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Copyright © 2018

SP Guide Publications All rights reserved. The information published herein is for the personal use of the reader and may not be used for any other activity. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form by any means – digital, electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording or otherwise – without the prior written approval of the Editor-in-Chief. For copyright permissions, please contact: The Editor-in-Chief SP’s Military Yearbook A-133, Arjun Nagar, Opposite Defence Colony New Delhi 110003, India.

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Readers’ Comments.... The Guide Publications of New Delhi have brought out the Military Yearbook. It is useful to have suitably compiled information in one volume. I commend the efforts of the Publishers. Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Former Prime Minister of India It (Military Yearbook) is a valuable book. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Former President of India It was good of you to send me a complimentary copy of Military Yearbook (1970)...I have gone through...and found its general get up good and contents useful. Field Marshal S.H.F.J. Manekshaw Former Chief of the Army Staff, Indian Army Military Yearbook is indeed a very interesting and useful document and would be of considerable assistance to all the Services personnel whose profession is the science of war. Admiral O.S. Dawson Former Chief of the Naval Staff, Indian Navy SP Guide Publications has played an instrumental role in promoting public awareness about the Indian armed forces through a vast array of well researched and insightful publications. SP’s Aviation and the SP’s Military Yearbook in particular are known for their credible and authentic reportage and this has helped SP Guide Publications to carve a special niche for itself amongst the other publication houses. Air Chief Marshal Arup Raha Former Chief of the Air Staff, Indian Air Force March 24, 2014

Thank you for sending me a copy SP’s Military Yearbook 2016-2017. The book is an interesting record of recent developments in the military domain. I wish you the very best for your future endeavours. M. Hamid Ansari Vice President of India March 8, 2017

Thank you for the copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2016-2017. I surely would cherish reading it and it would be a priceless possession in my collection. Air Marshal Anil Khosla Air Officer Commanding-in Chief Eastern Air Command, Indian Air Force May 24, 2017

Thank you very much for sending me a copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2016-2017. The book is well researched and covers a wide spectrum of national and strategic importance and is surely a great read. Please convey my sincere appreciation to the SP’s team for an excellent compilation. Lt General D Anbu General Officer Commanding-in-Chief &

20178  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2018 |  45th Issue

Colonel of The SIKH LI Regiment, Northern Command Indian Army March 29, 2017

Thank you for sending me a copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2016-2017. The contents of the publication were indeed informative, thought provoking and would serve as very useful references. It is also heartening to observe that the editorial team has strived to enhance value of the publication, every year, through innovative additions. I also take this opportunity to convey my greetings and appreciation to you and the editorial team for a very well laid out and contemporary publication. Vice Admiral H.C.S. Bisht Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Eastern Naval Command Indian Navy April 3, 2017

At the outset, I would like to thank you for the copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2016-2017. The Yearbook is truly informative, insightful and analytical. It gives an incisive, holistic, ring side view

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Readers’ Comments.... of matters military in the prevailing real time environment. The Yearbook is a true reflection of the hard work, analysis and detail which has gone into its fructification. It truly is an unmatched and indispensable reference point. Please accept my compliments for the extensive research work. Lt General Rakesh Sharma Adjutant Genera Indian Army March 1, 2017

I extend my sincere thanks to you for forwarding a complimentary copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2016-2017. It is indeed a well compiled book covering

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the mission critical information on military affairs and the perspectives of subject matter experts of their respective fields. Also the exceptional range and significantly greater number of articles are really of great interest and are informative in nature. Please convey my sincere and heartfelt compliments to SP’s team and special thanks to all your authors for a job well done and producing a great reference book. Lt General Ajai Kumar Sahgal Director General Army Air Defence, Indian Army March 3, 2017

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My compliments to you and all the personnel who have contributed in the creation of such a treasure of information. I wish the best to SP Guide Publications in all future endeavors. Air Marshal Sanjay Sharma Air Officer-in-Charge Maintenance Indian Air Force May 22, 2017

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Many thanks for forwarding the copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2016-2017. I found the Yearbook highly informative and well compiled. Please convey my compliments and best wishes to the editorial team. I take this opportunity to wish you the very best in 2017; and continued good health, happiness and satisfaction in the years ahead. Rear Admiral Dinesh K. Tripathi Assistant Chief of the Naval Staff (Policy & Plans) Indian Navy March 20, 2017

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Authors' profiles Group Captain A.K. Sachdev (Retd)

Vice Admiral A.V. Subhedar (Retd)

Group Captain A.K. Sachdev (Retd) has more than 43 years of aviation experience including the Indian Air Force (IAF) and in a commercial airlines business. He is a Sword of Honour winner from the Air Force Academy. He has flown multi-engine jets as well as rotary wing aircraft. He was a Senior Research Fellow in Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses, New Delhi for two years and has published a book, a monograph, and numerous academic and aviation related articles in professional and aviation journals. n

Vice Admiral A.V. Subhedar was commissioned in 1977. He is a Marine Engineer Officer with wide ranging experience of 39 years in various capacities and responsibilities within the Indian Navy involving Innovation, Indigenisation, Technology Management, Ship Repair, Production and Acquisition, Human Resource Management, Operational Logistics, Infrastructure Development, Financial Planning and Control. During the illustrious Naval career of 39 yrs, he has held many important appointments. He retired on October 31, 2016, as the Chief of Materiel at Integrated Headquarters, Ministry of Defence (Navy), New Delhi.  n

Article on page 47

Bridadier Dr Anil Sharma (Retd)

Article on page 69

Ani is a Master of Management Studies (MMS) from Osmania University & Ph.D (System Dynamics Modeling of National Security Strategy and Force Restructuring). He is Fellow of Army War College, Former Head of Office of Net Assessment and Professor and Director-SA at University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun. He has published a number of papers on strategy and security and is currently working with Vivekananda International Foundation. n Article on page 1

Lt General A.P. Singh Lt General A.P. Singh is an alumnus of NDA and was commissioned into an Air Defence Regiment on June13, 1981. The officer has done Long Gunnery Staff Course, Tunguska Weapon course in Russia, and he is a graduate of DSSC, HC and NDC Courses. He holds MPhil degree in Def & Strat Management and is a Ph.D in Military Science. At present he is the Director General Air Defence at the Integrated Hq of MoD (Army). n Article on page 93

Anshu Paliwal

Air Marshal B.K. Pandey (Retd)

The writer is Research Associate in the team created by Brig Sharma for research in Strategic Management. She is currently working as Associate Proctor at the University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun. She has submitted her Ph.D in “Study Habits, Learning Styles and Goal Setting as Predictor of Academic Performance of College Students”. She has also researched on Asia-Pacific Region.  n

Air Marshal B.K. Pandey retired from the Indian Air Force (IAF) after serving the organisation for nearly 40 years. During his career, he held a number of important command and staff appointments, the last being that of AOC-in-C Training Command of the IAF. Currently he is an Editor with SP Guide Publications and is a resident of Bengaluru. n

Article on page 1

Article on page 111, 201, 259, 281

Vice Admiral Anup Singh (Retd)

Dr Bhupendra Kumar Singh

Vice Admiral Anup Singh was commissioned into the Indian Navy on July 1, 1973. He is a specialist in navigation and direction. After serving for 38 years he retired on October 31, 2011. He has held many important operational and staff assignments. His last assignment was that of Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Eastern Naval Command. Currently, he is occupied with the seminar circuit and holds the honorary assignments in a large number of think tanks.  n

He was a full time Consultant (Energy Security) at the Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India, where he helped the government adopt an Integrated Energy Policy, contributed in the formulation of India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change, formulated India’s external policy on energy and climate change. He is a Deputy Director (Energy) at the Confederation of Indian Industry, New Delhi. He is a member of the International Association of Energy Economics, USA. n

Article on page 55

Article on page 59

201712  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2018 |  45th Issue

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Major General Dhruv C. Katoch (Retd)

Dr Laxman Kumar Behera

An alumnus of Sherwood College, Nainital, the National Defence Academy, Khadakwasla, and the National Defence College, New Delhi, Major General Dhruv C. Katoch was commissioned in the Dogra Regiment on March 31, 1972. Besides the National Defence College, the General is a graduate of the Defence Services Staff College, Wellington, and the Higher Command Course, Mhow. He was the Director, Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS), New Delhi, which is the Indian Army’s premier think tank on land warfare. n

He is a master’s in applied and analytical economics, and Ph.D from the School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. He is a Research Fellow with the Indian Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA). As a member of IDSA’s Defence Economics and Industry Centre, Dr Behera undertakes policy relevant research pertaining to various economic aspects of Indian defence. He was closely associated with two high-level committees set up by the Indian Ministry of Defence on Defence Acquisition Reforms and Defence Expenditure Review.  n

Article on page 17

Article on page 101

Brigadier Gurmeet Kanwal (Retd)

Dr Monika Chansoria

Brigadier Gurmeet Kanwal is a well-known military and strategic analyst who commanded an Infantry Brigade on the LoC with Pakistan. He has been a Military Observer in the United Nations Mission UNTAG in Namibia. He has authored several books and was till recently the Director, Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS), New Delhi. n Article on page 51, 105

Dr Harinder Sekhon

Dr Monika Chansoria is a Tokyo-based Senior Visiting Fellow at The Japan Institute of International Affairs (JIIA). Her latest authored book (2017) is titled China, Japan, and Senkaku Islands: Conflict in the East China Sea Amid an American Shadow. In 2011, Dr Chansoria authored a book on the Chinese PLA titled China: Military Modernisation and Strategy. n Article on page 21

Dr (Mrs) Harinder Sekhon is well known strategic analyst whose work has focused on research, consultancy and policy advocacy on various aspects of US-India strategic relations, India’s defence and aerospace industry, India’s security challenges and risk analysis. With over 30 years experience in academia, government and public policy think tanks, Harinder’s research and outreach is both incisive and effective. She is currently a Senior Fellow with the Vivekanand International Foundation. n

Major General Mrinal Suman (Retd) Major General Suman heads the Defence Technical Assessment and Advisory Service (DTAAS) of the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). As the first Technical Manager (Land Systems), he was closely associated with the evolution and promulgation of the new defence procurement mechanism in which his expertise is well known. n

Article on page 7

Article on page 121, 125

Group Captain Joseph Noronha (Retd)

Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd)

Group Captain Joseph Noronha is an experienced fighter pilot and a Qualified Flying Instructor (QFI A2). Commissioned in the fighter stream of the Indian Air Force in December 1974, he later commanded a MiG-21M squadron and served as Directing Staff at the Defence Services Staff College, Wellington, Nilgiris. He also served twice on the staff of the Flying Instructors' School, Tambaram, Chennai. Post retirement, he continues to keep in close touch with aviation issues and is a prolific writer for a variety of aviation periodicals and journals. n

He is a former Director General, Army Air Defence, member of Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme and Member Secretary of the first National Radar Council. He has served with the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and was also a consultant with the Bharat Electronics Limited. He was also involved in writing the history of the Regiment of Artillery and history of the Corps of Army Air Defence. At present he is the Technical Group Editor with SP Guide Publications. n

Article on page 89

Article on page 65

201714  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2018 |  45th Issue

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Ambassador P. Stobdan

Lt General Rajesh Pant (Retd)

Ambassador P. Stobdan is a distinguished academician, diplomat, author and foreign policy expert. He has been India’s Ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary to the Republic of Kyrgyzstan until recently. He has earlier served in the National Security Council Secretariat (NSCS). He also served as Director of the Centre for Strategic Studies in Jammu and Kashmir. He is the Founding President of the Ladakh International Centre, Leh. He is currently with IDSA, New Delhi. He is a Distinguished Fellow at the United Services Institution (USI) and he is also a leading columnist for Indian Express and other national dailies in India. n

Lt General Rajesh Pant is an internationally renowned Techno-Scholar-Warrior-Mentor. The officer served the Indian Army Signals for more than 41 years with an unblemished service profile. He is a triple postgraduate, with M.Tech from IIT Kharagpur, M.Phil from Madras University and Master of Management Studies from Osmania University. In June 2014, the officer has also obtained his Ph.D in the important field of Information Security. He is presently the Chairman of Precision Electronics Limited, a Governing Council member of IETE and an International Consultant on Information Security. n

Article on page 11

Lt General P.C. Katoch (Retd) Lt General P.C. Katoch superannuated as Director General Information Systems of the Indian Army. A third-generation army officer, he commanded the Strike Corps in the South Western Theatre. He has served as Defence Attaché in Japan with accreditation to Republic of Korea. n Article on page 43

P.R. Kumaraswamy P.R. Kumaraswamy is professor of Middle Eastern studies at Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi. From 1992 to 1999 he was aresearch fellow at the Harry S. Truman Research Institute for the Advancement of Peace, Jerusalem. Since joining JNU in September 1999, Professor Kumaraswamy has been researching, teaching, and writing on various aspects of the Middle East Region. In February 2010, Prof. Kumaraswamy set up the Middle East Institute, New Delhi (www. mei.org.in) and serves as its honorary director and in 2013 launched the series Persian Gulf that deals with India’s relations with the region. He is also the editor of Contemporary Review of the Middle East. n

Article on page 81

Brigadier Rahul Bhonsle (Retd) Brigadier Rahul Bhonsle has three decades of experience in counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism in India and abroad. He had hands-on experience in military modernisation and training during his service period heading a number of tactical and technical innovation projects at the operational level. Post retirement since 2006, he has combined his military expertise with extensive study of future trends and coordinated a number of projects for the Directorate of Net Assessment in the Integrated Defence Staff, Centre for the Joint Warfare Studies and Centre for Land Warfare Studies. He is at present Director of Security Risks, a South Asian security risk and knowledge management consultancy. n Article on page 129, 513

Ranjit Gupta Ranjit Gupta is a retired Indian Foreign Service officer. He had been India’s Ambassador to Yemen (North), Venezuela, Oman, Thailand and Spain and finally head of the non-official office in Taiwan. He is currently a member of the National Security Advisory Board and is leading a Joint Research Project with the Gulf Research Centre, Dubai, and on India GCC Relations on behalf of the Ministry of External Affairs. n

Article on page 39

Article on page 35

Prerna Gandhi

Vice Admiral R.K. Pattanaik (Retd)

Prerna Gandhi is currently a Research Associate at Vivekananda International Foundation and doctoral student at Dept. of East Asian Studies, Delhi University. With a multi-disciplinary background, she has written various articles involving contemporary political, economic and strategic issues with respect to East Asia. She is also a recipient of the Mitsubishi Corporation International Scholarship and visited Japan in the “Japan-East Asia Network of Exchange for Students and Youths Program- JENESYS” in summer of 2011. At the VIF she is doing research on ASEAN and East Asia. n

Vice Admiral R.K. Pattanaik is a graduate from the National Defence Academy and was commissioned into the Indian Navy as an Executive Officer on January 1, 1978. After serving for 38 years he retired on October 31, 2015. He has held many important staff and command assignments. His last assignment was Deputy Chief of the Naval Staff at Integrated Headquarters, Ministry of Defence (Navy). His academic qualifications include, Post Graduation in Defence and Strategic Studies from Madras University and M.Phil in Global Security. He is currently pursuing Ph.D in Defence and Security Studies at Madras University. n

Article on page 31

Article on page 117

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Major General R.P. Bhadran (Retd) Major General R.P. Bhadran was commissioned to 7th Light Cavalry in 1979. He is a post-graduate in engineering with specialisation in combat vehicles. During his military career spanning 36 years, he has had varied experience in command and staff assignments. In his last assignment before retirement from service, he was the Additional Director General Information Systems. During the three-year stint as the ADGIS, he oversaw the development of operational information systems of the Army including the prestigious CIDSS, BSS, ACCCS, BMS and ADC&RS projects. Post retirement, he has been pursuing his passion for military technology, especially in the fields of combat vehicles design and information technology. n Article on page 85

Vice Admiral Satish Soni (Retd)

New Delhi and JIIA, Tokyo. He has published two books and several articles in India and abroad. Post retirement he has been Vice President TATA-Nova Integrated Systems and CEO and Director of ShinMaywa Industries India Private Limited. Presently he is serving as Senior Consultant, NITI Aayog, New Delhi. n Article on page 77

Rear Admiral Sushil Ramsay (Retd) Rear Admiral Sushil Ramsay retired after serving in the Indian Navy for 38 years. He provided extensive strategic directions and operational expertise towards capacity-building in logistics, defence expenditure, administrative reforms and restructuring of Services Headquarters. He has been Naval Attaché in the Embassy of India in Moscow. He is currently Senior Editorial Advisor of SP’s Naval Forces and Technical Editor of SP’s Military Yearbook. n Article on page 175

Vice Admiral Satish Soni retired from the Indian Navy on Febryary 29, 2016, after 40 year s of service. He has held the appointment of Flag Officer Commandingin-Chief, Eastern Naval Command before retirement. Post retirement he has been writing, travelling, participating in seminars and discussions. He is a Distinguished Fellow with the United Institution of India, Delhi. n Article on page 27

Rear Admiral Dr S. Kulshrestha (Retd)

Major General Umong Sethi (Retd) Umong Sethi is an army veteran who has had considerable experience of command in operationally active areas and exposure at the strategic level of planning operations, procurement, equipment management processes and managing disasters. He is a prolific writer and a military analyst. He contributes to the discourse on National Security, Smart & Safe Cities, Smart Borders and Skill Development. n Article on page 291

Rear Admiral Dr S. Kulshrestha is a post-graduate from Jodhpur University who joined Indian Navy in the year 1975 and was awarded the Sword of Honour in 1976, for being the best Naval Officer during initial training. He specialised in Quality Assurance of Naval Armament and adorned various key appointments in the Navy, DRDO establishments, ordnance factories and finally rose to become the Director General of Naval Armament Inspection (DGNAI) at the Integrated Headquarters of the Ministry of Defence (Navy). As DGNAI, he was directly responsible for timely availability of reliable and safe naval armament to the operational fleet of the Indian Navy. n Article on page 73, 97

Commodore Sujeet Samaddar (Retd) Commodore Sujeet Samaddar (Retd) graduated from IIT, Roorkee and served the Indian Navy until his retirement as Principal Director Naval Plans in 2009. He is an alumnus of College of Air Warfare, Secunderabad; DSSC, Wellington: National Institute of Defence Studies, Tokyo and the United Nations University, Tokyo. He has been a Fellow of the USI,

201718  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2018 |  45th Issue

Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd) Lt General V.K. Kapoor was commissioned on February 9, 1964. He is a specialist in armoured and mechanised warfare and in the art of war-gaming. Prior to superannuating, he was the Commandant of the Army War College at Mhow. He has written more than 200 articles for magazines and journals on strategic and military issues. He is currently the Editor of SP's Land Forces and SP's Military Yearbook. n Article on page 149, 297

Brigadier Vinod Anand (Retd) Brigadier Vinod Anand was Brigadier General Staff, Joint Operations at Army Training Command in his last assignment. He is a post-graduate in defence and strategic studies. He was a Senior Fellow at the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses and is currently a Senior Fellow with the Vivekananda International Foundation. n Article on page 31, 141

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Telangana

Major Indian Armed Forces’ Headquarters 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

New Delhi (Integrated HQ of MoD (Army) New Delhi (Integrated HQ of MoD (Navy) New Delhi (Integrated HQ of MoD (IAF) Pune (HQ Southern Command), Army Kolkata (HQ Eastern Command), Army Chandimandir (HQ Western Command), Army Lucknow (HQ Central Command), Army Udhampur (HQ Northern Command), Army Shimla (HQ Training Command), Army Jaipur (HQ South-Western Command), Army Vishakhapatnam (HQ Eastern Naval Command), Navy Mumbai (HQ Western Naval Command), Navy

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13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

Kochi (HQ Southern Naval Command), Navy New Delhi (HQ Western Air Command), IAF Shillong (HQ Eastern Air Command), IAF Allahabad (HQ Central Air Command), IAF Bengaluru (HQ Training Command), IAF Gandhinagar (HQ South-Western Air Command), IAF Thiruvananthapuram (HQ Southern Air Command), IAF Nagpur (HQ Maintenance Command), IAF New Delhi (HQ Strategic Forces Command) Port Blair (HQ Andaman & Nicobar Command) New Delhi (HQ Integrated Defence Staff)

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DRDO and DPSU Headquarters 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), New Delhi Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd, Bengaluru Bharat Electronics Ltd, Bengaluru Bharat Earth Movers Ltd, Bengaluru Mazagon Dock Ltd, Mumbai Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Ltd, Kolkata Goa Shipyard Ltd, Goa Hindustan Shipyard Ltd, Visakhapatnam Bharat Dynamics Ltd, Hyderabad Mishra Dhatu Nigam Ltd, Hyderabad Aeronautical Development Agency, Bengaluru

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Indian Space Research Organisation, Bengaluru Aeronautical Development Establishment, Bengaluru Centre for Airborne Systems, Bengaluru Combat Vehicles Research & Development Establishment, Chennai Defence Electronics Research Lab., Hyderabad Defence Research and Development Est., Gwalior Defence Research and Development Lab., Hyderabad Naval Science & Technological Laboratory, Visakhapatnam Integrated Test Range, Balasore, Odisha Cochin Shipyard Ltd, Kochi, Kerala Ordnance Factories Board, Kolkata

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REGIONAL BALANCE

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Contents CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Cont e n t s Colour pages

12, 14, 16, 18

Maps: Major Indian Armed Forces’ Headquarters, DRDO and DPSU Headquarters

20, 22

Editorial 34

41-68 BUSINESS

Weapons, Equipment & Vehicles 

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Authors' Profiles

8, 10

TECHNOLOGY

Readers’ Comments

INDIAN DEFENCE

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REGIONAL BALANCE

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Cont e nt s B lack & White pages

1 Concepts & Perspectives

1

4. Security Concerns in Afghanistan-Pakistan Region................................................................................. 17

Major General Dhruv C. Katoch (Retd)

1. International Security Climate Warrants Genuine Concern............................................ 1

5. Chinese PLA’s Capability Enhancement: Recent Developments.................................................... 21

Brigadier Dr Anil Sharma (Retd) & Anshu Paliwal

Dr Monika Chansoria

2. India-US Relations: Stable Trajectory Upwards Despite Irritants............................................... 7

6. South China Sea: China Perfecting Moves in Game of Chinese Chequers...................................... 27

Dr Harinder Sekhon

Vice Admiral Satish Soni (Retd)

3. Indo-Russian Relations – 2017: Playing Safe...................................................................... 11

7. Politico-Strategic Developments in South-East Asia .......................................................... 31

P. Stobdan

201726  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2018 |  45th Issue

Brigadier Vinod Anand (Retd) & Prerna Gandhi

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CONTENTS

B lack & White pages

8. West Asia: India has Much at Stake in the Stability of the Region........................................ 35

12. Pakistan’s TNWs Seek to Checkmate Indian Advance................................................................ 51

Lt General P.C. Katoch (Retd)

Vice Admiral Anup Singh (Retd)

14. India’s Energy Security: The Governments’ New Initiatives............................. 59

Dr Bhupendra Kumar Singh

11. Aerospace Power: The Next War Zone for Contending Nations........................................................ 47 Group Captain A.K. Sachdev (Retd)

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

10. Advent of Hybrid Wars and its Application and Implications for the Region.................................. 43

TECHNOLOGY

P.R. Kumaraswamy

MADE IN THE U.S.A.

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2017– SP's Military Yearbook  | 2018 |  45th Issue  | 27

REGIONAL BALANCE

13. Indian Ocean Region: China Seeks Global Maritime Power Status.................................................. 55

INDIAN DEFENCE

9. Indo-Israeli Security Relations: Daunting Challenges...................................................... 39

Brigadier Gurmeet Kanwal (Retd)

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Ranjit Gupta

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Cont e nt s


Cont e nt s B lack & White pages

2 TECHNOLOGY65 1.

Military Hardware Technology for Soldiers & Snipers in Warfare..................................... 65

Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd)

2. Technological Advances to Significantly Enhance Indian Navy’s Capabilities........................... 69

Vice Admiral A.V. Subhedar (Retd)

3. Nanotechnology: Massive Potential to Disrupt Military Applications...................................................................... 73

Rear Admiral Dr S. Kulshrestha (Retd)

201728  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2018 |  45th Issue

4. Indian Navy Should Acquire Disruptive Technologies to Build War-Fighting Capabilities........................................................................ 77

Commodore Sujeet Samaddar (Retd)

5.

Cybertronic Warfare: The Battle-Winning Factor....... 81

Lt General Rajesh Pant (Retd)

6. Computer Wargames: Prospects and Predilections........................................ 85

Major General R.P. Bhadran (Retd)

7. Autonomous Attack: The Advent of Intelligent Combat Drones................................................................. 89

Group Captain Joseph Noronha (Retd)

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CONTENTS

B lack & White pages

8. Air Defence Missile Systems: Automation and AI to be Game Changers................................................ 93

3 BUSINESS101

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Cont e nt s 9. Big Data: Need for Exploiting Potential for Indian Navy....................................................................... 97

Rear Admiral Dr S. Kulshrestha (Retd)

1. Defence Budget 2018-19: Capex Needs to be Augmented Substantially............................................101

Dr Laxman Kumar Behera

2. Army Modernisation: Gradually Gaining Momentum.......................................................................105

Brigadier Gurmeet Kanwal (Retd)

3. Capital-Intensive Modernisation Drive Underway in the IAF..........................................111 Air Marshal B.K. Pandey (Retd)

Sin título-1 1

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REGIONAL BALANCE

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Director General, Army Air Defence, Indian Army

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Lt General A.P. Singh


Cont e n t s B lack & White pages

4. India Could Effectively Balance China in the Indo-Pacific.........................................................117

Major General Mrinal Suman (Retd)

6. Safeguarding Strategic Partnership Scheme Central to ‘Make in India’............................................125

Major General Mrinal Suman (Retd)

7. India’s Strategic and Business Environment....................................................................129

141

Vice Admiral R.K. Pattanaik (Retd)

5. India’s Defence Acquisition Regime has not Yet Reached Maturity...................................................121

4 INDIAN DEFENCE

Brigadier Rahul Bhonsle (Retd)

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1. Integrated Defence Staff (IDS)...................................141

Brigadier Vinod Anand (Retd)

2. The Indian Army.............................................................149 3. The Indian Navy.............................................................175 4. The Indian Air Force.....................................................201 5. Indian Coast Guard........................................................227 6.

Who’s Who in Indian Defence...................................237

7. Indian Defence Industry..............................................259

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CONTENTS

1. India’s Internal Security Perspective.......................291

MoD Organisations & Contacts of Asian Countries

Australia: MoD Contact Details

306

2. The Ministry of Home Affairs & Central Armed Police Forces.....................................297

Australia: MoD Organisational Structure

308

Bangladesh: MoD Contact Details

309

Brunei: MoD Contact Details

310

Brunei: MoD Organisational Structure

312

Indonesia: MoD Contact Details

313

Indonesia: MoD Organisational Structure

314

Major General Umong Sethi (Retd)

Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd)

BUSINESS

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Photo Credits : ©Nexter, ©Armée de Terre/J.Bardenet

equipment

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WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

305

07/04/2018 13:31 2017– SP's Military Yearbook  | 2018 |  45th Issue  | 31

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Homeland Security

5 ASIAN WHO’S WHO

REGIONAL BALANCE

8. Defence Research and Development (DRDO)..............................................................................281

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

B lack & White pages

TECHNOLOGY

Cont e nt s


Cont e nt s B lack & White pages

Japan: MoD Contact Details

314

Indonesia

332, 351

Japan: MoD Organisational Structure

315

Iran

332, 353

Malaysia: MoD Contact Details

316

Iraq

332, 354

Malaysia: MoD Organisational Structure

318

Israel

332, 355

Myanmar: MoD Organisational Structure

319

Japan

332, 357

The Philippines: MoD Contact Details

320

Jordan

332, 358

The Philippines: MoD Organisational Structure 323

Kazakhstan

333, 359

Singapore: MoD Contact Details

323

Kuwait

333, 360

Singapore: MoD Organisational Structure

325

Kyrgyzstan

333, 360

South Korea MoD Contact Details

326

Laos

333, 361

South Korea MoD Organisation Structure

326

Lebanon

333, 361

Sri Lanka: MoD Organisational Structure

327

Libya

333, 363

Sri Lanka: MoD Contact Details

327

Malaysia

333, 363

Thailand: MoD Organisational Structure

328

Myanmar

333, 364

Vietnam: MoD Contact Details

329

Nepal

334, 365

Vietnam: MoD Organisational Structure

329

North Korea

334, 366

Sultanate of Oman

334, 375

Pakistan

334, 367

The Philippines

334, 368

NEW

Asian Who’s Who: Leadership Afghanistan

330, 338

Qatar

334, 369

Algeria

330, 339

Saudi Arabia

335, 370

Australia

330, 340

Singapore

335, 370

Bahrain

330, 342

South Korea

335, 372

Bangladesh

330, 343

Sri Lanka

335, 373

Bhutan

331, 345

Syria

335, 375

Brunei

331, 346

Taiwan

335, 376

Cambodia

331, 347

Tajikistan

336, 377

People’s Republic of China

331, 348

Thailand

336, 377

Egypt

331, 349

Turkey

336, 379

201732  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2018 |  45th Issue

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CONTENTS

Turkmenistan

336, 380

United Arab Emirates

336, 381

Uzbekistan

336, 381

Vietnam

337, 382

Republic of Yemen

337, 382

6 REGIONAL BALANCE

383

1.

GDP & Military Expenditure.......................................383

2.

Central & South Asia....................................................387

3. East Asia, Pacific Rim & Australia...........................413 4.

West Asia and North Africa........................................465

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

B lack & White pages

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Cont e nt s

Brigadier Rahul Bhonsle (Retd)

6. Equipment & Hardware Specifications...................519

Abbreviations..............................................577

TECHNOLOGY

5. Developments in Asia-Pacific Region.....................513

Tactical UAS

NEW

BUSINESS

AEROSTAR

ORBITER 4

Small Tactical UAS

ORBITER 4

ORBITER 3

Small Tactical UAS

INDIAN DEFENCE

Small Tactical UAS

ORBITER 2

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Mini UAS

Ahea d o f Tim e

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2017– SP's Military Yearbook  | 2018 |  45th Issue  | 33

REGIONAL BALANCE

Ahead of Time


l  Editorial  l

SP’s

Military Yearbook s

i

n

c

e

1

9

6

5

2017 –

2018 4 5 th

i s su e

Editorial SP Guide Publications

The cover of Military Yearbook 1965

SP Guide Publications was founded in 1964 by its Founder, Editor and Publisher Shri Sukhdeo Prasad Baranwal who was a visionary. A year later, in 1965, SP’s Military Yearbook, the flagship product of the company, was launched. This innovative effort by the founder was singularly appreciated by the then Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri, and replicated enthusiastically by the military fraternity. SP Guide Publications has since grown from strength to strength and has completed 50 years in 2014. SP’s Military Yearbook 2017-2018 now offers its readers a wide range of information and knowledge regarding the military and the defence industry in India, and strategic analysis of the geopolitical situation, including defence and security-related issues in the Asia-Pacific region. It is thus a comprehensive reference manual, an annual barometer of matters concerning conceptual, technological and international security issues at the strategic and operational levels; military and defence industry-related issues; organisational facts and figures and contact details of major countries in the Asia-Pacific region; and homeland security issues. Over the last 54 years, SP Guide Publications has been at the forefront of publishing defence and security-related journals and is the only publisher offering dedicated journals to the three defence forces in India, namely SP’s Land Forces, SP’s Naval Forces and SP’s Aviation to the Army, the Navy and the Air Force respectively. We have since 2008 also commenced the publication of SP’s AirBuz, a journal for commercial aviation. We added, five years ago, the SP’s M.A.I. (Military, Aerospace and Internal Security), a fortnightly magazine, to the total list of our publications. In yet another first in the realm of defence and aerospace publishing in

201734  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2018 |  45th Issue

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l  editorial  l

India’s Defence Minister Nirmala Sitharaman receiving SP’s Military Yearbook 2016-2017 from Publisher & Editor-in-Chief Jayant Baranwal

India, SP Guide Publications has introduced BizAvIndia, a quarterly magazine in partnership with Business Aircraft Operators Association (BAOA) with the objective of keeping the business aviation industry in India duly informed and connected. Following the most established path and recognition of SP’s Military Yearbook, published since 1964, SP Guide Publications decided to introduce another yearbook – SP’s Civil Aviation Yearbook – to fill the vaccum in commercial aviation space. Right from the beginning, the inaugural issue is being taken up by various stakeholders as an indispensable reference document for this sector that has been untouched till now, in terms of any reference information in the entire Asia, Middle East and Central Asia.

