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������������� ‘Regional cooperation essential for total awareness of maritime domain’–Navy Chief Admiral Sureesh Mehta

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Glimpses of 2007: Reminiscing over the key events in the year gone by

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“I must compliment the Indian Navy for the professionalism and dedication it has displayed in the preservation of our security at sea. The Indian Navy has the largest presence in the Indian Ocean after the US.” —A.K. Antony,

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On December 8, 1967, the Indian Navy (IN) commissioned its first submarine, INS Kalvari, the event thereupon being commemorated as Submarine Day. Vice Admiral R. Ganesh, one of the original crew members of INS Kalvari, reminiscences over four decades of evolution of submarines in the IN. Vice Admiral A.K. Singh analyses the strategic impact of the Chinese Navy launching a more modern Shang Class (Type 093) nuclear attack submarine. The edition also carries the concluding part of the interaction with CNS Admiral Sureesh Mehta as well as an interview with Rear Admiral P. Chauhan (ACNS, Foreign Cooperation and Intelligence), besides the salient aspects of briefing by the CNS on the eve of the Navy Day and the regular industry news, news digest and appointments. Wishing you all a happy sailing in 2008!

Exclusive Interview

Launched by the then Chief of Indian Navy, Admiral Arun Prakash, as a quarterly in January 2006, SP’s Naval Forces goes bimonthly from 2008 in response to a pressing demand from readers and leaders of the industry. In an interesting development, SP’s Naval Forces was invited to conduct an interview with the French Chief of Naval Staff, Admiral Alain Oudot de Dainville. Talking exclusively to SP’s, Admiral Dainville, said: “I am convinced of India’s growing role as a stabilising power in the region. Naturally, our area of cooperation is likely to be extended.”

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Indian Defence Minister

Admiral Alain Oudot de Dainville, born on March 15, 1947 in Marsat (Puy de Dome), is the French Chief of Naval Staff. Talking to SP’s Naval Forces, the Admiral outlined his country’s close ties with India and the French Navy’s interests in the region.

Caption: Cum nulla feuip eum ex ex Editor-in-Chief Jayant Baranwal interacts eugiatem dolenim dolenim quat with the French Chief of Naval Staff

JAYANT BARANWAL PUBLISHER & EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

SP’s Naval Forces (SP’s): How has relations between the French and Indian navies progressed in the past decade or so? Do the senior leaders enjoy a good understanding? French Naval Chief (FNC): To assess the progress of relations between our two navies, we can let the facts speak for themselves. Even 10 years ago, our navies hadn’t worked together at sea. On both sides, there remained some distance and reserve—a fruit of the past. Today, regular trainings are held between our

‘We are keen on strong ties with the IN to secure Indian Ocean access routes’ respective naval forces, which include even high-level annual exercises, particularly involving aircraft battle groups with submarines. Communications networks (SAFRAN NET) have been set up and will be established permanently. Above all, this year we conducted a coordinated activity during the security patrolling off Africa, in the Gulf of Aden. Our Navy Chiefs have met each other on various occasions in France, India or other countries. These exchanges have turned out to

be increasingly constructive and marked with growing warmth. We share a vision which is very similar in terms of strategic context and the contribution of the navy. My visit to India and French participation in the Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS) being organised in India in early 2008 illustrate the good level of our “mutual understanding”. SP’s: Compared to its ties with the US or British navies, how would you rate the

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Exclusive Interview

French Navy’s relationship with the Indian Navy (IN)? What are the areas of common interest that serve as platforms for professional interaction or exchanges? FNC: Our relations with the US, UK and India have their respective histories, the fruit of their past and longstanding nature. However, these three relations are destined to take converging paths. We have several subjects of common interest with India. To begin with are the two founding principles and characteristics of defence: cohesion of citizens on the basis of shared values and a defence policy formulated as an expression of the level of the country’s ambition. We share numerous values with India, freedom being foremost. But our interests are equally linked by geography, specially in the context of the rising importance of the Indian Ocean. France, as a country of this ocean, is particularly aware of its security. Our two countries are perfectly aware of the importance of maritime routes for trade flow and access to energy resources. This is why the freedom of movement on the sea appears fundamental to us, and India and France have duties and responsibilities in this area. As a navy officer, I am convinced of India’s growing role as a stabilising power in the region. Naturally, our area of cooperation is likely to be extended. Currently, we are participating in the protection of WFP maritime convoys to Somalia for two months. Certainly, we are ready to envisage cooperation in the framework of this mission (UN) or a similar one, particularly in order to share the lessons learnt. SP’s: The area of jurisdiction for the French Navy Commander of the Indian Maritime Zone stretches from Djibouti to the Philippines. With the IN growing in stature and aspiring to emerge as the preeminent Indian Ocean force, do you foresee any friction or conflict in the future? FNC: We are convinced of India’s key role in the region and particularly interested in strengthening our partnership with the Indian Navy, given the similitude of our conception of values, freedom being ranked first, and India’s growing role in the Indian Ocean. Taking into consideration the strategic nature of this zone and our responsibilities as a regional country, France has always deployed ships in the Indian Ocean. For the requirements of regional cooperation and the support of naval operations, we also have at our disposal the permanent presence of an embarked flag officer and his staff in this area. This light structure enables the establishment of privileged relations with neighbouring navies. SP’s: What is the French view of the IN’s role and responsibility of in the Indian Ocean region? FNC: I perused the new Indian Maritime Strategy, which describes missions assigned to the Indian Navy, with great interest, especially its contribution to regional stability. Given the key position of your country in the region, I am convinced that the Indian Navy has a very important role to play in the protection of access, through naval routes, to energy resources of Gulf countries. Beyond India, it seems to me that this stabilising mission should interest numerous East-Asian countries whose economic strength depends a good deal on these supplies. Through its geography, economic dynamism and the quality of its power, India also plays a pivotal role in the field of Maritime Domain Awareness. Knowledge of what happens in this region interests many powers, including France, and we are very interested in cooperation in this area. Further, knowledge of this region constitutes one of the important aspects of the actions of ALINDIEN, the flag officer I just mentioned.

Admiral Alain Oudot de Dainville listens intently, gives it a thought and replies to a query posed by SP’s Naval Forces Editor-in-Chief Jayant Baranwal

Indian Navy Chief and Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee, Admiral Sureesh Mehta greets Admiral Alain Oudot de Dainville in Delhi

Construction of the first eight FREMM frigates for the French Navy commenced in 2006

SP’s: What is the status of the French Navy’s key projects, like the second aircraft carrier, the FREMM frigates and the Barracuda nuclear attack submarine? FNC: Since the election of the President of the French Republic in May 2007, a vast strategic deliberation has been initiated, the conclusions of which will be submitted in March 2008 before the drafting of a law on military planning. So far as the aircraft-carrier programme N°2 is concerned, cooperation with the Royal Navy, who have decided to build two CVF, has enabled us to obtain a very important “commonality” in the design. The final decision regarding PA2 (CVF FR) will be announced in the White Paper. Industrial negotiations are still on regarding the pricing of the PA2. Construction of the first eight FREMM frigates (6,000 tonnes each) was launched in 2006 and the cutting of the first steel plate took place in 2007 for induction in active ser-

Cooperation with the Royal Navy has enabled France to obtain a “commonality” in design in the aircraft-carrier programme N°2

vice in end-2011. It is interesting to note that these two programmes are being conducted through bilateral cooperation, either with the Royal Navy or the Italian Navy. Finally, the decision to launch the renewal of the attack submarines fleet was taken in 2006 and the cutting of the first steel plate of the first Barracuda, the Suffren, took place this month (December 2007) and it should be operational in 2017. Equipped with the land cruise missile on board, the efficacy of

