed in a focused and credible manner, but how does one decide on defence procurements? The bureaucrats would say that the defence services have their own long term integrated procurement plans (LTIPP). Fair enough, but from where has this LTIPP emanated. Should this not be from a National Security Strategy? Logic would say yes but we do not have a National Security Strategy despite having a National Security Advisor (NSA), the Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS), the Cabinet Committee on Political Affairs (CCPA) and the National Security Council (NSC), notwithstanding the ongoing turf war between the NSA and the Home Ministry. The reason for not having a National Security Strategy is simple, for it will usher in accountability by the government and the bureaucracy. Our archaic and labyrinthine bureaucratic procedures further add to the woes of the defence forces. The tortoise will consider itself a speedster compared to movement of defence procurement case files. When annually a part of the defence funds get surrendered, the critics smirk and say, “Why do you need more allocations?” Despite the annual fanfare of a new Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) and reduction of procurement time, we still take recourse to about 40-month span for information system and communication projects despite rapidly changing the technologies. Under such circumstances, our military modernisation will continue to regress.
The response of vendors to the request for proposal (RFP) is of two types; “best price” and/or “best quality”. Invariably, weightage of the former is more and “best quality” becomes a casualty. Given the state of corruption in the country, at times, the price being quoted by other vendor(s) gets leaked out or shall we say obtained through “economic espionage”. The enterprising vendor then bids a much lower price to obtain the contract though the quality of his product may be qualitatively inferior. The focus on quality is overshadowed by the lower price being offered. The Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO) wanting to attempt each and every requirement of the services, many a times does not have the competence to do so, but reluctantly admits this after lapse of considerable months/ years. At times, the General Staff Qualitative Requirements (GSQR) are therefore forced to lower. To compound the above problem the existing procurement procedure does not permit contracting through the L2 vendor should the L1 vendor fail to deliver for some reason. In case the L1 vendor fails, the procurement procedure requires the entire process of RFP to be repeated involving critical delays in procuring vital
equipment for the defence services. An example is the hand-held light weight Laser Target Designators for our Special Forces, the RFP for which was floated some 8-9years back, but the critical equipment is still not provisioned since the L1 vendor had failed to deliver in the first instance.
What is Required?
We urgently need the following: • Formulation and issue of a National Security Strategy (NSS). • A LTIPP based on the NSS. • Allocation of adequate defence budget in accordance with the NSS and the LTIPP. • Appointment of a Chief of Defence Staff to ensure implementation and monitoring of the NSS and LTIPP in the defence services. • Decentralisation (in stages) of defence expenditure to the services from existing bureaucratic controls. • Prohibit surrender of funds for defence modernisation, usher in bureaucratic accountability and permit carry forward of unexpended funds to next financial year. • Institute standing Empowered Committees for procurement of critical equipment in a time bound manner. • Replace the Best Bid/L1 Factor with the Best Technology Bid. • Permit automatic procurement through L2 vendor without any loss of time should the L1 vendor fail to deliver. • Have a separate DPP for Information Systems and Communications with telescoped gestation period of not more than 12 to 14 months.
Stagnation of defence modernisation over the past successive years has serious ramifications for national security. The issue is all the more significant with the aggressiveness of a rising China, the US arming Pakistan, and Pakistan’s recourse to terrorism. Failure to take note and rectify can lead to situations far worse than 1962. We have no option but to crystallise the larger vision through a national security strategy and speedily equip our defence forces, streamlining the defence procurement procedure, to meet the future challenges. SP
See you at
Eurosatory 2010 Hall No.: 6 Stand No.: A310 Date: June 14-18, 2010 Venue: Paris, France
Te c hnolog y
Fix up LOOSE ENDS
Real-time imagery is crucial to our national security, be it external or internal, defence and homeland security. The initiative perforce will have to be taken up by the MoD, MHA and Ministry of Science and Technology in conjunction with the military, RAW, NTRO, IB, etc. Perhaps the lead can best be taken by the Prime Minister’s Office through issue of a directive to the Cabinet Secretary and the National Security Advisor. LT GENERAL (RETD) P.C. KATOCH
he Indian populace got its first taste of real-time communication links and the advent of aggressive media coverage when they were able to view the Kargil War from their bedrooms. Today, everyone from the man on the battlefield to the entire chain of command and control right up to the chief political executive and the populace are on the same real time grid. Battlefield Transparency (BFT) is the buzzword. If you can see the adversary before he sees you and if you can monitor his moves throughout, the victory scales would axiomatically tilt in your favour. Application of real-time imagery has tremendous military potential, in that, it not only ushers BFT, it helps compress the observe, orient, decide and act (OODA) cycle also. Implication of present day technology for the military is that decisions have to be taken with great swiftness and efficacy—and the entire, consultation—decision-making process has to be radically reviewed.