The International Scene If we look around the globe, the one common problem that afflicts nearly all countries internally is the increasing challenges being faced by governments and institutions regarding their legitimacy and authority. All countries and most regions are likely to face rising tensions both domestic and foreign. In the short-term, these global trends will increase the threat posed by all types of terrorism, and the ability for asymmetrically-powerful state and non-state actors to adversely affect the International order and the global balance of power. Citizens around the world are raising questions about the relationship that exists between their governments and themselves thus raising tensions. Tensions are rising because the social contract that exists between society and their governments is unraveling as people demand increasing levels of security and prosperity. Globalization means that domestic conditions are shaped, to an ever-greater degree, by international occurrences. Growing populism in the West threatens an international order governed by rule-of-law. Tensions between governing elites and their citizens are reshaping global geopolitics.

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The cover of the current edition of SP’s Military Yearbook 2017-2018

2017– SP's Military Yearbook  | 2018 |  45th Issue  | 35


l  Editorial  l American foreign policy is undergoing a radical shift prodded by “America First” concept announced by President Trump. His administration is thus reconfiguring the foreign policy which marks the abandonment of a policy that has remained firm since1945. In the process, the international profile of the United States is being fundamentally redefined, and the world’s strategic landscape reshaped. A weakened United States would mean less of an emphasis on human rights and maintenance of global order. A diminished US presence on the global stage will create opportunities and space for authoritarian powers like China and Russia. This may also mean a heightened risk of conflict arising between competing regional powers like India and Pakistan or Iran and Saudi Arabia, and an international order comprising competing “spheres of influence.” European Union (EU) is witnessing rising ethnic, demographic, and economic tensions which will make European integration more difficult. The Brexit vote of 2016 and rising popularity of far-right nationalist political parties in Western Europe has led many observers to question the long-term viability of a united Europe. Structural problems in European Union institutions need to be looked into, otherwise poorer states like Greece with vast amounts of debt and decreasing growth prospects will be adversely affected. There is no unified EU security policy; each member state determines its national security strategy. Russia and the US are likely to witness more tensions and diplomatic rows, and strategic and political tensions are likely to continue. The outcome of investigations into Russia’s role during the 2016 US Presidential elections among other factors will shape their future relations. Washington may escalate the political and financial pressure on Russia. In Washington, with increased checks on the President’s power and greater sanctions from the US Congress, President Donald Trump’s administration may have few options for providing relief in this context. Consequently sanctions enacted on Russia from the US along with the tensions in European Union probably will stay through till the end of year 2018. Similarly, North Korea will be a crucial factor in determining the direction of US-Russian relations over the next several months. Russia may go along with the limited sanctions that the US has pursued against Pyongyang, but will look for opportunities and options to provide economic aid to North Korea as it sees fit. China’s National People’s Congress, the country’s national legislative body, voted on Sunday, March 11, 2018 to change the country’s constitution to allow Xi to remain in power beyond his scheduled 2023 departure. Xi had already achieved the status of core leader, not merely of the Communist Party, but of the Chinese state and military, as well. He’s also managed to quickly promote a lot of his partners to prestigious positions in recent months. It is predicted by scholars that he is likely to make China more aggressive on the world stage and will have fewer obstacles to realizing his vision for China — which appears to include exerting even more control over the disputed South China Sea and reforming state-owned companies (but not privatizing them). He will continue to reform the state’s control of the economy, allowing it to function as a quasi -free market while giving China’s armed forces more space to project the country’s power. West Asia or more popularly known as the Middle East is perhaps the most turbulent where state and state-supported non-state

201736  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2018 |  45th Issue

SP Guide congratulates the all women crew of INSV Tarini We take this opportunity to convey our warmest felicitations to Indian Navy for such a marvelous milestone established by our all-women crew which has been so daring, so courageous and dynamic to take on this extraordinaire challenge of travel around the world over waters starting from September 2017 and finishing in May 2018.

(Top) A bird’s-eye view of INSV Tarini; (above) Excited crew spot a whale shark near the vessel.

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l  editorial  l actors have dismembered societies in at least three countries Syria, Iraq and Yemen. Loose militias as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Levant (ISIS) and the Al Nusra Front have assumed the spectre of the hydra headed monsters challenging established states. The ISIS is fragmenting, but the splinters of the fragmentation are likely to cause more distress in the future as they continue to search for places to embed themselves for even greater disruptions in the future. Indian Ocean region in the coming years may see heightened nuclear activity in the form of deployment requirements for naval based delivery systems. Until now atomic weapons had been stored separately from missiles in South Asia. Deployments at sea by Pakistan, India and China will increasingly nuclearise the Indian Ocean region through the next two decades or so which would increase the potential risk of miscalculation and inadvertent escalation. Violent extremism, terrorism, and instability will continue to hang over Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the region’s fragile communal relations. The threat of terrorism, from Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LET), Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), and al-Qaeda and its affiliates as well as ISIL’s expansion and sympathy for associated ideology—will remain prominent in the area. Competition for jobs, coupled with discrimination against minorities, might contribute to the radicalization of the region’s youth, especially given abnormal sex ratios favoring males in several nations. Populism and sectarianism will intensify if Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan fail to provide employment and education for growing urban populations and officials continue to govern principally through identity politics. The world order is changing. The question is, how? The postWorld War II international order that enabled today’s political, economic, and security arrangements and institutions, is in question as power diffuses worldwide, shuffling seats at the table of global decision making. Today, aspiring powers seek to adjust the rules of the game and international context in a way beneficial to their interests. This complicates reform of international institutions such as the UN Security Council or the Bretton-Woods institutions, also brings into question whether political, civil and human rights—hallmarks of liberal values and US leadership since 1945—will continue to be so. Norms that were believed to be settled will be increasingly threatened if present trends hold, and consensus to build standards can be elusive as Russia, China, along with other non state actors such as ISIL seek to shape regions and international norms in their favour.

Developments in Asia Pacific Region Disputes in South China South China Sea has been a contested maritime zone for many years now. There are multiple disputes over territorial sovereignty in the South China Sea. The first is between China, Taiwan, and Vietnam over the Paracel Islands occupied by China by force from Vietnam since 1974. The second is between China, Taiwan, and the Philippines over Scarborough Reef. In 2012, the U.S. brokered a deal between the Philippines and China where both countries committed to keep their naval forces away from Scarborough. While the Philippines honoured the commitment, China continued to operate with its Navy and Coast Guard and, soon after, expelled Philippine fishermen. The third and the most serious contestation involve multiple claimants within the

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Spratly Islands where China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Brunei, Malaysia, and the Philippines each claim sovereignty over some or all of the features. Past two years have seen some major developments in the status of these disputes. The landmark ruling by the Arbitral Tribunal under the Law of the Sea Convention (the Tribunal) in July 2016 addressed the status of features and maritime claims specified in the Philippines’ arbitration case. However, China ignored the ruling and went on to articulate even wider maritime claims. Thus tensions in the region are continuing unabated. Korean Peninsula Instability on the Korean Peninsula arising from the unrestricted nuclear and missile proliferation and tests conducted by North Korea is a major concern in the past two years or so. North Korea conducted a fourth nuclear test on 6th January 2016 and claimed the same to be of a hydrogen bomb. This created ripples regionally and set back advancements made by governments of the two Korea’s in establishing people to people contacts including family reunions. United States President Donald Trump sees North Korea as the principal challenge faced by his government and is determined to resolve the issue of proliferation keeping all options on the table including the military. Tightening of UN Security Council sanctions on North Korea forced the regime led by young Kim Jong-un into a tight situation but he continues to remain defiant. The meeting between Kim and South Korean President Moon Jaein on April 27, 2018, produced a day of dramatic images and a sweeping declaration of goodwill. But it was short on specific commitments and failed to clear up the question of whether Pyongyang is really willing to give up nuclear missiles that now threaten the United States. Meeting between President Donald Trump and Kim Jong Un, scheduled for June 12 in Singapore, regardless of the outcome will give North Korea the legitimacy and status it has craved for decades. As far as the US is concerned, President Trump has invested a significant amount of energy into the issue and getting a nuclear deal out of North Korea will improve his image at home for seeking a second term in office by showing that he can solve the North Korea problem in ways that his predecessors could not and more importantly success of this meeting will also help in improving President Trumps image abroad as a peacemaker. A unified nuclear free Korean peninsula will represent a paradigm shift in the security dynamics of the region. Sino-Indian Border Dispute The Sino-Indian border dispute has potential for major crisis in the Asia Pacific. This is the only major dispute that China has not resolved apart from the South China Sea. There are two pockets that are mainly contested. Aksai Chin in North West India, is claimed by India as part of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. This is controlled and administered as part of the autonomous region of Xinjiang and links the latter with Tibet Autonomous Region. Arunachal Pradesh in the East is the second disputed area which is claimed by China as an extension of Tibet – Little Tibet. In addition there are a number of small areas which are contested as the Line of Actual Control (LAC) delineates the same but is not accepted by the Chinese. Differing perceptions of the LAC leads to many transgressions.

2017– SP's Military Yearbook  | 2018 |  45th Issue  | 37


l  Editorial  l Recent developments indicate that top leadership of the two countries are determined to ensure peace and tranquillity and ensure sustained commitment to resolution through engagement at multiple levels. This was evident as Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi and President of People’s Republic of China, Xi Jinping held their first Informal Summit in Wuhan on April 27-28, 2018, to exchange views on issues of bilateral and global importance. ISIS Attempting Bases in South East Asia The ISIS hub in Marawai, a small town in Mindanao in the southern Philippines, may have been neutralized in August 2017, however 60 groups in Southeast Asia have reportedly sworn allegiance to the ISIS and the Philippines had become the core. The scourge of ISIS continues to raise an ugly head and is a regional problem and the countries of the region have to come together to meet the challenge. Terrorism and radicalization is a shared challenge with networking amongst terrorists reaching serious proportions. Hence societies facing threats must respond much more cohesively. China’s Expanding Presence in Indian Ocean Region China’s Malacca dilemma is described as the concern that Beijing feels with the long Sea Lines of Communication (SLOC) for movement of energy and goods across the Indian Ocean and the narrow passage of the Malacca Straits which could be blocked by an adversary nation in the case of hostilities. To overcome the Malacca Dilemma China has undertaken acquisition of strategic interests in a number of ports while it has acquired a naval base in Djibouti which are meant to further China’s trade and security interests in the Indian Ocean region (IOR). China has shown interest in other ports in the IOR particularly in Bangladesh and Myanmar. A US-based strategic consulting group, Booz Allen Hamilton, had stated in a report that China is set to acquire a series of ports called as – the String of Pearls – Beijing seems to have achieved at least some elements in this string in Djibouti, Gwadar, Hambantota and in the near future Kyaukphu in Myanmar. China’s Grand One Belt, One Road project China’s grand One Belt, One Road project is a combination of the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, and the initiative focuses on promoting policy coordination, connectivity of infrastructure and facilities, unimpeded trade, financial integration, and closer people-to-people ties through extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits, with the goal of bringing benefits to all. The proposed economic belt is considered the longest economic corridor in the world connecting the Asia-Pacific region in the east with developed European economies in the west. The project demonstrates China’s quest to play a larger role in global affairs and coordinate manufacturing throughout the region. The plan envisages six land corridors, including a land bridge between Western China and Western Russia as well as a route linking China to the Middle East through the Central Asian Republics. The land routes will be supported by the Maritime Silk Road, which will connect Chinese ports with those in Singapore, India, Pakistan, the Middle East and eventually the eastern Mediterranean. Around 60 countries are involved, including nations in East Africa and Oceania, with a cumu-

201738  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2018 |  45th Issue

lative estimated investment of as much as $8 trillion. The architects of the plan see it as a way to bridge the “infrastructure gap” and thereby accelerate economic growth in every participating nation. The construction of rail links, roads and port facilities will help form a cohesive economic area that will also benefit from increased trade and cultural exchanges. India, an emerging economy that shares a contested border with China, worries about containment and new pathways for aggression from Pakistan. India’s refusal to participate in the Summit which was attended by leaders from 29 countries as well as the heads of the United Nations, International Monetary Fund and World Bank is due to China’s investment in the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, or CPEC, which passes through illegally occupied territory that we call Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (POK). Other nations also wonder if hegemonic designs are hidden behind the rationality of connectivity and trade. ASEAN- India Cooperative Architecture ASEAN and India are ideally placed to adopt a cooperative architecture given lack of bilateral disputes of consequence, a history of amity and a general consensus on building peace and stability through cooperation. Indian External Affairs Minister Ms Sushma Swaraj underlined that India has been working with ASEAN towards evolving regional security architecture in the Asia Pacific that hinges on emphasising the peaceful settlement of disputes, finding collaborative solutions to emerging and non-traditional challenges, and support for the centrality of ASEAN. Enhancing Maritime Cooperation and Security have been areas of focus for both ASEAN and India. Combating terrorism; arms smuggling; human trafficking; sea piracy; money laundering; terrorist financing & cyber crime; drug abuse and drug trafficking remain a major challenges in the region. ASEAN and India have consciously striven to step up cooperation through various forums to include the East Asia Summit, ASEAN Regional Forum, ASEAN Defence Ministers’ Meeting Plus and Expanded ASEAN Maritime Forum. Economic partnership between India and ASEAN is deepening day by day. Asia-Africa Growth Corridor India and Japan have moved a parallel proposal, the Asia Africa Growth Corridor. The idea of Asia Africa Growth Corridor (AAGC) emerged in the joint declaration issued by Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Prime Minister Shinzo Abe in November 2016. The AAGC will envisage people centric sustainable growth strategy, details of which would be evolved through a process of detailed consultations across Asia and Africa, engaging various stakeholders. The AAGC will be raised on four pillars of Development and Cooperation Projects, Quality Infrastructure and Institutional Connectivity, Enhancing Capacities and Skills and People-to-People partnership. The centrality of people to people partnership would be the unique feature of this initiative. The strengths of AAGC will be aligned with the development priorities of different countries and sub-regions of Africa, taking advantage of simultaneous homogeneity and heterogeneity among them. This would be undertaken to improve growth and intercon-

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l  editorial  l nectedness between and within Asia and Africa for realizing a free and open Indo-Pacific region. The AAGC will give priority to development projects in health and pharmaceuticals, agriculture and agro-processing, disaster management and skill enhancement. The QUAD India’s pursuit of multi aligned foreign policy is seeing expansion beyond BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) or Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) and others which are seen to be aligned away from the West to a pro Western multilateral grouping whose contours are now emerging. This new grouping is the QUAD or extension of India-Japan-US trilateral to include Australia. The proposal was first outlined by US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson during his expansive speech at the Centre for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) in Washington before his visit to India. In signs of rapid progress on the grouping, officials from India’s Ministry of External Affairs, Australia’s Department of Foreign Affairs, Japan’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs and United State’s Department of State met in Manila on November 12, 2017, for consultations on issues of common interest in the Indo-Pacific region. The officials agreed that a free, open, prosperous and inclusive Indo-Pacific region serves the long-term interests of all countries in the region and of the world at large. The officials also exchanged views on addressing common challenges of terrorism and proliferation linkages impacting the region as well as on enhancing connectivity. Quad fits into the multi aligned foreign policy which is an extension of non alignment enabling India to engage with diverse player without losing a degree of strategic autonomy. However the only caveat is that Beijing may well see it as a partnership for containment of China. Thus China has been cautious in noting the meeting of the QUAD officials on November 12, 2017, and indicated that this should not be seen as directed against any other country but encourage mutual convergence of thoughts, ideas and actions.

The Content this Year SP’s Military Yearbook 2017-2018 carries, as usual, an exceptional range of interesting articles on highly topical subjects by well-known authors. These articles are included in the chapters on ‘Concepts and Perspectives’, ‘Business’, and ‘Technology’. The chapter on ‘Concepts and Perspectives’ includes well analysed articles of military and strategic value on subjects which range from the global to the regional perspectives, as well as articles pertaining to land, air and maritime domains and those which cover a wide area of strategic interest to India’s defence planners and industry honchos. In the ‘Business’ section, apart from up to date articles on modernisation of the three Services, important facts have been given about India’s new acquisition regime, and strategic partnership in defence production. The essay on ‘Strategic and Business Environment’ skillfully analyses the subject by a highly experienced military and business analyst. In the chapter on ‘Technology’, articles covering cybertronic warfare, disruptive technologies, future military technologies, military applications of Nano technologies among others have been included. We wish our readers an enjoyable reading experience by providing new insights into the diverse topics covered by the Yearbook.

Clarifications: • Most countries are reluctant to part with information relating to the size and strength of their armed forces and equipment specifications. Thus sincere efforts have been made to garner information from the most authentic sources. Despite this, it is quite possible that variations may crop up in some cases. • Articles in this volume contain the personal opinions of the contributors and do not reflect the views of the publishers or the Indian Government, including the Ministry of Defence. • Suggestions for improvements will be appreciated and carried out to the extent possible and practically viable.

Acknowledgements Several distinguished columnists and industry experts on the Editorial Board worked in unison to make the SP's Military Yearbook 2017-2018 a quality product. Pages 12 to 18 will give a quick reference of these writers. Further, it is a pleasure to name SP's team of experts: Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd) Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd) Lt General P.C. Katoch (Retd) Air Marshal B.K. Pandey (Retd) Rear Admiral S.K. Ramsay (Retd)

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Jayant Baranwal Editor-in-Chief

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ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Weapons, Equipment & Vehicles

REGIONAL BALANCE

special colour feature WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS


CONTENTS Copyright © 2018

SP Guide Publications

Concept

Publishers extend special thanks to the companies who have provided the contents and respective photographs for this feature. Also gladly acknowledge their extensive support and co-operation in formulating this feature with maximum possible up-to-date and lively contents.

C on t en t s Aeronautics Group....................................................................................................... 44

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Alpha Design Technologies........................................................................................ 45

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Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers................................................................. 48 IAI.................................................................................................................................... 49 Larsen & Toubro............................................................................................................ 51 MBDA............................................................................................................................. 52

INDIAN DEFENCE

Credits

W EA P O N S , E Q U I P M E N T & V E H I C LE S

Navantia......................................................................................................................... 53 Nexter............................................................................................................................. 55 Ordnance Factory Board............................................................................................. 56 Rafael.............................................................................................................................. 57 Rosoboronexport.......................................................................................................... 59

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Jayant Baranwal Editor-in-Chief & Publisher SP Guide Publications Pvt Ltd New Delhi, India

BUSINESS

The publisher shall not be liable in the event of incidental or consequential damages in connection with, or arising out of, the furnishing or use of the information, associated instructions/claims of productivity gains.

TECHNOLOGY

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UAC................................................................................................................................. 61

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REGIONAL BALANCE

USC.................................................................................................................................. 63


A V A I L A B L E

N O W

SP’s

Civil Aviation

Yearbook 2017-18 WWW.SPSCIVILAVIATIONYEARBOOK.COM

AN INDISPENSABLE REFERENCE DOCUMENT FOR THE FIRST TIME IN THE REGION 

CLOSE TO 350 PAGES HARD BOUND HIGH QUALITY REFERENCE DOCUMENT (FIRST OF ITS KIND FOR ASIA-PACIFIC, SOUTH ASIA AND MIDDLE EAST);

EXTENSIVE DATA FOR 16 COUNTRIES — BAHRAIN, CHINA, HONG KONG, INDONESIA, JAPAN, MALAYSIA, SAUDI ARABIA, SINGAPORE, SOUTH KOREA, SRI LANKA, TAIWAN, THAILAND, TURKEY, UAE AND INDIA;

PAGES FULL OF DATA, TRENDS, ANALYSIS, SUMMARIES, EXPERT VOICES, OUTLOOK.


I N A U G U R A L

I S S U E

Union Minister for Civil Aviation, Suresh Prabhu receiving a copy of SP’s Civil Aviation Yearbook from Publisher and Editor-in-Chief of SP Guide Publications Jayant Baranwal.

Minister of State for Civil Aviation Jayant Sinha receiving a copy of SP’s Civil Aviation Yearbook from Publisher and Editor-in-Chief of SP Guide Publications Jayant Baranwal.

T E ST I M O N I A L S “You are flying so high that no-one can touch you.” — Suresh Prabhu, Union Minister of Civil Aviation

“It’s a Handy Book.” — Jayant Sinha, Minister of State for Civil Aviation

I am in receipt of the SP Guide Publications’ Inaugural Issue of Civil Aviation Year Book 2017-18. The diagonal flip-through assured me of the quality of the publication and the assurance to be a resourceful reading. Thanks for sending me a copy of the Issue. — S. Raheja, Member (Planning), Airports Authority of India The yearbook is excellent. Kudos to you and your team! We finally have a world class yearbook on our cherished civil aviation sector... The role of the media is key in shaping public policy, highlighting success stories and pointing out areas of improvement. We appreciate the marvelous job done by SP Publications over decades. We wish you the very best! — Amber Dubey, Partner and Head, Aerospace and Defense, KPMG in India GET YOUR COPIES NOW: ORDER@SPSCIVILAVIATIONYEARBOOK.COM PHONES: +91 11 24644763, 24644693, 24620130

WEBSITE: WWW.SPSCIVILAVIATIONYEARBOOK.COM


Aeronautics Group Your Partner in India

A

eronautics Group is a world leading developer and manufacturer of defense solutions based on Unmanned Aerial Systems and advanced ISTAR systems. Aeronautics’ UAS line of products enable the military, homeland security and law enforcement customers to ensure the safety of millions of people. As a specialist in the field of unmanned Intelligence, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition and Reconnaissance (ISTAR), Aeronautics Group in-house vertical integration capabilities facilitate rapid delivery of tailored turnkey solutions to its customers. Since its establishment in 1997, the Company's products have been delivered and successfully deployed by over 70 defense, military and homeland security forces on five continents. Aeronautics Group offers a ‘one-stop shop’ for cost-effective solutions for defense, HLS and border protection missions.

Technology & Products Aeronautics' lines of business include Unmanned Aerial Systems, Aerial Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) platforms, stationary and vehicle-mounted ground ISR systems and Border surveillance and force protection systems. The company's aerostats include Electro-Optical stabilized sensors, Wideband communication data links and electrical propulsion systems. Aeronautics comprehensive defense solutions include a range of services such as security and project management, high-level training,

201744  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2018 |  45th Issue

(Left) Orbiter 4: Exclusive lend/ maritime abilities include maximum endurance of up to 24 hours, maximum takeoff weight of 50 kg, maximum flight attitude of 18,000 feet and an ability to carry and operate different payloads simultaneously. (such as: MPR, SAR, SIGINT, COMINT, VISINT) (Right) AerostarTactical UAS - proven capability for take-off and landing using very short runways and in high altitude environments. This Advanced SUAS weighs 230 kilograms, can reach ceiling altitudes of 18,000 feet and operates at ranges of over 250 kilometres from its ground data terminal.

and maintenance services. To support its customers and to guarantee smooth UAS operations, the Aeronautics Unmanned Systems Academy provides high quality and in-depth training programs, including certification and OJT (On Job Training) for UAS Mission commanders, operators, and technicians. Among Aeronautics' leading unmanned aerial systems are: • Orbiter 4 Small Tactical UAS: multi payloads and multi mission ability system, with extended endurance of more than 24 hours • Orbiter 1K: a loitering munition platform, designed with a fuselage adaptor carrying explosive payload. • Orbiter 2 Mini UAS: a compact, lightweight manportable system designed for use at tactical levels. • Orbiter 3 Small Tactical UAS: a compact, lightweight and powerful platform deploying multiple sensors on extended missions. • Aerostar Tactical UAS: a highly efficient and costeffective systems, logging over 250,000 operational flight hours • Dominator MALE UAS: based on a proven generalaviation certified platform, designed for long-range long endurance surveillance missions. • Pegasus 120 Tactical VTOL UAS: can lift up to 75 kg payloads to provide an advanced, multi-mission solution for military, HLS and civil uses. •

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WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS SP’s: How do you look at Defexpo 2018 as a platform to showcase the Alpha Design’s capabilities? What are the highlights of your Company at this year’s expo?

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

SP’s: What are your views on the new draft Offset Policy circulated by MOD? ADTL: (a) The new offset guidelines should be made applicable only for future Offsets as option and not for vendors having Offset obligation and finalised offsets already cleared by DOMW on the date of issue of this amendment guidelines. (b) The present method being adopted for sanctioning offsets by IOPs undertaking build-to-print type of work is undoubtedly the best, primarily from Indian Industries (and particularly, MSMEs) point of view. This will result in building up skill level, manufacturing infrastructure, add to the bottom line (sales & profits) and most importantly provide jobs to skilled people in manufacturing sector (particularly at MSMEs). This should continue to be given top most priority.  •

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INDIAN DEFENCE

ADTL: We are very enthusiastic in show casing our products at Defexpo. We have, probably, biggest pavilion (Hall ‘1’ Stand No. 1.1.7 and 1.2.8), about 990 square metre size. We are show casing solutions for Tank/ICV upgradations in Thermal Imager Fire Control Systems for T-T2/BMP-2, Electronic Warfare and new cockpit suite for Mi-17 Helicopters, Software Defined Radios, etc., in addition to a separate enclosure for space projects.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

SP’s: The government is pushing for indigenisation in defence and call for strategic partnerships with private players. How does Alpha Design take advantage of this? ADTL: We already have a strong R&D with more than 475 young engineers (all in the age group of 21 to 28 years) and technicians working on advance technology products/projects such as Software Define Radio, Missile RF Seekers, IFF, Microwave Electronic Warfare sub-units, Optronics products, etc. We already have strong relationship on R&D and Proto development with DRDO/PSUs/Private Sector units as also from aboard. This will add in newer indigenous products development and securing orders/Contracts both in India and aboard.

Colonel H.S. Shankar, Chairman and Managing Director, Alpha Design Technologies Ltd

REGIONAL BALANCE

SP’s: With the defence manufacturing industry witnessing a huge growth, what prospects does Alpha Design see in the market? Also, could you talk about your order book position? ADTL: We expect our own sales turnover both for national and international markets (exports) to go up twice to thrice in next 2 years and stabilise around `1,000 crore in next three years. We have a healthy order book for next five years for `1,500 crore, with 50 per cent from exports.

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Interview with Colonel H.S. Shankar, CMD, Alpha Design Technologies Ltd

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Alpha Design Technologies


FFV Ordnance

F

FV Ordnance, part of the global defence and security company Saab, has been for decades one of the world’s leading suppliers of man-portable support weapons. The shoulder-fired weapon system Carl-Gustaf is the flagship of FFV Ordnance´s product family. The system has a long and successful history, and is today in use in more than 40 countries worldwide. This includes India, where it is in use with the Indian Army. The system offers the soldier various types of ammunition, ranging from armour penetration and anti-personnel to ammunition for built-up areas, as well as special features like smoke and illumination. Through its wide variety of ammunition available, Carl-Gustaf is a weapon system capable of handling multiple tactical situations, bridging the gap between full scale operations and low intensity conflicts, and providing the modern warfighter with unprecedented flexibility and capability on the battlefield. The well-proven Carl-Gustaf M3 meets all the basic requirements of being a multi-role, robust, light weapon that is easy to use – in both day and night operations.

Combat in Built-up Areas FFV Ordnance now has more than 30 years of experience with man-portable weapons intended for use by units engaged in urban warfare. The AT4CS HEAT system has a warhead with increased behind-armour effect, which is sought after primarily for engagement of light-armoured vehicles.

201746  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2018 |  45th Issue

Carl-Gustaf M4 manportable shoulderlaunched multi-role weapon system

The Four Areas of Ammunition Carl-Gustaf ammunition can be divided into the following four areas: • Anti-armour • Anti-structure • Soft Targets • Support

Brand New Ammunition The HEAT 655 CS, launched in December 2013, is the first Carl-Gustaf ammunition that is fully optimized for firing from confined spaces, i.e. from inside a building. This is an important requirement in modern, urban conflicts. The HEAT 655 CS adds to the large existing inventory of ammunition that is already available for every kind of operation, making the Carl-Gustaf the true multi-mission land combat system. Other new capabilities include the ASM (AntiStructure Munition) 509 and the MT (Multi-Target) 756.

TO READ THE COMPLETE ARTICLE Further Developments for Future Needs YOUR COPY NOW! FFVGET Ordnance is continuously working to make www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com


GRSE Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Ltd., Kolkata

G

RSE has been a pioneer warship builder of the country and the yard has delivered 97 warships to the Indian Navy, Indian Coast Guard and Mauritius Coast Guard , the highest delivered by any shipyard in the country till date. GRSE has emerged as a leading shipyard of India, since 1960 when it was taken over by the Govt. of India, building a wide array of warships & vessels from World Class Frigates, Missile Corvettes, Anti-Submarine Warfare Corvettes, Landing Ship Tanks, Survey, Offshore Vessels, Fast Attack Crafts, and Inshore Patrol Vessels to Fast Interceptor Boats. GRSE has many other firsts to its credit till date, including delivery of 1st warship of Independent India, INS Ajay to Indian Navy in 1961 and moving on to becoming the only Indian Shipbuilder to have built a Fleet Tanker, building the 1st Landing Ship Tanks and Hovercrafts in India. The 1st warship for export CGS Barracuda for Mauritius was built by GRSE in 2014 The Anti-Submarine Warfare Corvettes (ASWC) and Landing Craft Utilities (LCU) being built by GRSE have achieved over 90% indigenous equipment fit. Presently 13 warships are under construction in GRSE, which include 01 ASWC, 04 LCU, 05 Fast Patrol Vessels & 03 Stealth Frigates. Having completed the modernization of Main Works in 2013, GRSE has now ventured upon to revitalize and refurbish the Raja Bagan Dockyard unit, post which, the shipyard will have capacity to build 20 ships (08 large & 12 small) simultaneously.

Major Achievements  Highest

no. of warships delivered in a year with 05 warships - 01 Anti-Submarine Warfare Corvette, 03 Landing Craft Utilities and 01 Water Jet Fast Attack Craft.  Delivery of 2nd, 3rd & 4th Landing Craft Utilities and 4th Water jet Fast Craft to Indian Navy with Zero Shipbuilders Liability and Weapon & Sensors

201748  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2018 |  45th Issue

Left to Right: P-17A Stealth Frigate; INS Kiltan, 3rd ASW Corvette at Sea; Landing Craft Utility Vessel.

Trials Completed.  Integrating Carbon Composite Superstructure with

Steel Hull of Ship has been achieved for the 1st time in India by GRSE, onboard 3rd Anti-Submarine Warfare Corvette INS Kiltan, delivered in Oct 2017.  GRSE has been declared successful bidder in the competitive bidding for 04 survey vessels and 08 Anti-Submarine Warfare Shallow Water Crafts for Indian Navy.  Strategic MoUs signed: – M/s Elbit Systems, Israel for indigenous development of unmanned surface vessel with modular multi mission capacity in MCM, ASW, EW & Maritime Security. – M/s CDCL Ltd. of Bhutan and GRSE signed an MoU on performing commercial contract related to the supply of Components, Equipment and Services with respect to Portable Bridges. –  MoU was also signed with M/s Cooper Corporation, India for joint development and manufacturing of small and medium diesel engines for marine application.  GRSE realized one of its goals of establishing the Virtual Reality Lab.