▸ ▸ ▸ The choice of a European

supplier for renewal of the IN’s maritime reconnaissance aircraft fleet will create de facto an extremely favourable context of collaborations with the French Navy. ◂ ◂ ◂

the Barracuda and the FREMM will increase manifold compared to their predecessors. SP’s: Do you see any possible collaboration with the Indian aircraft carrier construction project, now or in the future? FNC: In the area of cooperation, it is important to distinguish between aspects relating to construction at the industrial level and those relating to doctrine and employment. It is the latter which seems to be by far the most promising area of cooperation. Moreover, we attained a high level in training during the 2006 Varuna exercises with the aircraft-carriers INS Viraat and the Charles de Gaulle. We could deepen our considerations on the concepts of employment, organisation, training, and even support. The various trainings conducted over the past few years between the aeronaval group, focusing on the aircraft-carrier Charles de Gaulle and the Indian Navy, afforded Continued on page 6

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Interview

‘MODERNISING SHIPYARDS A PRIORITY FOR THE NAVY’ ognition on both sides that all available remedial measures need to be pursued simultaneously and ruthlessly. The gravity with which the Russian government is addressing these measures may be gauged from recent reports that the Director General of the Sevmash Shipyard in Severodvinsk, Russia (where the erstwhile Gorshkov is being refurbished) has been asked to step down. We are hopeful that these corrective measures will minimise the delays and the vessel will be available much earlier than reported.

In the concluding part of the interview with a team from SP’s Naval Forces, Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee and Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Sureesh Mehta talked at length of the Indian Navy’s major development projects and efforts at acquiring advanced capabilities SP’s: Capabilities to enhance ‘battlespace awareness’ has been one of the thrust areas for all the three services. What is the progress vis-à-vis enhancing Network Centric Operations and increasing the reach of the naval fleet? Chief of Naval Staff (CNS): Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA) is an essential pre-requisite for achieving, what the Americans like to call, ‘battlespace awareness’. Our efforts of the past few years have been fruitful in integrating information available from in-country sources to a considerable extent. But for complete and comprehensive awareness of the vast maritime domain of our interest—encompassing the whole of the Indian Ocean Rim (IOR)—regional cooperation is essential. The navy has, therefore, accelerated its processes of constructive engagement with the maritime forces of a large number of friendly countries of the IOR for progressing mutual enhancement of MDA. Inextricably tied with MDA is the concept of Network Centric Warfare (NCW) that would seamlessly integrate our units at sea in all three dimensions for exchange of real-time information and, thereby, result in effective employment of weapons and sensors. We are looking at networking in two segments. In the shore-based segment, we have made significant progress in networking logistics, medical and human resources. The other segment is at sea, wherein our ships, submarines and aircraft need to be networked with each other and with the shore segment. We have a limited in-house capability at present, designed by our own young officers, and are working towards a satellite-based broadband capability that will cater to NCW requirements and operations in the sea areas of our interest. SP’s: Experts feel navies will have to play a significant role in the littoral region. How does the Indian Navy plan to prepare for littoral warfare, especially to enhance anti-submarine warfare (ASW) capabilities? What are the plans to modernise/upgrade Mine Counter Measures Capabilities? CNS: While detailed features of the land terrain do not impact maritime affairs in the same manner or degree as that in land operations, geo-

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graphic conformation certainly plays a key role in shaping maritime environment. Navies such as our own have always been acutely conscious of the fact that their operating areas vary from the open oceans and great seas to the littoral regions (which encompass the swath of sea extending to about 200 nm from the shore), wherein the majority of the country’s maritime economic activity is conducted. Our development plans, therefore, cater for a balanced mix of forces, both ‘littoral’ and ‘blue water’, so as to have the diverse range of capabilities to safeguard the country’s maritime interests. As regards ASW, all our capital frontline surface assets are capable of undertaking these tasks along with integral helicopters and shore-based fixed wing aircraft. Our plans cater for augmentation of this capability through modernisation. We also recognise the need to upgrade and refurbish our mine-sweeping and mine-hunting capabilities and, in this regard, we are seriously examining a ‘Buy-and-Build’ option for ships, even as we modernise in-service capabilities. SP’s: The Indian Navy has prepared a maritime perspective plan that outlines the total requirement of ships, submarines and so on up to 2020. What is the status on the progress of the modernisation plans and the adequacy of budgetary support? CNS: The force-accretion programme of the Indian Navy is guided by a classified Maritime Capability Perspective Plan (MCPP) that seeks to retain the navy’s essential structure as a balanced force, but abandons the old philosophy of measuring force-levels simply by the number of platforms. Instead, it favours one in which force-levels are planned and acquired so as to provide a range of ‘capabilities’ assessed as being needed. It follows a top-down, capability-dominant, mission-based approach that is mindful of the dictates of financial affordability and fiscal prudence. As such, it seeks to stretch every rupee to provide for optimum utilisation of resources. In so far as supporting budgetaryallocations are concerned, over the last two fiscal years, the naval allocation has stood at a little over 17 per cent of the defence budget, approximately 2.5 per cent of the GDP. I am certain the

government is conscious of the direct relation between economic growth and maritime security and adequate resources, as required, will be made available to modernise and maintain a capable and effective navy. SP’s: The Indian Navy has been a catalyst in developing and building indigenous warships. With all defence shipyards maintaining healthy order books, there is a need to modernise infrastructure and improve productivity. What initiatives are being taken to improve the performance of shipyards? CNS: We are in constant dialogue with the Ministry of Defence (MoD) and other concerned ministries of the Government of India in this regard. We are entirely supportive of modernisation of shipyard infrastructure and have contributed fiscal, organisational and manpower resources towards this end. I, for one, have for long been championing the cause of enhancing shipbuilding capacity in the country through improved performance and productivity, as well as through the setting-up of ‘green field’ shipyards in the country. We are closely examining successful models adopted worldwide, such as simultaneous and modular construction spread over a number of yards and controlled by a ‘lead yard’; the practice of nominating a commercial ‘system-integrator’ and holding him both responsible and accountable; creation of consolidated navy-MoD-shipyard ‘Integrated Project Teams’ for each major project; involvement of shipyards in design; creation by shipyards of departments or sections that concentrate on ergonomics and so on; and adherence to ‘best practices’ drawn from these sources. SP’s: How is the refit/repair work on the Russian carrier Gorshkov progressing and when is INS Vikramaditya likely to be inducted into the Indian Navy? CNS: Refurbishing the erstwhile Gorshkov is a complex activity and is being monitored at very high levels in both the governments. There is certainly a worrisome delay in the programme and this has received fairly wide coverage in the media in Russia as well as here in India. However, on the plus side, there is a clear rec-