ery is critical to defence, besides the many benefits it provides for civilian applications. A successful military must have access to real-time imagery, automatically filtering and sharing it at required levels. This is vital in modern era wars where weapons can deliver thousands of tonnes of ordnance with precision and mostly in standoff mode over enormous distances in very short time and the need for the military to be capable of netcentric warfare. The threats to a nation are more varied and complicated than ever before and detailed imagery analysis is needed in addition to the naked eye watching the monitors. Surveillance of military targets, border areas and for homeland security requires
mission-critical surveillance applications since it enables imaging through atmospheric obscurants like fog, haze, dust and smoke. The 3D maps and geographical information system (GIS) are the need at every level to fight future wars successfully. This is possible with panoramic image fusion (PIF) creating a 3D environment; making peripheral vision just as clear as seen in front of the eye. Research is on to combine light intensity direction and ranging (LIDAR) sensors with thermal imaging and X-ray backscatter techniques to create near-real-time 3D pictures of buildings and streets. With the addition of radar, the system could even detect objects and people inside the buildings. Troops using 3D maps for urban operations will be able
Real time imagery at times gets accredited to only satellite imagery of the Google Earth variety that is web-based. Not only are satellites part of the product base, web-based imagery may well be dated and not “real time” in actual sense. Today, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) relay live coverage of the area of operations, playing the role of “eyes in the sky”. A Special Forces operative using a hand held digital device streams video coverage of the target/target area directly to the pilot of the en route attack aircraft. Imageries captured by Hand Held Thermal Imagers (HHTIs) are being streamed up the chain of command to show terrorist movements. Ground, air and sea based surveillance devices, in addition to satellites, provide day and night satellite imagery of the battle area or areas where disaster has struck, Satellite imagery providers offer a comprehensive compilation of satellite products reproduced in graphical form. The service is provided on a 24x7 basis and the image files displayed are automatically refreshed with the latest, openly available data from the satellites. In addition, the archive of dated images is also provided. The real-time images service incorporates satellite image-data loops, visualised products derived from satellite data and a selection of RGB composite images that provide multi-spectral information content for optimum visualisation. While real-time imagery can be derived from multiple sources and surveillance devices, what is critical is the software to analyse and more importantly share it simultaneously with users at various levels. ‘Interoperability’ and ‘Enterprise Architecture’ are vital issues, both for interservice and intra-service functioning.
The fact that battlefield transparency is vital to the military requires little emphasis. Surveillance is critical to every facet of national security and hence real-time imag-
Illustration: SP Guide Pubns
Real Time Imagery
much more than several monitors. Today, a variety of tools are available for surveillance users, such as infrared short-wave and long-wave, image fusion, satellite links, and video streamed from UAVs. Technology can provide impressive detailed surveillance in many ways, but system integrators continue to look for better ways of interpreting the detailed night and day images these modern tools provide. Video analytics, image fusion, and high-definition capability are just some of the methods being developed. The software must cater for filtering/analysing the information from multi-intelligence sources within the video and be able to tag, sort, catalogue and share digital footage in real time. This has become all the more important, as a variety of increasingly sophisticated surveillance tools are being added periodically. Eventual aim is to get more interactive through touch-screen capability where the operator can touch a piece of data in the stream to pull more detailed information. Military users continue to demand more and more digital capability and high definition (HD) imagery. At the same time, short wave infrared (SWIR) technology is required for
to identify targets, determine best routes to approach terrorist sites and “virtually walk through” buildings to rehearse operations. Since LIDAR provides dimensions of doors, windows and alleys with millimetre accuracy, the technology could even be used for choosing appropriate weapons for a mission.