Awards   In-house

Design effort for Mauritius OPV “CGS Barracuda” for 2015-16.  Rajbhasha Kirti Puraskar for excellence in implementation of Official Language for 2016-17.   SCOPE Corporate Communication Excellence award 2017 in “Brand Building” & “Corporate Communication”  “ICC PSE Excellence Awards 2016” in “Corporate Governance”, “Human Resource Management Excellence”, “Contribution of Women in PSE” and “CSR & Sustainability”.  •

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WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

In the Air IAI provides a wide range of solutions and services for aerial defense – from special mission aircraft and advanced remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) to precision guided munitions, multi-layered missile defense, upgrades for military aircraft and helicopters, and sophisticated C4I, ISTAR and navigation systems.

In Space IAI is a leading integrator of space technology, with dozens of satellites deployed in space. We provide

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observation and communication satellite systems and an accompanying array of ground control stations, mission centers and launchers - for both national security and commercial applications.

On Land From state of the art battle management and communication systems, through targeting and navigation technology and up to combat support systems such as guided missiles and robotic autonomous platforms - IAI provides the latest solutions for land forces.

At Sea Reigning strong on the naval front, IAI offers integrated maritime systems, manned and unmanned security and fast attack vessels, attack systems and anti-aircraft/missile defense systems.

TO InREAD THE COMPLETE ARTICLE Cyberspace We provide defense forces, governments, critical infraGETand YOUR COPY with NOW! structures large enterprises end-to-end cyber

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ASIAN WHO’S WHO

It’s more than technology, it’s creativity. Creativity that originates from a “can-do” attitude, combined with decades of combat proven experience. A leader in both the defense and commercial markets, we deliver stateof-the-art technologies and systems in all domains – providing our customers with tailored, cutting-edge solutions that create a difference for them in the unique challenges they face.

REGIONAL BALANCE

IAI – Creating a Difference

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

IAI is a world leader in the delivery of state-of-the-art land, air, sea, space, and cyber technologies and systems for defense, commercial, and homeland security applications

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

IAI


WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

example is the K9 VAJRA – 155mm/52 calibre gun system which had fourteen (14) indigenously developed critical systems like the Fire Control Systems, Direct Fire System, Ammunition Handling System, etc. even at the user evaluation phase. L&T has also developed and implemented various other systems like the Auxiliary Power Packs, Air-conditioning Systems, Fire Fighting Systems, NBC Protection Systems, Ammunition Handling Systems, etc., as per specific requirements of Indian Artillery. L&T has also successfully developed the complete Undercarriage Systems for 155mm/52 calibre towed artillery guns. Such systems include very high power density power packs, suspension cum retraction actuators for deploying the guns, various critical but light weight structures like the trails and other structures. These indigenous developments have successfully completed qualification and user trials, thus affirming L&T’s indigenous development capability. With its experience and capabilities, L&T is ready to support the Indian Artillery with custom- built Artillery solutions like the mounted guns or ultra-light guns, extended range multi-purpose rocket launchers, guided rockets and tactical UAVs.  •

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ASIAN WHO’S WHO

K9 VAJRA-T, 155mm/ 52 Cal Tracked Self Propelled Guns at L&T’s Hazira facility

REGIONAL BALANCE

A

rtillery is inarguably the most lethal form of landbased armament currently employed. Today India has made significant progress in the field of indigenous Artillery with the complimentary skill sets of public and private sector enterprises. Larsen & Toubro (L&T) is the Indian Artillery’s biggest partner for equipment supply. The Company is executing orders for 100 Tracked SP Guns K9 VAJRA-T, 6 Regiments of Pinaka Launchers with Command Posts and 100 Grad BM 21 rocket launcher upgrades. L&T is building a state-of-the-art Armoured Systems Complex at Hazira (Gujarat) equipped with test track and obstacles to evaluate gun system mobility. The Company has invested many years in R&D and both with DRDO as well as independently, and has developed various technologies for Artillery Systems. L&T has introduced technologies like the all-electric drives, ganged electro-mechanical actuator systems, silent watch capabilities in its rocket launch systems like the Pinaka and the Grad BM-21 Upgrades. Leveraging its indigenous design, development and production capabilities, L&T has effectively adapted world-class artillery weapons for the Indian environment. A typical

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Thundering Artillery: Strengthening India’s Defence Capabilities

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Larsen & Toubro


MBDA

M

BDA is unique in the guided missile sector in its ability to meet the missile system requirements of all three operational domains: air, land and sea. This offers benefits to customers keen to maximise supply and servicing logistics as well as missile system modularity. MBDA weapons such as MICA and Meteor combined with precision ground strike weapons such as the multi-target Brimstone and the long range SCALP / Storm Shadow are capable of ensuring air dominance long into the future. The IAF’s Mirage 2000 fleet is being upgraded and will feature MBDA’s MICA missile with its IR and RF seeker variants to deal with short to beyond visual range air combat. India’s Jaguar bombers also stand to have their battle capability significantly enhanced by MBDA’s ASRAAM missiles. With 36 Rafale now contracted, MBDA will be playing a major role in maximizing the combat capability of this new generation aircraft. The threat of air attack is increasing. Low cost cruise missiles, manned and un-manned aircraft and the appearance of new ranges of ballistic missiles are threats that MBDA is best qualified to counter. Here the Company leads with its range of ground and naval based air defence systems using Mistral, MICA, CAMM and Aster missiles. Mistral, with its unmatched success rate of over 96%, during all firings, has been selected by many forces around the world and has been offered to the Indian armed forces to meet their VSHORAD requirement. Working with HAL, integration of the Mistral ATAM system on the Dhruv helicopter has been successfully done and we are now integrating this system on the

201752  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2018 |  45th Issue

MICA multi-mission air-to-air missile system on Rafale fighter

Light Combat Helicopter (LCH). Coastal and blue water operations require an effective anti-ship capability. MBDA is already supplying the Indian Navy’s new Scorpene submarines with its Exocet SM39 missile system. Similarly, other versions of the world-famous Exocet family are being proposed along with Marte for a number of Indian maritime aircraft requirements (both fixed and rotary wing). The concept of partnership with Indian industry is key to MBDA’s long-term strategy. In fact, MBDA’s links with Indian industry go back some 50 years thanks to its partnership with BDL currently manufacturing the MILAN missile under license for the Indian Army. Together MBDA and Larsen and Toubro formed a joint venture (JV) in 2017 to deliver Make in India programmes for the Indian Armed Forces. Capabilities already offered by the JV include the Indian developed ATGM5 (the only 5th generation anti-tank missile in the world) and the Medium Range Anti-Ship Missile (MRAShM) and Short Range Surface to Air Missile (SRSAM) requirements. •

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WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

the six Scorpene submarines), Venezuela and Turkey. This experience, together with a continuous commitment to innovation, the use of the latest technologies and with a highly qualified work force, makes Navantia one of the most competitive companies in the world. Navantia’s bet for the internationalization is a reality, reinforced by six commercial delegations on the key markets of the company: Norway, United States, Turkey, Middle East, Brazil and India. Besides, Navantia Australia is a subsidiary company with several locations along the country. Australia is one of his principal clients, for whom has built two LHD amphibious ships, 12 fast landing crafts, and provided design and transfer of technology for 3 AWD destroyers. Besides these programs, it is necessary to highlight the contract for the construction of two AOR logistic support ships. Currently, it is shortlist-

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ASIAN WHO’S WHO

LHD Baja

REGIONAL BALANCE

N

avantia, the Spanish shipbuilder, 100% owned by the Spanish Government, is a world reference in the design, construction and integration of state-of-the-art war ships, as well as civil ships, offshore structures, ship repairs & modernizations. It also has a sound capability in the design and manufacture of Integrated Platform Management Systems, Fire Control Systems, Command and Control systems, Propulsion Plants and through life support for all its products. Even though its main line of activity is in the naval field, Navantia designs and manufactures systems for the Army. Navantia has a large experience in building the most technologically advanced ships like frigates, amphibious ships, patrol vessels, and submarines. In the last years, it has supplied ships for different navies: Norway, Australia, Spain, Chile, Malaysia, India (Navantia is co-designer of

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Navantia


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

NEXTER

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Creating new references in defense

– The Trajan® towed artillery system incorporates CAESAR®’s combat-proven 115mm/52 caliber gun with a towed chassis, providing all the flexibility of towed system. – The 105LG1, the lightest 105mm gun worldwide is designed for intervention and rapid reaction forces. With a maximum range of 17 km, it can be towed by a light vehicle, transported by an average helicopter (PUMA or Bell 212 type) or parachuted by a tactical transport aircraft (C130-Hercules type). This extreme mobility, thanks to its low weight allows it to be deployed on any theater of operation as complex as it is. Combat Proven and qualified by the French army, the gun of 105LG1 equips today six armies around the world: Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Belgium, Canada and Colombia. A contract has recently been signed with Malaysia to procure a whole artillery battalion of 105LG1.  •

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INDIAN DEFENCE

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

CAESAR®: Artillery system of the 21st century

REGIONAL BALANCE

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

BUSINESS

N

exter, a company of KNDS, is one of the world’s leading in land defense systems group with a large range of products and services. Nexter’s expertise includes armored vehicles (VBCI, TITUS®), artillery systems (105LG1, TRAJAN®, CAESAR® family) but also land, naval and aeronautic weapon systems. Since delivering its first artillery gun in 1764, Nexter has acquired extensive know-how in artillery. Systems developed by the company have always set the standard, and this remains the case with CAESAR®. Those two centuries of experience have established Nexter as a leader in artillery systems, enabling the company to offer a full range of products, from guns and ammunition to ballistic computers. Nexter’s range of solutions also covers integrated training, maintenance support services, and the complete operational/logistics environment of an artillery battalion. The range of Nexter artillery guns, which are in service in several armies and combat proven, includes: – CAESAR® truck-mounted artillery system equipped with a 155mm/52 caliber gun. Thanks to its extraordinary mobility, superior firepower, and “shoot and scoot” capability, CAESAR® is currently in production and in service in several armies. The CAESAR® is now available on a 6x6 or 8x8 chassis. The CAESAR® 8x8 variant, featuring increased payload has been awarded the contract to replace Danish M109 Artillery systems.


Ordnance Factory Board Complete Combat Solution Provider

O

pening up of the defence sector by Govt. of India has thrown up challenges as well as opportunities before OFB. The organisation has taken various measures to face the challenges and exploit these opportunities. These challenges have lent an urgency to review the policies, procedures and processes. OFB is using this opportunity to modernize itself, become conscious about cost and quality, and become competitive. OFB is giving special emphasis on in-house R&D activities. Considering that the Ordnance Factories have to compete with Indian companies as well as foreign OEMs, it is imperative that OFB is ready with a vast range of products which can be offered to the users as and when required. This will also help in extending the market of OFB’s products beyond Indian borders. Some of the notable achievements in this regard are Dhanush, a 155 mm artillery gun, Bi-Modular Charge System (BMCS) for artillery guns, 20 mm ammunition for Anti-Material Rifle, 7.62 X 51 mm Assault Rifle, 155 mm X 52 calibre Mounted Gun System (MGS), armament upgrade of Infantry Combat Vehicle BMP-II, 20mm AMR SAPHEI Ammunition, 2000 MPa Ultra High Strength Steel, and Aluminium Alloy Extruded Flats & profiles for use in BrahMos Airborne Launcher system. While OFB’s role as dependable supplier of ammunition and weapons, both in times of peace as well as crisis, has been widely acknowledged, there are certain misconceptions in some quarters whether OFB can compete against the private industry with respect to quality, technology and cost. However, outcome of some of the Armed Forces’ acquisition cases should dispel these apprehensions. For example, in the case of ‘130mm to 155mm Up-gunning’ for Indian Army, OFB not only competed against some big names among private Indian companies, but fielded its indigenously developed system against imported systems of reputed foreign firms; and yet, OFB’s gun alone was found

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OFB is ready with a vast range of products which can be offered to the users as and when required even beyond Indian borders.

compliant in Field Evaluation Trials. Similarly, in case of up-gradation of 40mm L-70 gun, OFB-BEL won the order through competitive bidding process. OFB’s cost-competitiveness and quality are further proven by the fact that armies of other countries that shop around the world end up buying OFB’s products. OFB earned Rs 238 crores from exports in 2017-18. For growth of business, OFB is placing renewed thrust on exports and it is expected that exports will grow substantially in the coming years, especially in the markets in Middle East, Southeast Asia and Africa. OFB has reduced the cost of production through improvement of production processes and modernization of its manufacturing infrastructure. The benefit of reduced cost has been passed on to the customers in the form of reduced prices. Focus on quality is another key area. OFB has made concerted efforts to improve the quality of products and is ready to take full responsibility of the products being manufactured by it. Modern Quality Management systems have been introduced in manufacturing set up. OFB has played a very important role in realizing the Make in India vision of the Government. OFB’s products have an indigenous content of approximately 88%. OFB has also taken lead in involving, training and developing the MSME sector in defence manufacturing. OFB has already done a lot of groundwork in this area and a significant fraction of production of OFB is sourced from Indian private industry and due to support from OFB, Indian private industry is now maturing to develop and manufacture defence components and sub-assemblies. The coming up of the private industry has provided an opportunity for OFB to move out of low-tech non-core areas of production towards high-tech and complex defence systems and play the role of integrator and Complete Combat Solution Provider.  •

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

RAFAEL

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

The Perfect Partner for India’s Defense Needs

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Iron Dome – Defense against short range artillery rockets

Rafael – The Company Rafael was established as part of Israel’s Ministry of Defense more than 50 years ago and was incorporated in 2002. Currently, 7% of its sales are invested in R&D. Rafael’s know-how is embedded in almost all Israel Defense Forces (IDF) systems in operation today. The company has a special relationship with the IDF, developing products according to the soldiers’ specific requirements in the field. Rafael has also formed partnerships with civilian counterparts to develop commercial applications based on its proprietary technology. Rafael has created partnerships with companies in

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ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd, designs, develops, manufactures and supplies a wide range of hightech defense systems for air, land, sea and space applications. Tailored to its customer’s specific needs, Rafael provides state-of-the-art, yet cost-effective systems and weapons in the fields of Missiles, air defense, naval systems, target acquisition, EW, C4ISR, communication networks, data links, electro-optic payloads, add-on armor, combat vehicle upgrading, mine field breaching, border and coastal protection systems, breaching munitions and much more.

REGIONAL BALANCE

Expertise in a Wide Range of Defense Solutions


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Rosoboronexport

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osoboronexport (part of the Rostec State Corporation) was set up by the Russian President’s Decree in 2000 as Russia's state intermediary for importing and exporting a full range of military and dual-use products, technologies and services. Rosoboronexport is a 100% state-owned company. In

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Ka-226T license production in India is another proof of the highest level of bilateral cooperation

2007, the management of its stocks was transferred to the Rostec State Corporation. “Over 17 years, Rosoboronexport has become one of the leaders in arms supplies, having sold products worth a total of over $140 billion. We show good results in foreign trade, and the country's leadership doesn't

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ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

17 Years of International Military-Technical Cooperation


CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

Su-30MKI of IAF

Corporation MiG, Myasishchev Design Bureau, Beriev Design Bureau, Aerocomposite, and Gromov Flight Test Institute. The Corporation’s mission is to develop, manufacture and service military, transport and civil aircraft with a priority to Russian state customers, to reach and to sustain long-term competitiveness on the global market. Key aim of the Corporation is to become one of the world’s largest aviation centers with a stable posi-

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he United Aircraft Corporation (PJSC “UAC”) was established in 2006 to consolidate Russia’s main assets in aircraft design and production. Currently Russian Federation is the Corporations’ main shareholder with more that 85% of shares. UAC is formed by the following design bureaus and manufacturing plants: Sukhoi Company, Irkut Corporation, Ilyushin, Tupolev, Ilyushin Finance Company, AviastarSP, Voronezh Aircraft Company, Russian Aircraft

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

United Aircraft Corporation Continues Growth


CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

Russia offers Amur1650 submarine for Project 75(I) programme

Besides this, the official views of the states on the most important international problems are rather close. Both countries consider each other as strategic partners. This is confirmed by fruitful military-andtechnical cooperation covering all armament fields, including naval equipment as well. On the 1st of September 1965, the Soviet Union and the Republic of India signed the first contract for delivery of naval equipment: four Project I641 diesel-

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n 2017 Russia and India have celebrated very important jubilee of bilateral cooperation – 70th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between USSR and India. Today it may be confidently stated that the relationship between the two countries is not just time-proved successfully, but continues to develop dynamically. First of all, this is achieved due to positions of our countries which are based on concurrence of national interests and mutual respect.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Russian-Indian Cooperation: Time Proven Partnership


YULISTA Small Business with Big Business Capability

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n 2002, Yulista started operations in Huntsville, AL USA with a single contract and a handful of employees. Since then, we have become a global company supporting both domestic and international customers in over 30 countries. Yulista currently executes over 400 programs with proven experience supporting aviation, missile, ground, and maritime platforms. Our growth has been forged by our ability to take customer requirements to the field faster than anyone else. The OEM capabilities gained over the last 15 years provide Yulista’s customers with trusted and dependable technical solutions with quality results. We have stateof-the-art Modification Repair and Overhaul facilities and manufacturing capabilities providing integration solutions to meet the needs of our customer.

201766  |  SP's Military Yearbook  | 2018 |  45th Issue

Domestic and Global Experience: Extensive international and domestic platform experience.

Yulista is the defense and aerospace division of Calista Corporation, an Alaska Native Regional Corporation as a means of creating economic opportunities for Alaska Native Shareholders in Southwest Alaska. We are committed to performing rapid response aerospace and defense solutions for foreign and domestic customers.

Commitment to Quality Yulista considers our commitment to quality the key to our growth. Yulista is an FAA Part 145 Certified Repair Station and is also ISO 9001, AS9100, and AS9110 certified, assuring our customers the highest possible quality with built-in procedures to ensure accountability and continuous improvement to both processes and

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One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Eleven Twelve Thirteen Fourteen

International Security Climate Warrants Genuine Concern 1 India-US Relations: Stable Trajectory Upwards Despite Irritants 7 Indo-Russian Relations – 2017: Playing Safe 11 Security Concerns in Afghanistan-Pakistan Region 17 Chinese PLA’s Capability Enhancement: Recent Developments 21 South China Sea: China Perfecting Moves in Game of Chinese Chequers 27 Politico-Strategic Developments in South-East Asia 31 West Asia: India has Much at Stake in the Stability of the Region 35 Indo-Israeli Security Relations: Daunting Challenges 39 Advent of Hybrid Wars and its Application and Implications for the Region 43 Aerospace Power: The Next War Zone for Contending Nations 47 Pakistan’s TNWs Seek to Checkmate Indian Advance 51 Indian Ocean Region: China Seeks Global Maritime Power Status 55 India’s Energy Security: The Governments’ New Initiatives 59

CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

Contents

INDIAN DEFENCE

Concepts & Perspectives

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

section one

REGIONAL BALANCE

1


Wikipedia

CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

international security climate warrants genuine concern

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

1

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he current global secuSouth Africa and Turkey may impede   Brigadier Dr Anil Sharma (Retd)   rity concerns kaleidoscope growth, create food insecurity, have a & Anshu Paliwal stretches from North Korea destabilising social impact and impair to the Middle East via the the world economic order. South South China Sea disputes—with China’s disruptive strate- Asia’s criss-crossing river system originating from Tibet and China gies playing out there—as also in South Asia, Pakistan’s which is putting in place its own mega projects to divert this water Islamic terrorism exports, the explosive Saudi-Iran confrontation for its own use is a strategic trigger of conflict, where at one point and ultimately the external military interventions in Syria. in time lower riparian states like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and These convulsions are outcomes of deeper forces at play. In Nepal are bound to have convergence of interests vis-à-vis China. the developed world, the trend of aging demographics and declin- n Hydrocarbon and uranium reserves face the risk of depletion in the next three or four decades and thus both energy and food ing productivity is layered with technological innovation and security, already in public discourse, occupy a much more sigthe labour displacement that comes with it. China’s economic nificant place in global politics. slowdown and its ongoing evolution compounds this dynamic. Availability of disruptive technology like drones and cyber space Disruptive Concepts and Technologies has potential to trigger major conflicts. Today terrorism, religion and security, as well as the new cyber n The world is entering an era of competitive terrorism, separatism and extremism (TES) where extremist belief systems— domain, the migration crisis, the climate change and the scarcity based on religion, ethnicity, nationalism, sub-nationalism, and of water in critical regions, are outlining how security issues can ideology—compete with one another, gradually expanding the no longer be identified with the static military territorial defense of dimensions of terrorism as a concept, wherein terror and viothe state borders. A deeper cause-effect analysis of the current and lence are used as instruments of a composite/hybrid war. The emerging security concerns is called for. rise in terror attacks in Europe and USA has brought them at par Underlying Drivers with the sufferings of developing Asian nations. The drivers influencing the current and emerging security con- n Disruptive technologies like cyber space and drones (in surveilcerns/issues are outlined in succeeding paragraphs. lance, dropping bombs, grenades and explosive devices) are being increasingly used by ISIS in Iraq/Syria. These are availEconomic Imbalances able off the shelf to terror groups’ worldwide. n Due to globalization and wealth creation at a fast pace, prosper- n With the spread of nuclear energy and an increase in illicit trade ity is getting concentrated in urban centers, coastal areas, and in fissile material and technologies, the proliferation of nuclear leaving out the people at the periphery. weapons will be a natural consequence. This dimension is visn The financial imbalances between major debtor and creditor ibly playing out in the current geo-political stand offs in Middle nations pose the risk of the collapse of the global financial East, Korean peninsula and South Asia. system, leading to extreme protectionism, autarchy, trade wars n With global networks integrating critical information infrastructure, the security of our information systems is crucial. and perhaps a worldwide military confrontation. The consequences of an accidental or a planned attack on critiResource Scarcity cal information infrastructure will be monumental. The cyber n  The scarcity of water in emerging economies like China, India, space threat is real; both to hard and soft systems.

TECHNOLOGY

While a major war or a global clash of great powers is unlikely, but tensions are rising in several hotspots and it is difficult to have high confidence in the political leadership of several major countries to diffuse the crisis.


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ndia-US relations continued their if it turns out to be symbolic one, has put   Dr Harinder Sekhon   upward trajectory during the first year of Pakistan under renewed international scruan unpredictable and tumultuous Trump tiny. Though this does not take care of India’s administration. Both India and the United States realize the war on terror, the Americans have sent the right kind of message importance of further prioritizing and strengthening ties in against global terror and the role of Pakistan. order to promote mutual economic prosperity, security and Trump Presidency in Second Year in Office democratic institutions in a volatile global order. Delivering his first public address in New Delhi on January 11, 2018, the US As the Trump Presidency enters its second year in office – it conAmbassador to India, Kenneth I. Juster recalled how relations tinues to be an uncertain period ahead for all, India included. between the two democracies had moved in a positive direction While India has continued to remain at the forefront of the Trump over the past 15-odd years, especially, in the area of transfer of administration’s priorities during its first year, it would still need to sensitive US dual use technology, an area where the US chooses its anticipate both the potentially positive and negative developments that could occur and plan its diplomatic actions accordingly. All recipients extremely carefully. During Prime Minister Modi’s visit to the US last year, there was rhetoric aside, Donald Trump is an ‘America-first’ believer. He also speculation about the kind of reception he would get in Washington has a transactional approach to running a Government and craftDC but the Prime Minister and the US President had a very good ing his policies. Therefore, one has to assume that he will keep the first meeting on June 26, 2017. Donald Trump was charm per- US’ long-term interests in mind. It is thus logical, as one analyst sonified till the very end of the interaction considering he normally puts it, that an “India which is in sync with US long-term interests seems to display very “limited attention span.” There was remark- will get the maximum traction and mindshare”. India, therefore, able chemistry between the two leaders throughout the meeting needs to focus on areas where its interests converge with those of that lasted over five hours and was interspersed with three hugs the United States. India’s task is by no means easy as there seems to be a masand two handshakes. Summing up the visit, the caption of a leading sive policy paralysis in Washington while the US President tries Indian daily read: “All is well – full speed ahead.” The US-India Joint Statement titled, “United States and India: to weather the political storm in Washington caused due to the Prosperity through Partnership” is a positive vision document matter of Russian meddling in the 2016 US election – a controversy pledging to forge a strong strategic defence and security partner- that refuses to ebb. The Trump administration still does not seem ship between the two democracies. Celebrating 70 years of diplo- to have become fully functional, as appointments to key positions matic relations between India and the United States, both leaders have been slow and have seen many high profile exits as well. Similarly, after over a year, there are no officials yet in the State resolved to “provide strong leadership to address global challenges Department, for instance, to deal with India. In fact, there are and build prosperity for their citizens.” On the whole, the optics of the visit were good, and one can- indications that the South Asia Bureau in the State Department not ignore the fact that when Modi landed on the American soil, may well be abolished since Trump has announced budget cuts Trump sent him that exuberant tweet. The US also designated for the State Department. India could be made a part of the East Pakistan’s Syed Salahuddin a global terrorist to coincide with the Asia Bureau while Pakistan would become part of the Near East visit. The timing of designating Salahuddin a global terrorist, even division. Such a move would bring India into the larger East Asian

INDIAN DEFENCE

With the US downsizing the South Asian Bureau in the State Department, India is being increasingly seen as an important component of the Indo-Pacific strategy. While India’s hedging strategy should not be at the cost of being seen as a fence-sitter, India in sync with the US long-term interests will get the maximum traction and mindshare.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

US Navy

India-US Relations: Stable Trajectory upwards despite IRRitants

REGIONAL BALANCE

2


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Y

Russian relationship. The vision document said “We ear 2017 marked 70 years of establish  P. Stobdan   will strive to build an ‘energy bridge’ between our ment of diplomatic relations between states and expand bilateral relations in all areas of Russia and India. On this special occasion, Prime Minister Narendra Modi travelled to St Petersburg energy cooperation, including nuclear, hydrocarbon, hydel and to participate in the St Petersburg International Economic renewable energy sources and in improving energy efficiency.” Forum (SPIEF) on June 2, where India and Serbia were Nuclear Energy the guest countries. Prime Minister Modi also held the 18th Annual Summit with Russian President Vladimir Putin in St Petersburg The notable achievement in 2017 has been the conclusion of the where the two leaders spoke about “70 years of strong ties” between General Framework Agreement and Credit Protocol for Units 5 and the two countries and adopted the St Petersburg declaration – “A 6 of the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant in Tamil Nadu. Each of vision for the 21st century”. This was for the first time that the Indo- the two units will have a capacity to produce 1,000 MW of power. This is the culmination of the Strategic Vision for Strengthening Russian Annual Summit was held outside Moscow. Prime Minister Modi described 70 years of diplomatic relations Cooperation in Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy signed between between the two countries as a symbol marked by a high degree the two countries on December 11, 2014. In fact, an agreement to of convergence on various bilateral and global matters and the St. build units 5 and 6 of Kudankulam was to be signed by 2016. But Petersburg Declaration became a benchmark of “stability in a tur- Russia’s approval of its line of credit for the projects had remained a hurdle. The Russian Finance Minister Anton Siluanov announced bulent, interdependent and interconnected world.” Contrary to popular belief, India’s ties with Russia seem far this year the lending of $4.2 billion to India for a 10-year period from running out of steam. The St Petersburg declaration provided to cover construction costs. The reactors will be built by India’s a glimpse of the depth of the Indo-Russian special and privileged Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL) and Russia’s strategic partnership which is unique and comprehensive that cov- Atomstroyexport Company. This apart, India and Russia wish to widen cooperation across ers all areas of cooperation, including political relations, security, trade and economy, military and technical field, energy, scientific, a wide spectrum covering nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear science and technology, especially to develop advanced cultural and humanitarian exchanges, and foreign policy. The status of current bilateral ties indicates not only Indo- nuclear manufacturing capabilities in India in line with ‘Make in Russian relations have withstood the test of time but also promise India’ initiative. This is part of the earlier commitment to impleto further widen the scope of cooperation by launching large-scale ment the “Programme of Action for Localization in India” signed on December 24, 2015, and to encourage their nuclear industries to initiatives in different spheres. India and Russia signed five agreements after the bilateral talks engage closely and foster concrete collaborations. In the area of hydrocarbons, two sides have shown interest this between Prime Minister Narendra Modi and President Vladimir Putin covering nuclear energy, railways, gems and jewellery, tradi- time in launching joint projects on exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbons in the Arctic shelf of the Russian Federation. tional knowledge and cultural exchanges. India and Russia also noted that wider use of natural gas, an Building ‘Energy Bridge’ economically efficient and environmentally friendly fuel, which Energy cooperation has been one of the cornerstones of Indo- has become an integral part of the global energy market, is highly

INDIAN DEFENCE

The status of the current bilateral ties between India and Russia indicate not only that relations have withstood the test of time, but also promise to further widen the scope of cooperation by launching large-scale initiatives in different spheres.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

PIB

Indo-Russian Relations – 2017: Playing Safe

REGIONAL BALANCE

3


US Army

CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Security Concerns in Afghanistan-Pakistan Region

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

4

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A

n analysis of secubetween the expanding British   Major General Dhruv C. Katoch (Retd)  rity concerns in the and Russian Empires towards the Afghanistan-Pakistan end of the 19th century, in what (Af-Pak) region must take into account historical and was called ‘The Great Game’—the term being used for the strategic geopolitical factors that make this landmass critical to rivalry and conflict between the British Empire and the Russian world powers. History has not been kind to the tribes Empire for supremacy in Central Asia. The Great Game continues, who lived in the area comprising modern day Afghanistan. Lying though the actors on the stage have changed. on the great trade and migration routes, numerous invaders across From the late 1920s to the early 1970s, national security the centuries exploited the peculiar geographical vulnerabilities of agendas were determined by internal struggles for power among Afghanistan to establish and expand their empires. The passes over Afghan elites, the leveraging of external military aid to gain or the Hindu Kush Mountains gave access to the region from and to retain power and conflict with neighbouring states over disputed India. The Western routes ran from the Tigris-Euphrates Basin via borders. During this period, assistance received from the erstwhile the Iranian Plateau. From the North the routes ran via the adjacent Soviet Union resulted in the Afghan army and air force coming Eurasian Steppe, and from the Far East, via the Tarim Basin. All under strong Soviet influence. However, military factions also routes converged on to Afghanistan, giving the land the moniker developed during this period, which led to the Afghan state gradu‘Central Asian Roundabout’. ally losing its monopoly over the use of force. Internal divisions Thus, the area was ruled by the Medes, followed by Alexander within the government led to Soviet military intervention to prop the Great. Then came the Sakas, Parthians, Kushans and Sassanid’s. up the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA)—a radiThe Sasanian Empire constituted the last great Iranian empire cal leftist party—government, which in turn led to the resistance before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. The Islamic movement against Soviet occupation led by the Mujahideen. The conquest of Afghanistan (642–714) began in the middle of the Afghan Army imploded, and the Soviets were sucked deeper into 7th Century after the Islamic conquest of Persia was completed, conflict, finally being forced to withdraw in 1979. when Arab Muslims defeated the Sassanid Empire in the battles of The Warring Factions Walaja, al-Qādisiyyah and Nahavand. The complete conversion of Afghanistan to Islam took about four centuries, being com- A decade of resistance to Soviet occupation had led to a million pleted during the period of the Ghaznavids, in or about the 11th fatalities, over a million maimed, about 2 million internally discentury. The Ghaznavids were followed by the Ghorids, Mongols, placed and a further 5 million fleeing to Pakistan and Iran—roughly Timurids and the Mughal’s, till the early part of the 18th century half of the population of 20 million being thus killed, maimed or when Mirwais Khan Hotak, the chief of the Ghilzai Pashtuns of displaced. But worse was to come. Civil war followed, ending only Kandahar defeated the Persians and formed the Hotaki dynasty with the Taliban seizing control of Kabul on September 27, 1996, (1709–1738). This marked the first time that the Afghans were ruling and forcing the forces led by Rabbani and Masud to withdraw to the a part of their own land. It was left to Ahmad Shah Durrani to unite Panjshir Valley north of Kabul with their heavy weapons. With the all the tribes and wield them into a nation. The tribes were hetero- Taliban taking control of the country, political order was restored, geneous groups, with Pashtun’s predominant in the Southern but opposition to the Taliban caused different Afghan factions to areas and Tajiks, Hazaras, Uzbeks, Turkmen in the North making unite under the banner of a broader “Northern Alliance” under a up the Afghan identity. But though an Afghan identity emerged, Tajik core, but with Uzbeks, Hazara Shiite, and even some Pashtun contest for influence in the region remained. This saw the collision Islamist factions. The support given by the Taliban to Osama Bin

TECHNOLOGY

Achieving a stable and sovereign Afghanistan remains a challenge. Even as India should step up assistance, the Great Game involving different players continues but peace in this war-torn land as of now remains illusory.


