In This Issue
CNS Admiral Arun Prakash
3 page 3 Countering Maritime Terror page
Operation Sukoon 3 page 10
I s s u e
2 0 0 6
V o l
“To be secure on land, we must be supreme at sea.” Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru First Prime Minister of India
Although SP’s Naval Forces is now only into its third issue, we have already begun to feel the pulse of our readers and bring you an impressive array of news and features. Enthused by the response that continues to pour in from the echelons of the Indian Navy and the industry that caters to its needs, our endeavour would be to surpass our coverage in each issue so that we are on a continuous improvement curve. In this issue, we have a spotlight on the PM, Dr Manmohan Singh’s visit to the Indian Navy’s flagship aircraft carrier INS Viraat. Visibly moved and impressed by the powerful and glorious display of the Indian Navy, the PM spent a captivating 18 hours on the high seas. We carry a graphic account of the compact but intense display of the Indian Navy’s strength, combat capabilities and its vast spectrum of maritime operations.
Operation Sukoon was the Indian Navy’s largest post-independence civilian evacuation, carried out in war torn Lebanon. Commander Vinay Garg gives us such vivid details of the events that you may imagine that you were part of the operations. Please do send us your valuable feedback and suggestions to help us to make the journal a reading experience that you will cherish. Happy reading!
JAYANT BARANWAL MANAGING EDITOR & PUBLISHER
India is building its littoral warfare capabilities by the use of amphibious forces and land attack weapons launched from the sea, through missiles or carrier-based aviation, reveals CNS Admiral Arun Prakash in an exclusive interview with our journal. Admiral Prakash who has been very supportive to our new journal, shares the Indian Navy’s plans on naval platforms, UAVs, satellite communication, anti-submarine warfare and other core issues. In an incisive and thought-provoking article, Commander G S Khurana reveals how ocean transportation has now become a potential vector for Weapons of Mass Destruction. He very pertinently suggests the policy options that India can exercise to build bridges of cooperation with other nations so that the country can deal with dangers of ocean terror that may well be lurking at its shores. In another well-researched article, Commodore Rajeev Sawhney stresses the importance of the ‘benign’ role of the Indian Navy. In the discharge of its duties, the Indian Navy has ably supported the nation’s foreign policy by successfully reaching out to India’s maritime neighbours.
The Prime Minister, Dr Manmohan Singh accompanied by the CNS Admiral Prakash being introduced to the INS Viraat crew.
Power and Glory PM: ‘The Indian Government is committed to providing the Indian Navy with the capabilities that span the entire naval strategic spectrum.’ See page 10 SP’s NAVAL FORCES
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SPG: What will be the role of UAVs recently inducted and operationalised into the Indian Navy? Is there any likelihood of inducting UCAVs? Will you be able to share the information picked up by UAVs with the other two services in real time? CNS: The UAVs are being used for reconnaissance and are a very cost-effective and efficient option to manned aircraft. India has fixed and mobile control stations along the coast, which can extend the range of these UAVs to meet our requirement. With the proposed networking of all three services, information sharing between UAVs of all the three services will be possible. The induction of UCAVs is perhaps in the future; but the concept Is being examined.
SP Guide Pubns
more of the aircraft. We have issued Request for Proposals (RFPs) for eight long range maritime reconnaissance and anti-submarine warfare aircraft, responses for which have been received and are being evaluated. The P-8I is one of the candidates. Proposals meeting the requirements of our Defence Procurement Procedure will be short-listed for a final decision.
Admiral Arun Prakash, Chief of Naval Staff
Enhancing India’s Littoral Warfare Capabilities India is building its littoral warfare capabilities by the use of amphibious forces and land attack weapons launched from the sea, through missiles or carrier-based aviation. In an interview with SP’s Naval Forces, CNS Admiral Arun Prakash shares the Indian Navy’s plans on naval platforms, UAVs, satellite communication, anti-submarine warfare and other core issues. Excerpts from the interview conducted by Mr Jayant Baranwal from SP Guide Publications which publishes SP’s Naval Forces: SPG: Many experts believe that future wars will not be fought in blue waters (deep oceans) but will instead be concentrated in the littorals. Has the Indian Navy developed the capability and acquired the weapon systems that will be required for littoral warfare? CNS: Since the end of the Cold War, there is certainly a trend towards littoral warfare, particularly in the concept of operations of the western navies. This does not mean that we can rule out the chances of conflict on the high seas. After all, the littoral can only be addressed if the aggressor fleet controls the waters around it, which can only happen if the enemy’s naval forces are neutralised. The fact, however, remains that since affairs of mankind are decided on land, navies must have a connection with the land battle. This can be brought about through the use of amphibious forces and land attack weapons launched from the sea, either through missiles or through carrier-based aviation. The Indian Navy has examined this concept and its relevance to the country. India is in the process of enhancing capabilities in this realm of warfare. SPG: Future naval platforms will be characterised by endurance, speed and stealth with stand-off capabilities. Has India acquired such platforms and can we remain deployed for long on the high seas without refuelling?
444The new inductions in the Indian Navy incorporate the characteristics of stealth and speed with stand-off attack capabilities, as embodied in the Talwar class frigates and the Shivalik class stealth frigates. 333 Is nuclear technology being employed in this regard? CNS: Naval platforms with an offensive role will certainly need these characteristics, as the threat from anti-ship weapons has increased manifold and modern sensors have become more capable. The new inductions in the Indian Navy incorporate the characteristics of stealth and speed with stand-off attack capabilities, as embodied in the Talwar class frigates and the Shivalik class stealth frigates being built at Mazagon Docks in Mumbai. As regards your query about re-fuelling, the Indian Navy, like any other blue water navy, has dedicated tankers to fuel and provision our ships so that they do not have to return frequently to harbour. We, however, do not use nuclear propulsion in the navy. SPG: As the trend of naval warfare is likely to shift from surface warfare to underwater warfare, the role of submarines and unmanned
underwater vehicles (UUVs) would gain importance. Is the Indian Navy planning to acquire such capabilities? CNS: I don’t think that is entirely correct. Certainly, the threat from submarines has increased due to the quantum jump in their endurance and weapon capabilities. However, to be credible, any naval force must have a balanced mix of surface, underwater and air elements. India has a 30-year submarine building plan, under which a contract was signed last year to build six Scorpene class submarines in India. SPG: What is the surveillance and reconnaissance capability of the Indian Navy? In this regard what is the status of induction of Maritime Patrol Aircraft into the navy? How does the Indian Navy look at the Boeing’s P8I offer? CNS: We have a three-tier reconnaissance capability. The inner-most layer is patrolled by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), which can be controlled either from ashore or from ships. The next layer is formed by our medium range reconnaissance aircraft, which is the Dornier228. The outermost layer comprises the TU-142 and IL-38 long-range maritime patrol aircraft. The force levels available to us are not adequate for the vast ocean areas, the dense shipping traffic and the submarine threats that we need to keep under surveillance. To strengthen our maritime surveillance capabilities, we have carried out mid-life updates of our IL-38 aircraft and are also acquiring some
SPG: Is the Indian Navy planning to replace the ageing fleet of Sea Harriers or upgrade them for conflicts in the future? CNS: The Sea Harriers are undergoing a midlife update and would be available for operational service for another decade. The aircraft will also be capable of operating from the Vikramaditya (Gorshkov) and the Indigenous Aircraft Carrier, being built at Kochi. SPG: What is the status of the communication satellite that will have its footprint in the Indian Ocean and thus be dedicated to the navy? CNS: Satellite communication, which has its footprint in our area of interest, is at the heart of our vision of future network-centric operations. Since this footprint does not match the requirement of the other two services, it will have to be a dedicated satellite for the Indian Navy. SPG: What is the current status of induction of the Scorpene class submarines into the Indian Navy? Have the assembling and manufacturing capabilities been established in India? CNS: At present submarine manufacturing facilities are being set up in Mazagon Docks Limited (MDL). Personnel from MDL are being trained to build these sophisticated vessels. The first submarine is expected to be delivered in about six to seven years. SPG: What is the status of Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) helicopters? Do they need to be upgraded? CNS: India’s Seaking and Kamov helicopters form the backbone of the rotary-wing ASW fleet. Since these helicopters would need replacement/up-gradation in the near future, plans are being finalised in this regard. RFPs for acquiring 16 Multi-Role Helicopters had been issued. Responses to the RFPs are being evaluated. SPG: Is the budget of the Indian Navy adequate? How is the modernisation programme progressing? CNS: For the last two years, the Indian Navy’s share of the defence budget has been over 17%, which is adequate for the present. Ideally, we would like our share to go up to about 20%; but we are mindful of the requirements of our sister services. Our modernisation programme is progressing well, and a comprehensive indigenous shipbuilding programme is underway. Occasionally, we have to import ships to accelerate our modernisation programmes. The Vikramaditya with its complement of MiG-29K fighters, as well as the Talwar class frigates, are examples of this. Continued on back page...