SP’s: How is construction of the Air Defence Ship progressing at Cochin Shipyard? When is she likely to join the fleet? CNS: The cutting of steel for the first Indigenous Aircraft Carrier commenced at M/s Cochin Shipyard Ltd, Kochi, on April 11, 2005. The ship, which will displace some 37,500 tonnes, is coming along well, but like Rome, aircraft carriers are not built in a day, especially if you are building one for the first time. We expect that the keel will be laid next year and she will be ready to join the fleet as planned in the early part of the next decade. SP’s: What is the status of the navy’s major infrastructure development projects, such as the Training Academy at Ezhimala and the new naval base at Karwar? CNS: The new naval base at Karwar is located on the west coast of India, some 34 nautical miles south of Goa, and is sited on 4,480 hectares of verdant and hilly land, with a very careful watch being kept on all aspects relating to preservation of the environment. Phase-I of the development, termed ‘Project SEABIRD’, has been completed and 10 ships are already based at Karwar. The base is administered by the Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Western Naval Command. INS Kadamba, the administrative support-base of the project, was commissioned in 2005 and is named after a famous maritime dynasty of the region. Phase-II of the development project is progressing at present. With its sheltered harbour, the Karwar Naval Base is intended to decongest Mumbai and provide the navy with several upgraded facilities. On its 11 piers, the base will have a capacity to accommodate as many as 42 ships, including large combatants such as aircraft carriers Viraat and Vikramaditya. It also provides extensive repair, logistic and medical facilities, besides other support infrastructure. A unique feature of the repair facilities available at the base is the Synchronised Ship-Lift-cum-Transfer System, capable of lifting ships of up to 10,000 displacement tonnes. The Naval Academy is located some 280 km north of Kochi, at Ezhimala, in the verdant coastal state of Kerala. The Indian Navy’s commitment to this project offers irrefutable proof of its unshakeable belief that “training-input equals fleet-output”. The academy is spread over 1,000 hectares of coastal upland and will provide state-of-the-art residential and training facilities, including an excellent mess and five well laid-out squadrons, each with its own comprehensive facilities. The academy will conduct B-Tech courses in electronics, communication and information technology. It will, however, also educate cadets on humanities and naval history. This is in keeping with the navy’s goal of upgrading the officer intake and providing them with high-end technical expertise without compromising on the proven advantages of a broad-based liberal education. At present, cadets are undergoing only naval orientation courses at the new naval academy, and their experience and feedback will enable us to complete the process of fine-tuning the facilities by 2009, which is when the academy will achieve its full capacity of 750 cadets.


Face To Face

‘The Indian Navy is justifiably proud of the quality of its training’ A warfare-specialist in Navigation, Aircraft Direction and Operations, Rear Admiral Pradeep Chauhan, Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (Foreign Cooperation and Intelligence), has commanded aircraft carrier INS Viraat, apart from other ships. He has had a stint in Antarctica as Expedition Navigator as well as the ‘South Pole Probe Team’ Navigator in the Fourth Indian Scientific Expedition. During a tenure in Mauritius, he raised the host country’s Coast Guard and was also the first Commandant. He was also appointed Principal Director, Directorate of Naval Operations.

SP’s Naval Forces (SP’s): One of the most important roles of the navy during peace time is to assist the government in carrying out its foreign policy. What are the facets of foreign policy that the Indian Navy (IN) is involved in and how far has it succeeded in this role? Assistant Chief of Naval Staff, FC&I (ACNS): The extreme utility of the navy as a powerful and versatile instrument of the nation’s diplomacy is a well-chronicled concept and as the

Indian state matures and comes into its own, its leaders are wielding this instrument with ever greater comfort, skill and dexterity. The primary manifestation of a navy is its warships and this ‘extreme utility’ that I mentioned actually stems from the inherent attributes of warships. The ‘facets’ of foreign policy that the Indian Navy is involved in cannot be grasped without at least a rudimentary comprehension of at least three of these inherent attributes. The first of these is ‘versatility’. This refers to

the ability of warships to perform a variety of tasks, ranging from humanitarian missions to the military application of force. Warships can easily change the military posture, undertake several tasks concurrently and be rapidly available for others. They can present a range of flexible and well-calibrated political signals. Any individual warship can switch roles from being an angel of death and destruction to being an angel of mercy, without any need to return to a port or harbour. As was evident

during the evacuation of hapless civilians from Beirut in July 2006 (Op Sukoon), warships can move from feeding an enemy with ‘missiles’ to feeding distressed civilians with ‘food’—with equal ease. The next is ‘mobility’. Maritime forces can move hundreds of miles per day over more than two thirds of the world’s surface. The enabling factor of this mobility is the intrinsic freedom of the sea. This freedom means that warships have access to every maritime state, howsoever

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distant, through the medium of the seas. Thus, the existence of the Indian Navy makes every maritime nation of the world a ‘neighbour’ of India, greatly facilitating the exercise and execution of Indian diplomacy. Mobility enables maritime forces to respond from over the horizon, becoming selectively visible and either reassuring or coercive, as needed. The third is ‘sustained reach’. Naval forces have integral logistic support, including repair and medical facilities. The range and endurance that these provide give individual maritime units the ability to operate for extended periods at considerable distance from shore-support. With these attributes being brought to bear, our navy’s warships are highly visible symbols of the country’s industrial, technological and human expertise. They are also signifiers of our nation’s intent, capabilities, and commitment. When Indian Naval diplomacy is exercised in a general way, involving deployments, port visits, exercising and routine operations in areas of interest, it is known as ‘presence’. A traditional way in which we demonstrate ‘presence’ is simply by visiting a foreign port, to remind the local inhabitants of the effectiveness of the navy and the state that owns it (India). There is no threat of force. Instead, the ship and her crew act as ambassadors, whose function is to make a favourable impression on the local population. Warships are unique in their international acceptability and ability to make this kind of impact. In fact, ‘presence’ is considered to be so important that it has been adopted almost universally as a principle governing the use of maritime forces, and India is no exception to this. There are three major diplomatic objectives the Indian Navy is designed to fulfill. The first is ‘Negotiation from Strength’. This enables the nation to do several useful things, such as reassure, strengthen and change the behaviour-patterns of friendly states within the region who may be challenged by external or internal threats; indicate to observers that a crisis is under control; support national policy through the threat of force from the sea; improve bargaining strength and the ability to affect the course of specific diplomatic negotiations, and so on. The second is ‘Capacity Building and Capability Enhancement’. This gives us the ability to gain or increase access to different countries, build capacity and enhance capability with the aim of promoting stability through self-sufficiency. An example is the gifting by India, in 2006, of a Fast Attack Craft to the Republic of Maldives, which thereafter utilised it extremely effectively in dealing with a threat from malevolent nonstate actors. The third is what is often called

‘Prestige’. This allows us to achieve several things. For instance, it provides psychological reassurance to all Indian citizens, at home and abroad, creates a favourable general image abroad, of India, and, acts as a powerful advertisement of India’s industrial and technological prowess, and the consequent creation of a very strong tradeincentive. These are just a small sample of the multi-faceted and symbiotic relationship between the Indian Navy and India’s diplomacy. Of course, as I have repeatedly pointed out, we are at pains to ensure that the drivers for our maritime foreign cooperation remain ‘derived-from’ our national policy and ‘aligned-to’ the country’s overall foreign and trade policies, as determined and guided by the Ministry of External Affairs. SP’s: With which countries is the IN carrying out naval cooperation? Are there any European navies with whom this cooperation is somewhat more active? Are there any plans to expand the cooperation to other countries and, if so, which are these countries? ACNS: The Indian Navy is constructively engaged with a very large number of countries, through a variety of mechanisms and at a variety of levels. One of the abiding characteristics of the oceans and seas is that they make neighbours of all nations that have a coastline. Consequently these countries are not restricted to any given geographic area, although, of course, we tend to concentrate upon the Indian Ocean Region more than we do other areas. That said, there are several European nations, such as France, the UK, Italy and Germany, with whom our engagement is quite intense and active. As to ‘expanding the cooperation’, this is and will continue to be dictated by our national interests and is guided by the MEA, which is the empowered organ of government charged with progressing India’s foreign policy. SP’s: The Italian Navy reportedly claims a number of similarities with the Indian Navy’s programmes and structures. What are your views? ACNS: Italy is a leading player in the European Union and the Mediterranean, and is an important actor on the global stage. In so far as our respective navies are concerned, it is true that there are many similarities. Both are medium-sized, competent and well-respected navies, with fairly similar strengths in terms of uniformed-manpower. Both are well-balanced navies with adequate three-dimensional capabilities. Both are in the process of building a mid-sized aircraft

carrier—though the Italians are a bit ahead in this regard, with their carrier, the Cavour, already at the trial-stage. We have similar approaches and several complementary as well as collaborative programmes in certain naval fields, such as propulsion and shipdesign/building, as also in certain naval operational-disciplines and weapon-sensor systems, including those in respect of MDAsharing, communications and electronic-warfare, gunnery, diving, mine counter-measures and, anti-submarine warfare.