US Navy

CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Chinese PLA’s Capability Enhancement: Recent Developments

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

5

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The PLAA remains the largest standing ground force in the world, which in 2016 included 18 group armies. It adapted to its new orga-

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Military Exercises and Training

The PLA continues to focus on training to execute large-scale, complex joint operations. This includes greater realism during exercises, strengthened strategic campaign training, and the execution of longdistance manoeuvres and mobility operations, as per the May 2017 Pentagon Report on Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China. The PLA also certified the Zhurihe Opposing Force, a special unit used to simulate live opposition in major training events. Major exercises included new iterations in the STRIDE and FIREPOWER series. The STRIDE 2016 matched the scope of last year’s exercises, but not its scale. The PLA held five named STRIDE iterations rather than the 15 it had held in 2015—a change realigning the event to the five newly created regional theatres. The training focused on operational command, integration of People’s Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) and PLA Army (PLAA) aviation units in coordinated air-toground strikes, and increased night combat training. The FIREPOWER 2016 repeated last year’s focus on air defence and artillery. In five iterations—each theatre participated once—one air defence brigade and one artillery brigade trained against simulated opposition forces. In the artillery exercises, the opposition was composed of active-duty military cadres and Nanjing Artillery Academy faculty members and cadets. Besides, the PLA has conducted notable operations at sea. This includes a large People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) task force that conducted an extensive deployment through the South China Sea, eastern Indian Ocean, and Western Pacific Ocean in May 2016. The force conducted maritime interdiction training in the Indian Ocean. The deployment demonstrated the PLAN’s growing capability to coordinate operations involving disparate subordinate elements over a wide area. In September 2016, PLAAF bombers, fighters, and early warning aircraft flew through the Bashi Channel into the Philippine Sea, marking China’s first fighter deployment to the area.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Chansoria  

REGIONAL BALANCE

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he sweeping transformation   Dr Monika of China’s military will help in the realization of its political ends and goals. President and Chairman of China’s Central Military Commission, Xi Jinping has invested energy, capital, and political will to realise his dream of a powerful country with a strong military. To Xi’s credit is adjusting China’s military leadership and command system, optimising structure and function, reforming policies and systems, however, simultaneously tightening controls in the civil-military dynamic. With a defence spending that stands second largest in the world following Washington, Beijing accounts for about 41 per cent of military spending in Asia, including Oceania. While the Pentagon estimated China’s total military-related spending for FY 2015 at more than $180 billion, other accounts such as the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) estimates were placed at $215 billion which is 1.5 times as much as the official release. China is working to complete its military reform and be fully prepared for informationised warfare by 2020, according to the recently published 13th five-year Military Development Plan (2016-2020) issued by the Central Military Commission (CMC). By 2020, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) is expected to complete the mechanisation of all its forces and progress towards incorporating information and computer technology. The priorities include strategic restructuring of different services, development of weaponry and logistics, information technology facilities, combat training and international military cooperation. More resources will be directed to projects that enhance combat readiness. Establishment of a joint operational command structure by 2020 is the most vital objective and adoption of an Integrated Command Platform is a significant step in that direction. This enables multi-service communications necessary for joint operations. Besides, in a first of its kind move in PLA’s history, the Force is set to get trimmed down to under one million – the biggest troop reduction till date as part of the restructuring process.

TECHNOLOGY

With a defense spending of $215 billion according to SIPRI estimates, China’s Xi Jinping in addition is investing energy, capital and political will to realise his dream of a powerful country with a strong military.


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ne year after the Coupled with the setting up of the   Vice Admiral Satish Soni (Retd)   Permanent Court of Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank Arbitration at The Hague in 2016, the Belt and Road Initiative ruled in favour of the Philippines in June 2016, there (BRI) has attracted a lot of attention as the Chinese desire to shape appears to be a lull in the South China Sea with the the political, economic and security environment in the Indo/Asia focus shifting to the clear and present danger, North Pacific region. Notwithstanding the opaque nature and likely strateKorea. China’s slow agglomeration of the Islands in the South gic intent of BRI, 30 world leaders and representatives from another China Sea is being given a go by and the acquiescence of President 30 countries (except India and Bhutan) attended the Belt and Road Duterte of the Philippines is only helping their cause. This analysis Forum (BRF) Summit held in Beijing on May 15, 2017. chronicles the developments in the South China Sea with specific Why is the South China Sea Important to China? emphasis on the insecurities and ambitions of the Chinese Navy and how these are being reflected in their moves in the Indo- Journalist Robert Kaplan calls the South China Sea, the 21st cenPacific. What can we expect them to do to consolidate their grow- tury’s defining battleground, the throat of global sea routes. China ing influence and what are the likely implications and options for has repeatedly asserted indisputable sovereignty over virtually the entire expanse as though it intends to create a closed sea. Why? regional countries including India? Controlling the many tiny Islands of the Paracel and Spratly Group Dragon’s Maritime Might and dominating the maritime approaches is imperative for ensuring China has a coastline of 18,000 km, an $11 trillion economy, a per control over the wealth of the sea in the form of unexploited minercapita income of $9,000 and a defence budget of around $215 bil- als, oil, gas and fish and increase the country’s sense of security by lion. They are expected to be a $17 trillion economy by 2022 with influencing sea lanes through which trade worth $5 trillion transits a defence budget of over $400 billion. The Chinese have been annually. An important objective is to seek a safe passage for the aggressive in their drive to modernise the People’s Liberation SSBNs based at Sanya on Hainan Island. The strategic assets need Army (PLA). Recent initiatives include formation of Joint Area to sail eastwards toward the Luzon Strait, the narrow sea between Commands, reduction in the number of Commands from seven Taiwan and the Philippine Island of Luzon. Maritime geography to five, creation of the State Oceanic Administration, increased will force them to exit through the narrow Bashi Channel, which focus on the Maritime sector and the Navy and laying emphasis would subject the SSBNs to detection and attack by enemy antion Cyber, Information and Space Warfare. The PLA (Navy) on submarine units. The interplay between topography, hydrography average commissions 15 to 20 ships/submarines a year and is the and geography is clearly to China’s disadvantage unless they have most dominant force in the South China Sea. New projects include complete control over the South China Sea. the second Aircraft Carrier, Shandong (CV001A) displacing 70,000 Chinese March into the South China Sea tonnes which is likely to be operational by 2020 and the Type 055 Destroyer displacing over 10,000 tonnes. These along with the Soon after the colonial powers withdrew, the Chinese claimed all of 094A class SSBNs armed with JL-3 submarine-launched ballistic the South China Sea by promulgating the infamous Nine Dash Line missiles (SLBMs) with an estimated range of over 8,000 km would and have relentlessly pursued this claim. They seized the Paracel Group of Islands and the Johnson South Reef in the Spratlys from greatly enhance the strike capability of the PLA (Navy).

INDIAN DEFENCE

Unprecedented economic growth backed by technological progress manifesting in an increase in its Comprehensive National Power is giving China a newfound confidence to assert herself in the South China Sea and beyond. India must resist moves for a Chinese-dominated maritime order in its backyard.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Wikipedia

South China Sea: China perfecting Moves in game of chinese chequers

REGIONAL BALANCE

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PIB

CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Politico-Strategic Developments in South-East Asia

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

7

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he larger geo-political and efits. The so-called ASEAN centrality   Brigadier Vinod Anand (Retd)   geo-strategic developments which is under attack because of ‘divide & Prerna Gandhi in Southeast Asia are being and rule’ policies followed by China as impacted upon by a number also ASEAN members’ inability to forge of factors that are both endogenous and exogenous to consensus on several issues of concern to them. the region. The 10 members countries of Association of Challenges of Radical Islam Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) face a complex array of political, economic, security and domestic challenges that they are attempt- Islam in ASEAN had a greater reputation for pluralism, flexibility, ing to meet both at the national level and through various regional and tolerance than that found in the Middle East. Even today, the bilateral and multilateral mechanisms. While some of the ASEAN picture of a fanatical, rigid, and militant Islam does not charactermembers have reached a certain degree of prosperity like Malaysia, ize the vast majority of Muslims in the region. Further, it is useful to Thailand, Brunei and Singapore, others like Cambodia, Laos and differentiate between separatist ethno-religious activities and the Myanmar still have a long way to go. Many ASEAN countries are also actions and beliefs of Islamic radicals in majority Muslim states. In the former case, the principal examples of Muslim minority faced with instabilities like insurgencies, terrorism and radicalism. At the strategic level, the uncertainties and ambiguities created separatism have been found in the southern Philippines and south by the US policies have resulted in dynamics that have a negative Thailand, although there has also been long-term conflict involving impact on the regional security. The rise of an assertive China, Rohingyas, Muslim minorities in the Arakan region of Myanmar. both in military and economic terms, has had a salutary effect on Since 9/11, ASEAN has witnessed several terrorist incidents perASEAN members’ approach to solving their economic and security petrated mostly by the Al-Qaeda linked Jemaah Islamiyah terrorist dilemmas. In fact, as a way of coping with this rising uncertainty in organization and its splinter groups. These incidents include the security dynamics, it can also be said that some of the ASEAN states October 2002 Bali bombings, the August 2003 J.W. Marriott Hotel have begun pursuing, what appear to be, contradictory policies to bombing in Jakarta, the bombing of Super Ferry 14 in the southmitigate the downside risks of a specific policy. On the other hand, ern Philippines in February 2004, the September 2004 Australian it can also be said that most of the ASEAN countries are pursuing Embassy bombing in Jakarta, further bombings in Bali in October hedging strategies in alignment with their perceived national inter- 2005, and further bombings at the J.W. Marriott (again) and the ests. The ASEAN countries have been engaging regional powers like Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Jakarta in 2009. Indonesia was also the victim India, Japan, Australia, Russia and others for adopting a balanced of the first ISIS-inspired attack in Southeast Asia. While Indonesia is often touted for its “moderation” in Islamic approach to the power dynamics in the region. The past year post Donald Trump’s victory in United States 2016 thought and practice, a radical Islamic fringe has been part of the presidential elections has created ripples in the global balance of Indonesian social and political landscape for a long time. Hizbut power system. From dealing with spread of radical Islam to North Tahir, Islamic Defenders Front, and other groups led months of Korea’s nuclear ambitions and growing belligerence, China’s Belt & massive protests in Jakarta, the capital, against the city’s minority Road Initiative (BRI) to high-powered visits of state leaders to the Christian governor, Basuki Tjahaja Purnama, who was accused of region, the year has been action-packed and dynamic for ASEAN. blasphemising Islam. He subsequently lost a bid for re-election to a While the ruling given by the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) Muslim candidate and was imprisoned for two years for blasphemy in July 2016 was in favour of the Philippines, the newly elected despite prosecutors downgrading the charge to a lesser offence. In President Duterte chose to cozy up to China for economic ben- July this year, Indonesia’s President Joko Widodo signed a decree

TECHNOLOGY

Even though India’s robust partnership with ASEAN foresees a rule-based architecture in the region, India needs to give more heft in implementing its Act East Policy given the rise of an assertive and belligerent China.


 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

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CONTENTS

Power Shift in Iraq President Bush’s invasion of Iraq in 2003 and its subsequently military occupation had left the Arab world’s, indeed (Israel excepted) West Asia’s, best functioning country, completely broken. Overthrow of Saddam, disbanding of Saddam’s army and the dismantling of the Baathist administration ultimately led to power shifting to the majority Shia community for the first time in centuries and inevitably an increasingly close relationship with Iran. Growing Sunni disaffection in Iraq and Syria led to the emergence of a modern Caliphate—the Islamic State—in June 2014, which, at its peak, controlled almost half of Iraq and Syria and the border between them, became the most cash rich terrorist entity and had more than 100,000 armed fighters and supporters. It declared war against all West Asian countries particularly Iran, as Shias are to be eliminated, Western countries and its peoples, non-Muslim minorities and all other jihadist groups fighting in Syria. President

TECHNOLOGY

naval bases and military presence in Syria for the long term. Iranian proxies will remain in Syria until such time as Assad needs them. The dozens of Jihadi militant groups fighting in Syria have rapidly eroding support from Turkey, Sunni Gulf and Western patrons and will gradually wilt as significant armed opposition. In a particularly significant indicator of changing geopolitical equations, an utterly unlikely troika comprising Turkey, Iran and Russia, is playing a very significant role in creating and supervising ‘deconfliction’ zones in different parts of Syria to end the fighting. Russia has become the main power broker in Syria. However, new conflicts could emerge. Israel is determined to prevent any semi-permanent Iranian presence in Syria through its proxies particularly Hezbollah and other Shi’ite militias. Israel has already carried out many attacks against military targets in Syria in recent years, so far unchallenged by either Syria or protector Russia, and these are likely to keep increasing in intensity and frequency. This could become a new flashpoint.

Gupta  

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yria has been a steadfast ally of the   Ranjit Islamic Republic of Iran ever since the 1979 Islamic Revolution and has supported Iran in the Iraq-Iran war and in all disputes with other Arab countries. The US-led Western hegemony in West Asia failed to breach this alliance. Therefore, the Sunni monarchies, Turkey and the West perceived the eruption of the anti-regime revolt in Syria in 2011 as a godsend opportunity to overthrow Assad. Taking advantage of the unrest, they intervened in Syria by arming and funding hundreds of thousands of jihadi fighters from all over the Arab world, many Muslim countries and even from Western countries and sending them into Syria. This inevitably prompted expanding Iranian intervention to prop up the Bashar Al-Assad regime through its proxies—Hezbollah, various Shia militias and even the Al Quds Brigade of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps. What may have been a manageable internal problem was converted into an ever widening de facto proxy interstate conflict, clothed in bitterly growing hostile sectarian discourse. In a dramatic departure from past US policies, President Obama refrained from direct military intervention against Assad, even ignoring his own red line regarding the use of chemical weapons by the regime. This US reticense unquestionably contributed very significantly to Assad’s survival in power. Finally, massive and continuously enlarging Russian military intervention in support of President Assad since September 2015 decisively tilted the scales in his favour. The terrible conflict in Syria is winding down and the broad contours of the end game are clearly discernible—President Bashar Al Assad will remain in power for the foreseeable future though it will take quite some time to assert full control throughout the country and low intensity conflicts will continue in some parts in Iraq. President Trump has decided that the US will not be involved in any fighting against the Assad regime. Except in the context of the Kurdish issue, the US will have hardly any influence or role in Syria in the immediate future. Russia will maintain its air and

INDIAN DEFENCE

India, unlike other major powers, has a lot of compatibility with West Asia particularly the GCC countries. India must continue with its neutral hands-off approach and must not mediate between contending parties in any of the West Asian conflicts.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

White House Photo

West Asia: India has much at stake in the stability of the region

REGIONAL BALANCE

8


 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

The absence of formal relations and political differences over the Palestinian issue did not inhibit India to look to Israel for military supplies and assistance during national emergencies. This approach was initiated by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru who was lukewarm towards Israel and ushered the policy of recognition-without-relations towards the Jewish State. The Sino-Indian conflict 1962 forced him to look to Israel for urgent assistance and

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Relations Since 1992

In the initial years of normalization, India was extremely weary of military-related engagements with Israel even though potential security benefits were one of the inducements for the establishment of diplomatic relations. Traditional support for the Palestinian cause and India’s limited diplomatic leverages, especially in the Middle East were impeding an open and robust engagement with Israel. In early 1993, Foreign Minister Shimon Peres became the first senior Israeli leader to visit India, and since then a number of

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Pre-1992

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ilitary supplies and security he wrote to Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion   P.R. Kumaraswamy   cooperation have been the hallasking for help. Acting on this, Israel sent a mark of measuring Israel’s strategic limited quantity of small arms and ammuniproximity with a country. Even countries which are tion to India. Likewise, during the Indo-Pakistan wars of 1965 and unwilling to forge political relations with it do not 1971, Israel was supportive and accommodative of New Delhi hesitate to pursue covet security cooperation with the when many Arab-Islamic countries of the Middle East sided with Jewish State. In some cases, the absence of political relations had Pakistan. While some of them offered political support, countries not impeded both sides from forging close military-security ties. like Iran under the Shah provided military-logistical assistance. Countries which were officially unfriendly and hostile have not Despite the prolonged Indian support for the Arabs, some of them hesitated to seek and benefit from under the radar cooperation depicted India as the ‘aggressor’ during the War for the liberation with Israel. For over a decade, Israel supplied military hardware of Bangladesh. to the People’s Republic of China before political relations were When the external intelligence agency Research and Analysis established in January 1992. These patterns can be noticed in the Wing (RAW) was established in 1968, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi Indo-Israeli relations, and security cooperation has been a promi- sent R.N. Kao to Israel for consultations. This pattern was followed nent feature of India’s approach towards Israel long before the when her son Rajiv Gandhi sought to revamp the security apparaestablishment of diplomatic relations in January 1992 and they have tus following Indira Gandhi’s assassination in October 1984. There only expanded during the past two decades. were widespread media speculations in the late 1980s that India On September 17, 1950, incidentally the day the future Prime would emulate the Israel’s Osirak example and bomb the Pakistani Minister Narendra Modi was born, India recognized the State of nuclear reactor in Kahuta. Above all, Israel’s military successes Israel. This came more than two years after the formation of the in the June War of 1967 and its demonstration of aerial superiorJewish State but recognition was not followed by the establishment ity over Syria in the Bekaa Valley confrontation in July 1982 were of political relations. Due to a host of domestic and external rea- closely studied by the Indian military establishment. sons, normalization of relations had to wait until the end of the Cold In other words, there were considerable exchanges, underWar and the Palestinian willingness to seek a political settlement to standing and hence appreciation of each other even before both the the Arab-Israeli conflict under the framework of the peace process countries moved closer politically. which began with the Madrid conference in October 1991.

INDIAN DEFENCE

Though Indo-Israel relations date back to the 1960s, they have blossomed under the NDA government. The challenges facing both the countries in enhancing their military-security cooperation are daunting largely due to Israel’s arms export policy which has been less political and more commercial and strategic.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

SP Guide Pubns

Indo-Israeli Security Relations: Daunting challenges

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9


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Hybrid Warfare There is no universally accepted definition of hybrid warfare. Generally, it is considered to be a military strategy that combines conventional warfare, irregular warfare and cyber warfare. In 2011, US Army defined a hybrid threat as “the diverse and dynamic combination of regular forces, irregular forces, criminal elements, or a combination of these forces and elements all unified to achieve mutually benefiting effects”. In another instance the US Army terms it “the diverse and dynamic combination of regular forces, irregular forces, criminal elements, or a combination of these forces and elements all unified to achieve mutually benefiting effects”. The US Joint Forces Command defines a hybrid threat as, “any adversary that simultaneously and adaptively employs a tailored mix of conventional, irregular, terrorism and criminal means or activities in the operational battle space. Rather than a single entity, a hybrid threat or challenger may be a combination of state and non-state actors”. General George W Casey, former US Army Chief talked of a new type of war that would become increasingly common in the future: “A hybrid of irregular warfare and conventional warfare. Yet another view expressed by the National Defence University, Washington DC is that hybrid warfare is only a part of ‘compound warfare’. The characteristics of hybrid warfare include: n Ambiguous and complex adversary: That can be state, nonstate, state-sponsored non-state, or a mix of all; n Multiple simultaneous methods: Methods and tactics include employment of conventional capabilities, irregular forces and

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WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS ences between conventional war and hybrid war are often not understood. Conventional war is part of hybrid war. It is a war that is declared and is fought astride defined borders. In contrast, hybrid war encompasses ‘all forms’ of warfare. This is a war that is ongoing — in perpetuity. It is not only undeclared, it is ambiguous and borderless. Hybrid wars do not adhere to any rules or regulations; it is vicious and dirty.

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Katoch (Retd)  

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hanakya had advocated a   Lt General P.C. six-fold policy to interact with the neighbours that included co-existence, neutrality, alliance, double policy, march and war. If the end could be achieved by non-military methods, even by intrigue, duplicity and fraud, he would not advocate an armed conflict. Much of this was practiced in Ramayana and Mahabharata, as well as in ancient Indian wars by the Maurya, the Gupta dynasties and others. Sun Tzu had similarly said, “To win one hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the acme of skill. To subdue the enemy without fighting is the acme of skill” and that, “Those skilled in war subdue the enemy’s army without battle.” Over the years, description of warfare has taken many forms like asymmetric warfare, terrorism, guerrilla warfare, irregular warfare, unconventional warfare, special operations, long war, fourth/fifth generation warfare, hybrid warfare, etc. But hybrid warfare was always an integral part of warfare since ancient civilizations took to fighting. Hybrid warfare has been waged during the two world wars, many revolutions, American Civil War, Franco-Prussian War, Boer Wars, Sino-Japanese Wars, Vietnam War, and modern day conflicts in Middle East, West Asia, Ukraine and Afghanistan. Another description of hybrid warfare came from Clausewitz wherein he said, “War is more than a true chameleon that slightly adapts its characteristics to the given case. As a total phenomenon its dominant tendencies always make war a paradoxical trinity--composed of primordial violence, hatred, and enmity, which are to be regarded as a blind natural force; of the play of chance and probability within which the creative spirit is free to roam; and of its element of subordination, as an instrument of policy, which makes it subject to reason alone.” These factors have been part of war since the dawn of recorded history. There is general perception in some cross sections in India, that war implies conventional war. A classic example was Manohar Parrikar as Defence Minister stating that the military’s respect had diminished “for one reason that for 40-50 years, we have not fought a war”. This belief is mostly because the differ-

INDIAN DEFENCE

Hybrid war encompasses ‘all forms’ of warfare. This is a war that is ongoing—in perpetuity. It is not only undeclared; it is ambiguous and borderless. Hybrid wars do not adhere to any rules or regulations; it is vicious and dirty.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Anoop Kamath

Advent of Hybrid Wars and its Application and Implications for the Region

REGIONAL BALANCE

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Textron Aviation

CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Aerospace power: the next war zone for contending nations

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

11

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the military context, the term ‘bathe traditional con  Group Captain A.K. Sachdev (Retd)   tlefield’ has now been elevated to notation of air power as ‘battlespace’; the attention towards an instrument of military prowess has been evolving in a manner that military pow- militarisation and weaponisation of space underscores the ‘high ers engage each other or are employed to subserve the ground’ advantage of superiority in aerospace. This development is strategies of the nations they champion. Meanwhile, with not recent as the term ‘aerospace’ was first introduced by General advances in aerospace technologies, the ‘air’ envelope, which con- Thomas White, Chief of Staff, US Air Force (USAF), in 1958 and textualised the medium defining concepts such as ‘air superiority’, indeed, a US Air Force Space Command has been in existence ‘command of the air’ and ‘air dominance’, has distended to subsume since 1982. However, the manner in which aerospace is increasingly space. Consequently, the term ‘air power’ has been enhanced being defined as an arena, has acquired more subtle nuances over to ‘aerospace power’ and the all important space dimension has recent years. In July last year, General David Goldfein, Chief of Staff, USAF, become another arena for power projection and confrontation between contending nations. Outer space, considered as one of reportedly expressed his view at Air Power Conference 2017 the Global Commons, equitably accessible to all venturing nations (London) that “future conflicts will be transnational, multi-domain as a common heritage, is now inexorably being militarised and and multi-component in nature, features of which are already weaponised. Trends in the employment of air power are thus of being seen in present day wars”. The Multi-Domain Battle concept keen interest due to the dynamics of their evolution. The participa- mooted by the US Army in 2016 is an initiative to expand its role tion of major air powers from across the world in various military beyond its traditional land domain into air, sea, space and cyberconflicts involving state and non-state entities (in Iraq, Afghanistan space. While this idea militates against the notion of indivisibility of and Syria, et al) has thrown up lessons about the changing nature air and appears to hold potential for inter-service rivalry, surprisof warfare. In recent years, air power doctrine has been revisited ingly, the other arms of US military seem to be subscribing to it as a radically rather than evolve incrementally as it did since World War concept for future warfare. The vision of Multi-Domain Battle visuI. Technology has displayed a will of its own and spewed forth dual alises the military, everything from submarines to satellites, tanks use applications that offered lucrative and disruptive alternatives to to jets, destroyers to drones, common soldiers to hackers, working be employed as implements of air power. The nature of war itself together (jointly?) to overwhelm the enemy with attacks from all has undergone significant and substantial changes and a new lexis is domains: land, sea, air, space, cyberspace and the electronic specgaining acceptance in military and strategic discourses. The heated trum. Even for the US military, which is unique in terms of size and debate about ‘manned aircraft versus bomber’ has been catapulted level of jointery, it will take years to see the concept consummated; to a new, higher plane where man finds himself outperformed by for others, it will take much longer. However, the notable aspect is drones while Artificial Intelligence (AI) imperils the supremacy of the joint use of air power in a theatre of operations; the broad conhomo sapiens insofar as speed and exactitude of cognitive processes cept is being translated into Field Manual 3.0 Operations by Army’s are concerned. Air power threatens to jostle man out from the tacti- Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) with inputs from the cal scenario or at least reduce his presence to a contingency plan. other services. Once ready, the document will provide doctrinal status to Multi-Domain Battle. This chapter briefly outlines salient trends in air power. Hybrid Warfare is another term that has gained recognition Changing Nature of War after the use of non-military instruments, especially information In deference to the inclusion of space and cyber space as arenas in warfare by Russia, to accomplish political objectives in Crimea with

TECHNOLOGY

Air power threatens to jostle man out from the tactical scenario or at least reduce his presence to a contingency plan. With the passage of time, new trends in air power would become increasingly unpredictable.


 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

CONTENTS

TNWs are Inherently Destabilising

Strategic Stability in South Asia

Though it is in use, the term TNW is a misnomer. The employment of nuclear weapons on the battlefield will have a strategic impact and geo-strategic repercussions. TNWs are extremely costly and complex to manufacture and difficult to transport, store and main-

Strategic stability is a product of deterrence stability, crisis stability and arms race stability in the context of a hostile political relationship between two nations. In the South Asian context, the hostile political relationship stems from the unresolved territorial dispute

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ollowing the terrorist tain under field conditions. Due to   Brigadier Gurmeet Kanwal (Retd)   attack at Uri in September their short range – the nuclear-capa2016, several Pakistanis, ble Hatf-9 has a maximum range of including Khawaja Asif, then the Defence Minister, had 60 km – the authority to fire has to be delegated to field commandheld out nuclear threats to deter Indian military retaliation, ers at an early stage in the battle. particularly the threat to employ tactical nuclear warheads This leads to the dilution of centralised control and creates a (TNWs) against Indian forces. proclivity to ‘use them, or lose them’. TNWs are also susceptible In an endeavour to preserve strategic stability, India, a reluctant to unauthorised use, or what Henry Kissinger had called the ‘Mad nuclear power, has demonstrated immense restraint despite grave Major Syndrome’. The TNW missile launchers are likely to be incitement from Pakistan. In stark contrast, ever since it became targeted by the adversary when deployed. Together, all of these a nuclear-armed state, Pakistan’s behaviour has been marked by disadvantages lower the threshold of nuclear use and make TNWs brinkmanship, with provocation bordering tantalisingly on actions a highly destabilising class of weapons. that could lead to large-scale conventional conflict with nuclear The NATO-Warsaw Pact experience during the Cold War shows overtones. Recent developments in Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal have that ‘nuclear exchanges’ cannot be kept limited to the battlefield and been of the same destabilising pattern. are guaranteed to escalate rapidly to full-fledged nuclear war with As part of its quest for ‘full spectrum deterrence’, Pakistan has devel- strategic warheads designed to destroy large cities. India has wisely oped the Hatf-9 (Nasr) short-range ballistic missile (SRBM).Pakistan refrained from adding TNWs to its nuclear arsenal. Pakistan would claims that the 60km-range Hatf-9 is equipped with a tactical nuclear also do well to eliminate these weapons from its nuclear arsenal. warhead (TNW) and is intended for battlefield use as a weapon of warfWhile the Hatf-9 (Nasr) SRBM is technically capable of being ighting. The Pakistan army appears to believe that a few TNWs can stop capped with a nuclear warhead, whether this has actually been done is the advance of Indian forces across the International Boundary (IB) not known in the public domain. The warhead is likely to be based on a into Pakistan. By employing TNWs on the battlefield, the Pakistan army linear implosion Plutonium design and is likely to have been cold testhopes to checkmate India’s ‘Pro-active Offensive Operations Doctrine’, ed. Pakistan’s Plutonium stocks are limited. The four Khushab reactors which is colloquially called the ‘Cold Start Doctrine’. can together produce Plutonium that is sufficient for only 10-12 nucleThis article analyses the efficacy of TNWs as weapons of warf- ar warheads per year. Considering the low level of damage that TNWs ighting. It examines the likely effect on Indian forces if Pakistan cause, the decision on how much of the Plutonium stock should be detonates a few TNWs on the columns of the Indian army advanc- allocated for TNWs vis-à-vis that for strategic warheads would be a difing across the IB and, consequently, the possible impact on India’s ficult one to make. Hence, it maybe deduced that Pakistan is unlikely nuclear doctrine and defence strategy. to have a large stockpile of TNWs in its nuclear arsenal.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Indian diplomacy should bring international pressure on Pakistan to eliminate TNWs from its nuclear arsenal. It is in India’s interests to discuss nuclear confidence-building measures (CBMs) and nuclear risk reduction measures (NRRMs) with Pakistan in greater depth than has been the case till now.

REGIONAL BALANCE

Pakistan Army

pakistan’s tnws seek to checkmate indian advance

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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o the Chinese, visiting the Learning the Ropes – Naval   Vice Admiral Anup Singh (Retd)   Diplomacy Indian Ocean is not new. In the first two years of deployment in The most popular images of the bygone era are those of Admiral Zeng He and his the Gulf of Aden, PLAN ships were as shy of ‘contact with foreigners’ treasure voyages in the 15th century. So also are China’s as the Soviets used to be, throughout the Cold War. However, after linkages with the ancient silk route over land. But then, the 10th Task Force had completed its patrols, there was a distinct there was a hiatus in the 20th century as communist China looked change in the manner of interaction with the other navies and flagmore inwards for ensuring ‘synergy’ within the nation and com- showing missions to countries during passage. Oliver Cromwell’s pliance with national principles. By the 1980s, however, there adage, a man o’ war is the best Ambassador, must have dawned was a change. As the transformations infused by Deng Xiaoping upon the Chinese as an opening to the world. In a structured manstarted to show confidence, the PLA (Navy) (PLAN) was tasked to ner, ships of the Task Force visited certain countries in the Indian make visits to such countries that were being wooed as friends. Ocean, on ‘goodwill’ missions. The start point was the East Coast of But it is since the beginning of the last decade that China started Africa, where goodies were doled out to under-developed commumaking conspicuous forays into the Indian Ocean with warships nities. Then visits expanded to countries like the UAE and Iran apart from Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Bangladesh – as a confiand support vessels. Well before the US consultancy firm, Booz Allen Hamilton dence building measure. This pattern has now been formalised. submitted its findings and coined the term string of pearls; the “Excursions” in the IOR jigsaw was seen falling into place by many in India and beyond. Regular visits to Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and In December 2013, the Chinese had informed the Indian and five some East African ports along with proposals for maritime infra- other Diplomatic Missions at Beijing, that one of their nuclear structure in those countries, gave a clear insight into the future. powered submarines will be making a ‘round’ of the Indian Ocean The spectre of extra-regional presence had begun to haunt the for a couple of weeks. This was a smart move on two counts: firstly, Indian Ocean region (IOR) – a full decade after the Cold War it was a safety measure to forewarn other submarine operating countries in the Indian Ocean that they should exercise caution had ended. against any incident of mutual interference, underwater. Secondly, First Steps to Sustained Presence and more significantly, it was also a tongue-in-cheek message, that A couple of embarrassing incidents involving hijacking attempts the Chinese can now send nuclear powered submarines in others’ against Chinese-flagged merchantmen in the piracy-ridden Gulf waters – with a declaration of intent! of Aden in end 2008, forced China to send its warships to escort its Deploying strategic submarines to others’ waters is a recipe for trade. This turned out to be a godsend for China. There could not tension, an avoidable arms race, and ‘quid pro quo(s)’. But what is of have been a more ‘legitimate’ reason for permanent presence here. concern is the fact that the move is used for a thorough survey of the Since January 2009, the Chinese have had an anti-piracy Task Force area, its traffic, and the sound velocity profile in India’s backyard. comprising two Destroyers/Frigates and a Comprehensive Supply This has very serious strategic implications for the IOR’s peace in Vessel on station. general, and India’s security in particular.