SP’s NAVAL FORCES
Indian Policy Options
Countering Maritime Terror *COMMANDER G S KHURANA
Often used in the past for contraband transfers and smuggling, ocean transportation has now become a potential vector for Weapons of Mass Destruction. India too faces the grim prospect of terrorists using WMD against it , as the country lies midway in the ‘arc of Jehadi terror.’
until it is too late! How does the world extricate itself out of this impasse?
he centuries-old principle of Mare Liberum (Freedom of Seas) is primal to the contemporary Laws of the Sea. However, as Islamic radicalism has effused into terrorism in recent years, it has led to increased anarchy. 9/11 reinforced the terrorists’ quest for novel means of attacks, dispelling any doubts on their ambitions to seek Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). Often used in the past for contraband transfers and smuggling, ocean transportation has now become a potential vector for WMD, thus posing a threat to global security far beyond the flow of narcotics and small arms to insurgents and terrorist outfits. Tracking maritime transactions is difficult, particularly on vessels flying Flags of Convenience (FoC), which forms the bulk of global shipping.
Global Instruments and Impediments Various legal regimes do exist for maritime security. Besides UNCLOS-3, (United Nations Convention on Laws of the Sea, 1982), there is
states to quell piracy on the high seas, but most incidents of violence against ships occur within territorial waters.333 Security Complements Among the new multilateral initiatives that seek to fill the voids are the US Container and Proliferation Security Initiatives (CSI/PSI). Others pertain to the Malacca Straits, the US Regional Maritime Security Initiative (RMSI) and the intra-regional MALSINDO (Trilateral coordinated patrol agreement between Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia). Given that the US initiatives essentially addressed its own heightened insecurities after 9/11, opposition from some quarters to these initiatives was not surprising. None of the ‘antagonists,’ however, could suggest viable alternatives to diffuse the global insecurities. Illust: Mamta
Terrorists may now seek more from the oceans by striking economic targets at (or from) sea for mass effect. Vulnerabilities of the trading system have increased as much as the stakes of countries in it, due to the growing density of mercantile traffic in choke points, the reduced manoeuvrability of ships because of the growing tonnage and the large number of containers handled by ports. Disruption of a vital node of ocean commerce would scathe the economies of the US and its allies, which would have worldwide repercussions. The insecurity in Malacca Straits is already a global problem; its mere classification by Lloyd as a ‘war-risk’ in June 2005, led to protests by the shipping industry, fearing an attendant rise of insurance rates.
444 UNCLOS-3 authorises all
444 Disruption of a vital node of ocean commerce would scathe the economies of the US and its allies, which would have worldwide repercussions.333
444Terminology at a Glance Mare Liberum: Latin for ‘Free Seas.’ A principle propounded by the Dutch jurist Hugo Grotius in 1609, which forms the basis of deliberations to frame the international laws of the sea. IMO: International Maritime Organisation. The chief inter-governmental body under the United Nations Organisation (UNO), empowered for perpetuating maritime law with its charter aimed at promoting “safer shipping and cleaner oceans.” UNCLOS-3: United Nations Convention on Laws of the Sea, 1982. The contemporary ‘overarching’ legal regime for global maritime affairs. It came into force in November 1994. SUA Convention: Convention for Suppression of Unlawful Acts against Safety of Maritime Navigation, 1988. An ‘operative’ legal instrument under UNCLOS-3 to prevent violence against commercial shipping. It came into effect in 1992. ISPS Code: International Ship and Port Security Code was established by IMO aimed at reducing the vulnerabilities of the shipping industry. It came into effect on July 1, 2004. It contains securityrelated mandatory regulations for governments, port authorities and shipping companies, besides the non-mandatory guidelines about how to meet these requirements. FoC: Flags of Convenience. Ship-owners often register their vessels in countries that ‘offer their flags’ for easy registration with low or non-existent taxes. Another advantage is that there are no restrictions on safety standards or crew nationality. For the FoC states, it is a means to generate revenue. UNSCR-1540: UN Security Council 1540 was adopted in April 2004 to prevent non-states from obtaining WMD. CSI/PSI: Container and Proliferation Security Initiative (Part of multilateral security initiatives) RMSI: Regional Maritime Security Initiative (Part of multilateral security initiatives) Malsindo: Trilateral coordinated patrol agreement between Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia. *Commander G S Khurana is a Research Fellow at the Institute for Defence Studies and Analysis.
SP’s NAVAL FORCES
Relevance for India
the Convention for Suppression of Unlawful Acts (SUA) against Safety of Maritime Navigation, 1988, that delineates jurisdictions of states over offences pertaining to violence against ships. To reduce the vulnerabilities of shipping, the International Maritime Organisation implemented the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS Code) that lays down security responsibilities for governments, port authorities and shipping companies. The UN Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1540 was adopted in April 2004 to prevent nonstates from obtaining WMD. As a legal instrument, it requires states to strengthen domestic laws and border controls. In April 2005, the UN General Assembly has adopted the Nuclear Terrorism Convention. In October 2005, a protocol was adopted within SUA Convention to deal with WMD transportation. However, it is common knowledge that ‘voids’ in security remain. For instance, UNCLOS-3 authorises all states to quell piracy on high seas, but most incidents of violence against ships occur within territorial waters (including in Malacca Straits). Some states hesitate to accede to treaty-based conventions perceiving its provisions as detrimental to their sovereignty. Indonesia and Malaysia are conspicuous examples as both are not parties to SUA Convention, despite much of Malacca Straits being in their territorial waters. Moreover, the process of consensual lawmaking at the UN is often impeded due to varying threat perceptions of states and divergent strategic interests. The definition of ‘terrorism’ per se remains contentious. UNSCR-1540 has no provision for penalising states that do not fulfil their obligations. Although optimists view the resolution as preparing the ground for enforcement when the peril becomes evident, the imminence of such amorphous threats cannot be discerned
India is not removed from these prevailing global insecurities. Firstly, it is difficult to discount the possibility of WMD-use by terrorists in India, which lies midway in the ‘arc of jehadi terror’ spanning Al Qaeda in West Asia to its ‘clone’ in Southeast Asia. Worse, radical ideology is entrenched in two immediate neighbours, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Known as the erstwhile hub of a nuclear proliferation network, the former has little compassion for India’s ‘bloodletting’ by terrorism. Secondly, given its thriving economy, India’s reliance on maritime communications for trade/energy imports is growing and any disruption could seriously retard national development. Even the overwhelming naval presence of coalition forces off West Asia cannot guarantee the safety of its energy imports. The eastern sea-lines are even more insecure. Nearly half of India’s trade moves beyond the Malacca Straits, which is likely to increase with the new free trade agreements with countries east of the Straits. India has always, and rightly so, stood for the rule of law. However, it has been relying merely on the existing global instruments for national security, and at times, even on its ideological convictions. With its rapidly growing eminence in international affairs, its inclination towards realism is now beginning to become discernable. Could this extend to India seeking a greater role in security of the maritime realm, where its stakes would increase manifold in the coming years? This may necessitate an appraisal of the new security initiatives.
Pre-empting ‘Trojan Horses’ Given that less than two percent of shipping containers are checked worldwide, their potential for being misused by terrorism is a global fear today. Driven by the apprehension that these containers arriving in its ports could be used as vectors for a WMD attack, the US Continued on next page...
Indian Policy Options - Counyering Maritime Terror launched the CSI in January 2002 as a web of bilateral agreements with its trading partners. It involved pre-screening of containers at foreign ports by US customs officials before being shipped to the US. The principal features of CSI are intelligence sharing and use of ‘nonintrusive’ detection equipment. Although CSI entails substantial expenditure on hi-tech screening equipment that many states can ill afford, they have not hesitated to join the initiative.
...Continued from page 4
since it was launched at an inopportune moment, in end-May 2003, which coincided with the revelations of ‘Iraqi-WMD’ after Gulf War II. The principal opposition was that the interdiction of foreign vessels on high seas is not permitted by UNCLOS-3. However, the PSI states have not resorted to such ‘unlawful’ interdictions. To obtain consent of vessels’ Flag States, the US is entering into boarding agreements, particularly with FoC states.
444 Considering the possibility of a nexus between global terrorism and internal instability in India, up-gradation of all ports to CSI standards becomes imperative. 333 The rationale is commercial pragmatism due to the fact that if a port trading with the US is not CSI-compliant, the exports to the US need to be re-routed through compliant ports, which leads to unacceptable delays and ensuing economic loss. CSI has the potential to expand beyond its present US-orientation. Many such webs of bilateral agreements may be established among states that perceive the threat. The Indian Government has approved CSI for Nhava Sheva. While this was driven by politicoeconomic reasons, India must address its own import-security too. Presently, its container security apparatus is woefully inadequate – in October 2004, Ghaziabad was witness to explosions of live shells that had been imported as metal scrap from West Asia. In May 2005, a large quantity of small arms was discovered in a container from Singapore. Considering the possibility of a nexus between global terrorism and internal instability in India, up-gradation of all ports involved to CSI standards becomes imperative. After all, the strength of a chain lies in its weakest link.