The Indian Scene
Remote-sensing and satellite technologies have become an essential part of security world wide, especially in the field of defence. Bhuvan, India’s own mapping service was launched in 2009 by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), though its coverage is restricted to the Indian continent. It offers multi layer 10 metre resolution imagery as compared to 200 metre single layer imagery by Google Earth. The update frequency is one year in comparison to four years of Google Earth. The package offers information in regard to geographic location, maps, imagery, etc. In addition to satellite imagery, long-distance laser scanning technology and digital photography is also used to provide geographical information. Bhuvan uses data from seven satellites
which includes Resourcesat-1 and other cartographic satellites. Masking is obviously incorporated in order to shield strategic assets/important locations. The potential of Bhuvan would actually be optimised once the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) is fully integrated with the relevant ministries/departments like forest, water resources, surface, etc. At the moment, Defence Image Processing and Analysis Centre (DIPAC) is providing satellite imagery to the military. However, the military requires imagery of very high resolution to meet future requirements. The army is in the process of establishing an enterprise GIS that should have come a decade ago. This will be a prelude to setting up a Defence Spatial Data Infrastructure (DSDI) duly integrated with the NSDI. UAVs and a host of surveillance devices are in use with the army, navy and air force, but interoperability within the services is still a distant dream. The strategic highway to be provided by the Defence Communications Network (DCN) is still a few years away. The Army Strategic Operational Information Dissemination System (ASTROIDS) of the army is under development. Significantly, the ASTROIDS and its compatriots Sangharsh of the navy and TADIDS of the air force have different protocols and standards and hence have no interoperability. Hence, even when the DCN (which is only a highway) does come through, interoperability will continue to be a casualty in absence of common software. This issue needs urgent attention. The present-day UAVs are designed for real-time imagery intelligence, artillery adjustment, battle damage assessment, reconnaissance and surveillance, target acquisition and battlefield observation. Similarly, other surveillance devices of the three services need to be integrated at lower/every possible level in order to provide a seamless common operational picture (COP) and for maximising potential of all available weapons. Situational awareness currently in the army is ad hoc, whereas the requirement is of an integrated network system, particularly at the cutting edge; an integration tool supporting individual soldier to Battalion Group/ Combat Group Commander in the Tactical Battle Area (TBA) that can provide in near real time an appropriate, common and comprehensive tactical picture by integrating inputs from all elements. Due to this void, the common operating picture (COP) too is ad hoc. To bridge this gap, the IA has planned fielding of the Battlefield Management System (BMS) at Battalion Group/Combat Group level and below as part of capability building. This would enable a faster decision process by commanders at all echelons, better decision due to reliable operational information provided in real time and the ability to quickly close the sensor to shooter loop. The BMS is to be integrated with other components of the Tactical Command, Control, Communications and Information (Tac C3I) System through the Command Information and Decision Support System (CIDSS). 2/2010 SP’S LAND FORCES
Facing the Brunt
Continued from page 4
Regiment Commander. The system will be further integrated with the tactical command, control, communications and information system (Tac C3I) through the Command Information Decision Support System (CIDSS). The Directorate General of Information System (DGIS) is charged with facilitating transformation of the IA into a dynamic network-centric force, achieving information superiority through effective management of information technology. Quite logically, Phase III of F-INSAS (computer sub-system, radio sub-system, software and software integration) should be part of the BMS. However, infantry has been adamant that Phase III of F-INSAS should be developed by Infantry and not be part of BMS. A separate project of software and communication integration by infantry will be retrograde, delay overall net-centricity pan army, incur additional avoidable costs and defeat the very purpose that DGIS was created for, considerable work in the fields of geographical information system (GIS) and applications having already been done by the latter in addition to completing Phase 1 of CIDSS and Battlefield Surveillance System (BSS). While the IA required the BMS ‘yesterday’, squabbling on delimitation between the BMS and F-INSAS has already cost a delay to Phase 1 of BMS by more than nine months. The infantry has been haggling that Phase III of F-INSAS be developed by them in full or at least till company/platoon level. If F-INSAS is to incorporate situational awareness and GIS then it amounts to not only ‘re-inventing the wheel’ but will require yet another project to integrate the F-INSAS with the BMS implying infructuous and avoidable additional expenditure and time. Foreign armies have faced similar situations and “we need to learn from their mistakes rather than going through the same mistakes”. In UK, Future Integrated Soldier Technology (FIST) programme for infantry was thought of 10 years after the Bowman programme. In the latter, the C2 system went down to half squad. The Platoon Commander carries both the Bowman and the FIST. In case the section has to function independently, the Section Commander carries both the Bowman and FIST. Separate FINSAS and BMS could lead us to similar situations which should be unacceptable. FBCB2 was implemented in 1998 in the US Army. Land Warrior was started late, prototyped in 2005 and foreclosed in 2007, leading to Future Force Warrior
