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The only Naval magazine for Navies across Asia-Pacific

 Lead Story

Page 4 Galloping Barak-8 The development of naval variant of Barak-8 missile systems is progressing most satisfactorily with a series of successful onboard test firing. Rear Admiral Sushil Ramsay (Retd)

Page 5 India’s Anti-submarine Warfare Capability on the Brink

Project 15B –

Multi-Mission Destroyers on the Roll

At present the force level of submarines with the Indian Navy is just 13 which includes nine of Sindhughosh class and four of Shishumar class. Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd)

If the professed construction and fitting out schedules of Project 15B are adhered to, it will be vying with the most exacting and efficient warship building standards practised by the leading US and European shipbuilders Photograph: Indian Navy

Page 7 Indo-Russian Strategic Partnership–No Reset Required Russia is an old and reliable all-weather friend of India, and the only country that provided nuclear submarines to India Lt General P.C. Katoch (Retd)

Page 7 Western Fleet Ships on Flag Showing Mission Page 8 Railgun–Weapon of the Future The Railgun made its public debut during the Navy’s Future Force Science and Technology Expo held at the Washington Convention Center in February 2015. Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd)

Page 9 Up Periscope-Down Periscope; Submarine’s Eye at Sea The periscope is the eye of the submarine and is meant to keep a watch on the surface without it being detected by surface craft or from the air. Modern optronic masts include precise, high-resolution optics and integrated sensor packaging. Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd)

News in Brief Appointments

Applied for

11 11

n  Rear Admiral Sushil Ramsay (Retd)


oon after the acquisition of Soviet-origin guided missile destroyers, the Indian Navy’s Naval Design Bureau decided to expand their own indigenous stable inventory to include design of guided missile destroyers. The result was suc-

cessful evolution of Project 15 destroyers, which later came to be known as the Delhi class. While the indigenous project design had both Soviet and Western design influences, naval designers came up with a marvel of ab initio design of a guided missile destroyer. Thus from the stable of Project 15, Indian Navy ships Delhi, Mysore and Mumbai were born which now

occupy the ‘Frontline Ships’ status of the Indian Navy. The efficacy of the design of Project 15 was substantially established when INS Delhi withstood the severest of cyclonic conditions when trapped for 48 hours in the South China Sea and successfully came out of it without any damage to the structure and the systems. The Indian Naval Design Bureau was



 Lead Story


The successful launching of guided missile destroyer Mormugao on September 17, 2016, at the Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) by Mrs. Reena Lanba, wife of CNS Admiral Sunil Lanba, was a silver lining in the otherwise strained and tense environment of India due to the ongoing protests in the area between Pir Panjal Range and main Himalayas range of Kashmir, and the attack on the forward military base of Uri. Mormugao is the second ship of Project 15B and incorporates new design concepts for improved survivability, seakeeping, stealth and manoeuvrability. Enhanced stealth features have been enshrined through shaping of hull and use of radar transparent deck fittings which make these ships difficult to detect. These ships are also packed with an array of state-of-

the-art weapons and sensors, including vertically launched missile system. Speaking on the occasion, the chief guest, Admiral Sunil Lanba, said ­ that “this event is yet another moment of truth for the Indian Navy and India’s quest for selfreliance and indigenisation. The Indian Navy stands fully committed to the call of ‘Make in India’ and we are extremely proud of the fact that all of our warships and submarines on order today are being constructed within the country”. The CNS also commended the synergic partnership of MDL, Indian Navy, Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), Ordnance Factory Board (OFB), Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) and other public sector enterprises. Indian Navy also sails steadily towards making Prime Minister Narendra

Modi’s vision of ‘Make in India’ a reality. Thus the lead article is all about Project 15B. Indian Navy’s anti-submarine warfare (ASW) capabilities have been analysed in depth to infer that they are on the brink due to voids in all the elements which go into making ASW a force to reckon with. The force level of submarines is down to 13, the number of ASW/ multirole helicopters has dwindled to about one-fifth of their requirement thus a large number of high-end ships are without their cover, Black Shark was to be fitted on India’s Scorpene Submarines but is waiting for a goahead from the Indian Ministry of Defence and also more number of Active Towed Array Sonars are required. A brief write-up on IndoRussia Strategic Partnership gives an insight into the

decades-long relationship with Russia. Then there are articles on Barak-8 SAM which is a joint project of DRDO and Israel Aerospace Industries, Railgun and submarine periscope, to keep you readers abreast of developments in naval technologies. This issue as usual wraps up with the News in Brief and Appointments. We sign off with a very Happy Dussehra and prosperous Deepawali to all you discerning readers.

Jayant BaranwaL Publisher & Editor-in-Chief

PhotographS: Indian Navy

of long-distance engagement of shore and sea-based targets. With significant indigenous content, these ships stand in true testimony of self-reliance attained by our country in the warship design and shipbuilding. DRDO and the Indian industry too have contributed significantly in Indian Navy realising its vision of transforming its profile from a ‘Buyer’s Navy’ to a ‘Builder’s Navy’.

not resting on their oars and soon launched the first follow-on project which was designated as Project 15A. This project imbibed not just the technology updates in its design it also factored in all the right lessons learnt from its predecessor Project 15, to be launched with far greater efficiency and efficacy. The result was successful commissioning of the Indian Navy ships Kolkata, Kochi and Chennai. These stealth destroyers occupy the pride of place in the Frontlines with plethora of top-end technology systems, equipment and arsenal. Another unique feature of Project 15A was replacement of all major Russian-origin systems with either the indigenous systems or those acquired from the West through arrangements of transfer of technology. Taking a long-term perspective of the Indian Navy’s capability build up to be the net maritime security provider of the nation, reviews of the existing designs of the ships for upgrades to include emerging technologies and design features, as also to add designs of the newer classes of platform are the main focus areas of the Directorate General of Naval Design (DGND). Project 15B has thus emerged as the latest class of stealth guided missile destroyers. By increasing the cavitation inception speed the hydrodynamic noises and vibrations have been effectively reduced at the cruising speed in each of the ships of Project 15B.

Projects 15A and 15B – A Comparison

Project 15B The first ship of Project 15B guided missile destroyer was christened as Visakhapatnam and launched on April 20, 2015, at the Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) in Mumbai by Mrs Minu Dhowan, wife of Admiral R.K. Dhowan, former Chief of the Naval Staff. Visakhapatnam is the first of the line of four destroyers of the class designed by the Directorate of Naval Design and bear the testimony to the acclaimed legacy of the naval designers. The ship is being built by MDL, the premier warship builders of the nation. Each stealth destroyers of Project 15B has a displacement of 7,300 tonnes, spans 163 metres in length and 17.4 metres at the beam. It is powered by four gas turbines and is capable of cruising at speed greater than 30 knots. The ships are designed to carry two multi-role helicopters. Project 15B destroyers incorporate new design concepts for improved survivability, seakeeping, stealth and manoeuvrability. Enhanced stealth features have been enshrined through shaping of hull and use of radar transparent deck fittings which



(Top) Chief of the Naval Staff Admiral Sunil Lanba addressing at the launch of the Mormugao at MDL in Mumbai on September 17, 2016; (above) Mormugao floats on her own post launch

Timelines for Project 15B Ships Name

Yard No


Laid down




D 66

October 12, 2013

April 20, 2015



D 67

June 14, 2015

September 17, 2016



D 68

2022 (expected)



D 69

2024 (expected)

make these ships difficult to detect. These ships are also packed with an array of state-

Commissioning July 2018 (expected) 2020 (expected)

of-the-art weapons and sensors, including vertically launched missile system capable

The differences between the Project 15A Kolkata class destroyers and the Project 15B Visakhapatnam class destroyers are not much since they both share the same hull design. However, the internal fittings and fixtures of the two classes are significantly different. Some of the key elements of differences are discussed below. The Visakhapatnam class destroyers will be armed with a 127mm main gun while the Kolkata class are armed with 76mm super rapid gun mount (SRGM). Both classes share the AK-630 close-in anti-missile gun system. The sonar of this class will be bow mounted and will feature a revised bridge layout. The ship embodies features such as multiple fire zones, total atmospheric control system (TACS) for air-conditioning, battle damage control systems (BDCS), distributional power systems and emergency DA to enhance survivability and reliability in emergent scenarios. The design of the mast, which houses the main radar, has been revised. The Visakhapatnam class will have a fullfledged total atmosphere control system to provide its crew greater protection in a nuclear, chemical or biological warfare scenario. The ships will have a rail-less helicopter traversing system to secure the helicopter they carry in higher sea states. Compared to Project 15A destroyers, which have been recently inducted, Project 15B ships will be less detectable by radar, use radar absorbent paint during its construction and its propellers will be more silent to make detection by enemy submarines and warships more difficult. The cardinal dates for Project 15B ships reflect a quantum jump in its execution. Launch of Mormugao just 17 months apart from the lead ship is indicative of the sound foundation on which Project 15B is laid. Undoubtedly, with great sense of pride one witnesses the commissioning schedule of the ships at an ambitious interval of mere two years, beginning from July 2018. If the professed construction and fitting out schedules


lead story According to the Director General Naval Design (Surface Ship Group), “These ships are among the most technologically advanced guided missile destroyers in the world, with state-ofthe-art weapons/sensors package, advanced stealth features and a high degree of automation.” of Project 15B are adhered to, it will be vying with the most exacting and efficient warship building standards practised by the leading US and European shipbuilders.