▸ ▸ ▸ The drivers for our

maritime foreign cooperation are ‘derived-from’ our national policy and ‘aligned-to’ the country’s overall foreign and trade policies, as determined and guided by the MEA. ◂ ◂ ◂ Our training philosophies, too, are comparable, and both navies consider sailingbefore-the-mast (that is, training aboard large sailing vessels) to be an excellent method for imbibing leadership, team spirit, camaraderie, esprit-de-corps and a deep understanding of and healthy respect for nature and the elements. Thus, we have the sail-training barque, INS Tarangini, while the Italian Navy operates the Amerigo Vespucci. There is obviously much potential for the sharing of experiences, exploring additional collaborative training, technical and operational ventures and mechanisms, and imbibing best practices from each other. Our ongoing foreign cooperation endeavours are, indeed, moving in precisely this direction. SP’s: What has been the aim and focus of joint training with other countries? ACNS: The Indian Navy is justifiably proud of the quality of its training. We are a large, modern, complex, well-balanced and extremely competent navy, whose professional skill and dexterity is globally renowned despite a bewildering diversity of platforms and equipment. This has created an openmindedness that admirably complements our national traits of tolerance. We have, under the Southern Naval Command (which is our ‘Training Command’), over 40 world-class ‘ISO 9002’-certified training institutes, which conduct over one thousand courses, catering to roughly 10,000 personnel every year. The IN has been providing training to foreign personnel for over 30 years. In these 30-odd years, the IN has trained more than 6,000 foreign personnel from 32 countries.

We undertake formalised training courses as well as short-duration attachments, both afloat and ashore. For example, in the recently concluded trans-Atlantic training voyage of the IN’s sail-training barque, INS Tarangini, cadets and young officers from as many as 25 countries were afforded opportunities of varying duration to sail on board the Tarangini and interact with their peers from the Indian Navy—something that will stand all of them as well as the IN in excellent stead in the years ahead. Even where formalised courses are concerned, on an average, 400 foreign personnel—officers as well as sailors—are trained by the IN annually. A number of developing countries are provided training assistance under training schemes and special aid programmes financed by the MEA. Our training of officers and sailors from friendly foreign countries affords us perhaps the best opportunity to build bridges of friendship, provide other navies with a greater appreciation of (and admiration for) India, in general, and the IN, in particular. It allows us to share our experience and expertise with those of other friendly nations, imbibe best-practices from one another and invest in long-term inter-personal relationships with extremely low initial outlays. It builds empathy and understanding of one another’s positions, compulsions and imperatives, and consequently, acts as a stabilising force over a period of several years, increasing its beneficial influence as each foreign trainee who has received first-class training progresses up his own national hierarchy. SP’s: Did the recently concluded quadrilateral exercise with the US, Japan and Australia achieve its objectives despite the controversy it generated? ACNS: Exercise MALABAR CY 07-2 was not a quadrilateral exercise. It was a multilateral one conducted from September 4 to 9, 2007, involving five navies, namely, those of the US, Japan, Singapore, Australia and India. The generic objectives of the exercise were the same as for any other combined exercise that the IN conducts or participates in, namely, gaining operational and doctrinal expertise; sharing transformational experiences; examining and imbibing ‘best-practices’; generating inter-operability; and enhancing Maritime Domain Awareness through a variety of information-sharing mechanisms. In navy-specific terms, the objectives included the enhancement of tactical capability, the achievement of high training-value in surface, sub-surface and air disciplines, including situational awareness, ASW, EW, Fleet Air Defence, Carrier operations, and so on. The exercise achieved its objectives fully.

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extremely enriching lessons for both navies. SP’s: India’s Maritime Doctrine mentions a triad for its nuclear deterrent, but we have no nuclear submarine at present. Would France be willing to assist India in developing a nuclear reactor for use on a submarine or aircraft carrier? FNC: This is a highly political question touching two particularly sensitive areas: nuclear deterrence and nuclear naval propulsion. The response to these areas of cooperation lies in the political domain and is beyond the purview of responsibilities of the Chief of Naval Staff. I can very simply assure you that France conforms to international commitments in both areas and that our Indian partners are perfectly aware of our stand. SP’s: The status of France as the traditional supplier of arms to Pakistan has always aroused some resentment in India. Do you foresee any change in your country’s policy in view of the developments in Pakistan and the growing warmth in its ties with India? FNC: This question, too, goes beyond the scope of the responsibilities and functions of

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the Chief of Naval Staff. I can only offer you my personal vision. Both Pakistan and India are friends of France. It is in the interest of all, as you specified, that two peoples so close to each other, take the road of friendship. If we can contribute in some humble

▸ ▸ ▸ Interoperability between

the navies in the Indian Ocean constitute a real advantage for regional stability. Cooperation between our respective navies cannot but progress in the years to come. ◂ ◂ ◂ way, we would be happy to do so. The French Navy is currently cooperating with the Pakistani Navy chiefly in the context of anti-terrorism operations, which is of common interest to all. In this specific context, we are conducting interactions with the Pakistani Navy, as we are doing with other regional navies.

SP’s: The IN has been looking for a replacement for its maritime reconnaissance aircraft fleet. Does your navy see any commonality of interest here in view of your ageing fleet of Atlantiques? FNC: Thanks to regular modernisations, our maritime reconnaissance fleet of Atlantiques 2 still has several good years of active life ahead of it. But, quite obviously, we are closely following the choice of the Indian Navy for the renewal of its maritime reconnaissance aircraft fleet. The requirements of both navies are such that India is the precursor in this area. The possible choice of a European supplier will create de facto an extremely favourable context of collaborations with the French Navy, while the question of renewing our fleet will be pertinent in the long-term. SP’s: In the evolving world order, do you see a possibility of superpower rivalry and Cold War days making a comeback? FNC: One cannot rule out the clash of superpowers offhand, even if today the prospect seems remote. Given its risks, all responsible countries should endeavour through their

actions not to convert this prospect into a “self-fulfilling prophecy”. Recent years have borne out that no country, no matter how powerful, can independently resolve the challenges posed by the world. Further, massive political, economic and even demographic interactions between the present or emerging superpowers should be able to prevent the return of the Cold War of yore, if the whole world has a clear vision of the stakes involved. It is in this aspect that we, the navy, with our global vision and openness, have a crucial role to play. We clearly perceive the challenges of globalisation in a world increasingly dependent on the flows (of goods), particularly those transiting through maritime spaces. Through our deployments and thanks to our contacts with other navies, we often have a shared vision of crises and the means of resolving these. The interoperability that we implement daily between the navies in the Indian Ocean constitute a real advantage for regional stability. Also, I am convinced that cooperation between our respective navies, be it in the Indian Ocean or other seas or oceans, cannot but progress in the years to come.