Core System Warning Sensors (A-, B-, C-, Radar-, Health-, Laser-, IFF Device, Landmine Detection Sensor)
Inertial Navigation System
Clothing, Protection and Carrying System (FFW) programme being started. Land Warrior did not integrate with FBCB2. As a result, FBCB2 is being replaced by JBCS (Joint Battle Command System) which goes down to the soldier. Significantly, FFW programme is looking only at the soldier ensemble to include weapon, protection and integrated helmet. The future soldier programme will not have a radio of its own but JTRS Cluster 5 Radio (Soldier Radio), common to all the US soldiers and a common SA and computer from JBCS. Helmet will have a helmet mounted display and earphones as well as microphone. System of systems are about integrating systems and empowering the user. The soldier is only a part of the network; he is not responsible for the network. Separate F-INSAS and BMS programmes will lead to issues related to interoperability and integration of systems as the systems may be developed by different agencies using different platforms. Development of different systems for the same purpose will accrue avoidable additional costs on account of yet another integration project. Maintenance of dis-
parate systems would be required and it would be difficult to achieve test bed of an integrated Combat Group or Infantry Battalion Group. It would be prudent for the Infantry to only develop Phases 1 and II of the F-INSAS, leaving development of Phase III as part of the BMS.
Penny Wise Approach
Some of the procurements have been following the “penny wise, pound foolish approach”. When the hand held thermal imagers (HHTIs) were initially procured, only one charger per four HHTIs was provisioned. This caused considerable problems since widely dispersed infantry company deployments in Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) faced major problem in re-charging. The result was locally manufactured improvised chargers; not the best arrangement for top level serviceability. Night sights for rifles too were provisioned at the rate of one per four rifles. Similarly, when the artillery procured laser target designators for the Krasnopol ammunition, only one charger was procured for several designators. Then, we also have the tendency to
super hype fielding of a particular piece of weapon or equipment to such an extent that it gives the false pretext of ‘total modernisation’ having been effected. For example, while the Special Forces were equipped with the Tavor assault rifles some time back with plenty fanfare, important equipment like hand held light weight laser target designators are yet to be provisioned. While Modification 4B is not fully effected despite approval in 1998 and FINSAS is a few years away, the infantry is woefully short of even items like compasses, GPS, bullet proof jackets (BPJs), bullet proof patkas (BPPs), cold weather clothing, rappelling ropes and even tents. The quality of personal clothing and equipment leaves much to desire. Current plans to provide Ghatak Platoons of infantry battalions with anti-terrorist equipment and training too are myopic. Considering the speedy expansion of terror, asymmetric and fourth generation wars, it should be very apparent that the requirement is to equip complete infantry battalions and that too on emergent basis. How many individuals of the Ghatak Platoon will be on leave, courses and temporary duties out of the unit when emergencies occur? When we acknowledge that terrorists can use radiological/dirty bombs and chemical attacks, why are we not giving even basic gas masks to every soldier? Logically, a gas mask should be available to every citizen in the market, as is available in Israel.
What needs to be done?
• While the F-INSAS and Modification 4B are ongoing, there is a crying need to boost the combat capability of the infantry by provisioning 100 per cent night fighting capability, navigation equipment, fire power, BPJs, BPPs, and rappelling ropes, etc. In terms of BPJs, our infantry today (less deployments in J&K) is no better than what state of Mumbai police was during 26/11. The money spent on modernisation of infantry in past decades has been miniscule considering the expenditure on balance modernisation plans especially considering the combined strength of the infantry, RR, Infantry (TA) vis-a-vis the overall strength of the IA. More significantly, the fiscal requirement of modernising the complete infantry is extremely small compared to weapon systems. It is only a question of taking a decision and executing it speedily. A holistic modernisation plan needs to be chalked out and implemented with alacrity.