are equipped with integrated platform management system (IPMS), ship data network (SDN), automatic power management system (APMS) and combat management system (CMS). While control and monitoring of machinery and auxiliaries is achieved through the IPMS, power management is done using the APMS. The CMS performs threat evaluation and resource allocation based on the tactical picture compiled and ammunition available onboard. The SDN is the information highway on which data from all the sensors and weapons ride. The Indian Navy is aiming for a 68 per cent indigenisation threshold for the Project 15B class. The other components are being imported and integrated by MDL. Indeed, highly creditable achievement, considering the complexities on indigenously developing and producing high technology intensive equipment, systems and sensors in the ‘Move’ and ‘Fight’ segments of warship development.  SP

CNS on Scorpene Data Leak On the sidelines of launching of Mormugao on September 17, 2016, when asked by the media about the leaks of vital data on the French Scorpene submarines under construction at the Mazagon Dock Limited, Mumbai, for the Indian Navy, Admiral Sunil Lanba, Chief of the Naval Staff, stated, “There is a high-level committee which is inquiring into the Scorpene leak on our side. Similarly in France, DCNS and the French Government have launched an inquiry. Based on this inquiry, we will see what needs to be done and whether any mitigation measures are required or not. In preliminary investigation, it has been found that the leak did not happen in India but in the DCNS office in France.” Data leaked from French defence company DCNS, that runs over 22,400

pages, including crucial details of the Scorpene submarine programme of India, was reported by the newspaper, The Australian. An order by the Supreme Court of New South Wales had asked The Australian to hand over the documents to DCNS. The Indian Government has maintained that the leak will not affect the submarine programme or capability of the boat. CNS clarified that Scorpene data leak controversy won’t affect the ambitious project of building submarines in the Indian shipyards with the help of foreign shipyards. Under Project 75(I), Indian and foreign shipyards are supposed to construct in Indian shipyards. The project for building six submarines is estimated to be worth $6 billion.  SP

Mormugao Launched Another significant milestone in the annals of the indigenous warship design and construction programme of India was achieved with the launch of guided missile destroyer, Mormugao, second ship of Project 15B, on September 17, 2016, at MDL. With a launch weight of 2,844 tonnes, the vessel made its first contact with water at 11:58 a.m. with full fanfare during the launching ceremony graced by the Chief of the Naval Staff Admiral Sunil Lanba as the chief guest. In keeping with maritime traditions, Mrs. Reena Lanba, President, Naval Wives Welfare Association (NWWA), broke a coconut on the ship’s bow and launched the ship, as invocation from the Atharva Veda was being rendered. Admiral Lanba commended the synergic partnership of MDL, Indian Navy, Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), Ordnance Factory Board (OFB), Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), other public sector enterprises and the private industry in ensuring that force levels are made available to meet India’s national strategic objectives. He also congratulated DGND and his team at the Directorate of Naval Design for designing state-of-the-art warships and contributing towards achieving Indian Navy’s dream of transforming from a ‘Buyer’s Navy’ to a ‘Builder’s Navy’. With a complement of 50 officers and 250 sailors, the Project 15B destroyers are designed to be propelled by four gas turbines in combined gas and gas (COGAG) configuration and are capable of achieving speeds in excess of 30 knots with a maximum endurance of 4,000 nautical miles at sea. According to the Director General Naval Design (Surface Ship Group), “These ships are among the most technologically advanced guided missile destroyers in the world, with state-of-the-art weapons/sensors package, advanced stealth features and a high degree of automation.” The Mormugao will be armed with the BrahMos supersonic cruise missile which can hit targets on land and at sea, 300 km away and Barak surface-to-air missile system. The key sensor of the Mormugao will be Israeli-designed multi-function surveillance threat alert radar (MF-STAR), designed to track targets in the air hundreds of kilometres away. Once a lock-on is achieved, the MF-STAR can direct several Barak 8 longrange surface-to-air missiles (LR-SAM) to intercept the targets. The LR-SAM is a joint venture between India and Israel and is considered among the most sophisticated missiles of its class in the world being designed to intercept enemy aircraft and supersonic missiles more than 70 km away. These ships can truly be classified as possessing a network of networks, as these

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 n ava l missil e s

Galloping Barak-8 The development of naval variant of Barak-8 missile systems is progressing most satisfactorily with a series of successful onboard test firing Photograph: Indian Navy

A long-range surface-to-air missile Barak-8 fired from INS Kolkata

autopilot/inertial navigation system and active radar seeker guidance as the Barak8, although some modifications to the software and to the missile control surfaces are likely. The booster increases the length of the missile at launch from its current 4.5 m to nearly 6 m, although the length in flight after the booster has been jettisoned may be slightly less than the base Barak-8 missile, if a TVC is not present. The missile diameter and fin spans are thought to be the same as the base Barak-8. The booster weight is currently unknown, although the missile’s weight after the booster has been jettisoned is the same as that for the current Barak-8 configuration. As per available reports the initial operational capability (IOC) for Barak-8ER will first be declared for the naval variant, followed by IOC for the land variant. While the details of the launch customer for Barak-8ER have not been announced, it is speculated that the existing customers for Barak-8 will be interested in this configuration because it offers additional capability to their current system. The missile is expected to equip the Indian Navy’s future Project 15B, Visakhapatnam class guided missile destroyers.

Flight Tests Major Milestones zz In May 2010, the Barak-II missile was

n  Rear Admiral Sushil Ramsay (Retd)


arak means ‘Lightning’ in Hebrew. This Hebrew word has been chosen by the Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) to develop surface-to-air missile systems. Under an inter-governmental agreement between India and Israel, a joint venture has been established for the development of surface-to-air missile systems. Subsequent to the abandoned indigenous missile development programme Trishul, a new joint development project was launched by the Indian Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and IAI. Barak8, also known as the long-range surface-toair missile (LR-SAM), has been designed to defend against any type of airborne threat including aircraft, helicopters, anti-ship missiles and UAV as well as cruise missiles and combat jets up to a maximum range of 70 km. However, consequent to very successful launch of its earlier variants of short-range surface-to-air and medium-range surface-to-air missile systems the maximum range of Barak has been increased from the initial plan of 70 km to now 90 km, following “range upgrade discussions” between India and Israel during November 2014. Barak-8 was jointly developed by IAI, DRDO, Israel’s Administration for the Development of Weapons and Technological Infrastructure, Elta Systems, Rafael and other companies. Bharat Dynamics Limited



(BDL) will produce the missiles. The Israeli Navy has commenced equipping its Sa’ar 5 corvettes with the system, the first refitted vessel being the Israel Naval Ship Lahav. The Sa’ar 4.5 flotilla will be next for the upgrade. The first 32 missile array will be fitted on the Indian Navy stealth guidedmissile destroyer, INS Kolkata.

Background Barak-8 is based on the original Barak-1 missile and is expected to feature a more advanced seeker, alongside range extensions that will move it closer to mediumrange naval systems like the RIM-162 ESSM or even the SM-2 Standard. Israel successfully tested its improved Barak-II missile on July 30, 2009. The radar system provides 360-degree coverage and the missiles can take down an incoming missile as close as 500 m away from the ship. Each Barak system, comprising missile container, radar, computers and installation, costs about $24 million. In November 2009 Israel signed a $1.1-billion contract to supply an upgraded tactical Barak-8 air defence system to India.