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SP’s NAVAL FORCES

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Commemoration

IN SUBMARINES Four decades of skill & supremacy Submarines are crucial to the force structure of the Indian Navy, and the arm has successfully met the assigned tasks over the years since its inception

BY VICE ADMIRAL (RETD) R. GANESH

The Genesis

D

ecember 8, 2007 marked the 40th anniversary of the commissioning of the Indian Navy’s first submarine, the INS Kalvari. Observed as Submarine Day by the navy, the occasion presents an opportunity to examine the waters that have been traversed and assess the future. Years marked by false starts and delays later, the Indian government finally took a decision in 1962 to send a group of officers and sailors to the UK for training on submarines. The government, however, made it clear that approval for training on submarines did not automatically imply the intent to acquire such vessels. Despite the lack of official commitment, it was understood that on completion of training, a couple of submarines could be acquired from the UK on negotiated terms. This did not materialise. Instead, India settled for four Project I-641 submarines from the USSR on extremely favourable terms. This was a milestone as it marked the beginning of a long and fruitful period of military and naval cooperation between the two countries, bolstered by a convergence of strategic perceptions in the then prevailing geo-strategic and geo-political environment. In 1966, a group of naval personnel, who were to constitute the first submarine crew, was deputed to Vladivostok in the far east of the USSR. The training lasted for 18 months and was conducted entirely in Russian language. The first three months were dedicated to learning the basics of the language. Submarines are very complex vessels and their operation demands high levels of knowledge, discipline and teamwork with a clear understanding of and meticulous adherence to drills and procedures. It is to the credit of the Indian Navy personnel at that time that they were able to master new technology and that, too, in a foreign language within a short time frame.

The Early Years On completion of the training programme in Vladivostok, the core crew moved to the

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Soviet naval base in Kaliningrad, the Russian enclave between Poland and Lithuania, and took delivery of the first submarine of the Indian Navy on December 8, 1967. Three more submarines followed in the next two years. During this period, submarine training commenced in India and four more submarines were commissioned between 1973 and 1974. In a significant achievement, personnel for four additional sets of crew were trained entirely in India. There is no other example of a navy creating an operational force of four submarines that were sent to war and adding another four vessels with trained crew, all within a span of seven years. Credit must go largely to the unrelenting efforts of the pioneers who laid the strong foundations for a professional and combat worthy force.

A Period of Consolidation The decade that followed was one of consolidation, during which shore organisations were established to provide operational, maintenance, training and logistical support for the submarine fleet. By the 1980s, it was evident that the time was ripe for the arm to grow to its planned strength and, thus, measures were initiated for the selection and acquisition of additional submarines. The navy adopted an extremely wise approach, drawing on its knowledge and experience of Soviet technology, to induct eight Sindhughosh (Kilo) Class boats and simultaneously chart new waters by signing a contract with the Federal Republic of Germany for the acquisition of four Type 1500 boats, two of which were to be built in Mazagon Docks, Bombay. Eight Kilo Class submarines were commissioned between 1986 and 1990. In 1986, two Shishumar Class (the HDW Type 1500) were also commissioned in Kiel, Germany.

Naval Entry into the Nuclear Era Conventionally powered submarines are deadly and effective combat platforms, but these have limitations of mobility and the need to compromise stealth periodically to recharge batteries and air tanks. The navy had been pursuing the Soviet offer for lease of a nuclearpropelled submarine and the agreement for transfer of one such vessel was signed in Moscow in 1981. Two sets of crew were sent to the USSR in September 1982. They returned in early 1986 after a rigorous 30-month training schedule and in September 1987, took possession of the vessel on which they had trained. On January 5, 1988, the Indian Naval ensign fluttered proudly on the mast of India’s first nuclear submarine. The Chakra remained with the navy for three eventful years. The

benefits of this lease were enormous. For the crew, it afforded the experience of controlling, operating and maintaining a nuclear-powered combat vessel, of discovering and harnessing its matchless tactical and strategic advantages. For the dockyards and shore authorities, it was an opportunity to demonstrate that they were fully capable of meeting the stringent demands of nuclear technology management. Politically, India had made a clear statement of her intention to redeem her potential as a maritime power in the Indian Ocean region. The Chakra was not a permanent addition to the Indian order of battle but it left a lasting impact on India’s maritime stature and vision of the international canvas.

Entry of Indigenous Submarines Induction of the first submarine built in India, the INS Shalki, in 1992 was another significant milestone. This was followed by the second indigenous vessel two years later. Over a decade, the submarine arm had grown in strength to become a nuclear submarine navy

▸ ▸ ▸ On January 5, 1988,

the Indian Naval ensign fluttered proudly from the mast of India’s first nuclear submarine, the Chakra. ◂ ◂ ◂ and India had emerged a submarine building nation. With the planned strength having been more or less attained, there was a lull in the acquisition process for several years with the exception of the one-off purchase of two more Kilo Class boats from Russia in 1999 and 2000. These were state-of-the-art boats with tube launched missile capability and added greatly to the combat strength of the submarine force.

Modernisation Programmes Commencing in the year 2000, a major weapon and sensor modernisation programme was undertaken of both classes of submarines. The Sindhughosh Class was refitted with India-designed and built sonar which was a vast improvement over the original equipment. The upgrade also included fitment of tube-launched system.

Nuclear Submarines Successive Chiefs of Naval Staff have emphasised the need for nuclear submarines to be part of the navy’s force architecture. The experience with the Chakra highlighted the versatility and reach of “nukes” and

their contribution to both sea denial and sea control. Also, with the “triad” concept having been enunciated as part of the country’s nuclear doctrine, the addition of a nuclear submarine to the naval inventory was an inescapable requirement.

Current Status At present, the submarine arm is around 16 units as against the targeted strength of 20. In order to compensate for attrition and obsolescence, the need for a long-term building plan has been recognised and the government has approved a 30-year building plan to reach the targeted force levels. The construction of six Scorpene Class submarines has reportedly begun at the Mazagon Dock Shipyard in Mumbai as a part of this plan. As in the 1980s, the Naval HQ has planned the opening of two parallel lines of construction and acquisition of submarines, one with Russian collaboration and the other with the ongoing French programme. But recent media press reports indicate that the Russian part of the plan may not go through, leaving augmentation of the submarine force level heavily dependent on the Mazagon Dockyard project.

Problem Areas The most serious problem area is that of submarine force level augmentation. A force level of 20 demands the commissioning of one submarine every year, a herculean task for the government. Other problems in need of immediate attention include the dependence on foreign sources for weapons and sensors, with the exception of sonars, whose indigenous manufacture has been a resounding success.

Conclusion The submarine arm has earned an enviable reputation for professional competence and skill. Submarines are crucial to the force structure of the navy, and the arm has successfully met the assigned tasks over the past four decades since its inception. Increasing awareness and clear understanding at the level of the government of the critical role of the Indian Navy in the exercise of sea power should lead to appropriate allocation of resources and timely decisions to enhance the submarine arm numerically and qualitatively to take on future challenges. The writer is a member of the crew of the first submarine, INS Kalvari, which was commissioned on December 8, 1967. He also commanded the first nuclear-powered submarine, INS Chakra, from January 1988 to January 1991.