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2/2010 SP’S LAND FORCES
• Above holistic plan for modernisation of the infantry should be backed up with adequate modernisation funds, with provision to carry forward unexpended funds into the next fiscal year. In fact, surrender of defence budget itself should be prohibited by the government and finance authorities made accountable should this happen. • Modernisation of the infantry must be treated as an ‘emergent’ requirement in consideration of the emerging threats within and surrounding the country. The 5.56mm indigenous rifle still has numerous faults despite several years of fielding and the light machine gun (LMG) produced by DRDO is so poor it is unable to clear trials. Government needs to enforce accountability on the DRDO, provide better opportunity to the private industry and ensure speedy provisioning of state of the art weapons and equipment to the infantry, especially considering the rate at which the terrorists are achieving sophistication. • Modernisation plans for the Infantry including Modification 4B, F-INSAS plus the BMS should also be applied to the RR, AR and Infantry (TA) since terrorism, asymmetric and fourth generation warfare threats will have to be
faced jointly by these forces. Such a vital decision is long overdue considering the new forms of warfare, expanding terrorist activities, including the naxal violence and instability surrounding India. • Accountability needs to be fixed for the bureaucratic intransigence in sanctioning adequate fire power, night fighting capability and certain essential equipment to RR units only in later half of 2009 despite permanent deployment in J&K with continuous engagement in low intensity conflict, albeit there is hardly any chance of this happening! Unlike foreign countries, our Ministry of Defence (MoD) has no service representation on deputation or through permanent absorption. The headquarters Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) that was to bridge this gap has come up as a separate entity, akin to another Service HQ. The government needs to seriously review this setup and bring in service experience into the MoD. • The original concept of RR envisaging 75 per cent ex-servicemen and 25 per cent army personnel on deputation was grossly flawed and never took off. RR was supposed to have relieved the burden of infantry combating insurgency in J&K. Since no ex-servicemen joined RR,
the burden on the infantryman actually went up with successive tenures in the parent unit in field plus in RR units. The original concept also envisaged RR to be funded by MHA which necessitated a separate budget for the RR. This too did not take off and hence RR continues to be funded from the Defence Budget but under a head separate from infantry. This is not only infructuous, it creates numerous problems in accounting with joint deployments and movement of infantry and RR as the norm. Budget of RR needs to be merged with that of the infantry. This will result in savings and ease accounting. The RR needs to be merged and equated with regular infantry, which in effect the RR already is. • De-limitation between the BMS programme and the F-INSAS needs to be done without further loss of time. Lack of it has unduly delayed infantry’s progression towards network centricity by several months. Not only should Phase III of F-INSAS (computer sub system, radio sub system, software and software integration) be developed as part of the BMS, it would be prudent that Project Management Organisation (PMO) of F-INSAS be placed under the DGIS for this. PMOs Artillery Command
Control & Communications System (ACCCS) and Air Defence Control & Reporting System (ADC&RS) have been functioning under DGIS rather than the Directorate General of Artillery and Directorate General of Army Air Defence respectively due to the same logic. After all, it is the DGIS who is in charge of facilitating transformation of the IA into a dynamic network-centric force (the very basis of its raising), while issues of weapons, body armour, clothing, individual equipment and target acquisition system for the infantry (Phases 1 and II of F-INSAS) are within the purview of the infantry themselves.
Modernisation of the infantry has not been given its due in past decades. The IA is to be prepared for short, intense hi-tech war, metric and fourth generation wars where the infantry faces the brunt at the cutting edge, even as terrorists/non-state actors are getting more and more sophisticated. Delay in modernisation has direct bearing on combat efficiency in coping with threats to national security and lives of the infantryman. We need to act and act fast. SP The author is a former Director General, Information Systems, IA.