Countering WMD Proliferation PSI essentially involves a political commitment among “like-minded” states to counter WMD proliferation. Backed by intelligence sharing, it involves interdicting vessels suspected of such transfers to terrorists and “states of concern.” The initiative has been contentious; more so,
While the US interest in India’s participation is its naval capability and geo-strategic location, there may be a convergence as Asia is a region most beset by the insecurities of WMD proliferation, with grave ramifications for India since many of those actors (state and non-state) lie in its neighbourhood. Through PSI, India would be part of an intelligence grid for greater domain awareness. It would also help the Indian Navy to foster interoperability with major naval powers to address other security issues of common interest in the Indian Ocean.
444 Policy independence does not preclude searching for multilateral security bonds with states that perceive similar threats. 333 More importantly, PSI would provide a political backing, if India was to take a legitimate action in the interest of its security that is not legal. To understand this, consider a hypothetical scenario: A foreign-flagged vessel is carrying WMD to terrorists in a neighbouring state, from where these could reach India by land. The vessel’s flag-state declines to cooperate. (If bound for India, the vessel could have been legally interdicted in territorial waters.) The vessel is nonetheless interdicted by India (in international waters). How does India face the global community since its action is not legal? The action is
nevertheless legitimate, but this would have to be asserted. Here, PSI’s political backing would be necessary when India insists that its own security is linked to that of its neighbourhood.
US military presence would have aggravated the insecurity.
Securing Malacca Straits
Under pressure to augment security, the littorals instituted MALSINDO in July 2004. Although continuing incidents of piracy cast doubts on its effectiveness, the littorals’ resistance to external involvement persists due to their predisposition over sovereignty issues. In September 2005, the littorals supplemented it with aerial surveillance, wherein the states requested others for air assets. In case these measures fail to generate optimism with regard to the security situation, the littorals may even be compelled to ask for patrolling assistance from other states.
In the recent past, security in Malacca Straits has gravely deteriorated due to Islamic fundamentalism and insurgencies. Post 9/11, the US realised that the increasing lawlessness could be a precursor of maritime terrorism, even involving WMD use. On the other hand, the security mechanism of the littorals has been grossly inadequate. In April 2004, US launched the RMSI that envisaged deployment of US Marines in the Straits. Indonesia and Malaysia strongly rejected it stating that this would violate their sovereignty. Another reason was that these Muslim-populated states do not perceive as ‘constructive’ the US’ heavy-handed approach to terrorism and its monolithic view of Islam. The
The contiguity of Malacca Straits with India’s maritime zone leads to much ‘security overlap,’ not only in terms of piracy, but also other maritime crimes like illegal fishing, drug-trafficking and gun running. It therefore becomes imperative for India to play a proactive security role, but in a manner acceptable to the littorals. Besides intelligence sharing, its contribution could include air assets for surveillance, training of personnel and assistance in IT and hydrography. India may also indicate its will and capability to assist in patrolling in the future, if the need arises. It may not be too difficult to work out options that address sensitivities of the littorals.
Through this, one may derive other dividends too. If India is a PSI-state, other participants are more likely to act on a proliferation case that affects India even if it does not imperil them. A significant advantage of PSI is that it is not a treaty. It would generate only a broad political obligation, not legal commitments, thus providing India the flexibility to act on a case-to-case basis, dictated by national interests.
444Bid by Dubai Ports World & CSI
In January 2006, the UAE-based multinational company, Dubai Ports World obtained clearance of the US Government to manage the container terminals at six major US ports. This raised a political furore over allowing a Muslim, Arab state-owned company to enter port operations in the US ‘homeland,’ considering that Arab nationals were involved in the 9/11 terrorist attacks. They forced the company to relinquish its bid in March 2006. The same company is pressing ahead with expansion plans in India that seek to control half of its container traffic. This obviously has significant security implications for India too. While the opposition is less fierce in India, it nonetheless strengthens the imperative for India to tighten its container-security mechanism for its imports.
Conclusion The question being asked is: Should India strive to counter its own terrorism, rather than fighting America’s war on terror? This differentiation may not be appropriate as terrorism in India is known to be sponsored by the global network of Islamic fundamentalism. Besides, any disorder in regional waters is bound to impinge on India’s economic interests. Some opinion-makers talk about shunning cooperation with the West while advocating India’s independent foreign policy. But, policy independence does not preclude searching for multilateral security bonds with states that perceive similar threats. Participating in US counter-proliferation initiatives would give dividends to India even beyond security issues. It is widely accepted that in the coming years, non-traditional threats would largely manifest in (or emanate from) the maritime domain. Given this, India must use its potent navy as a politicodiplomatic instrument and match its rising eminence in global affairs.
SP’s NAVAL FORCES
Reaching Out to Maritime Neighbours *COMMODORE RAJEEV SAWHNEY
Role of Indian Navy Any military policy is a sub-set of a country’s overall security policy. However, a maritime military policy is somewhat unique as it also has direct linkages with the country’s economic and foreign policies. Before independence, India played a central role in British maritime strategy which was based on the continuance of their dominance in the Indian Ocean. They aimed to achieve this by controlling the choke points providing access to the region, a wide arc stretching from the Red Sea to Malacca Straits. The responsibility for managing this large expanse, of course, lay with the Royal (British) Navy, with the Royal IN relegated to playing a secondary and supporting role. Post Independence, the importance of the seas was well understood. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru’s statement, while standing on the quarterdeck of INS Mysore in March 1958, is valid even today. Pandit Nehru said “... in a sense our nation may be said to be in the lap of the Indian Ocean…. now that we are free, we have once again reiterated the importance of the sea…we cannot afford to be weak at sea…. History has shown that whichever power controls the Indian Ocean has in the first instance our seaborne trade at her mercy and in the second India’s very independence as well.”
trade would obviously also double. This includes India’s growing energy requirements, over 70% of which are imported via the sea. The nation’s obvious interest is thus in ensuring that no disruption occurs in this vital sea trade. 4 A significant quantity of global trade in the Indian Ocean travels along the major international Sea Lines of Communication (SLOC) that pass close to India’s shores, with 100,000 ships transiting these SLOC’s annually. A significant portion of this trade is the energy flows from the oil rich Gulf to the East, carrying 50% of the world’s oil. Understandably, the safety of these flows is a global concern. India’s unique location astride these vital sea lanes offer it the opportunity to act as a stabilising factor in ensuring their security.
The IN’s Maritime Doctrine lays down four primary roles for the IN. The first is obviously the military role in which the IN would aim to provide deterrence against any potential adversary with a view to prevent conflict. Should deterrence fail, the IN would utilise its three-dimensional capabilities to conduct maritime operations till all wartime aims are realised. In the present geo-political scenario, increased emphasis is on strengthening economic power. This is especially relevant in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR), which largely consists of developing nations that are hard pressed to make investments in maritime capability.
4 On request, the IN has provided assistance to some IOR countries that possess large maritime zones, by providing maritime security through EEZ patrols, to make up for their lack of maritime capability 4 The IN provided seaward security for the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) Summit in 2003 and again for the World Economic Forum in 2004, on a request by Mozambique. This was a significant recognition of its maritime capability.
444The use of military force
4 The provision of maritime material support has been another area of cooperation and this has manifested in assisting regional littorals such as Mauritius, Maldives and Seychelles in maritime capacity building through the supply of both platforms and equipment.
for settlement of disputes between states appears to be diminishing and conventional conflict is unlikely, though this is a contingency navies still have to be prepared for. 333
4 Joint exercises are an area where the IN has built up an impressive range of interactions with a host of navies. These include regular exercises with the navies of US, UK, France, Russia, Oman and Singapore, with the professional content of these exercises showing a steady increase. This interaction has not only enhanced mutual understanding but has also established a high level of interoperability. In addition, the conduct of Passage Exercises or PASSEXes with host navies, are routinely undertaken whenever ships visit foreign ports.
PRO Navy PRO Navy
4 India has a 7,500 km long coastline and over 1,200 islands territories, including the far-flung Andaman and Nicobar group in the Bay of Bengal, as also the Lakshadweep group in the Arabian Sea. The UN Convention for the Law of the Seas (UNCLOS) gives India, among other areas, jurisdiction over a 2.03 million square km Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) which is rich in both living as well as non-living resources. Increasing pressures on terrestrial resources would soon dictate that India looks towards the seas for meeting the resource requirements. The area of responsibility of the maritime forces is thus substantial.
*Commodore Rajeev Sawhney is Executive Director, National Maritime Foundation
itime security, bi-lateral cooperation agreements have been concluded with an impressive array of countries across the Indian Ocean. These include Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Mauritius, Seychelles, Oman and South Africa. These agreements cater for interaction across the maritime spectrum ranging from staff talks and high level visits to joint exercises and in some cases joint patrolling.
6CARRIER POWER - INS Viraat and USS Nimitz operating at close quarters.