INDIAN DEFENCE

China clearly seeks to display power projecion in the IOR through acclimatising with the maritime space, and create nodes for strategic leverage. India should assist the island states and some littorals in infrastructure building, spruce up the Indian Navy’s force levels and take the strategic partnership with the US and Japan to the next level.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

CRS / Navy Office of Legislative Affairs

Indian Ocean region: china seeks global maritime power status

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Wikipedia

India’s Energy Security: The Governments’ New Initiatives

India’s Oil Scenario As per the BP Energy Outlook 2017, India’s energy consumption is expected to grow the fastest among all major economies by 2035 (by 4.2 per cent per annum). As a result, the country remains import dependent despite increases in production. Currently, it

has the largest consumption growth of fossil fuels in the world. India’s demand growth (+129 per cent), is more than double the non-OECD average of 52 per cent and also outpaces each of the BRIC countries as China (+47 per cent), Brazil (+41 per cent), and Russia (+2 per cent), all expand slower. India’s share of global demand increases to 9 per cent by 2035, accounting for the second largest share among the BRIC countries with China at 26 per cent, Russia at 4 per cent, and Brazil at 2 per cent. India in 2016 had only 0.3 per cent of the world’s total oil reserves with an R/P ratio of 14.9.

India’s Gas Scenario As per BP Energy Outlook 2017, India’s gas consumption rose in 2016 after three consecutive years of decline. Gas production declined by 6 per cent in 2016, its sixth consecutive year of decline, taking it 21 Bcm below the peak of 49 Bcm in 2010. Natural gas imports rose by 5.7 Bcm to 21.7 Bcm. India as of 2016 has 0.7 percent of the world’s total gas reserves with an R/P ratio of 44.4.

India’s Power (Electricity) Sector Scenario

India’s Oil Scenario in million tonnes (2012-2016) Years/Crude Oil

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

Production (Million Tonnes)

42.5

42.5

41.6

41.2

40.2

Consumption (Million Tonnes)

173.6

175.3

180.8

195.8

212.7

200

World’s Total Consumption (Million Tonnes)

4176.2

4220.9

4254.8

4341.0

4418.2

150

India’s % Consumption of the world

4.1

250 173.6

175.3

180.8

195.8

212.7

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

India’s Oil Consumption in Million Tonnes

100 4.1

4.2

Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2017

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4.5

4.8

50 0

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 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

India’s power sector is diversified and is currently the third largest producer and fourth largest consumer of electricity in the world.

BUSINESS

Kumar Singh  

INDIAN DEFENCE

I

ndia’s Enery Policy has always   Dr Bhupendra aimed to raise the per capita energy (and electricity) consumption, even while the focus has been on the eradication of poverty and maximising the economic growth. According to the National Institution for Transforming India (NITI) Aayog’s National Energy Policy 2017, approximately 304 million people in the country do not have access to electricity, while about 500 million people in the country are still dependent on bio-mass for cooking. The downside of the fact is that, due to the increase of income, people are adopting more energy-dependent lifestyle leading to increase in the consumption of energy. There is a wide gap between consumption and domestic production of oil and gas making India import dependent.

TECHNOLOGY

There is a wide gap between consumption and domestic production of oil and gas making India import dependent.


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

2

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

section two

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Technology Contents

69

INDIAN DEFENCE

65

77 81 85 89 93 97

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

73

REGIONAL BALANCE

One  Military Hardware Technology for Soldiers & Snipers in Warfare Two Technological Advances to Significantly Enhance Indian Navy’s Capabilities Three Nanotechnology: Massive Potential to Disrupt Military Applications Four Indian Navy Should Acquire Disruptive Technologies to Build War-Fighting Capabilities Five Cybertronic Warfare: The Battle-Winning Factor Six Computer Wargames: Prospects and Predilections Seven Autonomous Attack: The Advent of Intelligent Combat Drones Eight Air Defence Missile Systems: Automation and AI to be Game Changers Nine Big Data: Need for Exploiting Potential for Indian Navy


 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

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CONTENTS

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BUSINESS

A

wide range of technolosmall-calibre bullet. The EXACTO   Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd)   gies like artificial intel50-caliber bullet and optical sighting ligence (AI), computing, technology increases the range and genomics, robotics and sensors, are holding the atten- accuracy by day and night, over the current state-of-the-art sniper tion of the advanced countries of the world including systems. EXACTO can be very effective in places like Afghanistan the US. Robots can assemble circuit boards and can be where high winds and dusty terrain are a real challenge. Scanty tasked to carry out a host of duties including performing as super technical details of the technology have been disclosed by DARPA. soldiers. AI can drive cars, thus, can be used for driving tanks and As per DARPA, the programme has entered Phase II of developother types of military transport to avoid human casualties. AI can ment, which includes “design, integration and demonstration of edit genes to prevent hereditary disease or develop drought resis- aero-actuation controls, power sources, optical guidance systems, tant plants. Fossil fuels are being replaced by cheaper clean energy. and sensors”. Teledyne and its partners at Draper and Orbital ATK Such developments are going to cause great disruption in the are developing EXACTO for DARPA. Sandia National Laboratories conventional way of doing business. Latest technologies are being are independently developing a smart bullet. applied to military hardware to change the way future warfare will Sandia National Laboratories be carried. Glimpses of some such systems are given below. Sandia is carrying out independent development of a smart bullet. Smart Bullets that can Change Direction in Flight The Sandia team has developed a dart-like, self-guided bullet for Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) of US is small-calibre, smooth-bore firearms that could hit laser-designated developing a smart bullet that can change direction in flight called targets at distances of more than a mile (about 2,000 m). They have Extreme Accuracy Tasked Ordnance (EXACTO). These bullets are divulged some details of the technology involved. Sandia’s design self guided and are thus able to change their trajectory to adjust which is similar to the one DARPA is developing and includes an their flight path due to the movement of the target or any factors optical sensor in the nose, to detect a laser beam illuminating the which have diverted the bullet from its desired trajectory. The bul- target. The sensor sends information to guidance and control eleclet has optical tips which can detect laser illumination on the target tronics that use an algorithm in an eight-bit central processing unit and mini fins that guide the bullet onto the target. This implies that to command electromagnetic actuators. These actuators then steer the target has to be laser illuminated by another source. The firing tiny fins that guide the bullet to the target. Most rifles have grooves trials have been successful. The EXACTO system is an effective tool to impart spin to the bullet for stability which enables them to fly for snipers as it gives them better accuracy, greater stand of ranges a straight path but to steer a bullet in flight requires that there is no and allows the sniper to accomplish his mission in a shorter period spin thus the requirement of firing from a smooth bore gun. Plastic as compared to conventional ammunition. In sniper engagement sabots provide a gas seal in the cartridge and protect the delicate fins any missed shot, enhances the risk to own troops. EXACTO thus until they drop off after the bullet emerges from the barrel. An inertial enhances safety of own troops as longer stand off distance and measurement unit (IMU) is fitted in missiles to an electronic device reduced time of exposure, makes the discovery of own troops dif- that gives measures and gives inputs of specific force and angular ficult. The EXACTO programme when implemented will revolu- rate. IMU is fitted on platforms for carrying out maneuvering but is tionize rifle accuracy and range by developing the first ever guided not required for Sanda’s smart bullet as the bullet flies through the air,

INDIAN DEFENCE

Latest technologies like AI, computing, genomics, robotics and sensors are being applied to military hardware to change the way future warfare will be conducted. At the same time while neuro-enhancement has great military and civilian potential, there must be proper checks and balances and it must be well regulated.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Eucleo

military hardware technology for soldiers & snipers in warfare

REGIONAL BALANCE

1


 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

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Emerging Practices and Technology Development Trends The development of core military technologies will lead to Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) in the next 10-15 years. It is envisaged that these technological advances will significantly enhance naval capabilities. Design and building of warships and submarines are one of the ‘most complex engineering activities’ due to demands of ‘aggregation’ and ‘integration’ of multitude of equipment and systems. Further, excitement based on emerging technologies, may often need tempering with the ‘well known but often forgotten’ “Wisdom Filters” e.g. ‘need, ‘availability’, ‘suitability’, ‘estimated life cycle cost, and ‘estimated time for development’, besides the proverbial, ‘procurement’ and ‘procedural issues. Certain emerging practices and technological developments and advancements that are being pursued in the sphere of ship design and construction include:

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CONTENTS

Maritime Environment

The role and responsibilities of the IN are predicated on India’s national and maritime interests. Geostrategic, economic and security related developments in recent years have enhanced India’s status in the global and regional affairs. In the last decade, our efforts in enhancing peace, stability, security and development in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR) have been widely recognised. Challenges faced by the Navy in the current scenario include new and emerging threats from land and sea, requirement of coastal security and defence, protection of seaborne trade and shipping, safeguarding natural resources and security of energy. New challenges of maritime terrorism and piracy have made the maritime environment more complex. Therefore, there is a need for equipping platforms with weapons and sensors that are capable of meeting the wide canvas of operations extending from Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR)/LIMO to blue water operational capability.

TECHNOLOGY

Subhedar (Retd)  

BUSINESS

N

avies operate in the   Vice Admiral A.V. international waters well beyond the territorial limits of nations—not only in war but also in crisis situations and in times of peace. The Navy is a versatile instrument of the Nation state, which can be used in wide ranging manner to impose, influence, apply coercion, or indicate support, whenever and wherever required. The Navy is also a powerful tool, which can be employed for international cooperation, conflict resolution, and for achieving competitive advantage in economic activities. Naval Task Forces can discharge foreign policy aims as well as create or disperse precipitous situations by mere presence or probability of presence. The missions and the resultant operational tasks for the Navy are, therefore, vast and varied, both during peace time and war. The missions and operational tasks of the Indian Navy (IN) have been enunciated in ‘Indian Maritime Doctrine’ and in future the IN’s role would continue to extend across the entire spectrum of conflict, from peace keeping, through the low-intensity segment to high-intensity conventional hostilities up to and including nuclear conflict. Therefore, it is incumbent that the IN should also be fully equipped to fight or handle Low Intensity Maritime Operations (LIMO) and Low Intensity Conflict Operations (LICO), and acquire the following war-fighting capabilities in a prioritised manner: n Information Superiority: Improve Command, Control, Communication, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) capabilities to acquire and assimilate information needed to dominate/neutralise adversary forces and effectively employ own forces. n Force Application: Responsive and timely application of force to destroy selected targets (sea/air/land) precisely, along with minimal sensor to shooter time and minimum collateral damage. n Defence: Defend own forces against enemy torpedoes, missiles, aircraft, and information warfare operations.

INDIAN DEFENCE

Combat readiness first and indigenous development next are two major goals of the Indian Navy. We need to identity need-based functional domains and relevant technologies required in the next 20-25 years to accomplish self-reliance. The entire industrial might of the country needs to partner to achieve this goal.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Indian Navy

technological advances to significantly enhance indian navy’s capabilities

REGIONAL BALANCE

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 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

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Communications Efforts by Raytheon indicate the production of a military radio receiver as small as a credit card (current weight of radio is 10 lbs), which would work longer by a factor of 10 and be easily maintainable.

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CONTENTS over the physical structure of matter—the same kind of control over the molecular and structural makeup of physical objects that a word processor provides over the form and content of text. It has been said that military power is at the base of thrust on Nanotechnology and also that military planners may be guiding governmental research in the US in the field of Nanotechnology. Growing strategic interest of both large and small nations in Nanotechnology is evident in the increase in public investment in Nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is permeating into a plethora of military applications practically covering all frontiers of military technology, for example: n Wireless communications n Nano sensors n Nano Energetics n Mass data storage n Inertial measurement units n Active conformable surfaces for aircraft n Signal processing n Unmanned sensors for tracking and surveillance n Analytical instruments n Distributed sensors for condition-based maintenance and structural monitoring n Optical fibre components and networks n Distributed control of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic system In several areas, Nanotechnological research & development has already promised results that could be speedily integrated into a soldier’s battle suit.

TECHNOLOGY

Kulshrestha (Retd)  

BUSINESS

N

anotechnology is   Rear Admiral Dr S. a field that does not stem from one established academic discipline. There are a number of ways in which Nanotechnology may be defined. The most common version with regards to Nanoscience is ‘the ability to do things—measure, see, predict and make—on the scale of atoms and molecules and exploit the novel properties found at that scale’. Traditionally, this scale is defined as being between 0.1 and 100 Nanometres (nm), 1 nm being one-thousandth of a micron, which is, in turn, one thousandth of a millimetre (mm). However, this definition is open to interpretation, and may readily be applied to a number of different technologies that have no obvious common relationship. Another way to characterise Nanotechnology is by distinguishing between the fabrications processes of top-down and bottom-up. Top-down technology refers to the ‘fabrication of Nanoscale structures by machining and etching techniques’. However, top-down means more than just miniaturisation; at the Nanoscale level, different laws of physics come into play, properties of traditional materials change, and the behaviour of surfaces start to dominate the behaviour of bulk materials. On the other hand, bottom-up technology—often referred to as Molecular Nanotechnology (MNT)—applies to the creation of organic and inorganic structures, atom by atom, or molecule by molecule. It is this area of Nanotechnology that has created the most excitement and publicity. In a mature Nanotech world, macrostructures would simply be grown from their smallest constituent components: an ‘anything box’ would take a molecular seed containing instructions for building a product and use tiny Nanobots or molecular machines to build it atom by atom. It has been pointed out in literature that, ‘the development of (bottom-up) technology does not depend upon discovering new scientific principles. The advances required are engineering.’ In short, fully-fledged bottomup Nanotechnology promises nothing less than complete control

INDIAN DEFENCE

Wireless Nano-sensor networks will have a great impact in almost every field from healthcare to homeland security and environmental protection. By the end of the next decade, warfighting would be truly networked across macro, micro and Nano domains in communications, mobility, equipment, weapons and ammunition.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

SP Guide Pubns

nanotechnology: massive potential to disrupt military applications

REGIONAL BALANCE

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Indian navy should acquire Disruptive Technologies to build war-fighting capabilities

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Naval Group

4

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 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

W

ar is a continuasipated doubles every 18 months   Commodore Sujeet Samaddar (Retd)   tion of politics by as smaller batteries deliver higher other means. In performance computations. both war and politics there is a common and central n Zimmermann’s Law: The natural flow of technology tends to move in the direction of making surveillance easier, and the doctrine. ‘Never enter a fair fight’. To ensure victory ability of computers to track doubles every 18 months. there must exist, an asymmetry between the parOn the other hand, as seen from the impact of the industrial ties—in both politics and war. These asymmetries can be in the areas of will—interest on the issues involved and in the resources, revolutions, a ‘disruptive technology changes the dynamics of conmost notably human and technological, available to each side. And, flict or competition in ways that are revolutionary, profound and if these asymmetries are significant one can even win without con- unexpected’. They radically alter: test. In the case of politics, we have, in the recent past, seen several n The conduct of war governments come to power riding on the crest of a technologically- n Skills, Capabilities and Capacities of Combatants driven campaign that leveraged cyber and social media, information n Impact the National Defence Industrial Complex dominance and data analytics to predict voter behaviour and prefer- n Change the Strategic balance between nations As the world stands at the threshold of the Industry 4.0, it is ences and accordingly tweak the campaign strategy on real time. In warfare, several precedents of technological asymmetry are once again a new basket of disruptive technologies that will impact apparent. Industry 1.0 replaced sails and wooden hulls with steam naval operations and its requirements of machinery, weapons, and steel, canons and guns made fodder of swordsmen and cavalry. equipment, sensors and communications which would neither With the advent of the railroad the wagon industry was bust and permit companies nor navies simply doing ‘more of the same’ to steam ships made sail-makers obsolete, guns and canon impacted remain in business or in the reckoning in war. These disruptive the sword and shield business. Industry 2.0 introduced electric technologies can be classified in several ways. Foremost are technologies that drive information and compower and revolutionised sensors and communications systems which have extinguished the oil-fired lantern and candles business. munications which is a critical element in designing the battle Industry 3.0 brought in digital technologies which had broad spec- space and the conduct of war itself. Effective and secure commutrum applications and was characterised by a fusion of technolo- nications, at present relying on radio and satellite technologies, gies impacting not just a specific sector but multifarious industries. are central and critical to all forms of maritime operations. With These technological interventions in politics and war had a dis- the emphasis on network-enabled operations, highly capable and ruptive character which changed the goal post, the conduct of the large capacity networks are becoming a sine-quo-non for modgame itself and challenged the sustaining and incremental model of ern command, control, communication, computer, intelligence, improvements over established technologies and industrial capabil- surveillance and reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems, which must ity. Some of the empirical principles that govern the development of function faultlessly, ensure secure and stable connectivity as well evolved products rely on for example Moore’s Law which predicts that as interoperability between platforms and deployed fleets, and ‘chip performance doubles every 18 months’. Some of the other empiri- be robust to meet rising voice, data and video requirements in cal principles that govern the development of evolved products rely on: combat. New technologies such as Software Defined Radio laser n Butter’s Law: Data Outputs from Optical Fibre Cable doubles transmitters and Free-space Optical communication links provide every 9 months. high-bandwidth communication with point to point transmission, n  Koomey’s Law: Number of computations per joule of energy dis- high transmission rates and safety from interception. The poten-

TECHNOLOGY

The era of industrial navies is over, and the time has come for a new kind of navy. The new-age navy would call for adoption of a host of new disruptive technologies to achieve Maritime Theatre Dominance.


 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

CONTENTS

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owards the end of the last What is Cybertronic Warfare?   Lt General Rajesh Pant (Retd)   The new domain of warfare termed as century, Dr Martin Libicki Cybertronic Warfare is derived from of the National Defence University in Washington USA, had written a seminal the earlier two forms of Cyber and Electronic Warfare. In order paper titled ‘What is Information Warfare?’ In this arti- to uniquely distinguish it from CW or EW, it is represented by cle, seven different forms of Information Warfare (IW) CeW and can be defined as all military actions involving use of had been enumerated which also included Cyber Warfare (CW). the Electromagnetic (EM) spectrum for ingress into a networked However, the concept of CW at that point of time was a futuristic electronics-based computer system, resulting in either obtaining of form of warfare involving robots and virtual reality in the realm intelligence or soft and hard attacks against that networked system, of science fiction and all not covered by the other six forms of and preventing own systems against the same. Key features of CeW from the above definition are: IW (in which there was some clarity). Over a period of years and with the advent of computer networks as also the proliferation n It is a military action, which can be conducted at strategic, operational or tactical levels, in coordination with the operational plans. of the Internet, CW as known and understood today involves the deliberate insertion of a malware so as to result into soft or hard n It must mandatorily involve the use of both EM Spectrum and computer networks. This feature distinguishes it from the attacks on a target through interconnected computer or smart known domains of EW and CW. phone networks. The other form of non-kinetic warfare prevalent today is n In it’s passive avatar, CeW provides a source of intelligence. termed as Electronic Warfare (EW), which involves passive and n In it’s active avatar, CeW can either result in insertion of malware in the computer network, perception management active measures conducted in the Electro-Magnetic (EM) specthrough the cyber domain, EM jamming of the network or even trum. The definition and interpretation of this type of warfare the physical destruction of the electronic components. has by and large remained consistent since the past five decades. However, a deadly variant in the form of Directed Energy Weapons n It includes the preventive measures against CeW conducted by the adversary on its own systems. (DEWs) has now been added into this warfare which has the potential to be a game changer in the conduct of military operaThe Cybertronic Process tions in the modern digital battlefield. The end result of EW also conforms to either gaining actionable intelligence or ensuring soft Having understood the basics of CeW, we will now examine the or hard destruction of the end user equipment through either jam- various vectors which will be employed for the conduct of such an operation. These attack vectors will by and large follow the followming or the use of DEWs respectively. In the modern era of convergence of services into a com- ing sequence of events: mon platform, and considering that the desired end result of n Analysis of known information of hostile network, battlefield management systems and frequency bands of operation of both CW and EW is similar, the author is today presenting a new wireless links in the geographical area of interest. domain of warfare titled Cybertronic Warfare. This is the converged domain of CW and EW, and as we shall examine in due n Scanning of the EM spectrum in the band of interest. course, it has the potential to create the battle-winning factor in n Analysis of signals, including their demodulation and demultiplexing. a conflict situation.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

The new domain of warfare termed as Cybertronic Warfare (CeW) is derived from the earlier two forms of Cyber and Electronic Warfare. The human factor needs to be addressed with greater seriousness to prevent data breaches and in this context the three aspects of Process, Policy and Technology are emphasised to achieve cyber security.

REGIONAL BALANCE

US Navy

Cybertronic Warfare: The Battle-Winning Factor

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

CONTENTS

Terminology

Model A model is a physical, mathematical or logical representation of

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A

a system, entity, phenomenon, or s technology facilitat  Major General R.P. Bhadran (Retd)   process. ed the design and development of complex systems, it was found to be expedient to model such systems Simulation and study their behaviour under specific conditions prior Simulation is a method for implementing the behaviour of a model to investing in the development of the proper system. These over time. models were either physical or mathematical as the study demanded and were to behave in the same manner or closely so, to the original Modeling and Simulation system. Such implementation of models is known as simulation. In Refers to the use of models, including prototypes, simulators, etc, the early era, simulations were limited to discrete study of behaviour of either statically or over time, to develop data as a basis for making systems under specific situations and conditions. Continuous simula- decisions. tion of systems over a period of time or a range of any set of variables was made possible with the advent of modern computers. Today, Simulator computers are used to model and simulate a wide range of systems A simulator can be defined as a device, computer programme or system that performs simulation. and environment to accurately assess their behaviour in real world. Use of military simulations as a tool to decision making or to hone skills were in vogue even during the medieval period. Chess Live Simulation can be seen as a classical example. The entities depict the force Refers to a simulation involving real people operating real systems. components and the rules of the game are a representation of A military exercise with troops can be termed as a live simulatactics employed during the time. There is ample evidence in his- tion of war. Simulators could be used in an exercise to assess the toric records that live simulation has been employed for at least two effects of those activities which cannot be undertaken due to safety thousand years. Formal use of ‘war gaming’ by the military became reasons, like fire of weapons. Examples of such simulators are common in the 19th century. Computer-based simulation began in the Infantry Weapon Effect Simulating System (IWESS) and the the 1950’s and is now commonplace. In almost every case, simu- Simulated Fire (SIMFIRE). lation has been a response to a perceived problem, for example, plane crash due to pilot inexperience or the need for improved Virtual Simulation decision making. In modern armies, the employment of simula- Refers to a simulation involving real people operating simulated tors encompasses the domains of training, operational and logistic systems. Virtual simulations inject the human in the loop for planning, and many other areas. In the past few decades, we have exercising motor control skills, decision skills, or communicaseen distributed simulation and the development of virtual envi- tion skills. Flight simulators, driving simulators etc, fall in this category. ronment emerging as an alternative to human-simulator interface.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

In modern armies the employment of simulators encompasses the domains of training, operational and logistic planning. There is a clear need for computational models of the perceptions, inferences, and associations of human soldiers that can be used by simulation environments to improve range, realism, and accuracy in analysis.

REGIONAL BALANCE

US Army

Computer Wargames: Prospects and Predilections

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

6


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rones, more propa spot on the map and the UAV    group captain Joseph Noronha  (retd)  erly referred to as will get airborne and proceed to Unmanned Aerial the target, ready for action. But at Vehicles (UAVs) in professional jargon, seem destined crucial stages of the mission, especially to open fire, a human controlto dominate military aviation for decades to come. ler’s inputs and decisions are essential, which entails some delay. That Predicting the future can be risky, but estimates of what seems set to change. Intelligent and lethal machines, with adequate the manned/unmanned mix of most major air forces might be just situational awareness to detect unforeseen threats, will soon be able 20 years from now veer towards the 50/50 mark or even higher in to fly, choose their targets and launch precision guided munitions favour of the unmanned fleet. And the march of unmanned systems (PGMs) – all without human intervention. intrudes into the civilian domain as well. A plethora of commercial Indeed, respected personalities such as the eminent physicist applications is likely to fructify over the next few years, including Stephen Hawking and Elon Musk of SpaceX and Tesla fame, warn unmanned passenger flights. In July 2017, Airbus Defence and Space that the rise of artificial intelligence (AI) could spell the end of successfully completed the fully autonomous first flight of its Sagitta humankind. While this seems an exaggeration, at least for now, AI unmanned jet-propelled demonstrator. And in 2018, Boeing too may does raise ethical concerns, particularly when related to weapons start testing pilotless technology. In future airliners and passengers technology. And it applies all the more to intelligent UCAVs that will entrust their lives entirely to artificial intelligence (AI). may have greater reach and power than land or sea systems. Military UAVs can already do practically anything manned Evolution of Unmanned Systems aircraft can. In some cases, they even outperform piloted planes. Unmanned Combat Air Vehicles (UCAVs) have a fearsome reputa- UAVs were first employed for unarmed reconnaissance missions tion for executing precision air-to-ground attacks without endan- half a century ago. Their use gradually spread to communications, gering the life of the pilot. That is why some futuristic strike aircraft Electronic Warfare (EW) and many other roles. Israel pioneered the are being conceptualised and designed around the “optionally widespread use of UAVs for military purposes and unmanned systems manned” configuration in which they may be pilot-flown in one were partly responsible for its spectacular victory in the 1982 Lebanon mission and unmanned in the very next, depending on the situation. War. The US built on this experience and operated over 300 UAV misUAVs are also referred to as “Remotely Piloted Aircraft” (RPAs) sions during the First Gulf War of 1990-91. The Second Gulf War of since they fly under the direct control of human operators. However, 2000-2001 saw an intensification of UAV operations by the US, but autonomy is just around the corner. Although still in the nascent the first live strike by the General Atomics MQ-1 Predator UCAV took stage, autonomous weapons are being called the next technologi- place in Afghanistan in early November 2001. Since then, the Predator cal revolution in warfare after the invention of gunpowder and the and the General Atomics MQ-9 Reaper have conducted numerous development of nuclear weapons. For UAVs, it means extracting the attacks against ground targets and made targeted killing a regular ground pilot from the loop and letting the unmanned vehicle operate feature in Afghanistan, Pakistan and West Asia. These engagements were mainly one-sided conflicts against completely independently. The word “drone” now becomes appropriate because a drone is an unmanned aircraft that flies autono- vastly inferior adversaries who neither had unmanned drones nor the most rudimentary anti-UAV capability. However, this situation mously – that is without human control. At present, advanced unmanned systems already do many things of asymmetry is bound to end and there are increasing reports autonomously, in the sense that the ground pilot needs only to pick of small cheap UAVs, even lightly armed ones, being operated by

INDIAN DEFENCE

Military UAVs can already do practically anything manned aircraft can. In some cases, they even outperform piloted planes. Most major air forces 20 years from now may veer towards a mix of 50:50 ratio for manned and unmanned fleets.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Northrop Grumman

AUTONOMOUS ATTACK: THE ADVENT OF INTELLIGENT COMBAT DRONES

REGIONAL BALANCE

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Lockheed Martin

CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Air Defence Missile Systems: Automation and ai to be game changers

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

8

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he Gulf War of 1991, famously Emerging Challenges in   Lt General A.P. Singh   Air and Space referred to as “Sixth Generation Director General, Army Air Defence, Indian Army Modern air threat is characterised by mulWarfare” has widely been accepttiplicity of threat vehicles which include ed as a watershed moment. It contained elements of Industrial Age Warfare and tactics aircraft, attack helicopters, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) includwhich exploited technology. It was fought with precision ing unmanned aerial combat vehicles (UCAV), armed drones, weapons, with minimum collateral damage, paralysing command cruise missiles, surface-to-surface missiles, anti tadiation missiles and control of the adversary. Simultaneously, a fleet of US aircraft and a whole array of smart and intelligent ammunition including carpet-bombed the Iraqis in their bunkers and strafed vehicle con- precision guided munitions. Aircraft with ever increasing ‘stand-off’ voys. The challenges by unsophisticated Iraqi Scud missiles to pen- strike and Beyond Visual Range (BVR) capability, smart ballistic etrate coalition missile defence subsequently spurred third world missiles launched miles away from frontline, using 3D-surveillance means, can target key enemy facilities that directly influence enemy nations to focus on indigenous missile development programmes. War is completely permeated by technology and governed by operations. Brief details are: it. The pace of infusion of cutting edge technology in revamping the n Fifth-generation aircraft: Fifth-generation aircraft with stealth technology, composite material frame, reduced radar cross battle space is growing exponentially and will have a direct impact section, advanced avionics and flight control features, onon the way future wars will be conducted. board navigational attack system, integrated Electronic Counter Trends in Modern Warfare Measures, advanced propulsion and LASER warning sensors, Total war has given way to limited war thus increasing the imporintegrated self-defence system can perform multi-mission air tance of weapons and systems. The battle will be short, swift, superiority roles with precision. Air Power will exploit the elecwith high tempo, non-linear, well dispersed in time and space, tromagnetic (EM) and Infra Red (IR) spectrum to degrade the extremely fluid with intense use of fire power. Collateral damages Air Defence Systems and destroy command and control, comwill be restricted in urban warfare. Offensive, smart, intelligent and munication and electronic warfare (EW) systems. Saturation severely lethal munitions and missiles will enhance the stand-off attacks against high value targets will intensify Air Defence capability in attacking targets with precision at longer ranges. battle in the combat zone. Warfare is getting increasingly asymmetrical, complex, uncon- n Attack Helicopters: Attack Helicopters with better terrain masking, fire control, weapons and improved survivability have ventional and irregular. It is no more restricted to traditional battle become more versatile in multi-role combat missions. space of uninhabited, space and mountainous areas. Nation-states are increasingly demonstrating their military power rather than n UAVs/UCAVs: UAVs/UCAVs with better speed, long range, heavy weapon load now execute almost all roles which a actually using it. modern aircraft does. They are being used in high risk Search Future ‘battle space’ will be in the air, on sea and land, in space, and Destroy and Suppression of Enemy Air Defence (SEAD) in electromagnetic (EM) spectrum along information highways and missions, where manned aircraft would be in danger. They information fronts. Surgical strikes are a reality now. Destruction cuscan detect launcher of short range tactical Ballistic Missiles. tomized with improved sensors and imaging facilities have made the Soon they would be able to shoot down ballistic missiles, strike battle field transparent. It is now believed that when outnumbered, high value targets and conduct airspace denial roles. Stealthy superior technology alongwith maneuver will lead to success.