J o i nt Exerci se
Strengthening Ties The political and economic links between India and Singapore improved after the end of the Cold War. In August 2008, both states entered into a bilateral defence agreement for joint training exercises in India. The latest in the series codenamed Bold Kurukshetra was recently held in Babina. LT GENERAL (RETD) V.K. KAPOOR
SP’S LAND FORCE S 2/ 2 01 0
he current close relations between Singapore and India are in sharp contrast to their distant relations during the Cold War. The end of the Cold War and collapse of the Soviet Union caused the political leadership to relook at India’s geopolitical and strategic equations globally. The decision to open up economically was complementary to the political and strategic moves. It is during this period that the political and economic links between India and Singapore improved. Defence relations between the two countries has also shown rapid improvements which demonstrate the strides made in bilateral ties. Singapore and India have a mutual interest in maintaining the security of the regional sea lanes, and therefore naval cooperation was designed to be mutually advantageous. The close naval collaboration was therefore a confidence-building mechanism that later became a model for cooperation among other branches of their militaries. In 2003, the conclusion of the Defence Cooperation Agreement again improved bilateral defence ties as it facilitated the ensuing establishment of the annual India-Singapore Defence Policy Dialogue. The dialogue aimed to provide a regular forum for both sides to discuss defence cooperation as well as regional and defence issues. The first such meeting was conducted in Singapore in March 2004. These confidence-building mechanisms led to further developments in defence cooperation. In 2004, Exercise SINDEX 04 was held in Central India. In 2005, both militaries conducted their first joint artillery and armour exercises codenamed Ex Agni Warrior
and Ex Bold Kurukshetra and these were held at Deolali and Babina (near Jhansi) respectively. The signing of the 2007 Joint Military Exercises agreement allows the Singapore Air Force to train at Indian military bases in Kalaikunda, West Bengal, for five years, in return for payment and the understanding that the Singapore Air Force maintains and upgrades the Indian facilities provided. The significance of the military agreement was that for the first time the Indian government allowed the stationing of foreign troops on its soil. In November 2008, a three-week long joint air force training exercise was conducted, which Singapore’s Ministry of Defence considered as yet another significant
In 2004, Exercise SINDEX 04 was held in Central India. In 2005, both militaries conducted their first joint artillery and armour exercises codenamed Ex Agni Warrior and Ex Bold Kurukshetra and these were held at Deolali and Babina (near Jhansi) respectively.
milestone in bilateral defence relations. In August 2008, both countries entered into another bilateral defence agreement that allowed their infantry forces to undertake joint training exercises in India. India’s willingness to allow all three branches of the Singapore military to train on Indian soil is a strong indicator of this rapidly developing bilateral relationship. In less than 30 years, the non-existent defence relations between Singapore and India are now characterised by close and enduring cooperation. The latest in the series of armour exercises codenamed Bold Kurukshetra was held in Babina on March 26 and 27, 2010 under the aegis of the Indian Armoured division located there. Singapore Minister of State for Defence Koo Tsai Kee and Singapore’s High Commissioner to India Calvin Eu, along with a delegation of ten dignitaries witnessed the bilateral exercise. The visit once again underscored the warm defence relations between both countries. Major-General Neo Kian Hong of Singapore Army said, “To what I have seen today, I’m pleased to say that what we have achieved here eventually is what we had asked for. For this, I extend my appreciation to Indian Army for allowing us to train in India.” Elements of the Singaporean Army had started their training on March 1 under the supervision of the Armoured Division of Indian Army and the training also included professional exchange between the two armies in the form of lectures, presentations, familiarisation with the other army’s equipment, tactical discussions, and sandmodel exercises. SP
Photographs: Abhishek / SP Guide Pubns
S h ow R epor t
A Success STORY
Defexpo India 2010 saw the largest congregation ever of products and companies from across the world. The exhibition ground set the stage for many pacts and deals between global industry giants. SUCHETA DAS MOHAPATRA
he Indian defence market is increasing in size. This was evident at Defexpo 2010 which saw the largest ever conglomeration of companies from across the world. The sixth edition of the biennial Land and Naval Defence System Exhibition held at New Delhi had 650 exhibitors with 200 new entrants from 33 countries. It witnessed an increase in industry participation by about 45 per cent compared to Defexpo 2008. Inaugurating the show, Defence Minister A.K. Antony declared that India will very soon publish the ‘Technology Perspective and Capability Roadmap’. The roadmap highlighting the military requirements of India’s defence forces for the next 15 years shall be displayed on the Ministry of Defence website. It will make the defence pocurement process transparent and speedy. The Defence Minister added that India’s defence expenditure will increase in proportion to the GDP growth of the country. “India’s defence expenditure is about 2.5 per cent of its GDP. The Indian economy is expected to grow at 8-10 per cent for the next two decades. Expenditure on defence in absolute terms is bound to increase in equal proportion,” said Antony. Speaking on the defence offsets policy, the Union Minister informed that changes are being made to render the offsets policy more feasible. “Offset banking is now part of the defence offsets policy and the licensing conditions have also been rationalised. Necessary administrative structures have been put in place in the Ministry of Defence to facilitate offset banking,” he said.