Characteristics IAI describe Barak-8 as “an advanced, longrange missile defence and air defence system” with its main features being: zz Long range zz Two-way data link (GPS S band) zz Active radar seeker missile zz 360-degree coverage zz Vertical launch

zz Multiple Simultaneous Engagements

Barak-8 has been described as a powerful point defence anti-ballistic missile due to its combination of advanced capabilities. Detail characteristics. The Barak-8 has a length of about 4.5 m, a diameter of 0.225 m at missile body, and 0.54 m at the booster stage, a wingspan of 0.94 m and weighs 275 kg including a 60-kg warhead which detonates at proximity. The missile has maximum speed of Mach 2 with a maximum operational range of 70 km, which was later increased to 100 km. Barak-8 features a dual pulse rocket motor as well as thrust vector control (TVC), and possesses high degrees of manoeuvrability at target interception range. A second motor is fired during the terminal phase, at which stage the active radar seeker is activated to home in on to the enemy track. When coupled with a modern air defence system and multi-function surveillance track and guidance radars (such as the EL/M-2248 MF-STAR AESA onboard the Kolkata class destroyers) Barak-8 is capable of simultaneously engaging multiple targets during saturation attacks.

Barak-8ER It has been reported that an extendedrange (ER) variant of the Barak-8 is under development, which will see the missiles maximum range increased to 150 km. Designed to engage multiple beyond visual range threats, the low launch signature Barak-8ER is understood to retain the same

successfully test-fired at an electronic target and met its initial objectives. The second test of the missile was held in India later in 2010. zz On November 10, 2014, the Barak-8 was successfully test-fired in Israel with all integrated operational components for both the marine and land system. zz On November 26, 2015, a successful test was conducted on a drone target. zz On December 29, 2015, and December 30, 2015, the Indian Navy successfully testfired the Barak-8 missile from INS Kolkata. Two missiles were fired at high speed targets, during naval exercises which were undertaken in the Arabian Sea. zz On June 30, 2016, India test-fired a land-based version of Barak-8 SAM for the first time from defence integrated test range, off the Chandipur, Odisha, successfully hitting the PTA. The missile was again test-fired for second time around noon where it again successfully hit a PTA over the Bay of Bengal. The test-firing of the missile was jointly carried out by the Indian defence personnel, DRDO and IAI. zz On July 1, 2016, the medium-range SAM, land-based version was tested for the third time from the integrated test range at Chandipur and the missile successfully hit a PTA, proving its reliability. zz On September 20, 2016, India successfully test-fired surface-to-air missile Barak-8. The development of naval variant of Barak-8 missile systems is progressing most satisfactorily with a series of successful onboard test firing. Its induction on Kolkata class guided missile destroyers is at the final stages. Encouraged by the progress of the joint development project, Barak-8 has also been approved for induction onboard Project 15B, Visakhapatnam class.  SP

a n t i - s u bm a r in e w a r fa r e 


India’s Anti-Submarine

Warfare Capability on the Brink At present the force level of submarines with the Indian Navy is just 13 which includes nine of Sindhughosh class and four of Shishumar class PhotographS: Indian Navy, US Navy

Active/passive mode depends upon the countermeasures taken by the submarine. Variable Depth Sonar. In the recent past sonar arrays were hull mounted on the ship but it was found out that they required means of reducing flow noise. This was done by a canvas cover dome which was later on made of steel and then of reinforced plastic or pressurised rubber. Such sonars are primarily active in operation. An example of this is the modern hull-mounted sonar AN/ SQS-56, which features digital implementation, system control by a built-in minicomputer, and an advanced display system. The sonar is an active/passive, digital sonar providing panoramic echo ranging and panoramic passive surveillance.

n  Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd)


nti-submarine warfare (ASW) is defined as a branch of underwater warfare that employs surface warships, aircraft or submarines to find, track and deter, damage or destroy enemy submarines. The first step is to detect, track and identify followed by destruction/ degradation of the submarine.

Detection Technology and Systems The doctrine of submarine operations is based on total secrecy and stealth while on an operational mission, own submarine’s detection by the enemy could prove fatal. Thus having effective sensor systems for detection of enemy’s submarines first, provide a great advantage to own submarines and surface ships. Details of sensors in use are given in succeeding paragraphs. Visual. Earlier method of making visual detection is not that effective with modern submarines due to their low ‘indiscretion rate’. Modem conventional submarines are generally powered by diesel-electric propulsion systems. Diesel engines are used on the surface or with a snorkel to charge batteries which are used to power electric motors for propulsion. While underwater, oxygen is stored in high pressure tanks and released slowly to sustain the crew. The ‘indiscretion ratio’ is thus defined as the ratio of the time spent charging the submarine batteries, to the time elapsed for the complete discharge/charge cycle of the batteries. In a typical diesel-electric submarine, the indiscretion ratio is about 10 per cent, which increases rapidly with increasing speed. Radio interception. Radio interception was possible during the two earlier World Wars as the German submarines operated in a pack and the encryption techniques were not that sophisticated. Modern submarines transmit through methods that make the transmission difficult to detect. Radar. This was an effective sensor during World War II for detecting surfaced submarines. With the development of the snorkel and the advent of nuclear-powered submarines; submarines rarely surfaced outside their home port thus it was not possible to detect them with radar.

Sonar Sonar (sound navigation and ranging) has emerged as the primary means of detecting submerged submarines. It has multiple uses for underwater detection as sound waves can effectively move underwater. Sonar can be passive or active. Passive sonar. Passive sonar systems do not emit any signal and are used to detect noise emanating from a submarine. Being silent thus it is stealthy and cannot be detected. Passive sonar cannot measure the range of an object unless it is used with multiple passive listening devices. Active sonar. Active sonar has transducers which emit an acoustic signal which get reflected when they meet an object. The reflected signal is then picked up, which

Sonar on Aerial Platforms

(Top) Kalvari submarine at sea; (above) Mk 46 lightweight torpedo

allows measurement of range and azimuth, similar to a radar. As active sonar will reveal the source of emission which will give out the position of the operator thus it is used by fast moving platforms like aircraft and helicopters, and by noisy platforms like surface ships but rarely by submarines. In all cases active sonar is activated in short bursts to avoid detection. Due to the limitation of not having stealth features, active

Active sonar is also dropped from aerial platforms in the form of disposable sonobuoys for detection in the zone of interest

sonar is normally considered a backup to passive sonar. Towed Sonar. Because of the problems of ship noise, towed sonars are also used. These also have the advantage of being able to be placed deeper in the water but have a problem in shallower waters. They can be towed arrays (linear) or variable depth sonars (VDS) with 2/3D arrays. They require a winch to deploy and recover, which is large and expensive. VDS sets are primarily active in operation while towed arrays are passive. An example of a modern active/passive ship towed sonar is Sonar 2087 made by Thales Underwater Systems. Sonar 2087 is designed to provide a manageable source of high quality sonar data. It is high source level, low complexity, omnidirectional acoustic projector deployed in a hydrodynamic towed single ping contact bearing ambiguity resolution; single receive towed array and very low frequency passive detection and tracking.

Sonobuoy. Active sonar is also dropped from aerial platforms in the form of disposable sonobuoys for detection in the zone of interest. The term Sonobuoy is formed from Sonar and buoy. It is a small equipment which can be dropped or ejected from an aerial platform or surface ship to detect a submarine and transmit the received signal by radio to a designated receiver. Dipping sonar. Wide area, underwater battlespace surveillance, using the active and passive functions of Sonar 2087 is complemented by airborne acoustics suite which includes the Sonar 2189 low frequency dipping sonar (based on Flash) and a sonobuoy detection system. For closer range surveillance and self-protection the Type 23 also operates the hull mounted Sonar 2050. All of this sonar equipment has been supplied by Thales Underwater Systems. The Royal Navy employs the sonar from their Maritime Force Protection and airborne anti-submarine warfare Merlin helicopter. Another example is the AQS-13 series systems used by the US Navy. This was manufactured by a division of Bendix Corporation which went through multiple ownerships and name changes over the years and is currently L-3 Communications Ocean Systems. Some developments. Synthetic Aperture Sonar measures the slight differences in a bunch of acoustic ‘pings’ off the same location to acquire details of the subsurface object. Another new technique uses low-frequency sonar (less than 1,000 Hz) to increase the system’s range but which reduces accuracy. Magnetic anomaly detection (MAD). MAD is simply an electronic magnetometer which can measure magnetic field variations due to large metal objects, such as the steel hull of a submarine. Before the development of sonar buoys, MAD system was commonly installed on aerial platforms to pick up shallow-submerged submarines.