Region

CHINESE SUBS STEAL A MARCH Theoretically, the Shang Class SSNs could pose a threat to the Indian Navy’s “aircraft carrier battle groups”. VICE ADMIRAL (RETD) A.K. SINGH

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Seminar Report

n 1994, China commenced work on the first of the second generation 6,000 tonne Shang Class (Type 093) nuclear attack submarines. The design was based on the earlier Soviet Victor 3, twin reactor, 30 knot (kt) SSN (Ship Submersible Nuclear), of “late seventies vintage”. A few years later, in 2000, the keel of the new 8,000 tonne Jin Class (Type 094) Ballistic Missile Nuclear Submarine (SSBN) was laid. These strategic submarines have the same twin reactor power plant of the Shang Class, but being larger in size and with a different “extended” hull shape to accommodate 12 submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs), the maximum submerged speed is estimated to be below 20 kts. On June 12, 2005, China successfully fired its new SLBM— the 8,000 km range JL-2 missile. In September 2007, photographs of two new second generation Chinese Navy Shang Class SSNs (Type 093) appeared in media reports. These are expected to gradually replace the older five Han Class that have been in service for three decades. The reports indicated that these two units had completed “sea trials” and can, therefore, be assumed to have achieved “operational status”. These attack nuclear submarines—armed with multirole torpedoes, mines, anti-ship and cruise land attack missiles—will afford the fast modernising Chinese Navy the ability to carry out sea denial and tactical deterrence in areas of interest to China, which may include the Indian

Ocean Region. Theoretically, in the long run, the Chinese Shang Class SSNs could pose a threat to the Indian Navy’s “aircraft carrier battle groups”. On October 25, 2007, newspaper reports carried close up shots of the new Jin Class SSBN, either completed or nearing completion, giving evidence that the Chinese Navy had no objection to publicising the latest acquisition. As mentioned earlier, the Chinese announced the Shang Class after “completion of sea trials”, which in first of class normally take one to two years to “remove any bugs”. It can be presumed that the Jin class, with the capacity to carry 12 JL-2 SLBMs, too, would undergo similar sea trials, including test launches of its 8,000 km range JL-2 SLBM. In the “combat version”, the JL-2 carries a single 1,000 kilo tonne nuclear warhead or three to five smaller nuclear MIRVs, that is, multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles with decoys that can hit different targets. Once operationally inducted, commencing with the first two possibly by 2008-2010, the five Jin Class SSBN would give China a true sea-based strategic second strike capability. One Jin Class dived in the China Sea, for instance, could cover all of India. The Jin Class would replace the single Xia Class SSBN which never became fully operational and has remained under trial for the last 15 to 20 years. Incidentally, the 6,500 tonne Xia carried 12 JL-1 SLBMs with a range of 2,150 km. Media photographs showed the

Jin Class as having a big “hump” (with 12 open hatches of the vertical tubes housing the JL-2 SLBMs) in the portion aft of the “Fin”—this design is somewhat similar to the larger Russian Delta Class SSBNs. Simply put, this hull form would mean that except at very low speeds, these subs would be “noisy” due to high “hydrodynamic flow” noise (besides, the “noisier” twin reactor propulsion plant would also add to the din), thus reducing their stealth and making them susceptible to detection and tracking by hunter-killer SSNs. Indeed, a replay of the Cold War era looms in the near future, with peacetime tracking of Chinese SSBNs by Western SSNs. Further, the 8,000 km range of the JL-2 SLBM affords the Jin Class the flexibility to hide in comparatively “safer” waters, closer to mainland China, while targetting India with a credible second strike capability. As in the case of the Jin, it appears that the Chinese have added a 2,000 tonne “humpback missile section” to the Shang Class—this concept is somewhat similar to what the Americans did in 1958 with the world’s first SSBN, the “George Washington”, wherein they inserted a 2,000 tonne Polaris Missile section into the proven, 1954 vintage USS Nautilus (SSN) design. The two new classes of Chinese “nukes” can be expected to have some improvements over the earlier first generation with regards to sensors, weapons, ergonomics, speed, manoeuvrability and diving depths.The Shang Class SSNs may even have somewhat greater

stealth due to improved streamlined hullform (reduces hydrodynamic flow noise), machinery noise reduction and modern skewed propellers. The reduction in noise may, however, be only marginal, due to the “noisier” twin reactor system in use (as per freely available unclassified data, modern trends indicate use of a single, reliable reactor system, which, due to less machinery parts, is more silent). Modern, third or fourth generation, western and Russian submarines use specialised and expensive noise reduction techniques to eliminate low frequency machinery noises that travel great distances in sea water, thus compromising on stealth and increasing the chances of the submarine being detected by the enemy. The two new classes of Chinese nukes mark a milestone in China’s quest for blue water and deterrence capabilities. Technically, too, they mark China’s confidence and ability to design and build newer generation submarine reactors, propulsion and life support systems, pressure hull steel, sensors and weapons. The next logical step after (or concurrently) building five or more of each type by 2012 would be to initially introduce better sensors like towed array sonars and towed communications VLF antenna. In addition, it must be assumed that work may have commenced to build a newer third generation set of nukes with greater stealth, reliability and potency by about 2020. The writer is a former VCNS.

Shipbuilding Challenges & Strategies in India No nation can attain the status of a great naval power without developing a strong and vibrant shipbuilding industry C D R T. S . V. R A M A N A

Inaugural Session

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he National Maritime Foundation (NMF) organised a seminar on shipbuilding in India from November 21 to 22, 2007. Defence Minister A.K. Antony could not attend the seminar but his message was conveyed by Vice Admiral (Retd) K.K. Nayyar. Emphasising that no nation could attain the status of a great power without a strong and vibrant shipbuilding industry, Antony expressed hope that the seminar would arrive at practical solutions to the problems and reiterated that the government would render all possible assistance.

Addressing the twin challenges of time and cost overruns that have plagued the various shipbuilding projects, as many as 15 papers/presentations covering all aspects of shipbuilding were presented in five sessions. In his keynote address, Chief of the Naval Staff Admiral Sureesh Mehta observed it would be very difficult to maintain the current force levels of about 140 ships in a combat ready condition unless the induction rate of the ships was increased. He further stated that India’s rise as an economic power must necessarily coincide with her resurgence as a maritime power and revitalisation of the Indian shipbuilding industry was no longer an option but a strategic

imperative. Stressing that shipbuilding as a profitNavy Chief Admiral Sureesh Mehta delivers the keynote address able industry was not an end in itself, he was optimistic that India’s shipbuilding vision over the next two (SSU), or 4.3 lakh man hours. The required decades would be able to find affordable, practi- capacity is 107 SSU as against the present cal and sustainable ways of making the country’s capacity of 39.25 SSU which could at best shipyards the “shipyards of choice”. be augmented to 61.9 SSU. While the main focus of the seminar was on building warships, the presentation by the CMD Presentations: An Overview The first presentation by Rear Admiral of Hindustan Shipyard Limited, Rear Admiral (Retd) Ravi Vohra, Director NMF, explained (Retd) Ajit Tewari, expounded on the comthe existing gap between the capacity and mercial shipbuilding aspect. Studies by INSA demand for warships. The shipyard capacity and KPMG indicate that the market potential of in India is measured in Standard Ship Unit Indian shipbuilding at a conservative estimate