Over the years, Defexpo India has grown as an important event in the global defence and aerospace exhibition calendar, showcasing
all aspects of defence technologies available worldwide. But Defexpo 2010 had much more on display. Besides the products, the exhibition ground set the stage for innumerable of pacts and agreements between global industry giants. Israel’s Rafael Advanced Defence Systems Ltd declared its plans to start a joint venture with Bharat Electronics Limited to develop advanced missile systems. The proposed facility will be scaled up to develop new technologies in missile seekers depending on the projects it can secure from India. Larsen & Toubro joined hands with Raytheon on a JV to upgrade Indian Army T-72 tanks. As a part of the proposal, Raytheon will provide infrared imaging sights and electronics to improve the target accuracy and increase in overall system lethality for the T-72, while L&T will provide fire control system, sensors and the final integration along with customer support to the Indian Army which retains the T-72 tanks. Thales announced the launch of Vigile LW, a new, lightweight, naval Radar Electronic Support Measures system set to redefine situational awareness for small vessels. Rockwell Collins was awarded a contract for Electronic Counter-Counter Measure radio modules by Electronic Corporation of India Ltd (ECIL). The component hardware card sets will be integrated into groundbased ultra high frequency (UHF) radios for use by the Indian Defence for Command and Control of ground-to-ground and groundto-air communications.
DG AAD Lt General Ram Pratap (centre) at SP’s stand
The newly formed joint venture company of Mahindra & Mahindra Limited
Senior Executives of Mahindra & Mahindra and BAE Systems
2/2010 SP’S LAND FORCES
and BAE Systems Defence Land Systems India unveiled the Mine Protected Vehicle India (MPVI). The first product of the joint venture company, the MPVI will meet the requirements of both the Indian armed and paramilitary forces. With a large seating capacity, the MPVI is capable of safely transporting a complete operational team of army or police forces involved in anti-terrorist and anti-Naxal operations. High power weight ratio and very high torque makes the vehicle suitable for Indian terrain, and especially the mountainous region of Jammu and Kashmir and the bumby landscapes in Naxal dominated areas. “The MPVI is relevant to the needs of our defence forces today. Its enhanced protection technologies will protect the lives of more number of defence forces from mines and roadside bomb attacks. It is critical to India’s defence and security,” said Anand Mahindra, Vice Chairman and Managing Director, Mahindra and Mahindra. The MPVI is based on BAE Systems’ three decades of protection experience that resulted in the highly successful RG 31. “We are extremely proud to unveil the joint venture’s very first product which has been tailor-made for the Indian armed forces,” said Andrew Gallagher, President, BAE Systems. Unveiling three of its new products, the Hinduja Group’s Flagship Company Ashok Leyland, announced its entry into the market for armoured vehicles in India. The three new vehicles showcased were Armoured Stallion, the Armoured Bus and the Mine Protected Vehicle. “With these new offerings, we will serve the forces in other fronts in terms of product opportunities,” said Vinod K. Dasari, Chief Operating Officer and director, Ashok Leyland. The Armoured Stallion is an upgraded version of the Stallion 4X4 vehicle with an armoured cab and lad body for combat war superiority without any compromise on the vehicle’s operational parameters. Armoured Bus has been developed in response to the Indian Army’s requirement to transport army personnel and families in insurgency-infected areas. Mine Protected Vehicle is a multipurpose all-terrain vehicle with high mobility, high protection and multi-mission capabilities. It is a versatile performer.