Anti-submarine weapons They can be guided, unguided and rocket/ mortar weapons. Guided ASW weapons. The modern torpedo can be loosely called the sea version of a missile as it is self-propelled, carries a warhead, navigates itself to the target with its own sensors or from the launching platform’s sensors and detonates on contact



 a n t i - s u bm a r in e w a r fa r e PhotographS: Sikorsky, NH Industries, US Navy

with the target or in close proximity to it. They can also be launched from aerial platforms. Torpedo is the most effective weapon for ASW and also against surface ships. There are many types of torpedoes in service with the navies of the world. Mark 48 and its improved advanced capability variant are US heavyweight submarine-launched torpedoes. Mark 46 aerial torpedo is the backbone of the US Navy’s lightweight anti-submarine warfare torpedo inventory. India’s TAL is a lightweight torpedo (LWT) which was India’s first production grade torpedo. Advanced LWT is successor programme of TAL which has some minor changes and major improvements and is likely go for trials this year. The Black Shark is a heavyweight torpedo developed by WASS of Italy and is specially meant for Scorpène diesel-electric submarines produced by France. Non-guided ASW weapons. These are mines and depth charges. Mines are laid in critical sea lanes and harbours to deter intruders. Depth charges are fired in the close proximity of submarines to damage them. Rockets and mortar. Anti-submarine grenades and anti-submarine rockets have a short response time as they are fired through the air onto the target. An improvement in the response time is achieved by launching a torpedo via a rocket which gives the submarine less time to take countermeasures.

India’s Conventional Submarine Force level Scorpene under Project 75. At present the force level of submarines with the Indian Navy (IN) is just 13 which includes nine of Sindhughosh class and four of Shishumar class. The IN had formulated a 30-year Submarine Perspective Plan in 1999 which envisaged 12 submarines by 2012 and the number was expected to double by 2029. The delivery schedule of the new submarines was to be dovetailed with the phasing out of the existing Shishumar and Sindhughosh classes of submarines. The two distinct submarine designs were named as Project 75 and Project 75(I). For Project 75, a contract with DCNS was signed for six French submarines Scorpene to be made in the Mazagon Dock Limited, and to be delivered between 2012 and 2016. There has been a delay of about four years and the first Scorpene submarine, named INS Kalvari, was undocked in April 2015 for starting sea trials. It is hoped that the delivery starts this year and the remaining five delivered by 2020. Project 75(I). This was to follow-up of Project 75 and accordingly a request for information (RFI) was issued in 2008 for procuring of six AIP equipped submarines with high degree of stealth and land-attack capability. The projected cost then was $10 billion (`50,000 crore). Now it is `64,000 crore but this is just an indicative cost and actual cost will only be known when the contract is signed. These were also to be built at an Indian shipyard, public or private, with special emphasis on full transfer of technology. Now these have come under the ‘Make in India’ programme of the NDA Government but there seems no progress.

Nuclear Submarines India has ambitious plans to acquire sea component of the nuclear triad. Towards this aim it has leased INS Chakra from Russia which is nuclear-powered attack submarine. India’s own nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine project is progressing well and the first submarine INS Arihant is expected to be commissioned soon.

ASW Helicopters Helicopters with ASW systems are normally deployed by all naval forces to destroy submarines at long ranges. There are many type of ASW helicopters in service and a few examples are as follows: zz MH-60R Romeo. This is a next-gener-



(Top to bottom) Sikorsky’s S-70B Seahawk helicopter; NH90 NFH advanced ASW helicopter and Russian Ka-27 helicopter.

ation ASW and ASuW helicopter produced by Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation. It is currently one of the most advanced naval helicopters available. zz NH90. NH90 NFH, offered by NHIndustries, is an advanced ASW helicopter built by Thales.

It was reported earlier in the media that only one-fifth of helicopters are available for the high-end ships thus leaving a big gap in their ASW capability

zz Ka-27 or Ka-28 (export designation).

This is a Russian ASW and ASuW helicopter which is in service in India. The Ka-27 helicopter is equipped with VGS-3 dipping sonar and sonobuoys to track and detect submarines. It can fire torpedoes, anti-submarine missiles PLAB-250-120 anti-submarine bombs and OMAB bombs. S-70B Seahawk. The S-70B Seahawk is an ASW and ASuW helicopter developed by Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation. The S-70B helicopter is fitted with sensors like search radar, sonobuoy launcher, Helicopter LongRange Active Sonar Dipping Sonar, towed MAD and is suitably armed.

Gaps on India’s ASW Capability Submarines. At present India has only 13 submarines which is no where near the force levels projected in the 30-year Sub-

marine Perspective Plan of the Indian Navy. Six Scorpenes are likely to be inducted by 2020 provided no hitch comes up due to the leak in the design documents. Project 75(I) has yet to crystalise. Going by the experience of Scorpene, it may take about two decades before the induction starts. Meanwhile, the current submarines will get obsolescent, leaving a wide gap in the subsurface operational readiness. ASW Helicopters. Indian Navy’s Ka-28 fleet has been reduced to just four operational helicopters thus India has signed a deal with Russia to modernise ten Ka-28 naval helicopters at a cost of $294 million. The Sea King helicopter fleet has been reduced to just 16-17 upgraded machines with a few capable of flying at any one time. The Navy has doubts of the ASW capability of indigenous Dhruv helicopter. The Indian Navy had originally planned to acquire 54 multi-role helicopters and 16 of these should have come in 2007 or so as replacement for the first lot of Sea Kings but nothing has happened. Sikorsky’s S-70BTM Seahawk ASW/ASuW was shortlisted for acquiring 16 as an interim arrangement but that project has not moved forward. All naval ships have multi-role helicopters onboard, e.g., all destroyers will have two each and INS Vikramaditya aircraft carrier can-carry 12 helicopters. It was reported earlier in the media that only one-fifth of helicopters are available for the high-end ships thus leaving a big gap in their ASW capability. Sonar. The Naval Physical & Oceanographic Laboratory has developed a variety of indigenous sonars for surface ships Nagan was a towed array sonar system that was converted into demonstarator and the project closed in 2012. Other system for surface ships is the Hull Mounted Sonar Advanced–NG (HUMSA) which is an active-cum passive system. HUMSA UG is an upgraded version of HUMSA with new receiver electronics and an ultra-cool power amplifier system. Advance Light Towed Array Sonar (ALTAS) is a sonar system for the detection, localisation and classification of submarines operating especially the below sonic layer. It is useful in ASW operations and is the apt sensor for warships to locate silent submarines. For EKM class of submarines it has developed USHUS sonar suite. Mihir was a first-generation helicopter sonar system, comprising of dunking sonar and a four channel sonobuoy processor. It was designed for advanced light helicopter type platform. Low frequency dunking sonar is an advanced version of Mihir. Meanwhile it is reported that India has imported six of Atlas Elektronik’s Active Towed Array Sonar (ACTAS) which is a lowfrequency ASW sonar system that operates simultaneously in active and passive modes and provides high-resolution target detection. ACTAS provides excellent performance up to very long ranges, which includes over-the-horizon surveillance. It is designed to detect, track and classify submarines, torpedoes, surface vessels, including fast boats. As per media reports these were imported for Kamorta class of ASW corvettes but three have been fitted on Talwar class frigates and three on Delhi class destroyers. The additional requirements will be met by the Bharat Electronics Limited manufacturing under transfer of technology from Germany. Black Shark torpedoe. The Black Shark is a heavyweight torpedo developed by WASS of Italy and is specially meant for Scorpène diesel-electric submarines which are being made in India. It has an effective range of 50 km (27 NM) and speed of 50 kt (about 90km/h). Black Shark was to be fitted on India’s Scorpene Submarines but is waiting for a go-ahead from the Indian Ministry of Defence. In case Black Shark is not cleared, India will have to look for another torpedoe which could replace it without any design changes.  SP

f o r e i g n r e l at i o ns / s h ip v isi t s 


Indo-Russian Strategic

Partnership–No Reset Required Russia is an old and reliable all-weather friend of India, and the only country that provided nuclear submarines to India Photograph: PIB

n  Lt General P.C. Katoch (Retd)


igning of the Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA) between India and the US has been a subject of intense debate in the media. Despite it being a logistic exchange agreement a cross-section opined that it amounted to a military alliance, India was putting all eggs into the American basket and that India needed to reset its relationship with Russia, which is misnomer. India has strategic cooperation agreement with multiple countries including with Russia. By signing LEMOA, India has not upset its strategic cooperation with Russia in any manner. Russia is an old and reliable all-weather friend of India, and the only country that provided nuclear submarines to India. The two countries discussed a new $4-billion defence deal for four stealth frigates at the India-Russia Military Technical Cooperation Working Group (MTC-WG) meeting at New Delhi in early September wherein the Russian side submitted “a techno-commercial proposal” for the four multi-purpose frigates packed with sensors and weapons including the BrahMos supersonic cruise missiles. As per the proposal two frigates will come from Russia and the other two will be constructed in India.