India’s maritime interests are summed up as follows:
4 India’s other major maritime interest is its dependence on trade, 90% of which by volume, and over 77% by value, is sea borne. Globalisation has boosted trade and with the country’s quest to double its share of world trade over the next half decade, India’s maritime
4 To promote a cooperative approach to mar-
The use of military force for settlement of disputes between states also appears to be diminishing and conventional conflict is unlikely, though admittedly this is a contingency navies still have to be prepared for. In peacetime, maritime forces are increasingly being called upon to tackle unconventional threats, both old and new, that threaten good order at sea. With their inherent versatility and flexibility, maritime forces are inherently designed and trained to tackle these threats. Major contemporary threats in the maritime domain arise from the activities of non-state actors and take the form of transnational crime such as illegal drugs/arms and human trafficking, piracy and maritime terrorism. This increasingly important peacetime role of undertaking constabulary functions to govern the country’s maritime zones is undertaken in conjunction with the Coast Guard. The task entails maintenance of regular surveillance, and presence in the country’s zones to deter illegal activities.
4EARLY WARNING MISSION - An American E-2C Hawkeye flying by INS Viraat while Chetak of Indian Navy awaits its turn.
The years since independence have seen the IN grow into a balanced and credible force with a multi-dimensional capability. This was possible as the naval planners adopted a focused approach to make the force capable enough of meeting the challenge of securing the nation’s substantial maritime interests.
SP’s NAVAL FORCES
The IN has a traditional diplomatic role that sees it acting in support of the nation’s foreign policy. It is a role that navies are ideally suited to carry out, considering that they routinely operate in international waters, and warships are considered part of a nation’s territory wherever they may be. Some of the IN’s diplomatic initiatives are:
The Indian Navy’s recent participation in various international humanitarian missions has built confidence in its benign intentions. It has vigorously supported the nation’s foreign policy by successfully reaching out to India’s maritime neighbours.
he Indian Navy (IN) has appropriately chosen the theme “Reaching Out to Maritime Neighbours” both for the IN Day last year as also for the year ahead. This is a reflection of the focus it intends to allocate to its primary peacetime mission of undertaking “Maritime Diplomacy.” It would thus be pertinent to take a look both at the Indian Navy’s actions and deeds in this regard during the recent past.
The focus thus has shifted from preparing for armed conflict between states to tackling such unconventional threats. Since the entities involved in such activities operate across borders, tackling them independently would be futile and a cooperative approach to security is essential for success. Such an approach would also overcome the problems of limited maritime capability with which most developing countries are faced.
4 Biennial Milans (or gatherings) of regional navies at Port Blair are another major initiative that the IN commenced in the mid-90’s. This started in 1995 on a modest note with the participation of six ships from four countries. The initial focus was on social and cultural interaction in the harbour coupled with some professional discussions. This initiative has gained considerable momentum and over the past ten years, interaction has grown to include more professional activities by way of discussions, seminars, and joint exercises. Participation has also been extended beyond the extended maritime neighbourhood with the inclusion of Brunei, Cambodia, Vietnam, Australia and New Zealand. Milans have thus proved to be a great success and could form the basis for a cooperative maritime engagement structure in the region. 4 In the multilateral sphere, the IN has been actively involved in the Asian Regional Forum (ARF) as also the Western Pacific Naval Symposium. These fora have given it the opportunity for interacting professionally with the navies of the South East Asian region as also those from the Western Pacific region. It has hosted ARF seminars and workshops on maritime aspects, the most recent ones being held at Kochi in 2005 on the theme of ‘Training for Cooperative Maritime Security’ and ‘Maritime Dimensions of a New World Order’ at Delhi in February 2006. Continued on page 9...
Power and Glory
PM Manmohan Singh being escorted to the Indian Navy’s flagship aircraft carrier INS Viraat.
PM Manmohan Singh accompanied by the CNS Admiral Prakash being introduced to the INS Viraat crew.
PM Manmohan Singh and his wife Mrs Gursharan Kaur (leaning forward) watching a spectacular naval display.
*COMMANDER V I N AY G A R G
Naval helicopters display their prowess in the skies above INS Viraat. An aerrial view of INS Viraat (inset).
The Indian Government is committed to providing the Indian Navy with the capabilities that span the entire naval strategic spectrum: PM
he Prime Minister, Dr Manmohan Singh finally kept his date with the Indian Navy, spending a captivating 18 hours on the high seas on May 5 and 6, 2006. The PM enjoyed the spectacular naval display and the company of the ‘men in blues’ aboard the Indian Navy’s flagship aircraft carrier INS Viraat. The PM had postponed the event thrice earlier, due to other official commitments.
Dr Singh boarded the ship on May 5 at 4 PM, accompanied by his wife Mrs Gursharan Kaur, Minister of State in the PMO, Mr Prithviraj Chavan, Minister of State for Defence Production, Mr Rao Inderjit Singh, National Security Adviser, Mr M K Narayanan, Defence Secretary, Mr Shekhar Dutt, and top aides and officials in the PMO. The event commenced with a briefing on the naval concept of operations and deployment pattern of the Western Fleet. For the next two and half hours, Dr Singh witnessed a compressed, compact and intense display of the Indian Navy’s strength and combat capabilities. To be able to showcase the entire spectrum of maritime operations in a short span of time was a big challenge. Through an Operational Power Demonstration and a set of structured exercises, the Western Fleet put up a show that virtually encompassed all major facets of maritime activities that the Indian Navy is associated with. Ranging from submarine, missile corvettes and multi-ship replenishment demonstration, to rocket firing, close range anti-aircraft
firing, the demonstration displayed the punch and might of the surface fleet. The air power, which is intrinsic to an aircraft carrier, was demonstrated by the Sea Harrier jump jets, anti-submarine and commando version Sea King helicopters, airborne early warning Kamov-31 helicopter, multi-utility search and rescue Chetak helicopters, recently refurbished and upgraded long range maritime patrol Ilyushin-38, Tupolev-142, Dornier and Kiran aircraft. The naval aerobatics team of ‘Sagar Pawan’ enthralled the spectators when they made a trail of the Indian tricolour in the sky.
Government was committed to providing the Indian Navy with the capabilities that span the entire naval strategic spectrum, from sea denial to sea control, while ensuring long range sustainability and the ability to project power at short notice. He quoted the country’s first Prime Minister, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru as having said, “To be secure on land, we must be supreme at sea.” Referring to the country’s emergence on the economic world stage as an economic powerhouse, he said: “All great powers have been great trading nations, and we cannot be a great trading nation without a strong maritime capability.”
The entire show was conducted with such clockwork precision and professional elan that it left the audience spellbound. The star attraction was the missile firing demonstration, in which a surface-to-surface missile (SSM) acted as a target for an antimissile missile (Barak). The two missiles, appearing as balls of fire closing on each other in total darkness, was indeed a fascinating sight. The spectators sat with bated breath till the Barak found her mark and exploded the SSM into huge flames, breaking the stillness of the night with a thunderous applause. The PM went through the entire display with rapt attention, often on his feet for prolonged durations, to get a better view. The PM when quizzed what he liked most about the display, singled out Sea Harrier operations from the deck and missile interception.
He underscored the need to enhance the proportion of vessels built indigenously and called for modernisation of the shipyards. The PM declared that the second aircraft carrier being procured from Russia would be named INS Vikramaditya. After taking salute at the traditional ‘steam past,’ in which the ships of the Western Fleet arrayed past the flagship INS Viraat and greeted the PM with ‘Teen Jai’, he was given a ceremonial send off by the Chief of Naval Staff, Admiral Arun Prakash and other senior naval officers. It is a rare opportunity that the decision making hierarchy and the public at large gets to know and understand the role and responsibilities of their country’s maritime forces, their strengths and capabilities. Being able to host the Prime Minister of the country aboard a ship to showcase her versatility is a matter of immense pride for the entire naval fraternity. That the Prime Minister went beaming and content with a feeling that our maritime frontiers are secure is a tribute to the Indian Navy’s prowess.
On the morning of May 6, the PM addressed the 2000-odd officers and men of INS Viraat, which was broadcast live to all the ships of the fleet. During his address, Dr Singh said the Indian
*Commander Vinay Garg is PRO of the Indian Navy
SP’s NAVAL FORCES
Indo-UK Naval Exercises
Lessons in Interoperability
HMS Illustrious manoeuvres past the tanker Shakti.
he second edition of ‘Konkan,’ which is the name given to the generic series of exercises between the Indian Navy and the Royal (British) Navy got underway on the west coast off Goa on May 17, 2006. The exercise terminated in Mumbai with a ‘debrief’ on May 29, 2006. The Indian Navy fielded the guided-missile destroyer Mumbai, the guidedmissile frigates Ganga and Brahmaputra, the fleet replenishment tanker Shakti, and the submarine Shankush under the tactical command of Rear Admiral Anup Singh, Flag Officer Commanding Western Fleet. The Royal Navy task force comprised of the aircraft carrier Illustrious (with her own air group), the guided-missile destroyer Gloucester, the fleet replenishment tanker Fort Victoria, the submarine support ship Diligence and
The Red Arrows performing at Goa.