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rise to competition. Explaining the advantages of using 3D CAD, automatic cable routing and exploitation of database, he said the resultant increase in productivity enabled French shipyards to produce one frigate every seven months. The necessity for the navy to be in the �������������� leading role, and not necessarily the shipyards �������� or the private players, fuelled debate. Commodore K.N. Vaidyanathan from the ������������������������� ���������������� Directorate of Naval Design expounded on �������� the Warship Acquisition Procedure in India. ������������������������������� ���������������������� Induction of new warship into the navy, he said, is a very complex process involving consider�������������������������� �������������� able planning, co-ordination and synergising of �������������������������������� activities of a multitude of agencies in order to ���������������������� realise the warship within approved cost and �������������������������� ��������� time frames. It is, therefore, of utmost importance �������������������������� to ensure the acquisition management structure ������������������ ������ is very cohesive and fully alive to the prog��������������������������������� ress and complexities of the project. Warship �������� �������������������������� Construction Methodology in India was covered by Director Shipbuilding at the Mazagon Docks ����������������� ��������� ������ Limited Rear Admiral (Retd) S.V.S. Chary, who ������������������������������� expressed the view that warship building in India ����������������������������������� has been plagued by constraints which are ������������������ ����� now, more than ever before, stifling the growth ������������������������������������� and expansion of the industry. In the past, the �������������������������������� ������������������� navy’s design organisation was mostly engaged ������������������������ in the design of one major class of warship at �������������������������� a time, while also supporting the final stages of ������������������������ construction and delivery of the last few ships of ���������� ������������������������� �������������������������������������� ������� ���������������������� a previous class. Today, this design organisation is simultaneously engaged in the design and ��������������� ����������������� ������������������������������������ ��������������������������������� production support to many class of ships which �������� �������������������������������������������� has placed a very high demand for trained, ����������� ������������������������� skilled and qualified human resources. Speaking ����� on quality control, Commodore Ratnakar Ghosh ������������������������� highlighted the pitfalls to quality. The need of ��������� ��������� ������������������� the hour is for defence shipyards to tackle not �������������������������������������������� ������������������ just quality, but the entire problem of enhanced ����������� ����������������������� ��������������������������������������������������� productivity as a global issue. Commander ������������������������������������� ������� ��������������������������� Jagmohan spoke on Warship Design and ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ���������������������������� Capability and said in the context of the Indian ����������������������������������������������� ������������ ��������������� Navy, it would be best to retain the integral ���������������������������������� �������� nature of design organisation with the force. The first session on November 22 was dedi������������ �������������� ���������������� ��������������� �������������������� cated to the management of challenges faced ��������������������������� by Indian shipyards. Speaking on infrastructure ��������������� ������������������� �������������������������� challenges, Commodore (Retd) Harjeet Kang, ���������� ��������������������� ������������������� former CMD MDL, stressed that benchmarking ������������� ����������������� ���������������� ���������������������� ������������������������������������ for adoption of best practices should be under������������������������������� ������������������������������� ���������������� taken on a perpetual basis. Rear Admiral (Retd) ���� Sampath Pillai, former CMD Goa Shipyard, �������������������������� emphasised the traditional and hidebound ����������������� nature of the shipbuilding industry, saying the ������������������������� ���������������� need for change of management and vision ���������������� ������������ ������������������� ������������ ���������������������������� by senior leadership of the shipyards was of ������������ paramount importance. President Commercial ��������������������������� of Pipavav Shipyard Varinder Kumar spoke on ��������������� careful control of material management as 65 ������������������������������ per cent of the cost of a shipbuilding project ����������������� comprises material costs. Commodore Randeep ������������� Singh, speaking on indigenisation efforts of the ������������������������ Indian Navy, said the key to achieving excel������������������������� lence lay in establishing strategic partnership ��������������������������� ���������������������������� with established industries and by ensuring ������������������ �������������� ��������������������������� greater participation of R&D and academic insti������������������������������� tutions to facilitate technology induction by the ���������� PSUs and private sector enterprises. ������������������������������ Nilendra Nigam, Executive Vice President ���������� ���������������������� ��������������������������� at Larsen and Toubro, made a strong case for the participation of private sector in shipbuilding industry. The last paper was presented by ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� Rear Admiral (Retd) N.P. Gupta, former Director General Naval Design. Delineating the way ahead for India’s shipbuilding industry, he said would be around 21 million DWT (deadweight series production of at least six ships of a class tonnes) in the next five years, implying that needs to be planned. Further, there is a need to wer.indd 44 1/14/08 7:45:35 PM approximately four million DWT of new orders form a dedicated cadre of specialised branch are available every year. Robert Steel of BMT of warship design and acquisition professionDefence Services, UK, highlighted the fact that als. The valedictory address by Minister of the UK MoD shares in the risk of complex proState for Defence Production Rao Inderjit Singh grammes and, despite attempts to transfer risk, emphasised the strategic and critical nature of certainly carries the timescale (and often the the industry. The presence of a wide cross-secfinancial) consequences of any industry party’s tion of representatives from the Indian Navy, failure. The US, too, has been experiencing cost Indian Coast Guard, shipyards and the industry, overruns with its famous Littoral Combat Ship including the Confederation of Indian Industries, (LCS) programme. Daniel Howard of Lockheed resulted in a wide ranging debate. This seminar, Martin provided an insight into the complexity of on a subject of vital interest to the country, was the shipbuilding programmes. Xavier Marchal long overdue and the views expressed served to of DCNS France pointed out that in the 1990s, highlight the complexity of the problems faced France had to face an overcapacity in shipby the shipbuilding industry. building construction. Private shipyards made a Director General, Naval Design Rear Admiral M.K. Badhwar (centre) and other delegates at the comeback offering warships to the navy, giving The writer is a research fellow at National Maritime Foundation.

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seminar browse through SP’s Naval Forces

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Glimpses of 2007 Reminiscing over the year gone by throws up a plethora of highlights by way of joint exercises, proud acquisitions and fresh initiatives by the Indian Navy towards consolidating its position as a premier force.

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▸ 1. As many as 27 ships from five nations participated at the six-day naval exercise Malabar 2007 and conducted intense work-up and complex exercises in all three dimensions—underwater, surface and air. ▸ 2. USS Kitty Hawk transits in formation for a joint photo session at Malabar 2007. ▸ 3. Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Sureesh Mehta (left) interacts with Defence Minister A.K. Antony as Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Western Naval Command looks on. ▸ 4. Indian Commodore P. Murugesan interacts with media personnel at the transfer of USS Trenton to the Indian Navy.

▸ 5. Australia’s HMAS Adelaide, India’s INS Brahmaputra and a navy destroyer at Malabar 2007. ▸ 6. General J.J. Singh watches naval operations during Tropex-2007. ▸ 7. Indian Navy personnel listen to a brief during Malabar 2007. ▸ 8. “Bravo”, the mascot for Military World Games (MWG-2007), greets actor and former Miss Universe Sushmita Sen on board INS Viraat off Mumbai. ▸ 9. INS Jalashwa is the first ship to be transferred from the US to the Indian Navy. ▸ 10. Antony reviews the Coast Guard Fleet on board ICGS Sagar.

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▸ ▸ ▸ In Brief Salient features of CNS Admiral Sureesh Mehta’s address on December 3, 2007 (eve of Navy Day)

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• Defence spending, one of the lowest in the region, is declining every year; at present, it is 2.34 per cent of the GDP • Three aircraft carriers expected for the Indian Navy by 2020 • The Indian Navy’s growth is ‘capability driven’ and not really dictated by what other neighbouring countries are acquiring • Plans are on the anvil for greenfield shipyards • Requirement for maritime patrol aircraft, both medium and long range, is being finalised • Rotary wing UAVs are under consideration RFP to replace Sea Kings is being processed Objectives of the Indian Ocean Naval Symposium: More of ‘grouping’ and not really a seminar to promote maritime domain awareness and partnership with navies to ensure security and safety Russia as partner: A conscious thought not to put all the eggs in the same basket Indigenous aircraft carrier project is on time, expected to be completed by 2012

Self-reliance in warship technology

P-8A production starts

Some warship technology products developed by Naval Science and Technological Laboratory (NSTL), Visakhapatnam were handed over to the Indian Navy on October 31, 2007. Dr A. Sivathanu Pillai, Chief Controller (R&D), DRDO handed over the technology to Vice Admiral DSP Varma, Chief of Materials, Naval Headquarters. NSTL is involved in development of warship technologies useful for evading detection by enemy, ships/ submarines. Some of the products developed are acoustics enclosures, acoustic silencers, double stage vibration isolation system, radar-transparent ladder, stanchions, camouflage screens, helo net frames and composite blowers.