A file photograph of Prime Minister Narendra Modi with Russian President Vladimir Putin in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, on June 24, 2016

If the deal for the four new 4,000-tonne frigates is inked, they will add to the six Russian stealth frigates already inducted by India; 3 x Talwar class frigates inducted in

2003-04 and 3 x Teg class frigates inducted in 2011-15, latter having an operating range of 4,500 nautical miles and capability to handle threats in the air, surface and under-

water. India is also constructing its own stealth warships, having inducted three 6,100-tonne Shivalik class frigates. Another `50,000-crore contract for construction of the seven Project 17A stealth frigates—four at the Mazagon Dock at Mumbai and three in GRSE at Kolkata—was inked in February 2015. Seven Project 17A frigates are among the 39 warships and six Scorpene submarines under construction in Indian shipyards for over `3,00,000 crore. The 4 x stealth frigates offered by Russia will help add to combat power of India that plans a 212 warship Navy by 2027. India already operates a nuclear-powered Akula-II submarine christened INS Chakra, which was acquired on a 10-year lease from Russia in April 2012 under a $900-million deal. Russia has also offered its under-construction nuclear-powered aircraft carrier ‘Storm’ (Shtorm) and technologies associated with the project. Reportedly US has been unwilling to offer help to India in nuclear propulsion for its indigenous aircraft carrier programme. Indo-Russian relationship remains as strong as ever. The defence deals in the offing including the ones mentioned herein would make the partnership stronger and the next summit between Prime Minister Modi and President Putin will surely elevate it to the next level. SP

Western Fleet Ships on Flag Showing Mission


n a demonstration of India’s commitment to its ties with South Africa and to the maritime security in the Indian Ocean region, Indian Naval ships Kolkata, Trikand and Aditya under the command of the Flag Officer Commanding Western Fleet, Rear Admiral Ravneet Singh, NM have visited Durban, South Africa, on September 20, 2016, for a three-day visit. The ships were part of the Indian Navy’s Western Fleet based at Mumbai under the Western Naval Command and were on a two-month-long deployment to the Western Indian Ocean. Enroute to South Africa the ships also visited; Antsiranana in Madagascar, Port Louis in Mauritius, Dar-es-Salaam in Tanzania, Mombasa in Kenya and Maputo in Mozambique. INS Kolkata is commanded by Captain Rahul Vilas Gokhale, INS Trikand is commanded by Captain Arjun Dev Nair and INS Aditya is commanded by Captain Vidyanshu Srivastava. During the visit, the warships were engaged in professional interactions with the South African Naval (SAN) forces for enhancing cooperation and sharing the

Photograph: Indian Navy

INS Kolkata in Durban

nuances of naval operations including combating maritime threats of terrorism and piracy. Calls on senior government and military authorities, training and technical coop-

eration measures with SAN, sporting and cultural interactions, aimed at strengthening ties and mutual understanding between the two forces, were also planned.

India and South Africa have very close and cordial political and diplomatic relations with a sizeable settlement of people of Indian origin in South Africa. The frequent cross visits by high level delegations including the Heads of State have further strengthened the bilateral relations. The recently concluded visit of Prime Minister Narendra Modi provided fresh impetus to the relationship between the two countries. Cooperation in the field of defence, especially maritime security and training has been identified as a key avenue for promoting such ties. The last visit by an Indian naval ship to South Africa was in November 2014, when Indian naval ship Teg made port call at Simon’s Town and Cape Town as part of Exercise IBSAMAR, a trilateral maritime exercise involving navies of Brazil, India and South Africa. SAN also participated in International Fleet Review hosted by India in February 2016 and was represented by SAN ship Spioenkop. The recent visit was aimed to strengthen the existing bonds of friendship between India and South Africa and underscore India’s peaceful presence and solidarity with friendly countries of the region.  SP




Railgun –

Weapon of the Future The Railgun made its public debut during the Navy’s Future Force Science and Technology Expo held at the Washington Convention Center in February 2015. One senior navy official explained the impact of the projectile to “a freight train going through the wall at a hundred miles an hour.” PhotographS: US Navy

n  Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd)


he EM Railgun uses high-power EM energy instead of explosive chemical propellants to fire a projectile farther and faster than any current gun. When fully weaponised, a Railgun will deliver hypervelocity projectiles on targets, at ranges far exceeding any of the current naval guns. It will be able to effectively intercept air threats, particularly anti-ship cruise missiles. Railguns also offer much larger ammunition holding capacity and lower cost per engagement as compared to missiles of similar range. They can also be employed to support land operations. In addition to military applications, the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has proposed to use a Railgun from a high-altitude aircraft to fire a small payload into orbit; however, the extreme g-forces involved would necessarily restrict the usage to only the sturdiest of payloads. The efficacy will only be seen when the Railgun is fully weaponised.

How it Works Basically a Railgun is an electrically powered electromagnetic projectile launcher based on similar principle as the homopolar motor. The first homopolar motor was demonstrated by Michael Faraday during 1821 in which he used direct current to cause rotational movement. To understand the principle behind a Railgun, take a magnetic compass and place an electric wire in North-South direction over the compass. When you connect the wire to a battery, the needle will move a little. The length of the movement will depend upon how much current is flowing through the wire. This simple experiment demonstrates that electric current creates a magnetic field which interacts with the needle and makes it move. The force created is at right angles to both direction of the current and the direction of the magnetic field. This simple idea has been translated to develop a Railgun. The building blocks of a Railgun are a pair of parallel conducting rails (one acts as positive and the other as negative conductor) and a sliding armature. When current flows through the positive rail, it creates an electromagnetic field due to which the sliding armature accelerates and the current passes through it, the current then returns to the power supply through the negative rail. The projectile experiences a force which is called Lorentz force (after the Dutch physicist Hendrik A. Lorentz). The Lorentz force is directed perpendicularly to the magnetic field and to the direction of the current flowing across the armature. This phenomenon is being researched and developed to produce a super gun which does not use a propellant or explosive but a very high degree of kinetic energy. The power of the energy will depend on the length of the rail or intense current but as long length of



(Top) A prototype of BAE Systems’ electromagnetic Railgun on display aboard joint high speed vessel USS Millinocket; (above) GA-EMS is on the forefront of maturing Railgun weapons systems to support air and missile defence, counter battery fire, and precision indirect fire.

the rails pose problems of space; thus to have an effective Railgun, a very high level of current is required. Most Railguns thus use a strong current to the degree of a million amps for generating the required force. When this force is applied to a projectile, it accelerates to the end of the rails, opposite to the direction of the power supply and leaves through an aperture. At this point the circuit is broken which ends the flow of current. Antitank projectiles like armour-piercing finstabilised discarding-sabot can achieve a muzzle velocity (MV) of about Mach 5 but Rail guns can achieve a MV of Mach 7-10. Such a high degree of MV makes projectiles fired from a Railgun more penetrating against hard targets and achieve a much longer range of about 160 km.

Development The US Navy is vigorously pursuing the

development of Railgun for air defence role. During March 2006, BAE Systems received a contract for design and production of the 32 megajoules (MJ) Laboratory Launcher for the US Navy. During February 2012, as part of Phase 1 of the Navy’s Innovative Naval Prototype (INP) programme, engineers at the Naval Surface Warfare Center successfully fired BAE Systems’ EM Railgun prototype at tactical energy levels. The gun fired a 32 MJ half-power prototype (the Navy compares one MJ of energy to a onetonne vehicle moving at about 160 kmph. The full-scale system is expected to be 64 MJ. Chris Hughes, the then Vice President and General Manager of Weapon Systems at BAE Systems stated that, “We’re committed to developing this innovative and game changing technology that will revolutionize naval warfare. The Railgun’s ability to defend against enemy threats from distances greater than ever before improves