Simultaneous replenishment in progress.
the ‘firsts’ of this exercise included combined maritime air operations by Indian Navy Sea Harrier aircraft and Royal Navy’s Harrier GR 7A, cross-deck operations by Indian jump jets from the deck of Illustrious and flying demonstration by the Red Arrows. The ‘Konkan’ series of joint exercises between the Indian and the Royal navies commenced in 2004 and has grown in scope and complexity over the years. These exercises have been hugely successful in facilitating mutual learning and interoperability between the two navies. These skills would stand both countries in good stead in several facets of naval activities, including disaster management. The exercise also incorporates harbourbased professional, social, and sports interaction between the two navies.
the nuclear-powered submarine (SSN) Sovereign, under the command of Rear Admiral Neil Morisetti. In conformance with current practice, the Royal Navy task force had one French frigate, FNS Surcouf, embedded within it. One of the major thrust-areas was ‘DACT’ (Dissimilar Air Combat) and ‘COMAO’ (Combined Maritime Air Operations) between the Indian Navy’s Sea Harrier aircraft operating ex-Goa, and the Harrier GR 7A of the Illustrious. Other aspects that were exercised by the two navies included intermediate and advanced ASW (Anti-submarine Warfare), MIO (Maritime Interdiction Operations), VBSS (Visit, Board, Search & Seizure) procedures, NGS (Naval Gunfire Support), and tactical manoeuvres. Some of
Indo-Korean Coast Guard Matrix
Combating Transnational Crimes *DR PRABHAKARAN PA L E R I
The bilateral cooperation between the Indian and Korean coast guards will include measures against piracy and other transnational crimes at sea, besides marine disaster management. common tasks. The next set of exercises is expected to be held in South Korean waters in 2007. The exercises are expected to continue as a regular feature, alternately in India and South Korea. The Korean Coast Guard that came into place in 1953 is much older than the Indian Coast which came into force in 1978. Moreover, the Korean Coast Guard is larger than the Indian Coast Guard. The Korean Coast Guard is responsible for maritime safety and control of the coast of South Korea including maritime police affairs and pollution. Initially started as a maritime police force (Republic of Korea Maritime Police Force), it has graduated to a full-fledged coast guard with 263 Vessels and 20 aircraft. It is a branch of the South Korean military.
the intense scenario changes, as part of the India-Republic of Korea bilateral cooperation and exchange policies.
Another interesting aspect of the Indo-Korean Coast Guard exercises was that it was witnessed by two officers of the Maldivian Coast Guard with whom the Indian Coast Guard carries out regular exercises as a result of the cooperation established with the country subsequent to the 1988 coup. The South Korean delegation was headed by Superintendent General Cho In Hyun, the Director General, Intelligence and Investigation, Korean Coast Guard. Seven ships from the Indian Coast Guard along with helicopters and fixed wing aircraft participated in the exercise with the visiting Korean Coast Guard ship Taepyangyung carrying an integrated helicopter and crew of 79. The exercise terminated with a steam past by ships and fly past by aircraft, confirming the capabilities of the two coast guards to operate together under Dr Paleri (right) signing an MoU with the Korean Coast Guard Commissioner General, Mr Lee Seung Jae.
*Dr Prabhakaran Paleri is former Director General, Indian Coast Guard
SP’s NAVAL FORCES
Indian Coast Guard ship in manoeuvres with a Korean Coast Guard helicopter.
n an exceptionally organised drill, the Indian and the South Korean Coast Guards jointly showcased their prowess in maritime security enhancement through international cooperation. The exercises at sea off Chennai, on July 5, 2006 were monitored by the Indian Coast Guard Commander of the Eastern Region. It was the first meeting of the two Coast Guards in Indian waters. Earlier, in November last year, a visiting Indian Coast Guard ship had held limited exercises with their Korean counterpart, off Pusan in South Korea. The main focus of the exercises, under prevailing international agreements, was jointness on the coast guard tasks of search and rescue, pollution control and combating transnational crimes, including piracy and armed robbery at sea. The exercises would help to define the role of the two coast guards on common grounds, and introduce operational procedures for interoperability within their respective charters. The coast guard interactive matrix is expected to expand further, particularly under
The bilateral cooperation between the two coast guards was first proposed by the President of the Republic of Korea during his visit to India in October 2004. This provided the impetus for the development of interaction between the two organisations and evolution of the framework of cooperation. The common areas of interest include measures against piracy and other transnational crimes at sea, besides marine disaster management. The activity profile will be limited to mutual cooperation, as well as sharing knowledge and expertise on mutual grounds. A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between the Director General of the Indian Coast Guard and the Commissioner General of the Korean Coast Guard, Mr Lee Seung Jae, on March 13, 2006 at New Delhi. The President of India ratified the MoU on April 21, 2006. The way ahead includes establishing a communication link for exchange of information on a round-the clock basis. The MoU highlights piracy, armed robbery, maritime crimes, trafficking in arms, drug trafficking, smuggling and illegal migration at sea as the area of focus under it. Each party will take expeditious action to address mutual concerns within the scope of the MoU, capacity limits and jurisdictional applicability. Visits of coast guard ships to each other’s countries and joint exercises will keep the spirit of the MoU that will be initially for a five-year period. Thereafter, it will be renewed automatically unless the parties decide to revise or terminate it.
Reaching Out to Maritime Neighbours
...Continued from page 6
4 In 2001, the IN hosted its first International Fleet Review at Mumbai, which was attended by 24 ships from 19 countries. In addition, 29 chiefs of navies or their senior representatives also attended. The review, in addition to demonstrating the IN’s high level of professionalism, also successfully showcased the country’s industrial and technological capability. Appropriately titled “Building Bridges of Friendship,” the review acted as a major confidence building measure, as the interactions succeeded in displaying the IN’s peaceful intentions to the navies attending, as also its capability and resolve to act as a stabilising force in the Indian Ocean.
The IN’s benign role is one that has recently gained considerable prominence. This basically includes its employment for the provision of humanitarian aid and disaster relief in the region whenever requested, something it has been routinely undertaking at a national level. Other naval tasks under the benign role include provision of hydrographic assistance, salvage operations, diving, pollution control as also maritime search and rescue. The proactive role of the IN in the aftermath of the Tsunami tragedy of December 2004 is well known. This assistance was undertaken within hours of the tragedy, without compromising on India’s own domestic commitments. It gained international approbation. In fact, naval ships arrived in Sri Lanka within 24 hours of the disaster’s occurrence. The deployment was indicative, not only of the IN’s significant capability, but also of its high state of readiness and the world sat up and took notice. There is more that goes to the credit of the IN: 4 Hydrographic cooperation is an important area of cooperation as the IN’s hydrographic capability has long been recognised as being of a high quality. This has seen the IN’s survey ships being requested to undertake a number of hydrographic surveys in the Indian Ocean littoral. 4 The IN has also successfully employed its skills in providing high quality naval training to foster closer ties with friendly maritime countries. This initiative sees an average of 400 to 450 trainees, from 18-20 countries, undergo training in the IN’s broad spectrum of training establishments each year. The high standards of training, both in terms of quality as well as content, available at competitive costs, have seen a surge in requests for vacancies for various professional courses. The IN’s training establishments are thus fast becoming Asia's leading facility for naval training.
Conclusion India enjoys the unique distinction of having an entire ocean named after her and is viewed as an emerging and vibrant nation in the Indian Ocean littoral. Its growing economic strength and power potential is being increasingly recognised – in fact looked upon favourably by the countries of the region. The IN had remained somewhat isolated and recommenced interaction with other navies only in the early nineties. This interaction has grown rapidly, both in quantity as well as in scope. Increasing numbers of regional as also extra regional navies are eager to interact and exercise with it. This is because the IN is now perceived as being a professional force with significant capability. Engagement with it is seen as being beneficial. The nation has traditionally employed a cooperative and collaborative approach to solving regional problems; each instrument of national policy must thus be attuned with such a policy. The IN’s reach and flexibility coupled with its recent participation in various humanitarian missions far removed from the country’s shores have not only served to accentuate the efficacy of this force, but have built confidence in its benign intentions. Various initiatives towards joint, biand multi-lateral engagements with the other navies of the region have therefore been well received. The IN has thus shown its capability and intent in vigorously pursuing its support to the nation’s foreign policy by successfully “Reaching Out” to the nation’s maritime neighbours. This augurs well for the future.
SP’s NAVAL FORCES
ed the horror of the last few days of bombing and the ensuing insecurity, but was reassured by the presence of the Indian Navy.
* C O M M A N D E R V I N AY G A R G
Operation Sukoon in Lebanon, the Indian Navy’s largest post-independence civilian evacuation has reinforced India’s tradition of co-existence and raised the country’s stature in the world order.