TECHNOLOGY

No war can ever be won by technology alone however correct utilisation of technology will bring in immense advantage. The side which understands the application in the battlefield will emerge as the winner.


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In essence, the autonomous, unmanned systems provide the advantages of large area coverage, prolonged deployment, low risk, much lower acquisition and operating costs, direct tasking and near real-time data reporting. In case of surface and under water systems, however the transit times are higher than the Aerial systems. As an illustration, on the Automatic Information System (AIS) for monitoring vehicular traffic and its associated data structures, it is estimated that nearly 20 million positions per day are available with respect to satellite and radio data. The fact remains that the bulk data analytics has not matured enough to permit its complete exploitation. Further, in its current form AIS data is susceptible to hacking, falsification, and manipulation. This falls in the regime of Big Data analytics which is the process of examining large and varied data sets to uncover hidden patterns, unknown correlations, market trends, customer preferences and other useful information that can help organisations make more-informed business decisions. This provides extensive opportunities for Big Data Analytics

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CONTENTS Asia-Pacific is a vast region and therefore data generation and collection is a humongous task. The coverage and resolution provided by manned resources and satellites remains grossly deficient considering the large area, time needed and multitude of tasking requirements. This gap can be plugged by utilizing the autonomous aerial, surface and underwater systems. These could provide persistence, mobility, and real-time data. “…[t]he main advantage of using drones is precisely that they are unmanned. With the operators safely tucked in air-conditioned rooms far away, there’s no pilot at risk of being killed or maimed in a crash. No pilot to be taken captive by enemy forces. No pilot to cause a diplomatic crisis if shot down in a “friendly country” while bombing or spying without official permission” —Medea Benjamin, 2013

TECHNOLOGY

Kulshrestha (Retd)  

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he oceans are com  Rear Admiral Dr S. plex media whose nature provides ample opportunity for an enemy to avoid detection—weather, sea states, and coastal land mass which present challenges to modern sensors. The oceans are the world’s foremost (and most unregulated) highway, home to a vast and wide variety of international neutral shipping that possess no apparent threat. The main pillars of maritime trade and transit are safety and security at sea. However, peacetime economic use of the seas is also subject to sea piracy, accidents at sea, oil spillage, illicit trade in drugs, arms and humans, environmental damage etc, which are avoidable drains on the economies of sea-faring nations. Maritime events that could potentially affect India are not the only wide-ranging elements of maritime domain awareness (MDA), it is also essential that threats be identified as they evolve during peace times. The global nature of MDA activities occurring overseas and in foreign ports is very much a part of MDA. Its core is applying the vessel tracking process to a layered defence model centred on the coastline of India, the ultimate goal of which is to detect potential threats as early and as far away from the Indian coastline as possible. Oceans thus demand a much higher level of MDA than that required in a conventional naval conflict. Strategic aspects of MDA require a broad perspective and capabilities at the highest levels of analysis, intelligence, and policy. National-security operations in the ocean take place globally and often require continuous, near real-time monitoring of environment using tools such as autonomous sensors, targeted observations and adaptive modelling. This requires advance sensor and technology capability particularly for autonomous and persistent observations. Developing this data network requires new methodologies that address gaps in data collection, sharing, and interoperability of technologies and it should permit integration of existing research into operational systems.

INDIAN DEFENCE

The Indian Navy has been collecting Big Data at humongous levels since the induction of unmanned vehicles with sensors. However, its awareness is limited to a small number of involved agencies in the Navy. The involvement of mathematicians, visualizers, social scientists, psychologists, domain experts and most important of all the final user, the Navy, is paramount for optimal utilisation of Big Data analytics.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Indian Navy

big data: need for exploiting potential for indian navy

REGIONAL BALANCE

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

3

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

section three

101 105 111 117 121 125 129

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

One  Defence Budget 2018-19: Capex Needs to be Augmented Substantially Two Army Modernisation: Gradually Gaining Momentum Three Capital-Intensive Modernisation Drive Underway in the IAF Four India Could Effectively Balance China in the Indo-Pacific Five India’s Defence Acquisition Regime has not Yet Reached Maturity Six Safeguarding Strategic Partnership Scheme Central to ‘Make in India’ Seven India’s Strategic and Business Environment

REGIONAL BALANCE

Contents

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Business


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resenting the last full-fledged and the tax base, which has grown by 1.8   Dr Laxman Kumar Behera   Budget before the General million (or three per cent of the 59.3 milElections of 2019, the Finance lion individual tax payers as of 2015-16) as Minister (FM), Arun Jaitley, allocated `4,04,365 crore ($62.8 a result of demonisation-cum-GST. Although the rising international billion) to the Ministry of Defence (MoD). Of the MoD’s crude oil prices, and the possibility of sharp correction of stock prices total allocations, `2,79,305 crore ($43.4 billion) was ear- fueling flight of capital from the country remain two critical risk facmarked for what is widely considered as India’s defence budget, and tors, the overall picture of Indian economy remains robust. the balance was distributed between MoD (Miscellaneous) (`16,206 The mood of the economy, which is also reflected in a healthy crore) and Defence Pensions (`1,08,853 crore). Like in the past sev- tax buoyancy, has, however, not stopped the government from eral years, the defence budget 2018-19 also grew marginally, with walking across the promised fiscal consolidation path. Instead, the very little growth in capital expenditure, much of which is spent on FM has allowed the fiscal deficit (excess of government expendiprocurement. This chapter argues that the capital expenditure, which ture over non-borrowed receipts) to increase to 3.3 per cent of the is severely under pressure, needs to be augmented substantially to estimated GDP of 2018-19—as opposed to 3 per cent as promised bring modernisation of the armed forces firmly back on track. earlier. While a large fiscal deficit (not uncommon in a pre-election full-fledged budget) has its own adverse effects on the economy as Economic Context of the Defence Budget a whole, it has nonetheless allowed the government to incur a large The defence budget comes at a time when the Indian economy, expenditure. This is reflected in a 14 per cent increase in the overall shedding the short-term hiccups owing to demonetisation and the Central Government Expenditure (CGE) for 2018-19, in comparination-wide implementation of Goods and Services Tax (GST), is son to a 9 per cent growth on the previous occasion. back to its growth trajectory. Riding on the export uplift from the The double digit growth in the CGE has, however, not fully world economic recovery and the success of the many structural percolated down to the defence budget, although the overall alloreforms undertaken in the recent past that include, apart from the cations of the MoD, which cater to, apart from the defence budget, GST, efforts to tackle the twin balance sheet (TBS) problems of the defence pensions and MoD (Miscellaneous) expenses, have been corporate and banking sectors, and further liberalisation of foreign benefited. However, much of the growth in the defence budget direct investment (FDI) policy, the gross domestic product (GDP) and MoD’s overall allocation has been driven by the manpower is forecast to grow at 7-7.5 per cent in 2018-19. The GDP growth is cost, a feature seen in the past several years, particularly after the also expected to further accelerate to 7.8 per cent in 2019-20, pre- implementation of the 7th Central Pay Commission (CPC) recomdicts the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in its World Economic mendations and the One Rank One Pension (OROP). As discussed Outlook Update released in January 2018. Two consecutive years of latter, the manpower driven growth in the defence resources has led 7 per cent or more growth would propel India as the fastest grow- to an undesirable situation for both modernisation and operational ing large economy in the world, ahead of China whose growth was preparedness of the armed forces. marginally higher than India’s in 2017. The growth in GDP apart, the Defence Budget 2018-19: India economy continues to impress on several macro-economic Growth over Previous Allocations and other performance indicators—be it inflation or current account deficit (CAD), foreign exchange reserves, stock market performance, The overall increase in the defence allocations (or the Budget

INDIAN DEFENCE

A mere 7.7 per cent growth in the defence budget, which itself is less than 1.5 per cent of the GDP, and a modernisation budget which is barely enough to meet the existing committed liabilities make a strong case for much higher allocation for defence than is being given now.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

SP Guide Pubns

Defence Budget 2018-19: capex needs to be augmented substantially

REGIONAL BALANCE

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n March 2018, Lt General Sarath Successive Army Chiefs have    Brigadier Gurmeet Kanwal (Retd)   Chand, the Vice Chief of Army expressed their views on the prioriStaff (VCOAS), told Parliament’s ties for modernisation. In his closStanding Committee on Defence (SCD): “The 2018-2019 budget ing remarks at the Army Commanders’ conference in April 2017, has dashed our hopes... The marginal increase barely accounts General Bipin Rawat, the Chief of Army Staff (COAS), had said for inflation…” According to the Vice Chief, the Army has been that “sustained and holistic modernisation” of the Army is necesallotted only `21,338 crore for modernization. Reporting on the sary, especially of the combat and manoeuvre arms, air defence deliberations of the SCD, one of the leading newspapers men- and army aviation. General Rawat’s predecessor, General Dalbir tioned: “The Army does not have enough funds to pay instalments Singh Suhag, had identified mechanised forces, towed artillery, worth `29,033 crore for 125 ongoing (weapons and equipment pro- reconnaissance and surveillance, helicopters, third-generation curement) schemes (also called committed liabilities), as well as for missiles, air defence weapons systems and assault rifles as the emergency procurement of ammunition in the aftermath of the Uri key areas requiring immediate attention. terror attack and ‘surgical strikes’ in 2016 to ensure the availability Emphasis on ‘Make in India’ of reserves for 10 days of intense conflict.” Major General B.C. Khanduri (Retd), Chairman of the SCD, In April 2018, the government announced the establishment of the expressed surprise on learning about the ‘dismal scenario’ prevail- Defence Planning Committee (DPC) under the chairmanship of the ing in defence preparedness. He said, “We are aghast to note this National Security Advisor, with the three chiefs and the concerned dismal scenario where the representatives of the Services have secretaries as members. While long-term defence planning is the themselves frankly explained the negative repercussions on our primary responsibility of the DPC, defence procurement is also defence preparedness due to inadequate fund allocations.” Reports one of its responsibilities. It will reduce red tape by making recomregarding the dismal state of modernisation and the inadequacy of mendations to the Defence Minister based on inter-departmental ammunition reserves sent shock waves around the policy commu- and expert views distilled by the wisdom and the experience of the members of the DPC. nity and the strategic enclave. The Army’s modernisation plans received a major boost when the A news report in April 2018 quoted government officials to have said that to deal with a deficiency in ammunition, “The Army Defence Acquisition Council (DAC), chaired by Nirmala Sitharaman, is working on a proposal to utilise its budget in a judicious way to Raksha Mantri (Defence Minister), accorded Acceptance of meet its critical requirements. The plan is to spend less on certain Necessity (AON, approval in principle) to several weapons systems types of ammunition, such as a particular missile and spares for for the infantry in February 2018. These include the procurement vintage vehicles, and instead use that money on buying new equip- of Light Machine Guns for the three Services through the Fast Track ment and procurement for making up the ammunition level for 10 Procedure at an estimated cost of `1,819 crore. The balance quantity (I), or 10 days of intense war. The Army believes these measures will will be procured under the ‘Buy and Make (Indian)’ category. The not only save a few thousand crore, but also help substantially meet procurement of 7,40,000 Assault Rifles was approved under the ‘Buy its requirement of ammunition for the next three years.” While this and Make (Indian)’ category at an estimated cost of `12,280 crore. approach is pragmatic, it will have serious repercussions if war lasts The DAC also approved the procurement of 5,719 Sniper Rifles at a cost of `982 crore under the ‘Buy Global’ category. beyond 10 days.

INDIAN DEFENCE

To enable the Army to fight and win the nation’s future wars in an era of strategic uncertainty, the government must give a major boost to the Army’s modernisation drive. The Army’s modernisation plans require substantially higher budgetary support than what has been forthcoming over the last decade.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

PIB

Army Modernisation: gradually gaining Momentum

REGIONAL BALANCE

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he effort by the Indian Air nation to possess comprehensive mili  Air Marshal B.K. Pandey (Retd)   Force (IAF) at modernisation tary capability, characterised by flexhas essentially been at transibility and speed of response, mobility formation from a sub-continental tactical air force to an and transportability of all forms of national power, long reach, preintercontinental strategic aerospace power to cope with cision targeting, minimum collateral damage and reduced visibilthe vastly enhanced roles and responsibilities and to fulfill ity. Aerospace power fits the bill perfectly. The 21st century belongs national aspirations as well as to be prepared to take on the chal- to aerospace power and given India’s aspirations, the need for a lenges of the evolving geopolitical and security scenarios strong and comprehensive aerospace capability is inescapable.” In the wake of a rapidly growing economy, India has undoubtStated in simple terms, the IAF must possess the capability to edly emerged as a regional power and hopefully with the new project power effectively in the region for which it must have comenlightened political leadership supported by professionally com- bat aircraft with adequate reach, lethal firepower through modern petent military and bureaucratic establishments, the nation will stand-off/precision-guided munitions and stealth characteristics. succeed in fulfilling its aspirations to emerge as a leader with It must have strategic airlift aircraft with the capability to move and credibility in the comity of nations and in due course aspire to be deploy large forces by air over long distances, tactical transport a superpower. aircraft to operate over shorter distances and support surface forces The growing status of the nation, however, is accompanied by in battle as well as a fleet of helicopters to provide mobility and if enhanced responsibilities. As a regional power, the nation must required, lethal firepower in the tactical battle area. Two things folpossess the capability of speedy and decisive military intervention low from this, one being that the nation must possess multi-layered to safeguard her national security interests in areas that transcend air defence system to protect its assets meant for offensive operaour geographical boundaries extending from the Persian Gulf to tions and the other that development of aerospace power must the Strait of Malacca. As a superpower in the future, India may be not only cater to perceived threats, but more importantly, must be called upon to meet with commitments in distant lands outside the capability-based to respond to a wide variety of threats, existing or region wherein the Indian armed forces may be required to provide likely to arise in the future. speedy response to man-made or natural calamities and provide Transformation of the IAF humanitarian assistance, employ military forces to restore order or to ensure peace and stability or to project national power if the The IAF is currently embarked on comprehensive capital-intensive modernisation drive that is focused on all-round development of situation so demands. While economic strength is the main pillar of national power, capability as opposed to re-equipping the force based merely on the military capability of a nation must grow in tandem to secure perceived threats. In the words of Air Chief Marshal N.A.K. Browne, its economic status and provide the environment for its further former Chief of the Air Staff, “The IAF is currently engaged in an growth. This philosophy was echoed in October 2007 by Air Chief unprecedented phase of modernisation and capability enhanceMarshal Fali H. Major, the then Chief of the Air Staff, Indian Air ment which can be witnessed across the capability spectrum.” The Force, on the occasion of its platinum jubilee celebrations when he effort by the IAF at modernisation has essentially been at transforsaid: “The emerging geopolitical and security scenario requires our mation from a sub-continental tactical air force to an intercontinen-

INDIAN DEFENCE

The effort by the IAF at modernisation has essentially been at transformation from a sub-continental tactical air force to an intercontinental strategic aerospace power to cope with the vastly enhanced roles. How the IAF copes with the challenges in the future will hinge substantially on the quality and integration of entire range of force multipliers with the overall force structure.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

IAF

capital-intensive modernisation drive underway in the IAF

REGIONAL BALANCE

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the Indian Prime Minister to the US on June 26, 2017, President Donald J. Trump and Prime Minister Narendra Modi made several resolutions. The most significant of these was, promoting stability in the Indo-Pacific region and both agreed that a close partnership between the two countries was central to peace and stability in the Indo-Pacific region. They reiterated the importance of respecting freedom of navigation, overflight, and commerce throughout the region and called upon all nations to resolve territorial and maritime disputes peacefully and in accordance with international law.

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

Pattanaik (Retd)  

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Chinese Maritime Ambition After their first deployment for anti-piracy patrol in the Gulf of Aden, there has been an exponential increase in PLA (Navy)’s blue water force strength and its ability to undertake maritime operations at distant waters. Submarine operations in the Indian Ocean and getting the aircraft carrier Liaoning operationally ready are significant capability enhancement of the Chinese Navy. China being fully cognizant of the vulnerability of its trade route in the Indian Ocean and at the choke points has focussed on increasing the Blue water capability of PLA (Navy) and creating strategic bases in the Indian Ocean. China’s first overseas military base at Djibouti is under ­construction. This facility is coming up only a few miles away from the US base at Camp Lemonnier, which is the only fully operational American base on the African continent. China’s base in Djibouti is a game changer and part of a broader dual strategy described as “String of Pearls” and the “One Belt, One Road” (OBOR) or Belt and Road Initiative. The “String of Pearls” relates to China’s plans to construct or expand port facilities in Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Seychelles, Bangladesh and Myanmar. China is constructing Industrial Park and a deepwater port in Kyauk Pyu in Myanmar, Hambantota port and

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

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n the last decade or so, the   Vice Admiral R.K. Indo-Pacific has been considered as one geo-strategic, geoeconomic and geo-political entity. When the Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visited India in August 2007, he spoke about how the Pacific and the Indian Oceans were bringing about a dynamic coupling as seas of freedom and of prosperity. During his visit to India and the summit meeting of September 14, 2017, the two Prime Ministers affirmed strong commitment to their values-based partnership in achieving a free, open and prosperous Indo-Pacific region where sovereignty and international law are respected, and differences are resolved through dialogue, and where all countries, large or small, enjoy freedom of navigation and overflight, sustainable development, and a free, fair, and open trade and investment system. They highlighted the importance of peaceful resolution of disputes, including through full respect for legal and diplomatic processes, without resorting to the threat or use of force, and in accordance with the universally recognised principles of international law, notably the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Australia, in its Defence White Paper of 2013 had expanded the country’s security interests from the Asia-Pacific region to include the Indo-Pacific region. The Defence White Paper 2016 has also defined a stable Indo-Pacific region and a rules-based global order as one of the country’s strategic interests. Despite some divergent views on dealing with China, Australia has identified India as a key security and defence partner to maintain stability and rules-based international order in the Indo-Pacific. On October 11, 2011 the US Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton under the Obama Administration spoke about America’s Pacific Century. She said that the Asia-Pacific had become a key driver of global politics. American rebalancing to Asia, which started during President Obama’s first tenure, has been gathering further momentum under the present administration. During the official visit of

TECHNOLOGY

India has a well-articulated Maritime Military Strategy. While the Indian Navy may find it difficult to match the defence budget and numerical strength of the PLAN, it could strategise effective capacity building, sharpen operational capability and take advantage of geographic location to ensure India balances China effectively in the Indo-Pacific.

REGIONAL BALANCE

Indian Navy

india could Effectively balance china in the indo-pacific

BUSINESS

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he Group of Ministers In consultation with the   Major General Mrinal Suman (Retd)   on National Security, in Service Headquarters (SHQ), HQ their report submitted to IDS formulates 5-Year Services the Prime Minister on February 26, 2001, suggested the Capital Acquisition Plan (SCAP) as a part of 5-Year Defence Plans. creation of a separate and dedicated institutional struc- DAC accords approval to SCAP. Annual Acquisition Plan (AAP) of ture to undertake the complete gamut of acquisition func- each service is prepared by the respective SHQ. It is a two year rolltions to inject a higher degree of professionalism and reduce delays. on plan and normally consists of the schemes which stand approved Consequently, India adopted the current dispensation of defence in SCAP. In other words, AAP is a subset of SCAP. However, proposal acquisition organisation, structures and procedures in 2002. not listed in SCAP may be processed after due approval of DAC. The stated aim of the newly promulgated Defence Procurement AAP is prepared in two parts. Part A includes carry over Procedure (DPP) was to ensure expeditious procurement of the schemes from the AAP of previous year and schemes where approved requirements of the armed forces in terms of capabilities Acceptance of Necessity (AoN) has been accorded during the year. sought and timeframe prescribed by optimally utilising the allo- Part B includes cases likely to be initiated for seeking approval cated budgetary resources; demonstrate the highest degree of in the forthcoming year. Proposals get transferred from Part B to probity and public accountability, transparency in operations, free Part A as and when they are accorded AoN. Based on the schemes competition and impartiality; and to keep the goal of achieving self- included in AAP, HQ IDS projects requirement of funds for each reliance in defence equipment in mind. service, taking into account committed liabilities and anticipated Although DPP has undergone periodic revisions, the overall cash outflow. objectives, underlying philosophy, basic structure and general What Are The Acquisition Structures And contours have remained unaltered. DPP-2016 is the current verWhat Roles Do They Play? sion. It seeks to create an enabling and supportive environment for attaining self-reliance in design, development and manufacturing DAC is the overarching body under the Defence Minister. It gives approval in principle to the perspective plans of the defence of the defence systems. This article attempts to answer some of the commonly raised services. It also approves all capital acquisitions and categorises them. Defence Procurement Board, Defence Production Board and questions about India’s defence acquisition regime. Defence Development Board have been constituted to implement How Are Acquisitions Planned? the decisions flowing from DAC. Planning process for defence acquisitions commences with the Defence Procurement Board functions under the Defence issuance of Defence Planning Guidelines by the Ministry of Defence Secretary. It executes ‘Buy’ and ‘Buy and Make’ decisions of DAC. (MoD). Thereafter, as per the guidelines, Headquarters Integrated It confirms or modifies the inter-se and intra-se priorities of the Defence Staff (HQ IDS) evolves 15-Year Defence Capability Plan. acquisition proposals of the services. It also recommends procure15-Year Long-Term Integrated Perspective Plan (LTIPP) flows from ments on ‘single vendor’ basis. It has the powers to invoke rules it. LTIPP covers period of three Five Year Defence Plans and is governing emergency purchases and forward its recommendations approved by the Defence Acquisition Council (DAC). to the Defence Minister. Monitoring of all major procurement cases

INDIAN DEFENCE

DPP-2016 seeks to create an enabling and supportive environment for attaining self-reliance in design, development and manufacturing of the defence systems. Expert committees, however, have lacked the courage to suggest radical overhaul of the system. In the absence of a strong will to transform, India continues to flounder in the labyrinths of bureaucratic indecision while the national security suffers.

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defense.gov

India’s Defence Acquisition Regime has not yet reached maturity

REGIONAL BALANCE

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E

ven after seven decades as a grave threat to the very sur  Major General Mrinal Suman (Retd)   of Independence, India vival of the public sector entities. continues to import 70 Unable to withstand the pressure, per cent of its defence hardware. While aspiring to be a the leadership considered it prudent to abandon the scheme. regional power, it has acquired the shameful distinction With a change in the regime in 2014, mission ‘Make in India’ of being the largest importer of conventional weapons in became the cornerstone of the nation-building initiative and the world, accounting for 14 per cent of the world share. Monopoly defence manufacturing was rightly identified as one of the key secof an inefficient, unproductive and inept public sector is the pri- tors. With a view to align and delineate the Defence Procurement mary cause for such a dismal state. Despite possessing enormous Procedure (DPP) towards the achievement of the objectives of infrastructure and manufacturing facilities, the public sector (39 ‘Make in India’, an expert committee under Dhirendra Singh was ordnance factories and 9 undertakings) has failed to deliver. constituted by MoD in May 2015. The committee was also tasked Fully aware of its inability to compete against a far more to evolve a policy framework to suggest amendments to remove efficient private sector, the public sector has been ingenuously bottlenecks in the procurement process and simplify/rationalise employing all stratagems to prevent the entry of the private sector various aspects of defence procurements. in defence production. Despite government’s periodic assurances In its report, the committee suggested that a conceptual ladder to the industry chambers, there has been negligible progress and be evolved to correspond to progressive development of compethe private sector continues to be a peripheral player. tence level in the defence industry, from the very basic level of repair and maintenance to the level of acquiring ability to design, Evolution of the Strategic Partnership Policy develop, manufacture and test systems. Different stages in the ladRealising that self reliance would remain a pipe dream if India con- der were correlated with various categories in the capital procuretinued to bank solely on the public sector, the Kelkar Committee, ment to prepare the contours of the initiatives required to attain the constituted in 2004, suggested an innovative approach. It recom- goals of ‘Make in India’. mended that select private sector industry leaders be identified as Categorisation of procurement proposals was recommended Raksha Utpadan Ratna (RUR) and treated at par with the public to be carried out in the order of priority—‘Buy (Indian–IDDM)’; sector for all defence acquisition purposes, including design and ‘Buy (Indian)’; ‘Buy and Make (Indian)’; ‘Buy and Make’; and ‘Buy development of high technology complex systems under the ‘Make’ (Global)’. Reasons for opting for a lower priority categorisation are procedure and receipt of funds for developmental projects. required to be duly justified. ‘Buy (Indian-IDDM)’ refers to the proThe Ministry of Defence (MoD) accepted the above recommen- curement of products from an Indian vendor meeting one of the two dation and constituted a selection committee in May 2006 to iden- conditions—products that have been indigenously designed, develtify suitable companies for the award of RUR status. Reportedly, oped and manufactured with a minimum of 40 per cent indigenous 12 companies were short listed. MoD received the report in June content (IC) on cost basis of the total contract value; or, products 2007. Fears of threats to national security were skilfully played up having 60 per cent IC on cost basis of the total contract value, which by an insecure public sector. In addition, intense opposition was may not have been designed and developed indigenously. orchestrated through the affiliated trade unions by projecting RUR As stated earlier, ‘Buy (Indian–IDDM)’ has been made the most

INDIAN DEFENCE

No country can achieve long-term national security objectives unless it is supported by a well-developed, dynamic and responsive defence industry. India is expected to spend $250 billion over the next decade. If India wants to restrict imports to 30 per cent of the total requirements, the indigenous industry will have to produce defence equipment worth $175 billion. India should not let the ‘Make in India’ mission degenerate into an ‘Assemble in India’ sham.

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Indian Navy

safeguarding Strategic Partnership Scheme Central to ‘Make in India’

REGIONAL BALANCE

6


 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

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TECHNOLOGY

standards; transparent assessment of project costs; and skill and technology transfer to help long term running and maintenance of assets created by local communities. India’s contention was that connectivity projects must be pursued in a manner that respects sovereignty and territorial integrity. Indo-China relations also came to a boil over the visit of His Holiness the Dalai Lama (HHDL) to Arunachal Pradesh. India contended that Arunachal Pradesh is an inseparable part of the country and China should not object to the Dalai Lama’s visit and interfere in India’s internal affairs. In what some see as a retaliation to the visit of HHDL to Arunachal Pradesh, China renamed six locations in Arunachal Pradesh giving Chinese names. The six names with Indian names in brackets are - Wo’gyainling (Guling Gompa near Towang), Mila Ri (north of Tawang and South of Bumla), Qoidengarbo Ri (Gorsam Chorten, the only large white stupa in the area (and the largest in Arunachal is not far from Ziminthang), Mainquka (Mechuka), Bumo La (Bumla) and Namkapub Ri (Namaka Chu). Trade deficit with India continued despite Indian measures to narrow the same but these didn’t address the problem in a substantive way and, thus, proved to be another contention. China also became wary of closer US and India relations in the Trump era and US arms sales to India, expansion of the ex-Malabar exercise to include Japan and related issues. The China-India contestation finally led to the standoff on the India-Bhutan-China trjunction at Doklam for 73 days from June to August. This posed major defence and security challenge as any ingress in the Torsa Nullah and occupation of Gyamochen would have provided the Chinese a direct approach to the Siliguri Corridor, the 26 km chicken’s neck that connects North East India with the rest of the country. The contestation was eventually resolved through deft diplomacy, however, the larger goal of contesting Chinese influence in the region remains unfulfilled and in fact the challenge will continue in the years ahead.

BUSINESS

Bhonsle (Retd)  

INDIAN DEFENCE

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rust deficit emerged as a   Brigadier Rahul major concern for relations between Asia’s foremost emerging powers—India and China. The 73 days faceoff between troops of the two countries in Doklam near the Trijunction between India, Bhutan and China was a new marker in this direction. Thus, there appeared to be a strategic disconnect. There were a number of issues that led to these concerns and manifestations. The first point of dispute between India and China was Indian membership of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG). India believed that China remained the stumbling block as Beijing very carefully covered resistance to the need for having norms for non signatories of the Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty. The NSG continues to be stuck in debating the norms given there are some aspirants as Pakistan whose non proliferation credentials are deeply suspected by members. The second major issue was China’s technical hold on designation of Masood Azhar—head of Pakistan-based terrorist group Jaish-e-Mohammad by the UN Security Council. Despite repeated request, the same did not materialise and India ascribed these to the strong China Pakistan nexus, the biggest manifestation of which was seen as the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) a part of the One Belt One Road or OBOR [Belt and Road Initiative or BRI] which is a personal project of President Xi Jinping. China held the BRI Forum meet for which India had received formal invitation to participate in Beijing on May 14-16, 2017. A host of global leaders participated in the same including Russian President Vladimir Putin and also a large delegation from Japan, various members of EU and others. India did not attend the same over concerns that connectivity initiatives must be based on universally recognized international norms, good governance, and rule of law, openness, transparency and equality. India stated that connectivity initiatives must follow principles of financial responsibility to avoid projects that would create unsustainable debt burden for communities; balanced ecological and environmental protection and preservation

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The Defence Minster has given a priority for ‘integration’ of the Armed Forces particularly in training, communication, logistics and cyber. Further ‘Make in India’ in defence manufacturing remained the focus of defence acquisition planners throughout the year by harnessing the capabilities of the public and private sector.

REGIONAL BALANCE

SP Guide Pubns

India’s Strategic and Business Environment

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

4

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

section four

Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) The Indian Army The Indian Navy The Indian Air Force Indian Coast Guard Who’s Who in Indian Defence Indian Defence Industry Defence Research and Development (DRDO)

141 149 175 201 227 237 259 281

Homeland Security One India’s Internal Security Perspective Two The Ministry of Home Affairs & Central Armed Police Forces

291 297

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One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight

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Contents

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Indian Defence


 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

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trengthening our miliGoM - Key Recommendations   BRIGADIER VINOD ANAND (RETD)   tary capabilities and internal After considering the report of the task security efforts are intricately force on the management of defence, linked to our broader political and economic objectives. the GoM made the following key recommendations: If India has to survive as a modern and progressive nation n Integrating the Armed Forces Headquarters with the Ministry of that wishes to achieve its long-cherished goal of strategic Defence (MoD) autonomy, defence and security reforms have to be ushered in at a n Creating the posts of Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) and Vice faster pace than hitherto. Chief of Defence Staff (VCDS) The Defence Planning Staff (DPS) was established in 1986 n Setting up of IDS to support the CDS under the Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC), when it became n Establishing a Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA) clear that future wars would be fought jointly by the three ser- n Organising an Andaman and Nicobar Command (ANC) vices (Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force) and that n Creating of a Strategic Forces Command (SFC) the time had come for ‘jointmanship’. Working under the COSC n Establishing a Defence Procurement Board (DPB) Chairman and headed by the Director General Defence Planning n Setting up an Indian National Defence University (INDU) Staff (DGDPS), the DPS had under it directorates covering policy n A number of other long-term recommendations on aspects and plans, international and regional security affairs, weapons concerning airspace and maritime management, budgetary and equipment and financial planning. It also operated as a think reforms, including performance budgeting, private sector partank for the COSC. The DPS was the forerunner to the Integrated ticipation in defence production, improvement in service conDefence Staff (IDS) or what is called in some countries Joint Staff. ditions, media handling and cost-effectiveness. The IDS was formulated on October 2001 with the merging All the recommendations, except the one on the appointment of the Military Wing, which was established at the time of inde- of the CDS, were accepted by the Cabinet Committee on Security pendence and had functioned under the Cabinet Secretariat for a (CCS) on May 11, 2001. The decision about appointing a CDS was number of years until it came under the COSC with the DPS. After kept in abeyance pending consultations with other political parties. the Kargil War in 1999, the report of the Kargil Review Committee (KRC), headed by K. Subrahmanyam, was examined by a Group of Structure of Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) Ministers (GoM). They recommended the formation of the following four task forces to review the national security system: The CDS The responsibilities of the CDS, who would be the permanent n Management of Defence Chairman of the COSC, are as follows: n Internal Security n Border Management n Provide single-point military advice to the Indian Government n Intelligence Systems and Apparatus n Command the forces of the ANC The task force for the management of defence, headed by Arun n Administer the SFC Singh, recommended among other things, the appointment of a n Command the tri-services force in ‘out of area’ contingencies Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) and the setting up of Headquarters n Enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the planning proIntegrated Defence Staff (HQ IDS). cess through intra- and inter-service organisations

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The need for jointness and integration of defence forces has been well recognised by all stakeholders. Over the last six decades, there have been several committees, task forces and Group of Ministers constituted to address the issues, yet not all the problems of jointness and integration have been resolved.