the capabilities of our armed forces.” BAE Systems was again awarded a $34.5-million contract by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) for the development of the Railgun under Phase 2 of the Navy’s INP programme. The aim of the Phase 2 was to mature the technology and design of the launcher and pulsed power from a single-shot to multi-shot capability. This would also involve developing and incorporating a auto-loading and thermal management systems. Faster rate of fire is essential for achieving a higher kill probability at the target end. Phase 2 was to be completed by 2014. It was reported that tests were held during August 2014 however tests are a continuous process and will carry on during the development phase of the gun. The Railgun is likely to be delivered by 2020-25. Public debut. The Railgun made its public debut during the Navy’s Future Force Science and Technology Expo held at the Washington Convention Center in February 2015. One senior navy official explained the impact of the projectile to “a freight train going through the wall at a hundred miles an hour.” He added that the lack of gunpowder and explosive warheads eliminates some significant safety hazards for Navy crews. Parallel development. General Atomics is developing a Railgun called the Blitzer System. The Electromagnetic Systems Group of General Atomics (GA-EMS) is actively working to bring Railgun technology to the Department of Defense for multiple missions to include integrated air and missile defence, surface fire support and anti-surface warfare. GA-EMS’s expertise in EM stems from GA’s long history in high power electrical systems, from developing and building both fission and fusion reactors, through the Navy’s first EM launch and recovery equipment for aircraft carriers. GA-EMS has developed, built and successfully tested two Railguns, the internally funded the Blitzer™ 3 MJ system and a 32 MJ launcher for the ONR. GA-EMS also designed and built the pulse power supply for both guns and is developing projectiles for air and missile defence and precision strike. GA-EMS is continuing the Blitzer family of Railguns with a 10 MJ system designed for mobile and fixed land-based applications. GA-EMS has announced in January this year that the projectiles undergoing firing, not only survived and operated under the 30,000 g-force and multi-Tesla magnetic field launch conditions. Centre for Strategic and Budgetary Assessment (CSBA) Paper. During November 2014, CSBA released a paper on “Commanding the Seas: A Plan to Reinvigorate US Navy Surface Warfare.” in which they made wide ranging recommendations on capacity building, modernisation and a de novo approach for medium-range air defence for which, CSBA took a layered approach. The first layer is within the 30 Continued on page 10...

s u bm a r in e s 


Up Periscope-Down Periscope

Submarine’s Eye at Sea The periscope is the eye of the submarine and is meant to keep a watch on the surface without it being detected by surface craft or from the air. Modern optronic masts include precise, high-resolution optics and integrated sensor packaging. Photograph: Daniel Linares/Sagem/Safran

Series 20 APS attack periscope system can carry out multiple roles like surveillance, attack, navigation safety, intelligence gathering and electronic warfare self-protection

n  Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd)


he periscope is the eye of the submarine and is meant to keep a watch on the surface without it being detected by surface craft or from the air. The principle of the design of a periscope is simple and based on reflection of objects through mirrors or prisms but it is actually a complex piece of equipment. Earlier periscopes had mirrors held at 45 degrees but these were later on replaced by prisms. They were also rigidly fixed but soon periscopes were designed to be manually lowered, raised and rotated. Thus the orders ‘down periscope’ and ‘up periscope’ was dramatically shown in war movies. Standing watch at the periscope is thus called ‘dancing with the gray lady’. At greater speeds the periscope tended to bend due to pressure thus they were placed in double tubes, where the outer tube withstood the pressure. Another problem was that the rotation of the upper prism caused the image to be seen upside down which was corrected later with better design. Germany was largely responsible for modernising the submarine periscope. Length of periscopes could be as much as 18 metres (60 feet) thus when a submarine is submerged at depth equal to the length of the periscope, it is called ‘periscope depth’. Due

to such large lengths, an effective periscope will require more complex arrangement of lenses and prisms and twin telescopes fitted inside the periscope tube. The US term ‘sail’ or the British term ‘fin’ of a submarine is the tower-like structure located on the topside of the submarine. Earlier submarines housed the conning tower which included the command and communications data centre, periscopes, radar and communications masts. Now most of the functions are carried out from the hull thus sail is no longer considered as the conning tower but the tower is still in use for other purposes. Modern submarines are equipped with two types of periscopes, one on the right (starboard) side and one on the left (port) side like Los Angeles-class nuclear powered submarine USS Springfield which has a Type 2 attack scope on the starboard side and a Type 18 search scope on the port side. The Type 18 scope is limited to operations in the daylight and takes photographs with a 70mm digital camera which are then displayed on a television monitor. Some periscopes also have night vision capability, a still camera, a video camera and can magnify images. Conventional optical periscopes have a few disadvantages. First one is that when the periscope is in use then the submarine has to operate at periscope depth which is just below the surface thus it is easy to detect. Also a conventional opti-

cal periscope runs the entire height of the ship to house the periscope thus it limits the space of the sail and interior compartments. Lastly it can accommodate only one person at a time. To overcome these disadvantages a new AN/BVS-1 photonics mast has been developed which made its debut in 2004 in Virginia class of US submarines.

Photonics Mast Electro-optic sensors are replacing the mirror-cum-lens arrangement of the conventional telescopes which have done valuable service for almost 80 years. The photonics mast (also called optronic mast) has a rotating head which emerges over the surface of the water and houses multiple electrooptical sensors. The masts are equipped with a set of separate cameras including a colour camera, a high-resolution black-and-

Photonics mast with its electro-optical sensors provide imaging, navigation, electronic warfare and communications functions

white camera and an infrared camera. There is also a mission critical control camera housed separately in a pressure-proof and shock-hardened casing. An eye safe laser range finder which provides accurate target range and assists in navigation, just about complete the sensor components of the photonics mast. The electro-optical sensors are connected by fibre optics cable to twin work stations and the commander’s control panel. The photonics masts can be controlled by a joystick from any of these stations. Each station consists of two flat-panel displays with a standard keyboard. Interface is through a trackball and images are recorded on both video cassette and CD-ROM. The smaller size of the periscope allows more flexibility in the location of the control room. In the Virginia class of submarines, the control room is located in the more roomy second deck instead of the crowded upper deck. Photonics mast with its electro-optical sensors provide imaging, navigation, electronic warfare and communications functions. They also do not retract into the submarine’s hull but open up like a car’s radio antenna. Photonics mast also provide the submarine’s captain space, better layout and improved situational awareness.

Global Survey The population of conventional and nuclear submarines is minuscule as compared to surface ships thus the requirement of peri-



s xx uxbm x xa r in e s / t e c h n o l o g y scopes/photonics mast is small. It is also high-tech niche business. Thus there are only few companies who develop and make periscopes/photonic masts. The companies and their products are given in succeeding paragraphs.

Airbus DS Optronics Carl Zeiss Optronics GmbH has changed to Cassidian Optronics GmbH from October 1, 2014. Cassidian Optronics is a 100 per cent subsidiary of Airbus Defence and Space and operates as Airbus DS Optronics GmbH. Brief details of its products are: Submarine periscopes. Airbus DS periscope systems contain a high-quality optical observation channel with a binocular tube. Their lines of sight are stabilised in elevation and azimuth by means of gyroscopes. Observation and operation are controlled directly on the periscope or from a combat system control console. The periscope systems are equipped with various high-resolution cameras. The standard configuration includes a colour TV camera, a residual light TV camera and a digital camera. Highly accurate long-range and eye safe laser rangefinder can also be integrated in addition to the passive optical rangefinder system. SERO 400 with OMS 100. The SERO 400 periscope system can be installed and used in combination with the OMS 100 optronics mast system. The OMS 100 optronic mast system is a compact state-of-the-art optronics mast which requires no hull penetration. It is fully automatic thus ideal for missions where the sensor is exposed for an extremely short time. SERO 250. The SERO 250 is a compact, state-of-the-art periscope system that was specifically designed for retrofit programme solutions. It can make use of existing hoisting mechanisms, periscope bearings, seals, etc. Its small size makes it ideal for boats where space is at a premium. The SERO 250 is available in an attack and search version and the search version includes a thermal imager.

Sagem Briefly their systems are: Series 20 Attack Periscope System. Series 20 APS attack periscope system is highly reliable and can be fitted on all types of conventional and nuclear powered submarines. It is also possible to retrofit them. The system can carry out multiple roles like surveillance, attack, navigation safety, intelligence gathering and electronic warfare self-protection. Its modular design enables the system to combine high-quality direct optical channel with four magnifications and the latest technology optronic sensors with GPS/ESM-EW antennas. In addition, the periscope includes a low head diameter and stealth features. It has low neck cross-section, high-definition optics, digital optronic sensors support and can be remotely controlled. Optronic sensors are low light level TV anti-blooming camera and a HDTV colour camera. IR camera is an optional sensor. Series 30 Search Optronic Mast (SOM). Series 30 SOM is a modern which can be fitted on all conventional and nuclear powered submarines or can be retrofitted. It has stealth features and can carry out multiple roles like panoramic detection and identification, navigation safety, intelligence gathering and electronic warfare/ optronics self-protection. The system is modular in construction, is non-hull penetrating, can simultaneously accommodate up to four advanced optronic channels and a full range of electromagnetic antenna. Its optronic sensors are third-generation high-definition 3-5 micron thermal imager, HDTV colour camera, low light level TV anti-blooming camera and eye-safe laser range finder. Series 30 Attack Optronic Mast (AOM). Based on the Series 30 Search Optronic Mast design, it is a discreet nonpenetrating attack optronic mast which is suitable for conventional and nuclear powered submarines. It is modular in design, can simultaneously combine up to four optronic sensors and an ESM/GPS antenna.