Shipyards pay dividends Rear Admiral (Retd) A.K. Handa, Chairman and Managing Director of GSL, presented a dividend cheque of Rs 4,16,26,746 to Defence Minister A.K. Antony on September 24,2007. In the financial year 2006-07, the company registered its highest ever Value of Production of Rs 267.07 crore since inception and earned an operating profit of Rs 36.83 crore as compared to Rs 9.62 crore last year. Rear Admiral (Retd) T.S. Ganeshan, Chairman and Managing Director, GRSE Ltd, Kolkata, presented a cheque of Rs 14.76 crore towards dividend for 2006-07. GRSE has declared a record net profit of Rs 120.14 crore as compared to Rs 65.33 crore in the previous year.

Boeing and its Poseidon industry team have celebrated the start of P-8A fuselage production at Spirit AeroSystems’ Wichita, Kansas, facility. During a ceremony that also included US Navy personnel, Spirit employees loaded the first P-8A fuselage components into a holding fixture on the factory floor. The initial parts and other fuselage assemblies will come together on Spirit’s existing NextGeneration 737 production line.

Publisher & Editor-in-Chief Jayant Baranwal

the top five companies. With an estimated annual sales figure of $360 million (Rs 1,415 crore) for the period July 1, 2006, through June 30, 2007, ELT has surged to the fourth slot after BAE Systems ($1.6 billion, or Rs 6,290 crore), Northrop Grumman ($1.1 billion, or Rs 4,325 crore) and Raytheon ($370 million, or Rs 1,455 crore).

Malaysian Navy has been officially named the Tunku Abdul Rahman at DCNS’s Cherbourg shipyard by Malaysian Minister for Defence Najib Tun Razak at a ceremony held on October 23, 2007. Tunku Abdul Rahman is scheduled to be handed over to the Royal Malaysian Navy in January 2009 and the second submarine at the end of 2009.

Northrop Grumman wins three US Navy contracts

New US maritime strategy

Northrop Grumman Corporation has bagged three contracts of the US Navy: Submarine Repair and Maintenance; Navy Engineering and Technical Services; and Navy Power Systems Engineering and Technical Services. The prime contractor is AMSEC LLC, a subsidiary of Northrop Grumman.

Malaysia names Scorpene

The US Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard have released “A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower”—a unified maritime strategy that explains the comprehensive role of the sea services. This is the first time a unified maritime strategy has been signed by all three of the sea services. The strategy integrates seapower with other elements of national power in addition to that of friends, partners and allies.

The first of two Scorpene-type submarines ordered by the

Assistant Editor Arundhati Das Senior Tech Group Editor Lt General Naresh Chand Sub-Editor Bipasha Roy Contributing Editor Lt General V.K. Kapoor Air Marshal V.K. Bhatia CONTRIBUTORS

Ambassador Douglas A. Hartwick has been appointed Chief Executive of Lockheed Martin’s Indian subsidiary, Lockheed Martin India Private Limited, opened on January 8

‘US Marine Corps losing expeditionary flavour’ Marine General James T. Conway told the Centre for a New American Security that the Marine Corps needs to get back to being the US’ expeditionary “shock troops” as it is losing its expeditionary flavor while fighting counter-insurgency and becoming a second land army.

US LCS demonstrates key mission package launch P-3 milestone for US Navy Lockheed Martin has successfully completed a P-3 delivery milestone for the US Navy, performing an industry-first modification and scheduled maintenance effort on one of the Navy’s P-3C aircraft. This involved a Special Structural Inspection Kit modification in conjunction with Phased Depot Maintenance. The aircraft was delivered last month.

Delta Two completes first flight The second E-2D Advanced Hawkeye development aircraft, Delta Two, built for the US Navy by Northrop Grumman Corporation, completed its first flight in just over two hours from the company’s Florida manufacturing and flight test centre on November 29, followed by a second flight on December 4, 2007.

Elettronica No. 4 EW company Latest ranking by the Journal of Electronic Defense has placed Elettronica S.p.A. (ELT) among

French Foreign Minister Bernard Kouchner, on a four-day visit to India starting December 20, 2007, met the Prime Minister, Dr Manmohan Singh.

The Lockheed Martin LCS team recently demonstrated the successful operation of Freedom’s (LCS 1) automated stern doors, articulating stern ramp and the side launch doors, key elements of the nation’s first LCS. The agile 377-ft Freedom’s design has been optimised for the launch and recovery of manned and unmanned watercraft.

Vice Admiral Anup Singh, Deputy Chief of the Naval Staff. Prior to this, he was Flag Officer Commanding, Western Fleet. Vice Admiral D.K. Joshi, Deputy Chief of Integrated Defence Staff (Doctrine Operations & Training) in Integrated Defence Headquarters. Prior to this, he was in command of the Eastern Fleet. Vice Admiral B.S. Randhawa, Chief of Material. Earlier, he was Controller

Warship Project and Acquisition. Vice Admiral B.K. Kaul, Programme Director ATV. Previously, he was Director General Naval Projects, Mumbai. Vice Admiral Dilip Deshpande, Controller Warship Project and Acquisition. He was earlier Admiral Superintendent, Naval Dockyard, Visakhapatnam. Rear Admiral V. Shankar, Assistant Chief of the Naval Staff (Air). Rear Admiral S.P.S. Cheema, Assistant Chief of the Naval Staff (Information Warfare and Operations).

Europe Alan Peaford, Doug Richardson, Andrew Brookes (UK) USA & Canada Lon Nordeen (USA) Anil R. Pustam (West Indies) West Asia/Africa H.R. Heitman (S. Africa) Chairman & Mg Director Jayant Baranwal Design SP Guide Publications Team Published quarterly by Jayant Baranwal on behalf of SP Guide Publications P Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, photocopying, recording, electronic, or otherwise without prior written permission of the Publishers.

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▸ ▸ ▸ Appointments Recently appointed officers, with the respective posts:

India Admiral Arun Prakash Vice Admiral P. Ganesh Vice Admiral P.J. Jacob Vice Admiral R.B. Suri Rear Admiral S. Ramsay Rear Admiral Raja Menon Cmde Rajeev Sawhney Dr W. Lawrence Prabhakar

Rear Admiral G.V. Ravindran, Project Director (Operations and Training). Rear Admiral Vineet Bakshi, Director General Naval Project, Mumbai. Rear Admiral V Karunanithi, Director General Weapons & Electronic Systems Engineering Establishment. Rear Admiral Kapil Tikku, Assistant Chief of Material (Dockyards & Refits). Rear Admiral R. Bajaj, Assistant Chief of Material (IT & Systems). Rear Admiral N.K. Mishra, Technical Manager (Maritime & System), Defence Acquisition Wing.

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On November 7, 2007, Northrop Grumman Corporation celebrated the inauguration of its office in Delhi. Present on the occasion were (left to right) US Embassy Deputy Commercial Counselor Dale Tasharski, Commodore (Retd) Gyanendra Sharma, Major General-USAF (Retd) John Brooks, US Embassy Minister-Counselor for Commercial Affairs Carmine D’Aloisio, US Embassy Defense and Army Attache Colonel Frank L. Rindone and Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems Vice President Joe Parsley.

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