REGIONAL BALANCE

PIB

Integrated Defence Staff (IDS)

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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CONTENTS TECHNOLOGY

nance with respect to the entrance to the Strait of Malacca through which more than 60,000 shipping vessels transit every year. In the Arabian Sea, the Lakshadweep and Minicoy Islands situated on the sea lines of communication running eastwards from the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea are 450 km away from the nearest point on the West Coast. The island territories along with a long coastline extend India’s territorial waters to more than 1,60,000 square km and the exclusive economic zone to more than 2 million square km. India is, thus, a maritime as well as a continental entity.

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The Regional Security Environment India’s security environment encompasses a complex matrix of regional and global issues and challenges. India’s strategic location and its growing global interactions require engagement on a range of issues that impact national security with a view to securing vital national interests. The need to enhance preparedness to address consequences of instability and volatility in parts of the immediate and extended neighbourhood remains a key priority. At the same time, there are renewed and successful efforts to build stronger defence partnerships with a wide range of friendly foreign countries to enhance international peace and stability. The security situation in India’s immediate South Asian neighbourhood presents a mixed picture. While there was an improvement in the security and political situation in some countries, political developments caused a worsening of the internal security situation in others. Unsettled border issues, terrorism, insurgency and sectarian conflict increasingly threaten the stability of the region. Amidst ongoing efforts to impart fresh dynamism to strengthening relations with neighbours in a comprehensive manner, cooperative security approaches are of immediate relevance to the region. India is committed to building security cooperation with all partners in the neighbourhood on the basis of equality, mutual benefit and mutual respect. The Indian Ocean region (IOR) is central to India’s growth and security. By virtue of its geophysical configuration as well as its stra-

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 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

T

he Indian Army remains the last bastion that inspires confidence among Indians. As a result, the Indian Army’s role has gone far beyond national defence to also substantially address nation building. The Indian Army has to constantly prepare itself for multifaceted challenges. The Indian Army is the largest standing volunteer army in the world. Its apolitical stance is at variance with armies of most of its neighbours in the subcontinent who have witnessed these armies often imposing their will on their people by eliminating legitimate democratic dispensations. The President of India is the Supreme Commander of the Indian Army, and it is commanded by the Chief of Army Staff, who is a four-star general. India’s land mass covers an area of 3.3 million square kilometres (km) and is strategically located in continental Asia and in the Indian Ocean. Land borders extending more than 15,500 km and a coastline totalling over 7,500 km make India a continental or maritime neighbour of 11 countries in Asia. India’s maritime boundaries overlook three major shipping lanes. It is home to over a billion people with varying ethnic, linguistic, religious and cultural background. The topography of India is diverse, ranging from the snow-clad Himalayas with peaks over 28,000 feet in the north to deserts, and vast fertile plains in the west; high ranges and dense tropical forests in the east and maritime borders in the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean. To the south, there are ranges close to the sea, inland plateaus interspersed with river valleys, coastal plains, and far-flung island territories such as the Lakshadweep to the west and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to the east. India is not only centrally located in South Asia, but also abuts West Asia and South East Asia. India’s location at the base of continental Asia and at the top of Indian Ocean provides it a vantage point with respect to both Central Asia and the Indian Ocean region. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands located 1,300 km away from the nearest point on its East Coast assume strategic predomi-

BUSINESS

India’s strategic location and its growing global interactions require engagement on a range of issues that impact national security with a view to securing vital national interests. The need to enhance preparedness to address consequences of instability and volatility in parts of the immediate and extended neighbourhood remains a key priority, along with equipping the army with the latest weapon systems.

REGIONAL BALANCE

PIB

The Indian Army

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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CONTENTS SP’s: In light of the ongoing proxy war in Jammu and Kashmir, the troubled environment that prevails in the valley, our tense relations with Pakistan, and their growing nexus with China, what should be our approach to restructuring and re-equipping the Northern theatre which faces both these belligerent nations? What is the modernisation envisaged for the mountainous regions in this theatre of operations? COAS: We are engaged in a proxy war along our Western Front whilst the Northern Front has witnessed increased activity particularly with regard to development of infrastructure for military purposes. The operational dynamics along both the frontiers and the manifestation of challenges include terrain, regional subtleties and inimical agenda of Pak ISI—separatist/terrorist nexus, not to forget the intricate issues of demography. The articulation of these threats are calibrated by our Western adversary from time to time sometimes to divert attention of their people from internal strife within or, more often in an attempt to internationalise the Kashmir issue, disregarding the Simla Agreement of 1972.

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

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tion & spares. In the current 13th Plan, since April this year, we have concluded contracts ranging from Self Propelled Guns, Artillery of higher calibre, MRSAM, ALH with its ammunition, Digicora, Mines and Mine Detectors, Electronic Fuzes & TI sights which are aligned to the key thrust areas. Assault rifles for Infantry and improvement in surveillance resources are being progressed on higher priority. Improvement in our technological threshold by coordination of effort with IITs and industry have been given impetus. Establishment of Army Design Bureau (ADB) is also a step in this direction. Cyber is one field where we have not kept pace with the emerging challenges. Whilst defensive measures and fire walls are finding their way, other capabilities need to be given the desired impetus. We have to balance our force modernisation requirements with the availability of funds. Financial probity with austerity in some peacetime activities are being ensured to facilitate procurement through the revenue route. The government is also being approached to make additional funds available for modernisation.

INDIAN DEFENCE

SP Guide Publications (SP’s): China’s economic rise, its steadfast military modernisation, its aggressive actions in the disputed border areas and their nexus with Pakistan has some cogent lessons for India. Modernisation of the Indian Armed Forces and capability building cannot be ignored any longer. As the COAS, you have in many forums clarified the type of threats and challenges we are facing, yet our modernisation does not seem to be picking up pace. What are your thrust areas and how far have we progressed in the Army? What is holding us back? Chief of the Army Staff: We, as yet do not have a well-defined border in our Northern Sector, in Jammu & Kashmir and in the Sir Creek area. Our effort has remained focussed along the Western Front, whilst the Northern Sector did not get the attention it deserved. Our modernisation effort is now directed at ensuring improvement of our surveillance capability, capacity building and empowerment of forces in the North which is infantry centric, with scope for employment of mechanised forces in selected sectors. Development of infrastructure to enable application of forces in priority areas is being given due impetus. Capability and capacity enhancement in the Rann of Kutch is being addressed simultaneously. With this as the back drop, we have prioritised our future requirements, looking at newer generation of weapons and systems and carrying out upgrades in some of the existing ones, so as to ensure judicious utilisation of funds at our disposal. We cannot remain dependent on import of weapons, equipment and ammunition. Accordingly, we are maximising our effort at indigenisation through the ‘Make in India’ initiative. We are willing to support the industry through a process of ‘hand shaking’ and where necessary, revisit GSQRs. Indigenous manufacture of important ammunition has also been approved by MoD and we look forward to the industry grabbing such emerging opportunities at indigenisation. DPP-2016 has further contributed towards streamlining the procurement process and is a good enabler. Hiccups if any in DPP-2016 are being reviewed, so as to reduce timelines and procedures for procurement. In addition, the Government has delegated enhanced powers to VCOAS for procurement of critical ammuni-

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

General Bipin Rawat, the Chief of Army Staff, on January 10, 2018, after an eventful tenure of one year since taking over, spoke candidly about the army’s responses to the challenges being faced, and the ongoing modernisation of the Indian Army.

REGIONAL BALANCE

Indian Army

Interview Chief of the Army Staff


: 1 x 125mm SBG which fires an ATGM as well as conventional ammunition. Has a laser range finder and thermal imaging night sight [43 (22 - in autoloader) rounds] Coaxial: 1 x 7.62mm MG (2,000 rounds) AA: 1 x 12.7mm MG (300 rounds) Main gun rate of fire : 8 rounds/min T-72M-1 (Ajeya) Characteristics Crew Cbt weight Height (turret roof ) Engine

Country of origin: Russia / CIS

: 3 : 43.5 tonne : 2.19 m : Up rated V46-6 engine; a 12-cylinder 4-stroke, V 60 turbocharged, watercooled, multi-fuel, direct injection engine developing 1,000 hp at 2,000 rpm. Power to weight ratio : 22.98 hp/tonne Max speed (on road) : 60 kmph Max speed (Cross country) : 35 to 45 kmph Gradient ability : 60° Vertical obstacle : 850mm Trench crossing : 2.6 to 2.8 m Shallow fording : 1.2 m Armament: Main : 1 x 125mm SBG coaxial: 1 x 7.62mm MG, AD: 1 x 12.7mm MG Elevation/depression : 16° to -6˚ Traverse : 360° Max range : 3 km Main gun rate of fire : 8 rounds/min Ammunition loading : Auto Ammunition stowage : 44 projectiles/charges Note: Other improvements include explosive reactive armour, integrated fire detection and suppression system and GPS.

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Arjun Country of origin: India Characteristics Crew : 4 Cbt weight : 58.5 tonne Overall length : 10.638 m (with gun forward) Overall height : 3.03 m (with AD gun mount) Overall width : 3.864 m Ground pressure : 0.85 kg/cm² Armament : Main: 1 x 120mm Rifled gun AA: 1 x 12.7mm MG Coaxial : 1 x 7.62mm MG Main gun ammunition : 39 rounds (HESH/FSAPDS) Main gun rate of fire : 6-8 rounds/minute Fire control : Director type & electro-hydraulic ­system & gun control Night vision : Thermal imaging Ballistic computer : Digital Engine : MTU 838 Ka 501 10-cylinder liquid cooled diesel developing 1,400 hp at 2,500 rpm Transmission : 4 Fwd+ 2 rev, Torque converter, Mech. Lockup clutch & hydrodynamic retarder Steering : Double radii, Mechanical steering with neutral turn Suspension : Hydro-gas Fuel : Renk transmission DHPP (A) Track : Diehl L-German Max speed : Road: 70 kmph Cross country: 40 kmph Shallow fording : 1.4 m

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CONTENTS : 2.23 m : V-84MS four-stroke 12-cylinder multifuel diesel engine, developing 840 hp : 550 km

TECHNOLOGY

: 3 : 46.5 tonne : 3.37 m

BUSINESS

Road range Armament and Ammunition Main

Country of origin: Russia / CIS

INDIAN DEFENCE

T-90S Characteristics Crew Cbt weight Width, over tracks Height (over turret) Roof Engine

T-55 (Up Gunned) Country of origin: Russia / CIS Characteristics Crew : 3 Cbt weight : 43,000 kg Height : 2.26 m Armament : Main: 1 x 105mm rifled bore gun Coaxial: 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG (2,000 rounds) AA: 1 x 12.7mm NSV M (2,800 rounds) Main gun ammunition : 43 rounds x APDSFS/HEAT/HESH Engine : V-2-55/V-12 diesel rated at 600 bhp Speed : 50 kmph (max) Range : 500 km Armour : 140mm

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MBTs

REGIONAL BALANCE

Equipment Catalogue Indian Army


indian defence Vertical obstacle Trench crossing Gradient

Equipment Catalogue: Indian Army

: 0.914 m : 2.43 m : 35°

Infantry Fighting Vehicles (IFVs)/Recce Vehs BMP-1/2 Country of origin: Russia / CIS Characteristics Crew : BMP-1 3+8 BMP-2 3+7 Weight : BMP-1 12,500 kg BMP-2 14,300 kg Length : BMP-1 6.74 m BMP-2 6.735 m Width : BMP-1 2.94 m, BMP2 3.15 m Height : BMP-1 2.18 m, BMP2 2.45 m Armament : Main gun BMP-1: 1 x 73mm SBG (40 rounds) BMP-2: 1 x 30mm Auto Cannon (500 rounds) Coaxial (Both): 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG (1,000 rounds) ATGW : BMP-1: AT-3 BMP-2: AT-5 Engine : V-16 in line water-cooled diesel rated at 300 bhp Speed : BMP-1: Land : 65 kmph Water : 7 kmph BMP-2: Land : 65 kmph Water : 7 kmph Range : 550-600 km (both) Armour : 20mm

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BRDM-2 Characteristics Crew Weight Armament

Country of origin: Russia / CIS

155mm FH-77B How Country of origin: Sweden Characteristics Crew : 6 Calibre : 155mm Weight : 11,500 kg Elevation/ depression : +50° to -3° Traverse : 60° (total) MV : 935 m/sec Range : 24 km (HE 77B) 30 km (HE ER) Rate of fire : 6 rounds/min 75/24 Pack How E-2 Characteristics Calibre Weight of shell Range Rate of fire

Smerch 9K58 MLRS Crew Calibre Launch tubes Basic rocket Weight Warhead weight Launch vehicle Weight Minimum reload Time

Artillery

Pinaka RL Characteristics Calibre No. of rockets in ready to fire condition Weight of rocket Warhead weight Time taken for salvo Time between two successive firings Range Circular Error Probability (CEP) Carrier vehicle

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: 75mm : 6.1 kg : 10,800 m : 5 rounds/min

BM-21 RL Country of origin: Russia / CIS Characteristics Crew : 6 Calibre : 122mm (40 tubes) Weight : System : 11,500 kg Rocket : 45.9 kg Length : System : 7.35 m Rocket : 2.74 m Elevation : 0 to +55° Traverse : 120° (total) Rocket range : 20 km for long rocket 11 km for short rocket

: 4 : 7,000 kg : 6 x AT-3 [ATGM]1 x 14.5mm KPVT HMG (500 rounds) 1 x 7.62mm PKT MG coaxial (2,000 rounds) Engine : GAZ-41 V-8 water-cooled petrol developing 140 hp at 3,400 rpm Speed : Land  :  100 kmph Water : 10 kmph Range : 750 km Armour : 14mm

130mm M-46 Med Gun Country of origin: Russia / CIS Characteristics Crew : 8 Calibre : 130mm Weight (travelling position) : 8,450 kg Elevation/depression : +45° to 2.5° Traverse : 50° (total) Projectile weight : 33.4 kg MV : 930 m/sec Range :  27 km (full charge), 19.1 km (reduced charge) Rate of fire : 5-6 rounds/min

Country of origin: India

Country of origin: Russia / CIS : 4 : 300mm : 12 : 800 kg : 235 kg : 43 tonne : 36 min Country of origin: India : 214mm : 12 (2 pods of 6 rockets) : 275 kg : 100 kg : 12 rockets in 40 sec : 4-200 sec (programmable) : 10 to 38 km

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 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

CONTENTS

Vision Statement “In support of the nation’s growing strengths and responsibilities, the Indian Navy is determined to create and sustain a three dimensional; technology enabled and networked force capable of safeguarding our maritime interests on the high seas and projecting combat power across the littoral.” The Indian Navy’s Maritime Military Strategy which flows from the above “Vision Statement” has adopted a generic capability building approach. Introducing the Vision, it stipulates, “The Indian Navy is

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Areas of Responsibilities The Indian Navy’s responsibilities encompass all the roles described above. It is responsible for safeguarding of a wide spectrum of the country’s maritime interests, comprising a coastline of 7,516.6 km and an EEZ of over 2 million square km, which is expected to increase to over 3.2 million square km after the inclusion of the extended continental shelf for which India’s claim is pending resolution at the UN Convention on the Law of the Seas. In its EEZ, the country has sovereign rights to explore and exploit economic assets without encroachment or hindrance from others. The country’s overseas trade is more than 513.5 million tonnes, over 95 per cent of which by volume and 77 per cent by value, moves through the medium of the sea, to and from 13 major ports, and dozens of smaller ones on either coast. India has islands on both seaboards. To the east, more than 1,040 km from the Indian mainland are the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, stretching 720 km from north to south. The southern-most of these islands is only 145 km from the western tip of the Indonesian archipelago while in the north, Myanmar (Coco Islands) lies only 35 km away. To the west, about 200 km from the mainland are the Lakshadweep group of islands occupying a strategic location astride vital international shipping lanes. Other maritime interests include offshore oil and gas production sites on both the West and the East Coasts, fishing and its regulation, the ocean mining site of 75,000 square km in the Central Indian Ocean Basin, and interests in Antarctica. India’s merchant marine is close to 10.5 million tonnes of gross registered tonnage (GRT), comprising over 1,150 ships. The country shares maritime boundaries with seven Indian Ocean littoral states. Another example of the importance of the sea is India’s current oil consumption which was 4.4 million barrels per day (bbl/d) in 2017

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TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

today a potent and capable force which is highly regarded for its professional competence. The planned induction of advanced platforms and technology, and creation of modern infrastructure, promise to boost the capabilities of the Service even further in the near future”.

INDIAN DEFENCE

A

s India advances technologically, the Indian Navy is conscious of the need for greater focus on modernisation of electronic and cyber warfare capabilities, satellite communication systems and establishing the architecture for network-centric operations, including an effective intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance capability for ensuring effective maritime domain awareness in its primary area for interest. Historically, the roles of the navies worldwide can be said to comprise the military, constabulary, diplomatic and benign. The military role encompasses deterrence against war or intervention; obtaining a decisive military victory in case war does take place; security of India’s territorial integrity, citizens and offshore assets from seaborne threat (these could be from non-state actors also); influencing affairs on land; safeguarding India’s mercantile marine and maritime trade; and safeguarding India’s national interests and maritime security. The constabulary role, shared in part with the Coast Guard, includes all aspects of coastal defence, exclusive economic zone (EEZ) security and maintaining good order at sea. The diplomatic role encompasses strengthening political relations and goodwill; strengthening defence relations with friendly states; portraying a credible defence posture and capability; strengthening maritime security in the Indian Ocean region; and promoting regional and global stability. The benign role encompasses promoting civil safety and security, and projecting national soft power.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

In support of the nation’s growing strengths and responsibilities, the Indian Navy is determined to create and sustain a three dimensional; technology enabled and networked force capable of safeguarding our maritime interests on the high seas and projecting combat power across the littoral.

REGIONAL BALANCE

Indian Navy

The Indian Navy

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

3


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Indian Navy

Interview chief of the Naval staff

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TECHNOLOGY

SP’s: Past one year has been quite eventful for the Indian Navy. How would you like to rate the progress of maritime capability build-up of the Surface Combatants under various projects under construction/development, including IAC-1, Vikrant? CNS: Our maritime capability build-up programme is progressing satisfactorily in accordance with our perspective plans. Today, the Indian Navy consists of a well-balanced force capable of operating

BUSINESS

SP’s: Post the UN Permanent Court of Arbitration verdict on South China Sea, the dynamics of security challenges in the region have changed significantly. How such developments are likely to impinge on the Indian Navy? CNS: We have always supported maritime dispute resolution through peaceful means, based on the principles of international laws and without threat or use of force. Self-restraint and mutual

SP’s: How would you like to view the emerging strategic partnership between Japan and India, from the maritime perspective, especially for the Indian Navy? CNS: India and Japan share a long history of civilisation ties. With our shared interests in several fields, it is natural that engagements in the maritime domain also grow concurrently. The evolving strategic landscape of the Indo-Pacific has also acted as a catalyst in our maritime engagement. Our interactions with the Japan Maritime Self Defence Force (JMSDF) have matured over the years. We have witnessed the rising scale of our operational interactions during exercise MALABAR 2017. Our maritime cooperation also extends into the fields of defence equipment and technology. Our vision for maritime security in the Indo-Pacific is also largely aligned. I am, therefore, sure that India-Japan maritime partnership will be mutually beneficial and long lasting.

INDIAN DEFENCE

respect is expected out of all nations in the conduct of activities at the international stage, so that military escalation is avoided at all costs. In today’s highly globalised world, there is a growing realisation that peace, stability and security in the oceanic commons are not only critical for prosperity and development of adjoining littorals but also for the entire world. Therefore, maritime disputes in South China Sea tend to assume global importance. As a signatory to the UNCLOS, India expects all parties to this dispute to follow the tenets of the UNCLOS, which establishes the international legal framework for ocean governance. The Indian Navy remains fully aware of its role in protecting our maritime interests and we have catered to changes in the security environment while recalibrating our deployment philosophy.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

SP Guide Publications (SP’s): Recent times have witnessed turbulence in Indian Ocean Region, Indo-Pacific, South-East Asia, and East Asia with significant impact on the maritime security environment. What should be the way forward for the Indian Navy to remain prepared for the emerging security challenges? Chief of the Naval Staff (CNS): Yes, I agree with you to a certain extent that the security concerns in the maritime domain appear to be on the rise. As a responsible nation located at the very heart of the Indian Ocean, we remain mindful of the changes in the environment and our armed forces are always ready to discharge their role proactively and comprehensively. The Indian Navy aims to achieve this through a two-fold approach of effective deterrence and shaping a positive and favourable maritime environment. Deterrence itself is based on two sets of activities. The first component pertains to developing a balanced multi-dimensional force capable of protecting our national interests. The second component deals with maintaining a robust and sustainable physical presence in our areas of maritime interest. While a credible force level and physical presence caters towards necessary deterrence, a favourable and positive maritime environment is shaped by several cooperative measures with like-minded maritime nations. The Navy’s activities in this field are aligned to the Hon’ble Prime Minister’s vision of ‘Security And Growth for All in the Region’—SAGAR. In my opinion, such a two-fold approach of developing our own capabilities and harnessing the collective energies of like-minded navies through constructive cooperation would adequately cater to most of the present and future maritime challenges, both traditional and non-traditional.

REGIONAL BALANCE

 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

Admiral Sunil Lanba, the Chief of the Naval Staff, holistically addressed a wide range of contemporary maritime and security-related issues in an exclusive interview with the SP Guide Publications team.


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Countermeasures Weapon Control Radars Sonars

Operational

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Other Weapons

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS Sindhughosh (Kilo) Class (Project 877 EKM/8773) Indian Designation : Sindhughosh Class Total No. in Service : 10 Names : Sindhughosh, Sindhudhwaj, Sindhuraj, Sindhuvir, Sindhuratna, Sindhukesari, Sindhukirti, Sindhuvijay Sindhurakshak, Sindhushastra Displacement (tonnes) : 2,300 surfaced; 3,100 dived Dimensions (metres) : 73.0 x 10.0 x 6.6 Propulsion : 2 Model 4-2AA-42M diesels; 2 genera-

Speed (knots) Range (miles) Complement Torpedoes

INDIAN DEFENCE

Shishumar Class Type/HDW Type 209/1500 Indian Designation : Shishumar Class Total No. in Service : 4 Names : Shishumar, Shankush, Shalki, Shankul Specifications Displacement (tonnes) : Full Load 1,700 Dived 1,850 Dimensions length overall (metres) : 65 Beam : 8 Propulsion : Diesel-electric 4MTU 12V 493 AZ80 GA31L diesels; 4 Siemens alternators; 1 Siemens motor; 1 shaft Speed (knots) : 22 Range (miles) : 8,000 Snorting at 8 knots 13,000 Surfaced at 10 knots Complement : 36 (8 officers) Torpedoes : 8 Nos. 21 inch (533mm) tubes. S/m carries 14 AEG SUT Mod 1 wire-guided active/passive torpedoes homing to 28 km at 23 knots; 12 km at 35 knots; warhead 250 kg. Mines : External strap-on type for 24 mines Countermeasures : Decoys; C303 acoustic decoys; ESM Argo Phoenix II AR 700 or Koll Morgen Sea Sentry, radar warning, ESM-DR 3000 Weapon Control : Singer Librascope MKI, CCS 90-1/ISUS Radars : Surface Search, Thomson-CSF Calypso; I-Band, KH 1007/2007 Sonars : Atlas Elektronik CSU 83 active/passive search and attack; Thomson Sintra DUUV-5; passive ranging and intercept, CSU 90-14

tors; 1 motor 1 shaft; 2 MT-168 auxiliary motors; 1 economic speed motor : 17 : 6,000 at 7 kt snorting; 400 at 3 kt dived : 68 (7 officers) : 6-21 in (533mm) tubes combination of Type 53-65 passive wake homing to 19 km (10.3 n miles) at 45 kt; TEST 71 ME anti-submarine; active/passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt or 20 km (10.08 n miles) at 25 kt warhead 220 kg. Total of 18 weapons. Wireguided torpedo on two tubes. : Mines 24 DM-1 in lieu of torpedoes, some submarines carry shoulder held SA-N-10 Igla SAM launcher placed in fin for use on surface. : ESM; squid head radar warning, Porpoise (Indigenous) : Uzwl MVU-119EM TFCS : Navigation; Snoop Tray; MRP-25; I-Band : MGK-400 and MGK-400 E, hull ­mounted, active/passive search and attack; medium frequency. MG-519; hull mounted active search; high frequency. Being replaced by Sonar USHUS manufactured by BEL, Bengaluru, fitted as five EKM and, in a progressive manner on submarines. : First four form the Eleventh Submarine Squadron based at Visakhapatnam and the remaining six comprise the Twelfth Submarine Squadron based at Mumbai. The submarines have progressively undergone midlife modernisation refits commencing 1997, which includes installation of the Klub cruise missile and the associated Lama fire control system, new sonars, electronic warfare systems, machinery control systems and an automated information and control system for the weapon package. One submarine is expected to be fitted out with BrahMos cruise missiles, the surface version of this Indo-Russian 290-km-range supersonic missile.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Submarines

REGIONAL BALANCE

Equipment Catalogue Indian Navy


indian defence

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Kalvari Class (Project 75) Displacement (tonnes) : 1,668 dived Total No. In Service : One Dimensions (feet/metres) : 217.8 x 20.3 x 19 (66.4 x 6.2 x 5.8) Main machinery : Diesel-electric; 4 MTU 16 V 396 SE84 diesels; 1 Jeumont (metres) Schneider motor; 1 shaft Speed (knots) : 20 dived, 12 surfaced Range (miles) : 550 at 5 kt dived, 6,500 at 8 kt surfaced Diving Depth : More than 300 m (984 ft) Complement : 31 (6 officers) Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533mm) tubes Countermeasures : ESM Weapons Control : UDS International SUBTICS Radars : Navigation; Sagem; I-Band Sonars : Hull mounted passive and attack– medium frequency Programme : The first submarine INS Kalvari was commissioned on December 14, 2017 and thereafter one boat every year, to complete delivery by 2021. Armed with Exocet SM 39 anti-ship missile, the Scorpene also offers advanced capabilities for mine warfare; intelligence gathering and special operations. Next submarine of the line Khanderi has been launched and currently undergoing extensive sea trials. Arihant Class (SSBN) Dimensions : Length – 112 m (367 ft), Beam – 15 m (49 ft), Draft – 10 m (33 ft) Total No. In Service : One Displacement (tonnes) : 6,000 Propulsion : PWR using 40 per cent enriched uranium fuel (80 MWe); one turbine (1,11,000 hp/83 MW); one shaft; one 7-bladed, high-skew propeller (estimated) Range : Unlimited except by food supplies Speed : 12-15 knots surface, 24 knots dived Test Depth : 300 m (980 ft) (estimated) Complement : 95 Sensors and Processing Systems : BEL USHUS Integrated Sonar; Indigenous Sonar and tactical weapons control system with active, passive, ranging, surveillance and intercept sonars and underwater communication system. Armament : 6 x 533mm torpedoes, 12 x K-15 Sagarika SLBM (range 750 km, 8 MIRV each) or 4 x K-4 Shaurya SLBM (range up to 3,500 km) Launched : July 26, 2009 Status : Undergoing sea trials Programme : Arihant’s reactor turned critical in

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Equipment Catalogue: Indian Navy

mid-August 2013 and the extensive sea trials phase is currently on. INS Arihant is reported to have been commissioned during 2016. The second submarine of the class, reportedly named Arighat has been launched and is currently being outfitted. Two more submarines of this class are expected to follow. Chakra (SSN) Indian Designation : Chakra Class Name : Chakra Displacement (tonnes) : 8,140 surfaced Dimensions (metres) : 113.3 x 13.6 x 9.7 Main machinery : 1 OK 650B/OK 650M nuclear PWR; 190 MW; one OK-7 steam turbine; 43,000 hp(m); 2 OK 300 retractable electric propulsors for low speed and quiet manoeuvring; 750 hp(m) (552 kW); 1 shaft Speed (knots) : 28-35 dived; 10 surfaced Complement : 90 (23 officers) Missiles : SLCM/SSM: Klub S 3S 54E (antiship)/3S 14 E (Land attack), NATO SS-N-27, fired from 21 in (533mm) ­torpedo tubes. The anti-ship version is a sea-skimmer with 200 kg warhead, 200 km range, flight altitude of 15 ft and supersonic terminal speed (2.9 Mach) in the final stage. The landattack ­missile is inertially guided, ­subsonic (0.8 Mach), has a range of 275 km and a 400 kg warhead. SAM : SA-N-10 Igla M launcher on sail. 18 missiles A/S: Type 40 torpedo. Novator SS-N-16 Stallion fired from 650mm tubes; inertial flight to 100 km (54 n miles) Torpedoes : 8 x 21 in (533mm) tubes. Total of 40 weapons. Countermeasures : ESM: Rim Hat; intercept. Radars : Surface search: Snoop Pair or Snoop Half with back-to-back aerials on same mast as ESM. Sonars : Shark Gill (Skat MGK 503); hullmounted; passive/active search and attack; low/medium frequency. Mouse roar; hull-mounted; active attack; high frequency. Skat 3 towed array; passive; very low frequency. Programme : INS Chakra a Russian nuclear-powered submarine has joined the Indian Navy on lease for 10 years in 2012 to train the submariners on the skills to operate nuclear powered submarines. Further, there are reports to suggest that the lease for second SSN from Russia for 10 years under $1.5 billion deal is also in the pipeline.

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CONTENTS

The Indian Air Force

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Dassault Aviation

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

4

 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

Core Values The IAF leadership has identified three core values that must govern whatever it does – in peace or war. These are: Mission, Integrity, Excellence

Early History The IAF was formally established on October 8, 1932, the date on which the first batch of officers was commissioned. On April 1, 1933, ‘A’ Flight of No 1 Squadron was raised at Drigh Road, Karachi, now in Pakistan, with six officers, 19 airmen and four Westland Wapiti IIA aircraft. The fledgeling IAF saw action for the first time in 1937 during operations in the North West Frontier Province. By June 1938, the Squadron was built up to full strength with three

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BUSINESS INDIAN DEFENCE

Mission Statement To be a modern, flexible and professional aerospace power with full-spectrum capability to protect and further national interests and objectives.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Vision To acquire strategic reach and capabilities across the spectrum of conflict that serve the ends of military diplomacy, nation building and enable force projection within India’s strategic area of influence. In this endeavour, People First, Mission Always will be the IAF’s guiding beacon.

flights of three aircraft each, 16 officers and 662 airmen. During World War II, in response to the Japanese pre-emptive strike on Pearl Harbour and Malaya, No 1 Squadron with 12 Westland Lysander aircraft, was moved to Burma on February 1, 1942. However, when Rangoon fell to the Japanese in April 1942, the Squadron was relocated at Risalpur and was reequipped with Hawker Hurricane IIB fighters. The IAF expanded rapidly growing to nine squadrons by the end of 1944. Redeployed in Burma, the IAF played a major role in the Arakan offensive which began in December 1944. In March 1945, recognition of the outstanding performance of the IAF came by way of addition of the prefix ‘Royal’ to its name. The IAF was thereafter known as the Royal Indian Air Force (RIAF). In 1946, the RIAF squadrons were reequipped with the Hawker Tempest II, which has been called ‘the IAF’s first true fighter bomber’. The first RIAF transport unit, No 12 Squadron, was also formed and was equipped with Douglas C-47 Dakotas. When India attained independence on August 15, 1947, some RIAF units were transferred to Pakistan. The Squadrons that remained with the RIAF were Nos 3, 4, 7, 8 and 10 equipped with Tempests, No 2 Squadron with Spitfires and No 12 Squadron with Dakotas. Post-independence, on October 27, 1947, the IAF undertook an emergency task with Dakotas to airlift Indian forces into Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) to thwart attempts by Pakistani-sponsored invaders to wrest control of the valley from India. On January 26, 1950, India became a Republic and the RIAF dropped the prefix ‘Royal’. The modernisation process began in 1948 with the arrival of the de Havilland Vampire single-engine fighter aircraft from Britain, the first combat jet to be inducted into the IAF. This was followed by the induction of other combat jets such as the Ouragan (renamed as Toofani) and the Mystere from France as also the Canberra, Hunter and Gnat from Britain. All these combat aircraft entered service in the 1950s. Closer strategic and military cooperation with the then Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) also known as the Soviet Union, resulted in the IAF acquiring three MiG-21 supersonic aircraft in 1963. From this point onwards, the IAF inventory acquired a distinct Soviet orientation, which also influenced the evolution of the aerospace industry in India.