The Series 30 AOM features very low signature due to its small size above the water surface. Its fully digital technology allows a high level of optronic performances. The optronic sensors fitted are third-generation high-definition 3-5 microns thermal imager and a HDTV colour camera. Optional optronics are eye-safe laser range finder, short wave infrared thermal imager and day/night backup camera.

L-3 KEO L-3 KEO (formerly Kollmorgen ElectroOptical) is the sole designer and manufacturer of all US optronic mast sytems. In addition, L-3 KEO has installed optronic masts on many international platforms. These systems include precise, high-resolution electronic imaging and integrated sensor packaging. Integrated sensor optics can include electronic support measures, direction finding , coplanar strip (CPS) or communication antennas, and low observables technology. L-3 KEO has also designed and produced the Universal Modular Mast (UMM) which has been chosen as common equipment for above water sensors on many US and international submarines. Calzoni, a subsidiary of L-3

The Virginia class is one of the first submarines without a traditional optical periscope that penetrates the vessel’s pressure hull but extends upward to enable commanders of submerged submarines to view the situation on the surface

KEO, designs and manufactures submarine masts, including snorkel masts, as well as hull induction valves, gas exhaust valves and seawater hull valves. Universal Modular Mast (UMM) made by L-3 Calzoni. The UMM has been integrated and tested with the optronic, communications, satcom high data rate and electronic warfare underwater sensors. It is modular in design, re-configurable with different sensor packages, has built-in closure doors actuation system, operate at high speed at periscope depth, high elevation stroke, noiseless raising/lowering control, radar absorbing material coating is optional, drop-in/dropout installation, requires no alignment and has low life-cycle costs. During April 2014, US Navy contracted for 16 UMM systems for the Navy’s Virginia class submarine fleet. The Virginia class is one of the first submarines without a traditional optical periscope that penetrates the vessel’s pressure hull but extends upward to enable commanders of submerged submarines to view the situation on the surface. They are also being fitted on Ohio class cruise missile submarines. The UMM can host five different sensor configurations: the photonics mast, the multi-function mast, the integrated electronic mast, the high-data-ratemast, and the photonics mast variant. The Navy’s Virginia class attack subs each have a bank of eight of these sensor masts, while the Ohio class cruise missile subs each have banks of four UMMs. Submarine Periscopes. L-3 KEO is the sole designer and manufacturer of all US periscope systems. In addition, L-3 KEO has installed periscopes on several international platforms, including the TR1700, the T209, the Walrus, the A-19 and the Sauro Class submarines. These systems include precise, high-resolution optics, and integrated sensor packaging. Integrated sensor options can include electronic support measures, direction finding, GPS, communications antennas, thermal imaging, lowlight imaging or image intensified cameras and low observables technology.  SP

Railgun...continued from page 8


GA-EMS has developed, built and successfully tested two Railguns, the internally funded the Blitzer™ 3 MJ system and a 32 MJ launcher for the ONR. GA-EMS also designed and built the pulse power supply for both guns and is developing projectiles for air and missile defence and precision strike.

Power supply. Both the Railgun and the laser-based weapons, require power supply which must deliver large values of sustained and stable currents. The most common components used for Railguns are capacitors and compulsators (an amalgam of the term Compensated Pulsed Alternator-originally conceived for Electromechanics to power laser flash-lamps for nuclear fusion research but since then found applications for powering experimental EM launchers). This poses a challenge for USA’s CG-47 cruisers and DDG-51 destroyers which have low power generation. Even a 32 MJ Railgun requires at least 15-30 MW of power onboard power

generation, which is much more than these class of ships generate. 64 MJ Railguns, would require 40-50 MW capacity. This aspect will become one of the key factors of future design of ships having Railguns and laser-based weapons on board. In anticipation of the power demand from these weapons, the Navy’s brand-new Zumwalt class destroyer can generate up to 78 MW of power, of which it only needs 20 to operate. That means it can have lasers and Railguns that draw up to 58 MW of power. Probably in anticipation many countries are designing their ships based on all-elec-

nautical miles (about 55.5 km) zone which will be defended by 32 MJ Railguns coupled with Raytheon’s RIM-162 ESSM (Evolved Sea Sparrow) missiles which has a range of 50 km and a speed of Mach 4+. The logic for not using the long range of the Railgun was due to its limited manoeuvrability but compensated by its higher MV and less manoeuvring time available to the incoming supersonic missile at close ranges. In the 5 to 15 nautical miles (about 9.2 to 27.6 km) zone, a combination of laser weapon based defences (also under development) and Raytheon’s RAM (Rolling Airframe Missiles) were to be deployed. Such an approach would also release vertical launch cells for long-range offensive surface attack and air-denial weapons.



tric configurations, which is why smaller Spanish and Australian Aegis frigates have a capacity of 40+ MW. Recoil force. The rails need to withstand enormous recoil force (due to very high MV) during firing. This force will tend to push the projectile and rails apart and as gap increases, arcing develops which causes rapid vaporisation and extensive damage to the rail surfaces and the insulator surfaces. Thus early research was based on firing of one projectile at a time. Research is on to develop more suitable materials. Type of materials. The rails and the projectiles must be built from strong conducive materials to withstand a very strong recoil force, force of the accelerating projectile and heating due to large currents and friction. This requires major developments in material science. Heat dissipation. In the present configuration of the Railgun, massive amounts of heat is generated due to value of the current recoil force and the friction of the projectile leaving the system. The heat can cause thermal expansion of the rails and projectile, further increasing the frictional heat. This results in the melting of the equipment, reduced safety of the crew and easy detection by the enemy due to increased infrared signature. Thus the equipment used in a Railgun has to be higly heat resistance. Other factors. There is an erosion of the rails after each firing and a degree of ablation (removal of material from the sur-

face of an object by vaporisation, chipping or other erosive) of the projectile; both of which can be overcome by better material and design.

Railguns versus Coil Guns A coil gun (or Gauss gun) is an EM gun that has a series copper coils instead of a barrel. These coils are energised sequentially, creating a moving magnetic field which attracts a ferromagnetic projectile down the barrel. Since the projectile of a coil gun floats on the magnetic field without touching any surface thus it causes less wear and tear, less heat and are completely noiseless. Coil guns have been demonstrated to propel projectiles at supersonic speeds but they are not as efficient or as capable as Railguns.

Railgun in Fiction The Moon is a Harsh Mistress is a 1966 science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein in which lunar colonists, in his independence struggle from Earth, uses an EM launcher to fire iron containers filled with rocks at Earth. In the movie Eraser, Arnold Schwarzenegger stars as a Witness Protection Programme Agent who has by chance come across a secret government plot to sell Railguns to terrorists. Battlestar Galactica, the museum-era warship, is armed with Railguns that use both EM and conventional technologies. Railguns are also featured in video games like, ‘Quake’, ‘Metal Gear Solid’ and ‘Red Faction.’ SP


News in Brief Maiden Annual Joint Disaster Relief Exercise ‘Prakampana’ inaugurated

ing 2009 to 2011, which are proving well in service. Indian Navy has placed order for four more of these WJFACs as ‘Followon’ ships. The first ship of the ‘Follow-on’ series of WJFACs INS Tarmugli was commissioned on May 23, 2016. The second FAC is INS Tihayu.

Commissioning of OPV ICGS Sarathi

The maiden Joint Disaster Management Exercise named Prakampana (‘Cyclone’ in Sanskrit) aimed at synchronising resources and efforts of all agencies involved in disaster management was inaugurated at Visakhapatnam on August 30, 2016. The three-day-long exercise was conducted by the Eastern Naval Command in liaison with concerned Central and state authorities. The opening address was given both by Vice Admiral H.C.S. Bisht, FOC-inC, Eastern Naval Command, and Satya Prakash Tucker, Chief Secretary to Government of Andhra Pradesh. Ganta Srinivasa Rao, Andhra Pradesh HRD Minister, also addressed the gathering which included senior officers from all stakeholders.