Mine Protected Vehicle India by Defence Land Systems India
DRDO’s multi-barrel rocket launcher Pinaka
Two of the world’s powerful howitzers, the FH77 B05 towed howitzer and M777, the ultralight howitzer, were a part of BAE Systems presence at the Defexpo. Next to the M777, on the Defence Land Systems India stand was the FH77 B05, the upgraded and more powerful version of FH77 B02 in service with the Indian Army and known for its performance during the Kargil conflict. A wide spectrum of safety offerings for law enforcement and military; including the new patented Kevlar(R) XP(TM) technology, were introduced at the Defexpo by DuPont Protection Technologies. Nomex(R) is widely used in the production of fire resistant garments, and Kevlar(R) is used for the manufacture of bullet resistant body armour, helmets and vehicle armour. They are extensively used around the world by the military and law enforcement communities. The new patented Kevlar(R) XP technology provides superior performance for ballistic vests, especially in terms of weight and trauma control, and has been adopted by many countries since its global launch. The exhibition provided an opportunity for DuPont to promote and introduce these offerings in India, as well as meeting many potential customers. Maxtech Networks (Maxtech), the Israel based creator of voice optimised mobile mesh networking technology showcased its Savion handheld radio. The Savion Radio technology is helpful in times of distress when any traditional communication infrastructure collapses, especially in special situations such as earthquake, floods, etc. The technology is able to provide groups of users with unlimited mobility and coverage without the need
SP’S LAND FORCE S 2/ 2 01 0
Ashok Leyland’s mine protected vehicle
ST Kinetics’ Warthog
of any physical infrastructure. This breakthrough solution offers 100 per cent guaranteed and seamless connectivity irrespective of the situation or the geographic diversity. The solution has diverse applications in mining, construction, heavy engineering, military, hospitality and the private security industry as well, to name a few. It is equally viable for all large enterprises and can enable the personnel in the most remote and distant locations to be in touch with each other. The technology interoperates seamlessly with existing network facilities. National Instruments showcased wideband data recorder, software defined radio, spectral monitoring system, portable ATE for radios, GPS Spoofer for Countermeasure applications, Integrated Combat Vehicle Management System for Military, Audio Data Recorder and Playback, Unattended Wireless Sensor Networks for Border Security, Acoustic Gunshot Location Detector and TDOA based system for Direction Finding. Lockheed Martin showcased a broad range of land and naval defence products at the Defexpo. Orville Prins, Vice President, Business Development, India, Lockheed Martin briefed on the F-16IN Super Viper, the C-130J, the MH-60R Multirole Helicopter Weapon System and the Apache Systems. At the defence exhibition, Selex Galileo, a Finmeccanica Company, connected with the need to modernise existing platforms with next-generation sensor systems focusing on Surveillance, Protection, Land & Battlespace and Simulation & Training. At the Defexpo, Sagem officials said they are looking for Indian partners for the sale of Felin, the French soldier modernisation programme. A Sagem spokesperson said that they want to bring their expertise in soldier modernisation programme to India and are on the lookout for partners. The aim of the programme is to help soldiers fight with newer technology. Sagem which has a background in electro-optical, technology, communication, etc, has developed a complete soldier modernisation system and aims to customise it for India. Saab displayed the various programmes they have for India including missile defence, maritime patrol aircraft, Saab 340 MSA, Grippen, etc. The company is looking for 20:30 business opportunities in India. The maritime patrol system is on demand from the coast guard and navy. A company official said that they are looking for business (PSUs and private partners) and a win-win situation. Rafael presented a broad spectrum of Breaching and Urban Warfare Devices. They included Simon/Grem, Matador AS, Matador WB, Matador MP, Urban Star, the Tactical Broadband Network (TacMAX), Iron Dome System, and Spike NLOS, the most recent addition to Rafael’s Spike Missiles, which can be used by infantry units as well as mounted on combat vehicles, attack helicopters and naval vessels. General Dynamics UK Ltd displayed its capabilities as a leading integrator of technology and systems, delivering decisive advantage for military and government customers at the exhibition. Likewise, Punj Lloyd Group displayed weapon systems proposed to be developed for the Indian market.
Public Figures At The Show
Visitors at the Defexpo included both renowned figures and students from different technical colleges of Delhi. The SP’s stall at Hall no- 14 also became a major crowdpuller during the show. Defence Minister A.K. Antony, Minister of States Dr. M.M. Pallam Raju, Member of Parliament and industrialist Naveen Jindal and many other dignitaries visited the stall during the Defexpo. Union Minister of State for Communication and IT Sachin Pilot also visited the expo.
Defexpo India 2012 Tata’s mine protected vehicle
A biennial event, the seventh edition of the Defexpo will be held from February 9 to February 12, 2012, as stated by the Ministry of Defence. SP
2/ 2010 SP’S LAND FORCES
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