5Waiting for their turn outside an IN ship.
5Four Indian Navy ships head towards Lebanon to rescue stranded citizens of various nationalities in war torn Lebanon.
5The Indian Navy rescued not only Indians but also other nationals.
nits of the Indian Western Fleet, INS Mumbai, Brahmaputra, Betwa and Shakti left Indian shores on June 14, 2006 on overseas goodwill visits and exercises with foreign navies. But the objective of the visit was completely transformed and the Indian Navy ships in a path-breaking role evacuated scores of civilians of different nationalities from war torn Lebanon. It was by far one of the largest post-independence civilian evacuation operations undertaken by the Indian Navy. In all, 2280 persons were evacuated from Lebanon. Clearly, by the timely evacuation, the Indian Navy exemplified the concept of naval diplomacy to the letter. This concept is contained in the Indian Maritime Doctrine (IMD) published in April 2004. The IMD defines naval diplomacy as “the use of maritime forces as a diplomatic instrument in support of political objectives and foreign policy.” Moving as a concise force, operating independently, the ships traversed the Red Sea to cross the Suez Canal. While in the Mediterranean, they exercised with the Turkish and Helenic (Greek) navies. INS Mumbai (indigenously designed and built guided-missile Destroyer) and Brahmaputra (indigenously designed and built guided-missile Frigate) called at the ports of Haifa (Israel) and Izmir (Turkey). Meanwhile, Betwa (a sister ship of Brahmaputra) and Shakti (fleet replenishment tanker) paid visits to Alexandria (Egypt) and Tripoli (Libya). The four ships made a rendezvous at Athens (Greece) on July 9. They were received with warmth and cordiality. The Phaleron War Cemetery where a formal wreath laying ceremony was held has a special section paying tribute to the Indians who lost their lives defending Greece and Crete under the British Commonwealth. It is a rare honour to be invited to such a ceremony and reiterates the esteem a country enjoys in the eyes of the host nation. The ships for their part were opened to visitors and hosted onboard receptions for the
*Commander Vinay Garg is PRO of the Indian Navy
SP’s NAVAL FORCES
5A view of rescued people onboard an IN ship.
444The four Indian Navy ships turned around to head back for the Suez Canal after they received orders to alter course with despatch towards Lebanon, signifying the start of Operation Sukoon. 333 ‘host country.’ Such functions are not mere hospitality gestures but an implicit means of building ‘bridges of friendship’ on behalf of the country. For the ships’ company, which invariably gets strained between gruelling exercises at sea and the impeccable standards expected during such harbour visits, the satisfaction of showing the Indian flag with success is often the greatest reward. After the goodwill visits and exercises, the ships were set to leave the Mediterranean shores with renewed vigour for the voyage back home. But as the four ships left Port Said (Egypt) on July16, transiting through the Red Sea, they received orders to alter course ‘with despatch’ towards Lebanon. The ships turned around to head back for the Suez Canal, signifying the start of Operation Sukoon. Sukoon, an Urdu-Persian word has many interpretations, ranging from peace-and-tranquillity to respite-and-reprieve. This was the name given to what became the Indian Navy’s largest post-independence civilian evacuation operation. For the Indians stranded in Lebanon with no hope for evacuation, the presence of naval ships was a blessing. It eventually turned out to be an answer to the prayers of many other nationals.
The ministries of External Affairs and Defence, in consultation with missions in Lebanon and Cyprus took stock and it was decided to evacuate along a ‘sea-air corridor.’ The plan was for the Indian Navy to enter the threatened zone to run a shuttle from Beirut to Larnaca (Cyprus) from where the national carrier Air India would fly them back home. The small Indian Mission at Lebanon got its act together in quick time, reaching out across a war torn Lebanon to extend the evacuation offer. With virtually no effective lines of communication, the embassy was grossly understaffed and inadequately equipped for handling an evacuation of this magnitude. Besides, there were diplomatic clearances and administrative hurdles to be met other than permission for Indian warships to enter into a short-handed and overcrowded Beirut port. There were long queues of evacuees ready when INS Mumbai steamed in on July 20. Necessary formalities done, the ship left for Larnaca the same evening carrying 608 people including 20 women and two children on a 110 nautical miles (about 200 Km) voyage. The ‘lift’ included seven Nepalese, a Sri Lankan and two Lebanese with Indian spouses. As this information was announced, it was realised that the Indians were the only ones to have made a multinational naval evacuation out of Beirut. Indeed, this would be the Indian strategy in following sorties too. Meanwhile, onboard the Mumbai, the ship’s administration was working at top gear to make the evacuees feel at home in the crammed spaces of a warship. The ship with a complement of 332 men was catering to nearly a thousand. An elderly Indian woman who had left everything behind was grateful that her Lebanese husband was also allowed onboard the ship. She recount-
By the time, the two Air India flights took-off from Larnaca, for Mumbai and Chennai respectively. More Indians (as also others from the littoral) were beginning to pour in at Beirut. Simultaneously, the sea-lanes were becoming more threatened. Missile attacks had earlier crippled one Israeli corvette, killing four of its sailors and a Cambodian merchant ship had been sunk. However, the Western Fleet Commander, Rear Admiral Anup Singh, who was in tactical control of the ‘sea corridor’ opted to take the ships in, leaving only the replenishment tanker, Shakti outside. Mumbai, Brahmaputra and Betwa entered Beirut on July 23. With only one jetty berth available, the ships manoeuvred themselves in quick succession to evacuate another 887 persons including 41 Nepalese, 57 Sri Lankans and five Lebanese. The number of women had perceptibly increased to 145, including four who were pregnant. The dozen children onboard would have had an ‘oceanic picnic’ and another eight infants would certainly carry the sea in their veins. As the evacuation drama began to unfold, there was great response from the media as well. Many Indian newspersons had reached Lebanon and there was a constant update to the populace at large. With many navies having opted not to enter Beirut, despite having ‘men-of-war’ (warships) in the area, the discretion of the Indian course-of-action also came somewhat into question. Was the navy taking a ‘risk’? “Yes,” said a candid Rear Admiral Anup Singh, adding “there’s always a risk, but that’s what warships are meant for.” With this understanding having sunk in, the nation was synergetically behind Operation Sukoon, in compliance with the IMD. The Tsunami of December 2004 had seen the Indian Navy respond with alacrity and speed in providing relief and rehabilitation support to affected countries. A similar response was perceptible when earthquake struck Indonesia in May 2006. However, unlike these operations in the Indian Ocean Region where the Indian Navy can reach out from home bases, Operation Sukoon was a further demonstration of the Indian Navy’s ability to sustain at extended ranges. In the process it not only displayed its ‘blue-water’ prowess, but also drove home India’s humane intent. Much of the ‘Indian’ evacuation done, the ships shaped course for home on July 30; but not before leaving behind INS Betwa to run a special sortie evacuating 324 Sri Lankans in addition to 82 Indians and a few Nepalese. To make the neighbourly gesture complete, Air India even made a detour via Colombo for its flight to Mumbai. As it turned out, Betwa, on its final departure for India, too made a detour; this time, for supplying relief material to Lebanon. For good measure, they threw in baby food and nappies too. For a world order which is familiar with the advantages of naval might, the Indian involvement in Lebanon was intimately noticed. Comparisons of the IN ships with those pressed in by others was also on the charts and quite clearly the distinction of India’s indigenous capabilities were analysed by the media. The Western world was awestruck with India’s growing stature in the world order. The West realised that by accommodating evacuees from other nations, India had depicted its historic culture of co-existence; it was also proof of India’s de jure status in the littoral. A correspondent onboard the Mumbai was surprised at the versatility of the ships’ crew as they switched from warship manning to “conducting baggage tag and claim operations” and onwards to meet the comfort requirements of their ‘guests.’ Operation Sukoon reflected all the diplomatic roles listed for the Indian Navy. Other than the non-benign roles such as ‘power projection’ and ‘coercion,’ Operation Sukoon would convince the world about the ‘projection’ of India’s navy as a force for good.
SP Guide Pubns
SP Guide Pubns
EADS, a global leader in aerospace, defence and related services, is committed to supporting India in the development of both its aerospace infrastructure and its industrial capabilities in aviation, space and defence technology. This was announced by EADS CEO, Mr Tom Enders during meetings in New Delhi with top Indian officials. “India is rapidly developing into a major player in the aerospace industry and several Indian companies have been contributing for over 40 years to the global success of EADS,” Mr Enders said. He added: “India is a priority country for EADS as it offers market potential and solid aerospace and defence competencies. We will facilitate the creation in India of training centres for pilots and mechanics, maintenance and spare part distribution centres.” EADS India Private Limited, a 100% owned subsidiary of EADS, was registered earlier this year and will lead the development of the Group in India. A significant step will be the opening of the EADS Technology Centre India that will bring both the EADS subsidiaries and the Indian partners under the same roof, performing engineering and information technology services. The decision on the location will be made soon. Operations are expected to begin in the second quarter of 2007 and the entire campus will be inaugurated in early 2008. The Centre will become a major employer in the aerospace and defence sector in India with the potential to create up to 2,000 jobs. Over the next 15 years, the volume of investment and hightech activities generated, including the Airbus Engineering Centre and other
5An SP’s Banner on a day long seminar on Offsets in Defence Deals. SP Guide Publication sponsored the seminar and its official publishing activities.
cooperation programmes is expected to reach about Rs 11,000 crore (Eur 2 billion).