GRSE hands over fast attack craft ‘Tihayu’ to Indian Navy

Indian Coast Guard ship Sarathi, third ship in the series of six offshore patrol vessels (OPVs), was commissioned by the Home Minister Rajnath Singh on September 9 in Goa in the presence of Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar, DGICG Rajendra Singh, Chairman & Managing Director of Goa Shipyard Ltd (GSL) Rear Admiral (Retd) Shekhar Mital and other senior dignitaries. This 105 m OPV has been designed and built indigenously by GSL, and is fitted with most advanced state-of-the-art navigation and communication equipment, sensors and machineries.

Indian Delegation to visit Russia for leasing Yasen Class Submarine A high-level Indian delegation will be visiting Russia shortly to finalise an agreement on leading the Yasen class submarine for the Indian Navy. Government sources told Sputnik that leasing the second nuclear powered attack submarine from Russia would result in the introduction of newer technology into India, which would eventually pave the way for Russian collaboration with India for it programme to build six new SSN. Russia had originally offered Akula class submarine to India which India already had in the form of the INS Chakra.

L&T signs contract with Vietnam for High-Speed Patrol Vessels

The Water Jet Fast Attack Craft (WJFAC), ‘Tihayu’ built by the Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Ltd (GRSE), Kolkata, was handed over to the Commanding Officer of the ship Cdr. Ajay Kashov on August 30, 2016 by Rear Admiral (Retd) A.K. Verma, C&MD, GRSE, at a ceremony held in Kolkata. GRSE had earlier built and delivered ten WJFACs to the Indian Navy dur-

>> SHOW CALENDAR 17–19 October Unmanned Maritime Systems Sheraton Pentagon City, Arlington, Virginia, USA 17–21 October Euronaval Paris Le Bourget, Paris, France 2–5 November Indo Marine 2016 Expo and Forum JIExpo Kemayoran, Jakarta, Indonesia 29 November–2 December Exponaval Base Aeronaval,Valparaiso, Chile 29–30 November OPVs & Corvettes Asia-Pacific Max Atria, Expo, Singapore medium=portal&mac=DFIQ_Events_ Title_Listing

L&T has signed the principal contract with Vietnam Border Guard valued at $99.7 million for design and construction of high-speed patrol vessels in India. It also includes transfer of design and technology along with supply of equipment and material kits for construction of follow-on vessels in Vietnam. The high-speed patrol vessels are specially built for controlling and protecting sea security and sovereignty, detecting illegal activities such as smuggling, and undertaking search and rescue missions. Constructed of aluminium alloy, the vessels are about 35 m long and can clock a speed of 35 knots with state-of-theart navigation and surveillance equipment and self-defence capabilities on board. L&T is also executing orders for design and construction of seven offshore patrol vessels for the Indian Coast Guard against a contract of `1,432 crore (about $220.3 million) and a floating dock for the Indian Navy with a contract value of `468 crore (about $72 million).

Pentagon contract for India The Boeing Co., Missouri, has been awarded $81,271,024 for firm-fixed-price modification to a previously awarded firm-fixedprice contract to exercise an option for the procurement of 22 Lot 89 Harpoon missiles and associated containers and components for the Government of India under the FMS programme. Work is expected to be completed in June 2018.

MBDA’s Coastal Missile System for Qatar MBDA has signed a contract for the supply of a coastal defence system for the Qatari Emiri Naval Forces (QENF). This innovative coastal missile system will deploy two different munitions, Marte ER (the Extended

Range version of the Marte missile) and Exocet MM40 Block 3, and will be able to work in autonomous mode with its own radar, or alternatively by data-linking to a higher level within a wider coastal surveillance network. The supply of these coastal missile systems will allow the QENF to prevent hostile ships from reaching and threatening their territorial waters.

AN/TPS-80 G/ATOR contract for Northrop Grumman Northrop Grumman has been awarded a $375-million US Navy contract for procurement of the ground/air task-oriented radar (G/ATOR) system. Due for completion in 2020, the contract will cover nine G/ATOR low-rate initial production systems. G/ATOR provides a highly mobile, multi-mission radar system designed to support global expeditionary requirements and offers multi-faceted detection and, tracking capabilities to engage a range of hostile threats while providing robust air traffic control.  SP

Appointments zz Vice Admiral R. Hari Kumar, Chief of

Staff, Western Naval Command, has been appointed as the Controller of Personnel Services. zz Rear Admiral K.G. Vishwanathan, Chief Staff Officer (Operations), Eastern Naval Command, has taken over as the Flag Officer, Doctrines and Concepts. zz Rear Admiral R.B. Pandit, Chief of Staff, Southern Naval Command, has been appointed as the Flag Officer Commanding, Western Fleet. zz Rear Admiral B. Sengupta, Chief Staff Officer (Operations), Western Naval Command, has been appointed as the Flag Officer Commanding, Eastern Fleet. zz Rear Admiral S. Mahindru, Flag Officer, Submarines has been appointed as the Flag Officer, Maharashtra area. zz Rear Admiral Ravneet Singh, Flag Officer Commanding, Western Fleet, on promotion to the rank of Vice Admiral has been appointed as the Chief of Staff, Western Naval Command. zz Rear Admiral S.V. Bhokare, Flag Officer Commanding, Eastern Fleet, on promotion to the rank of Vice Admiral has been appointed as the Commandant of Indian Naval Academy. zz Rear Admiral S.N. Ghormade, Flag Officer, Maharashtra area, on promotion to the rank of Vice Admiral has been appointed as the Director General, Naval Operations. zz Commodore Sanjay Roye, Headquarters ATVP on promotion to the rank of Rear Admiral has taken over as the Project Director (Organisation & Training), Headquarters ATV Project. zz Rear Admiral S.K. Bajaj, Assistant Controller of Logistics, has been appointed as Assistant Chief of Personnel (Administration & Civilians). zz Rear Admiral Sunil Anand, Chief Staff Officer (Personnel & Administration), Headquarters Western Naval Command, has been appointed as Assistant Controller of Logistics. zz Rear Admiral Pradeep Joshi, Assistant Chief of Personnel (Administration & Civilians) has been appointed as Chief Staff Officer (Personnel & Administration, Headquarters Western Naval Command.


Publisher and Editor-in-Chief Jayant Baranwal Assistant Group Editor R. Chandrakanth Senior Editorial Adviser R. Adm S.K. Ramsay (Retd) Senior Technical Group Editor Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd) Air Marshal B.K. Pandey (Retd) Contributing Editor Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd) Contributors India Admiral Arun Prakash (Retd) R. Adm Raja Menon (Retd) Cmde C.P. Srivastava Cmde Sujeet Samaddar (Retd) Cmde A.J. Singh (Retd) Europe Alan Peaford, Doug Richardson, Andrew Brookes (UK) USA & Canada Lon Nordeen (USA) Anil R. Pustam (West Indies) West Asia/Africa H.R. Heitman (S. Africa) Chairman & Managing Director Jayant Baranwal Executive Vice President (Planning & Business Development) Rohit Goel Administration & Circulation Bharti Sharma Asst-Admin, HR & Infra Pooja Tehlani Creative Director Anoop Kamath Design Vimlesh Kumar Yadav, Sonu Singh Bisht Research Assistant: Graphics Survi Massey Sales & Marketing Director Sales & Marketing: Neetu Dhulia General Manager: Rajeev Chugh SP’s Website Sr. Web Developer: Shailendra P. Ashish Web Developer: Ugrashen Vishwakarma Published bimonthly by Jayant Baranwal on behalf of SP Guide Publications Pvt Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, photocopying, recording, electronic, or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publishers. Printed in India by Kala Jyothi Process Pvt Ltd © SP Guide Publications, 2016 Subscription/ Circulation Annual Inland: `600  •  Overseas: US$180 E-mail: Letters to the Editor For Advertising Details, Contact: SP GUIDE PUBLICATIONS PVT LTD POSTAL ADDRESS Corporate Office A 133 Arjun Nagar, Opp Defence Colony, New Delhi 110003, India Tel: +91(11) 24644693, 24644763, 24620130 Fax: +91 (11) 24647093 Regd Office Fax: +91 (11) 23622942 E-mail: Representative Offices BENGALURU, INDIA Air Marshal B.K. Pandey (Retd) 204, Jal Vayu Vihar, Kalyan Nagar, Bengaluru 560043, India. Tel: +91 (80) 23682204 MOSCOW, RUSSIA LAGUK Co., Ltd, Yuri Laskin Krasnokholmskaya, Nab., 11/15, app. 132, Moscow 115172, Russia. Tel: +7 (495) 911 2762, Fax: +7 (495) 912 1260 RNI Number: DELENG/2008/25836



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