India, Germany ink pact for hi-tech defence technology transfer Paving the way for bilateral strategic and security cooperation, India and Germany have signed their first-ever defence pact encompassing joint training, technology transfers and co-production of hi-tech military hardware. The Indo-German Defence Cooperation agreement was signed on September 6, 2006 in Berlin by Defence Minister, Mr Pranab Mukherjee and his German counterpart Mr Franz Josef Jung. The agreement would mostly cover exchange of cooperation in the naval field and in electronic and sureviellance systems, in which Germany recently had made big breakthroughs. It also envisages the setting up of a bilateral strategic defence cooperation group to cover subjects such as security and defence policy, disaster relief and other mutually agreed areas. Another bilateral group would deal with defence technology cooperation and defence business cooperation.
India orders three more Krivak III-Talwar Class frigates The Centre has announced that Russia will build three stealth warships for India under a Rs 5,114 crore (US $1.1 billion) contract signed in New Delhi. The contract covers three Krivak III/Talwar Class frigates, as a follow up to an earlier US $900 million purchase in 1997. The Krivak IIIs are not really stealth warships, when compared to more modern designs like Singapore's new Formidable Class frigates from France (a Lafayette Class derivative). They're best described as midrange multi-role frigates, with potential emphasis on anti-submarine work probably due to the anti-submarine capabilities of some Klub-N missiles (Talwar Class ships carry 14, vertically launched, though some are being fitted to carry the BrahMos). Defence Minister, Mr Pranab Mukherjee told a cabinet committee that the first ship would be delivered in 2011 and the subsequent two,12 months later. The announcement also included the purchase of 28 "submarine-fired cruise missiles," the type of which was not specified. It may be noted that in August 2005, Pakistan gave China a US $700 million order for four new 2,250-ton Type 053H3 Jiangwei II Class/F-22P frigates and six Z9C helicopters (a Chinese copy of the French AS 365N Dauphin II), but with a mix of Chinese and Western equipment. The F22P frigates were explicitly described as a counter to India’s Talwar Class, and were sold via soft loans from China. Deliveries are expected within 2009-2014.
Chandigarh War Memorial
Testimony to Supreme Sacrifice of thousands of Soldiers
the country, dedicated to nearly 8,459 brave soldiers who made the supreme sacrifice stands tall in the serene and beautiful Bougainvillea Garden of Chandigarh. The soldiers were from the Indian Army, Air Force and Navy and cover the period since 1947. The challenge of designing the War Memorial was given to the young students of Chandigarh College of Architecture to tap their creative and imaginative minds. The memorial was inaugurated by the President Dr A P J Abdul Kalam on August 17, 2006.
he region comprising Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and the Chandigarh Union territory has a large representation in the Indian defence forces. Many of these valiant soldiers have laid down their lives in the line of duty. In recognition of this sacrifice, a decision was taken by the Chandigarh Administration through a citizens’ initiative led by Indian Express to build a befitting memorial in Chandigarh. The project was launched on April 28, 2003. A little over three years later, the largest war memorial of
4The President Dr APJ Abdul Kalam opening the Chandigarh War Memorial.
India to buy USS Trenton The Centre has approved the acquisition of Landing Platform Dock (LPD), USS Trenton along with four Landing Craft Mechanised (LCMs) and associated package for the Indian Navy from the US at a cost of US $48.2 million. The ship would provide the Indian Navy enhanced amphibious capability. In addition, the LPD can be deployed for disaster relief operations. It can also function as a command and control platform during mishaps at sea, including offshore oil installation fires and maritime air accidents. No technical know-how for the construction of such a ship in India is envisaged under the present acquisition. However, the induction of LPD would help in gaining user experience apart from providing essential design inputs for the indigenous construction of LPD.
Boeing submits proposal for long-range maritime patrol aircraft A team led by Boeing has submitted its proposal to develop and deliver eight long-range maritime reconnaissance and anti-submarine warfare aircraft to the Indian Navy. Boeing is offering a variant of its P-8A Multi-mission Maritime Aircraft, which is currently being developed for the US Navy. The proposed aircraft would provide India with a significantly improved maritime patrol and reconnaissance capability. "We have proposed a unique system that will enhance the capability of the Indian navy in anti-submarine and anti-surface warfare," said Rick Buck, Boeing Program Manager for P-8A international programs. He added: "The increased range, speed, radius of action and
Defense Systems facilities in St. Louis. A derivative of the combat-proven, two-seat F/A-18F Super Hornet, the EA-18G’s highly flexible design enables war fighters to perform an array of AEA missions, operating from either the deck of an aircraft carrier or land-based airfield. The EA-18G integrates the capabilities of the most advanced AEA system, which recently completed tests on the EA-6B, with the advanced weapons, sensors and communications systems found on the Super Hornet. The Growler will join the navy’s aircraft fleet in 2009.
advanced combat power inherent in our 21st century solution will enable the Indian Navy to fully patrol and influence events in its entire operational region. Additionally, the commonality inherent in our solution will greatly enhance the interoperability and supportability objectives publicly supported by both the US and Indian Navies."
LPD-17 San Antonio Class: The US’ new amphibious ships LPD-17 San Antonio Class amphibious assault support vessels are a new class of ship which is just entering service with the US Navy. Much like their predecessors, their mission is to embark, transport, land, and support elements of a US Marine Corps landing force but with better capabilities and technologies incorporated to perform that mission, including internal technologies as well as accompanying platforms like the V-22 Osprey and Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle. Navy sources note that the nine scheduled ships of this class (reduced from 12) are slated to assume the functional duties of up to 41 previous ships. The LPD-17 San Antonio Class projected average cost once all ships are built is likely to be US $1.2 billion.
Boeing rolls out first EA-18G Growler The Boeing Company rolled out the US armed forces’ newest airborne electronic attack (AEA) aircraft, the EA-18G Growler, at St Louis on August 3, 2006, on time and within budget. Boeing presented the aircraft to a crowd of more than 500 US Navy customers, industry partners and Boeing employees during a ceremony at its Integrated
EADS to increase industrial footprint in India
Naval Shipyard in Portsmouth. Florida is the second Ohio-class ballistic missile submarine which has been reconfigured, replacing its 24 Trident missiles with nearly 154 Tomahawk cruise missiles, switching the boat from a nuclear deterrent to a source of more conventional firepower in the global war on terrorism. The newly-upgraded SSGNs can now fully house at least 66 or more SEALs (Sea, Air, Land) with all their equipment and deliver them covertly. SSGN is the only platform dedicated to such a role. Several areas of space abroad were also reconfigured for increased littoral combat capability. Earlier the existing fleet of attack submarines had already been outfitted with Tomahawk cruise missiles and used extensively during the early stages of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Although effective, the attack subs could only carry a small number of missiles, which meant several vessels were needed to conduct major cruise missile strikes.
New US littoral combat ships Boeing, acting as the weapon system integrator and prime contractor, leads the EA-18G Growler industry team. Northrop Grumman is the principal subcontractor and airborne electronic attack subsystem integrator. The Hornet Industry Team will divide EA-18G production across Boeing, Northrop Grumman, General Electric and Raytheon manufacturing facilities.
Submarine converts from nuclear deterrent to conventional role The guided-missile submarine USS Florida (SSGN 728) has completed its three-year refuelling and conversion at Norfolk
The Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) is the US Navy's newest surface combatant class. Optimised for shallow seas and littoral operations within 100 miles of shore but deployable across the ocean, LCS ships are central to the US’ new focus on littoral warfare. They will help to counter growing "asymmetric" threats like coastal mines, quiet diesel submarines, global piracy, and terrorists on small fast attack boats. They will also perform intelligence gathering and scouting using helicopters and UAVs, offer some ground combat support capabilities, and share tactical information with other navy aircraft, ships, submarines, and joint units. Swappable "mission Continued on back page...
SP’s NAVAL FORCES
Exclusive Interview with Admiral Arun Prakash, CNS
...Continued from page 3
SPG:The navy is closely involved with India’s shipbuilding industry. What is the current status of indigenous efforts to produce future naval platforms, including underwater vessels?
444While the emphasis is on giving impetus to indigenous shipbuilding, the import option may have to be occasionally exercised to keep the induction programme on schedule. 333 SPG: How is the refit-cum-modernisation of Vikramaditya (ex-Gorshkov) progressing in Russia and when is this ship likely to rejoin the fleet? What are your comments on the induction of MiG aircraft? CNS: The work on Vikramaditya is so far on schedule, and she should be commissioned, as planned in 2008. I was recently in Russia and was satisfied with the progress. The MiG29K is a new version of the MiG-29 series and our pilots will undertaking STOBAR operations for the first time from the deck of a new ship. Hence, in this project, we would like to proceed with deliberation, especially since the weather conditions in Northern Russia are often tricky.
Senior Group Editor Oswald Pereira Senior Editorial Adviser Vice Admiral P Jaitly Senior Technical Group Editor Lt General Naresh Chand Contributing Editors Lt General P K Pahwa Lt General V K Kapoor Air Marshal V K Bhatia CONTRIBUTORS India Vice Admiral P J Jacob Vice Admiral R B Suri Rear Admiral Raja Menon Commodore Rajeev Sawhney Dr W Lawrence Prabhakar
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CNS: We are extremely proud of the fact that today we build almost all of our ships in India. At the present juncture, 35 ships and submarines are on order at various Public Sector shipyards in India. These include: the Indigenous Aircraft Carrier (IAC) at Cochin Shipyard; follow-on destroyers of the Delhi Class, Shivalik class stealth frigates and the Scorpene submarines at MDL, Mumbai; landing ships, ASW corvettes and fast attack crafts at GRSE; and offshore patrol vessels at Goa Shipyard. While the emphasis is on giving impetus to indigenous shipbuilding, the import option may have to be occasionally exercised to keep the induction programme on schedule.
Managing Editor and Publisher Jayant Baranwal
Europe Doug Richardson, Andrew Brookes (UK)
5Admiral Arun Prakash during the interview with Mr Jayant Baranwal.
SPG: While the PSUs have been involved in defence programmes for many years, how do you propose to encourage and increase the participation of the private sector to foster a greater degree of competition in the defence acquisition plans? CNS: We in the navy have always had a very high opinion about the capability of the Indian private sector and would like them to contribute to the production of defence systems. However, in the current procurement system there are some impediments to the full and free participation of the private sector in defence production, some of which may be addressed by the recommendations of the Kelkar Committee. On our part, we are heavily engaged in a dialogue with industry through the CII to ensure that its process of indigenisation is given adequate impetus, especially in our new ventures like the submarine and aircraft carrier projects.
SPG: The US has offered to the Indian Navy, the US Navy’s Aerial Surveillance and Command & Control capabilities. Further some of these assets such as E-2C Hawkeye, F/A-18 Super Hornet were demonstrated and operated during Exercise Malabar, the Indo-US Joint Exercise held in October, 2005. Are these systems, candidates for India’s naval acquisition, and what is the status of negotiations with the US Government? CNS: Our procurements are based on the Indian Navy’s specific needs and not because they are on the shelf, or demonstrated during an exercise. We have identified certain equipment for procurement from the US, and include the LRMP aircraft and the USS Trenton with its associated SH-3 helicopters. Cases for these are at various stages of procurement/evaluation. I expect the first purchase of hardware from the US to be the USS Trenton. But we are keeping our fingers crossed.
USA & Canada Lon Nordeen (USA), Anil R Pustam (West Indies) West Asia/Africa Helmoed R Heitman (South Africa) Chairman & Mg Director Jayant Baranwal Design Misha Oberoi Chakravarty Published quarterly by Jayant Baranwal on behalf of SP Guide Publications P Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, photocopying, recording, electronic, or otherwise without prior written permission of the Publishers.
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...Continued from page 11
modules," UAV robot aircraft, and robotic UUV and USV vehicles will give these small ships the specialised capabilities they require for each of these roles. At present, two teams are competing for the final LCS design. The General Dynamics team is offering a futuristic but practical high-speed trimaran based on Austal designs and experience. The Lockheed Martin team offers a high-speed semi-planing
monohull based on Fincantieri designs that have set TransAtlantic speed records. Both teams have now received contracts and begun construction.
Raytheon awarded US Navy contracts for torpedoes Raytheon Company and Naval Sea Systems Command have finalised a US $95.4 million contract modification for light-
weight and heavyweight torpedoes hardware and engineering support services. Under the contract, Raytheon will deliver electronic systems and components, spares and services for 105 MK 54 lightweight torpedoes and 107 MK 48 heavyweight torpedoes, supporting MK 48 upgrade and configuration to Common Broadband Advanced Sonar System, which entered full-rate production in June 2006.
Russia and China building littoral warships As the US proceeds with its Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) programme, other nations are building less versatile and less expensive craft for littoral warfare and patrol roles. In addition to Sweden's famed Visby Class corvettes (recently upgraded to a "Visby Plus" configuration)
and Norway's smaller Skjold (Shield) Class air cushion catamarans, the Russians are introducing a new corvette class that could compete with the LCS for export. Meanwhile, the Chinese are introducing advanced wavepiercing catamaran designs into their own littoral fleet. While the Chinese ships are nowhere near the US’ LCS, they could be key opponents in a future Taiwan Straits scenario.
444Appointments Chief of Naval Staff designate: Vice Admiral Sureesh Mehta has been appointed the next Chief of Naval Staff and will take over from Admiral Arun Prakash when he retires on October 31, 2006. At present, he is the Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Eastern Naval Command. Like Admiral Prakash, CNS designate is also a renowned aviator.n
SP's Naval Forces 95 In This Issue Air Operations at Sea4 page
FOC-in-C, Southern Naval Command: Vice Admiral J S Bedi
India’s Evolving Maritime Profile and Strategy 4 page 12
“We have a vital stake in the security of the sea-lanes to our East and West. The Indian Navy therefore must expand its capability to protect the sea-lanes.” Dr Manmohan Singh Prime Minister of India
I s s u e
2 0 0 6
V o l
SP’s has always been known for the new beginnings as the Founder Publisher Shri S P Baranwal introduced Military Yearbook in 1965, continuing with the same SP’s introduced SP’s Aviation in 1998; then SP’s Land Forces (1st journal of its kind from the whole of Asia) in 2004. Following the tradition of introducing focused platforms thus aiming to fill the void in the market, SP’s now offers SP’s Naval Forces to India’s state-of-the-art Navy.
Admiral Arun Prakash, Chief of Naval Staff (CNS) and his office have been very supportive towards this new endeavour and SP’s feel duly honoured and rather committed due to such response.
SP’s team with CNS on 18th November, 2005 after the interview.
The inaugural issue includes an exhaustive interview that has been conducted with the CNS. It includes a variety of perceptions, views coming from the Admiral, therefore an educative piece for its valuable readers. The journal with pleasure includes a very exhaustive and interesting article on Air Operations at Sea by the CNS,
that illustrates evolution of naval aviation.
Deputy Chief of Naval Staff: Vice Admiral R P Suthan took over as Deputy Chief of Naval Staff on July 27, 2006 from Vice Admiral J S Bedi. n
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Scorpene Construction Programme 4 page 4
has taken over as Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Southern Naval Command from Vice Admiral S C S Bangara who retired on July 31, 2006. Vice Admiral J S Bedi was posted as Deputy Chief of Naval Staff and was instrumental in overseeing the operational functioning of the Navy. n
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Indian Navy has been the most inter-operable service from India which duly reflects in the series of joint exercises that have been taking place with countries like France, United States, Russia and so on. The journal makes an attempt to cover such interactive gestures in an illustrative manner. This issue also touches upon the upcoming mega event i.e. President’s Review to be held in February first half this year.
w w w. g u i d e p u b l i ca t i o n s . co m
An article on Scorpene Construction Programme by Vice Admiral (r) P Jaitly discusses the relevant implications of 6 submarines’ contract that has been signed between India and France, as to how it will enable the sustainability of expertise with defence public sectors and also offer a range of opportunities to private sectors in India. Indian Navy has been known for its key role towards disaster management in the country and in the region. The journal has covered a seminar held recently which was chaired by Indian Defence Minister, Mr Pranab Mukherjee, Chief of the Naval Staff and various heads of Disaster Management Committee. Also covered are the evolution of the Indian Navy and its initiatives towards its relationship with various countries and the Indian Coast Guard’s relentless efforts to meet the Marine environmental security needs, etc. The layout of the journal has been designed keeping the aspirations of Navy in mind and the blue water ambitions of this forceful service. We do hope that our readers would enjoy reading. This is a beginning... and we intend to consistently evolve and therefore request our readers to send us their views, comments and suggestions. So the anchor has been weighed and we are over the waters to sail.
Controller Personnel Services: Vice Admiral S K Damle has taken
JAYANT BARANWAL MANAGING EDITOR & PUBLISHER
So, my main thrust areas have been - networking, transformation, foreign co-operation and indigenisation. I hope that they will be sustained over the coming years to the benefit of our service and our country...
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over as Controller Personnel Services from August 1, 2006. He had earlier commanded aircraft carrier Viraat and the Eastern Fleet. n
D G Coast Guard: Vice Admiral R F Contractor has taken over as Director General Coast Guard on August 31, 2006 from Dr P Paleri who has since retired. n
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