REGIONAL BALANCE

T

he Indian Air Force (IAF), the fourth largest in the world today, is the primary instrument available to the nation for the projection of air power. While in peacetime, the IAF is responsible for security of the national airspace and disaster relief, it plays a central and critical role in war providing swift and decisive response. The potential of air power to influence the outcome of a military conflict has been amply demonstrated in the post-World War II era in several international conflicts including the wars in the Middle East and Afghanistan. In the Indian context as well, in recent times, the IAF has played a critical role in the conflict with Pakistan in Kargil in 1999.

TECHNOLOGY

The Indian Air Force (IAF) is fervidly making efforts to enhance its high-precision combat capability, primarily by modernising its fleet and upgrading the quality of human resources.


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Indian Air Force

Interview Chief of the Air Staff

SP’s: How serious is the threat from elements of the PLAAF based in Tibet that are constantly being bolstered? Is the IAF adequately prepared to face the challenges posed by the PLAAF in Tibet that may arise in the wake of an open conflict with China? SAS: IAF is fully prepared to face any contingency. SP’s: Do you see any role for the IAF in dealing effectively with the proxy war that Pakistan has been waging against India both in and outside J&K? What in your view is the broad strategy that India should adopt to exploit the capability of air power against the menace of proxy war? CAS: The capabilities of ISR, air maintenance and casualty evacuation are already being exploited for this purpose.

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SP’s: The operational philosophy of the USAF indicates progressively increasing employment of Unmanned Aerial Systems for the projection of air power. What is the perspective of the IAF in this regard? and SP’s: The IAF has pioneered the exploitation of UAVs as force

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BUSINESS INDIAN DEFENCE

SP’s: What steps are being taken to enhance the state of readiness of the IAF to counter the threat to national security emanating from China singly or in collusion with Pakistan? CAS: The IAF is prepared 24 x 7 for any threat and is ready for a befitting response to any contingency. The IAF has already proposed a roadmap for induction of fighter aircraft to build upto the sanctioned strength of 42 fighter squadrons and also modernisation. Augmenting the strength of our fighter squadron is our top priority. To achieve this, the IAF is looking at new inductions and mid-life upgrades. Towards this, MiG-29, Jaguar and Mirage-2000 aircraft are being upgraded in a phased manner to enhance their combat capability. Weapon shortfalls are being made good. The induction of fighter aircraft contracted for includes Light Combat Aircraft, Rafale and the balance of Su-30 MKI aircraft. Acceptance of Necessity (AoN) has also been granted for procurement of LCA Mk 1A. Further, the Government of India plans to procure fighter aircraft through the ‘Strategic Partnership’ model and other suitable options are also being considered to ensure that the IAF attains the authorised strength of fighter squadrons. If all the inductions take place as planned, the IAF is expected to achieve its authorised strength of fighter squadrons by the end of 15th Plan (2032).

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

SP’s: With rising tension on the Sino-Indian border and enhanced activity by the Chinese Navy in the Indian Ocean, is there a possibility of the situation escalating into an open conflict between the militaries of the two nations? CAS: The issues of unresolved borders are being bilaterally addressed with diplomatic intervention at the highest level/ Border Cooperation Agreements between the two militaries.

SP’s: Given the acquisition of tactical nuclear weapons by Pakistan and the nuclear sabre-rattling resorted to by it in the recent past, what are the implications for India? Is the IAF equipped and in a state of readiness to provide nuclear deterrence against Pakistan? CAS: The IAF is fully equipped and in a high state of readiness to face any contingency.

REGIONAL BALANCE

SP Guide Publications (SP’s): In the context of the recent upswing in the relations between the US and India and especially with India being declared by the US government as a “Major Defence Partner”. What are the implications for the IAF in terms of role and responsibility both at the regional and global level? Chief of the Air Staff (CAS): With fourth largest military force, third largest economy in terms of PPP, a vibrant democracy and geo strategic location, India is poised to be a major player for maintaining stability in the South Asian region. The US government recognised India as a Major Defence partner. Under this partnership, Indian companies are likely to benefit due to feasibility of transfer of technology (ToT) in defence related equipment.

TECHNOLOGY

Air Chief Marshal B.S. Dhanoa, the Chief of the Air Staff, briefs about the IAF’s capability and its upcoming projects in an exclusive interview with the SP Guide Publications’ team.


indian defence

Equipment Catalogue Indian air Force Air Defence and Strike Fighters Mikoyan MiG-21 NATO reporting names Country of origin Type Number in Service Construction Wings

Power Plant

Cockpit Avionics and Equipment

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Armament

Dimensions Wingspan Length Height Wing area Weights Take-off (combat) Max take-off Performance Max speed Above 10,000 m At sea level Combat radius (lo-lo-lo) Max rate of climb

: Fishbed and Mongol (trainer version) : Russia / CIS. Manufactured under licence In India by the HAL : Single-seat multi-role fighter : 120 Year of Induction: 1964 : Delta plan form with a 2° anhedral and 57° sweepback with small boundary layer fences at tips. Large blown plain trailing edge flaps. : One Tumansky R-13 turbojet rated at 9,400 lb dry and 14,000 lb reheat. Internal fuel capacity 2,750 litres Provision for drop tanks under fuselage and inboard wing pylons. The MiG-21Bis & Bison are powered by a Tumansky R-25-300 turbojet rated at 15,000 lb static thrust with reheat. : K-13 ejection seat with 0-130 kmph capability. : ALMAZ search and track radar with a 30 km lock on range. ARK radio compass, IFF and Gyro gun sight : One twin-barrel 23mm GSh-23/2 cannon with 250 rounds carried internally & up to 2,500 lb of ordnance on four wing pylons. Typical loads include 2*1,000 lb, RVV-AE, R-73/R-60 AAMs, S-24 and UB80/UB 57 rocket pods. : : : :

7.15 m 16.10 m, including pilot boom 4.5 m 23.45 m²

: 8,750 kg : 10,500 kg : Mach 2.23 : Mach 1.1 : 390 km : 6,500 m/min

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G Limits : + 7/–1.5 Note 1: While the ‘FL’ version of MiG-21 was finally retired from service in December 2013, a fleet of 125 MiG-21Bis aircraft with adequate residual airframe life have undergone an avionics and armament upgrade programme which comprises the following: •  Fitment of KOPYO multi-mode radar in the nose cone in place of the original ALMAZ radar which, in combination with the active homing RVV-AE, beyond visual range (BVR) air-to-air missile in place of the R-60 has given the aircraft a ‘fire-and-forget’ capability. Coupled with a new Russian-made Mission Computer, the KOPYO radar has also enhanced the aircraft’s overall air-to-surface capability. •  The aircraft has been fitted with a Thales; monolith ring laser gyro-based INS with integral GPS and GLONASS card. The INS has a drift of 0.5 nm per hour which is automatically updated by the integral GPS giving it a highly reliable navigation system. •  The aircraft has been given a semi-glass cockpit with the fitment of a Russian-made liquid crystal multi-function display and a head-up display. •  Additional avionics include a HAL-made INCOM jam resistant communications equipment and Tarang, RWR equipment. •  An Israeli video recording system has been fitted in the cockpit which captures HUD as well as visual parameters during air-to-ground strikes for better post-strike debriefs. The upgraded MiG-21Bis aircraft has been renamed the ‘Bison’ by the Indian Air Force. This fleet is expected to remain in service till 2025. Mikoyan MiG-29A/B NATO reporting name Country of origin Type Number in Service Year of Induction Construction Wings

Power Plant

: Fulcrum : Russia / CIS : Single-seat air superiority fighter : 54 : 1986 : Low-wing monoplane. Leading edge swept back at 42°, with large ogival wing roots. Leading and trailing edge flaps without tabs. : Two Tumansky RD-33 turbojets each with thrust rating of 11,250 lb dry and 18,500 lb reheat. FOD doors in each air intake duct actuated automatically with raising/lowerin g of nose-wheel on take-off/landing run. Total internal fuel capacity of 4,000 litres with a provision for a single 750-litre drop tank to be car-

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Dassault Aviation Mirage 2000H Country of origin : France Type : Single-seat multi-role fighter Number in Service : 46 Year of Induction : 1985

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Accommodation

Dimensions Wingspan : 9.13 m Length : 14.36 m Height : 5.03 m Wing area : 41 m² Weights Empty : 7,500 kg Combat : 11,000 kg Max take-off : 15,000 kg Performance Max speed At 30,000 ft : Mach 2.2 At sea level : Mach 1.2 Max climb rate : 56,000 ft/min Service ceiling : 53,000 ft Combat radius (hi-lo-hi) : 750 km G Limits : +9/-3 Note: Mirage fleet of the IAF is undergoing midlife upgrade 200005 Mk2 standard at an approximate cost of $2.1 billion ( `13,650 crore). The first upgraded aircraft has already flown in from France. The remaining aircraft are being upgraded in India at HAL with ToT from French OEMs. Fleet upgrade is expected to be completed by 2021 after which the Mirage fleet is expected to remain in service till 2040.

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS Armament

TECHNOLOGY

Dimensions Wingspan : 11.40 m Length overall : 17.34 m Height overall : 4.75 m Wing area : 35.35 m² Weights Empty : 8,340 kg Normal Interceptor role : 15,750 kg Max take-off : 20,000 kg Performance Max level speed At 30,000 ft : Mach 2.35 At sea level : Mach 1.06 Max combat radius : 650 km G Limits : +9.0/ -3 Note: The IAF has upgraded its fleet of MiG-29 aircraft to MiG29SMT which is superior, has up-to-date technology and is capable of challenging any aircraft in the world in its class. Compared to the basic MiG-29, the upgraded version has higher fuel capacity and consequently longer range and has in-flight refueling capability. The MiG-29SMT has a number of new capabilities to effectively destroy both air and ground targets with the use of highprecision “air-to-air” and “air-to-surface” missiles, thus combining the roles of air superiority fighter and strike fighter. The aircraft and engine service life have been increased and maintenance costs reduced. The upgraded aircraft are likely to serve till 2025.

Avionics

BUSINESS

Armament

Power Plant

: Low wing delta monoplane with leading edge sweepback of 58°. Full span twin segment leading edge flaps. Two section trailing edge elevons of full length with carbon fibre skin and light alloy honeycomb core. Air brakes above and below each wing. : One Snecma M-53 P-2 Turbofan rated at 14,462 lb dry and 21,385 lb reheat. Internal fuel capacity of 3,980 litres with provision for drop fuel tanks underbelly and inboard wing pylons. Detachable in-flight refuelling probe forward of cockpit on starboard side. : Quadruple redundant fly-by-wire system. Invertors, transformers and battery units. Thomson-CSF RDM multi-mode radar. Sager Uliss-52 inertial platform, ESD Type 2,984 central digital computer and digibus. Comprehensive ECM active/passive suite. VHF/UHF communications suite, HUD, Nav Attack computer, etc. Patric/Litening pods. : Two underbelly 30mm DEFA cannons with 125 rounds each. The aircraft can carry up to 13,890 lb of ordnance on nine external hard points. Options include various AAMs including R-73, Magic II & R-530D. Alternatively various types of ground attack weaponry including laser-guided bombs can be carried. : F-10Q zero-zero ejection seat in a pressurised and air-conditioned cockpit.

INDIAN DEFENCE

Avionics

Construction Wings

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Cockpit

ried between engines underbelly. Later versions can carry wing drop tanks. : K-36D zero-zero ejection seat in a pressurised and air-conditioned cockpit. Cockpit is high set and features a twopiece blister design. : NO-19 Sapfir-29 (NATO ‘Slot Back’) coherent pulse Doppler radar with a 100-km detection and 70-km track range with full look up/down shoot down and multi-tracking capability. Limited look up/down shoot down IRST on nose on star-board side. Navattack computers, HUD, helmetmounted sights operable up to 40° off the axis. Advanced 360° passive RWR of unknown type. Comprehensive VHF/UHF communication systems. AoA indicator, radar altimeter, 3-axis auto stabilisation system, auto pilot, deception jammer in wing root. : 1 GSh-301 30mm cannon in port wing root, with 150 rounds. Up to six AAMs including R-73, R-27R, R-27T Alternate loads of ground attack weapons with a total weight of 3,500 kg on six external hard points.

REGIONAL BALANCE

Equipment Catalogue: Indian Air Force


CONTENTS

ICG

Indian Coast Guard

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

5

Additional Responsibilities Since its inception, the ICG has been given many additional responsibilities. Besides the duties and functions provided in the ICG Act, the ICG supports other ministries, as provided by the legislation enacted by the Government of India. The support roles undertaken are as follows:

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veillance of deep sea fishing vessels n Search and rescue for merchant ships n Marine oil pollution response measures n Lead intelligence agency for coastal and sea borders n Protection of sensitive marine flora and endangered marine

Organisation The Coast Guard Headquarters is located at New Delhi. The field functions are executed by a Coast Guard Commander, Western Seaboard situated in Mumbai and by the five Regional Headquarters located at Gandhinagar, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata and Port Blair. Under these Regional Headquarters, there are 14 District Headquarters, located along the coastal states and Union Territories of India. There are 17 co-located stations and 25 independent Coast Guard Stations. In addition, there are Air Stations at Daman and Chennai, Air Enclaves at Goa, Kochi, Kolkata, Porbandar, Port Blair and Bhubaneswar and an independent Air Squadron at Mumbai. The organisa-

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INDIAN DEFENCE

In pursuance of its missions, the Director General Indian Coast Guard (DGICG) has also been designated as: n Chairman, National Maritime Search and Rescue Board (NMSARB) n Chairman, National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan Committee (NOSDCP) n Chairman, Offshore Security Coordination Committee (OSCC). n Indian Governor to Regional Cooperation Agreement to Combat Piracy and Armed Robbery (ReCAAP) against ships in Asia. These duties are carried out by the ICG over an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) measuring 2.01 million square kilometres (km). It is entrusted with the responsibility of ensuring the safety and security of a peninsular nation that harbours 12 major ports and 187 minor ports. Some of the significant achievements of the Indian Coast Guard in pursuit of its vast charter of duties can be seen in Appendix A.

BUSINESS

­species n Coastal security in territorial waters

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

Roles and Responsibilities The role of ICG is defined in the Coast Guard Act of 1978 and is as follows: n Protecting the maritime and other national interests in the maritime zones of India n Ensuring the safety and protection of artificial islands, offshore terminals, installations and other structures and devices in any maritime zone n Providing protection to fishermen including assistance to them at sea while in distress n Preserving and protect the maritime environment and to prevent and control marine pollution n Assisting the customs and other authorities in anti-smuggling operations n Taking necessary measures for the safety of life and property at sea n Undertaking collection of scientific data

n Enforcement of anti-poaching measures, monitoring and sur-

REGIONAL BALANCE

T

he Indian Coast Guard (ICG) was constituted as an armed force of the Union by an Act of Parliament on August 18, 1978, predominantly to undertake the peacetime tasks of ensuring the security of the maritime zones of India, with a view to protect maritime and other national interests in such zones and matters connected therewith. The ICG functions under the Ministry of Defence, primarily for non-military maritime security functions. It has a military function during a war scenario when it conjoins with military forces in national defence under the Indian Navy. The Coast Guard began patrolling in earnest with two old frigates seconded from the Indian Navy and five patrol vessels seconded from the Central Board of Excise and Customs.

TECHNOLOGY

The Indian Coast Guard (ICG) plays a diverse role not only in protecting India’s maritime interests but also in forging international cooperation.


indian defence

Equipment Catalogue Indian Coast Guard Surface Platforms Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) Samar Class Total No. in Service : 4 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 1,604, Deep 2,000 Dimensions (LOAxBxD) : 102 x 11.5 x 3.64 m Flight Deck : Integral Helo Main Machinery : 2 Diesels, 4,710 kW each (SEMT PIELSTICK 16 PA6V280) Speed (knots) : 22 Range (n miles) : 6,000 at 15 Kn Complement (crew) : 128 (including 15 officers)

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Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) Sankalp Class Total No. in Service : 2 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light , 1,740, Deep 2,230 Dimensions (LOAxBxD) : 105 x 12.9 x 3.64 m Flight Deck : Integral Helo Main Machinery : 2 Diesels, 7,710 kW each (SEMT PIELSTICK 20 PA6BSTC) Speed (knots) : 23.5 Range (n miles) : 6,500 at 12 Kn Complement (crew) : 128 (including 15 officers) Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) Vikram Class Total No. in Service : 4 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 992, Deep 1,180 Dimensions (LOAxBxD) : 74 x 11.4 x 3.2 m Flight deck : Integral Helo Main Machinery : 2 Diesels, 4,710 kW each (SEMT PIELSTICK 16PA6V280) Speed (knots) : 22 Range (n miles) : 8,500 at 11 Kn Complement (crew) : 108 (including 10 officers) Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) Vishwast Class Total No. in Service : 3

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Specifications Make Displacement (in tonnes) Dimensions (LOAxBxD) Flight deck Main Machinery

: Indian built : Light 1,500, Deep 1,840

: 94 x 12.2 x 3.6 m : Integral Helo : 2 Diesels, 9,000 kW each (MTU 20 V 8000 M90) Speed (knots) : 26 Range (n miles) : 4,500 at 14 Kn Complement (crew) : 110 (including 10 officers) Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) Samarth Class Total No. in Service : 2 Specifications Make : Indian built (M/s GSL) Displacement (in tonnes) : 2350 (approx) at full load displacement Dimensions (LOAxBxD) : 105m x 13.60m x 3.65 m Flight Deck : Integral Helo Main Machinery : 2 Diesels, 9100 KW each (MTU, 20V 8000 M90) Speed (knots) : 23 Range (n miles) : 6,000 at cruising speed (12-14 knots) Complement (crew) : 112 (including 14 officers) Pollution Control Vessels (PCVs) Samudra Prahari Class Total No. in Service : 3 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 3,196, Deep 3,946 Dimensions (LOAxBxD) : 94 x 15.5 x 4.5 m Flight deck : Integral Helo Main Machinery : 2 Diesels, 3,000 kW each (Bergen B32, 40 L6P) & 883 kW Ulstein Aquamaster bow thruster Speed (knots) : 20 (Ship is capable of cruising at 0.2 knots speed during oil skimming mode with bow thruster) Range (n miles) : 6,000 at 14 knots Complement (crew) : 112 (including 12 officers)

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CONTENTS

Equipment Catalogue: Indian Coast Guard

Fast Patrol Vessels (FPVs) Rajshree Class Total No. in Service : 8 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 244, Deep 303 Dimensions (LOAxBxD) : 48.9 x 7.5 x 2.1 m Main Machinery : 3 Diesels, 2,720 kW each (MTU 16V 4000 M90) Speed (knots) : 34 Range (n miles) : 1,500 at 16 knots Complement (crew) : 35 (including 6 officers) Fast Patrol Vessels (FPVs) Aadesh Class Total No. in Service : 18 Specifications Make : Indian built

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Interceptor Boats (IBs) C-154 Class Total No. in Service : 4 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 54, Deep 68.93 Dimensions (LOAxBxT) : 28.75 x 6.20 x 3.43 m Main Machinery : 2 Diesels, 1,630 kW each (MTU 16V 2000 M 92) Speed (knots) : 35 Range (n miles) : 500 at 20 knots Complement (crew) : 10 (including 2 officers) Interceptor Boats (IBs) C-401 Class Total No. in Service : 27 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 82, Deep 103 Dimensions (LOAxBxT) : 27.8 x 6.4 x 1.27 m Main Machinery : 2 Diesels, 2,525 kW each (Caterpillar 3516C) Speed (knots) : 45 Range (n miles) : 500 at 20 knots Complement (crew) : 13 (including 2 officers) Air Cushion Vehicle (Hovercraft) H-181 Class Total No. in Service : 6 Specifications Make : Indian built (in technical collaboration with Griffon, UK) Displacement (in tonnes) : AUW-25

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WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY

Interceptor Boats (IBs) C-141 Class Total No. in Service : 13 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 62, Deep 81 Dimensions (LOAxBxT) : 26 x 6.6 x 1.7 m Main Machinery : 2 Diesels, 2720 kW each (MTU 16V 4000 M90) Speed (knots) : 45 Range (n miles) : 500 at 25 knots Complement (crew) : 10 (including 02 officers)

BUSINESS

: 50.0 x 8.2 x 1.63 m : 3 Diesels, 2,720 kW each (MTU 16V 4000 M90) Speed (knots) : 33 Range (n miles) : 1,500 at 12 knots Complement (crew) : 35 (including 6 officers)

INDIAN DEFENCE

Fast Patrol Vessels (FPVs) Rani Abbakka Class Total No. in Service : 3 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 269, Deep 349 Dimensions (LOAxBxD) : 51 x 8.36 x 2.1 m Main Machinery : 3 Diesels, 2,720 kW each (MTU 16V 4000 M 90) Speed (knots) : 34 Range (n miles) : 1,500 at 16 knots Complement (crew) : 35 (including 6 officers)

: Light 209.75, Deep 270

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Fast Patrol Vessels (FPV) Sarojini Naidu Class Total No. in Service : 7 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 235, Deep 259 Dimensions (LOAxBxD) : 48 x 7.5 x 2 m Main Machinery : 3 Diesels, 2,720 kW each (MTU 16V 4000 M90) Speed (knots) : 35 Range (n miles) : 1,500 at 12 knots Complement (crew) : 35 (including 6 officers)

Displacement (in tonnes) Dimensions (LOAxBxD) Main Machinery

REGIONAL BALANCE

Fast Patrol Vessels (FPV) Priyadarshini Class Total No. in Service : 4 Specifications Make : Indian built Displacement (in tonnes) : Light 165, Deep 215 Dimensions (LOAxBxD) : 46 x 7.5 x 2 m Main Machinery : 2 Diesels, 1,480 kW each (MTU 12V 538 TB 82) Speed (knots) : 23 Range (n miles) : 2,400 at 14 knots Complement (crew) : 34 (including 6 officers)


CONTENTS

Who’s Who in Indian Defence Compiled by SP Guide Publications team (as on May 25, 2018)

President & Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces.................................................................... Ram Nath Kovind Vice President.......................................................................................................................................... Venkaiah Naidu Union Government Prime Minister......................................................................................................................................... Narendra Modi Minister of Defence................................................................................................................................. Nirmala Sitharaman Minister of State for Defence.................................................................................................................. Dr Subhash Ramrao Bhamre

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

6

Secretary (Defence Production) ............................................................................................................ Dr Ajay Kumar Additional Secretary (Defence Production).......................................................................................... Subhash Chandra Joint Secretary (Land Systems).............................................................................................................. Sanjay Prasad Joint Secretary (Aerospace).................................................................................................................... Chandraker Bharti Joint Secretary (Naval Systems) & CVO................................................................................................. Vijayendra Joint Secretary (Personnel and Coordination)..................................................................................... Amit Sahai Joint Secretary (Defence Industrial Production).................................................................................. Sanjay Jaju Advisor (Cost).......................................................................................................................................... L.M. Kaushal Defence Finance

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Secretary (Defence Finance).................................................................................................................. S.K. Kohli Financial Adviser (Acquisition) & Addl. Secretary............................................................................... Mala Dutt

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INDIAN DEFENCE ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Department of Defence Production

REGIONAL BALANCE

 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

Defence Secretary................................................................................................................................... Sanjay Mitra Director General (Acquisition) ............................................................................................................. Apurva Chandra Joint Secretary (Public Grievances & Coordination)............................................................................ V.Anandarajan Joint Secretary (Air, Ceremonial & Border Roads)............................................................................... Bharat Khera Joint Secretary (Planning and International Cooperation)................................................................. Shambhu S. Kumaran Joint Secretary (Army, Ordnance, QMG).............................................................................................. Jiwesh Nandan Joint Secretary (Navy)/Medical.............................................................................................................. Devika Raghuvanshi Joint Secretary (Works)........................................................................................................................... Jayant Sinha Joint Secretary (PG & Coordination) & CAO......................................................................................... V. Anandarajan Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Land Systems)...................................................................... Nidhi Chhibber Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Maritime Systems)............................................................... Ravi Kant Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Air)........................................................................................ Sanjai Singh Technical Manager (Land Systems)....................................................................................................... Major General H.S. Shanbhag Technical Manager (Maritime & Systems)............................................................................................ Rear Admiral R. Sreenivas Technical Manager (Air)......................................................................................................................... Air Vice Marshal G. Raveendranath

BUSINESS

Ministry of Defence Department


CONTENTS

Who’s Who in Indian Defence

Ram Nath Kovind

On October 2, 2014, Mahatma Gandhi’s Birth Anniversary, the Prime Minister launched ‘Swachh Bharat Mission’ a mass movement for cleanliness across the nation. His foreign policy initiatives have realised the true potential and role of world’s largest democracy, India, on the world stage. Born on September 17, 1950, in a small town in Gujarat, he grew up in a poor but loving family ‘without a spare rupee’. The initial hardships of life not only taught the value of hard work but also exposed him to the avoidable sufferings of the common people. This inspired him from a very young age to immerse himself in the service of people and the nation. In the year 2001, he became the Chief Minister of his home state Gujarat and went on to serve a record four terms as Chief Minister. He transformed Gujarat into a growth engine that makes a strong contribution to India’s development. Narendra Modi is a ‘People’s Leader’, dedicated to solving their problems and improving their well-being.

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES INDIAN DEFENCE

On May 26, 2014, Narendra Modi took oath as the Prime Minister of India, becoming the first ever Prime Minister to be born after India attained Independence. Dynamic, dedicated and determined, Narendra Modi reflects the aspiration and hope of over a billion Indians. Ever since he assumed office in May 2014, Prime Minister Modi has embarked on a journey of all-round and inclusive development where every Indian can realise her/his hopes and aspirations. He remains deeply inspired by the principle of ‘Antyodaya’, of serving the last person in the queue. He has launched the Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana marking a paradigm shift in ensuring that every citizen is included in the financial system of the nation. His clarion call for ‘Make in India’ complimented by a focus on making business easy has stimulated unprecedented vigour and enterprise among investors and entrepreneurs. Labour reforms and dignity of labour under the ‘Shrameva Jayate’ initiative has empowered several workers of small and medium industries, also providing a boost to our skilled youth.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Prime Minister of India

REGIONAL BALANCE

Narendra Modi

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TECHNOLOGY

and Empowerment; and Parliamentary Committee on Law and Justice. He was Chairman of the Rajya Sabha House Committee. Kovind also served as Member of the Board of Management of the Dr B.R. Ambedkar University, Lucknow, and Member of the Board of Governors of the Indian Institute of Management, Kolkata. He was part of the Indian delegation at the United Nations and addressed the United Nations General Assembly in October 2002. Kovind was the Governor of Bihar (2015-17); Member of the Rajya Sabha, representing the state of Uttar Pradesh (1994-2006); General Secretary, Akhil Bharatiya Koli Samaj (1971-75 and 1981); Union Government Advocate at the Delhi High Court (1977-79) and Union Government Junior Counsel in the Supreme Court (1982-84). Kovind married Smt Savita Kovind on May 30, 1974. They have a son, Prashant Kumar, and a daughter, Swati. An avid reader, the President has keen interest in reading books on politics and social change, law and history, and religion. During his long public career, Kovind has travelled widely across the country. He has also visited Thailand, Nepal, Pakistan, Singapore, Germany, Switzerland, France, the United Kingdom and the United States in his capacity as a Member of Parliament.

BUSINESS

A lawyer, veteran political representative and longtime advocate of egalitarianism and integrity in Indian public life and society, Ram Nath Kovind was born on October 1, 1945, in Paraunkh, near Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh. Before assuming charge of the office of the 14th President of India on July 25, 2017, Kovind served as the 36th Governor of the state of Bihar from August 16, 2015, to June 20, 2017. Kovind completed his school education in Kanpur and obtained the degrees of B.Com and L.L.B. from Kanpur University. In 1971, he enrolled as an Advocate with the Bar Council of Delhi. Kovind was Union Government Advocate in the Delhi High Court from 1977 to 1979 and Union Government Standing Counsel in the Supreme Court from 1980 to 1993. He became Advocate-on-Record of the Supreme Court of India in 1978. He practised at the Delhi High Court and Supreme Court for 16 years till 1993. Kovind was elected as a member of the Rajya Sabha from Uttar Pradesh in April 1994. He served for two consecutive terms of six years each till March 2006. Kovind served on various Parliamentary Committees like Parliamentary Committee on Welfare of Scheduled Castes/Tribes; Parliamentary Committee on Home Affairs; Parliamentary Committee on Petroleum and Natural Gas; Parliamentary Committee on Social Justice

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

President of India & Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces


indian defence

Who’s Who in Indian Defence

General Bipin Rawat Chief of the Army Staff

General Bipin Rawat took over as the 27th Chief of the Army Staff on January 1, 2017. He was commissioned in the 5th Battalion of the 11 Gorkha Rifles in December 1978, from IMA, Dehradun, where he was awarded the ‘Sword of Honour’. The officer has vast experience in high altitude warfare and counter-insurgency operations and has considerable staff and instructional experience. His important command assignments include an Infantry battalion, along the line of actual control (LAC) in the Eastern Sector, a Rashtriya Rifles Sector, an Infantry Division in the Kashmir Valley, and a Corps in the North East. The officer also commanded a Multinational Brigade in a Chapter VII mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MOUNSCO). As an Army Cdr, he was the GOC-in-C of Southern

Command before taking over as the Vice Chief of the Army Staff in Delhi. General Rawat’s staff and instructional assignments include an instructional tenure at IMA, Dehradun; General Staff Officer at the Military Operations Directorate; Logistics Staff Officer of a Division in Central India; Deputy Military Secretary in the Military Secretary’s Branch; and Senior Instructor, Junior Command Wing. He has been Major General General Staff of the Eastern Theatre. He is a graduate of the Defence Services Staff College, Wellington, the Higher Command and National Defence College courses and, has attended the US Army Command and General Staff College course at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. He is recipient of PVSM, UYSM, AVSM, YSM, SM, VSM awards.

Admiral Sunil Lanba Chief of the Naval Staff

Admiral Sunil Lanba was promoted as the 23rd Chief of the Naval Staff (CNS) on May 31, 2016. He is an alumnus of the National Defence Academy, Khadakwasla; Defence Services Staff College, Wellington; College of Defence Management, Secunderabad; and Royal College of Defence Studies, London. He is a navigation and direction specialist who has served as the navigation and operations officer onboard numerous ships in both the Eastern and Western Fleet. His sea tenures include command of Indian Navy ship Kakinada, a specialised mine countermeasure vessel, Himgiri, Ranvijay, a Kashin class destroyer and Mumbai, the indigenous Delhi class destroyer. He has also been the Executive Officer of INS Viraat and

the Fleet Operations Officer of the Western Fleet. On elevation to the Flag rank, he has held several significant assignments including the Chief of Staff, Southern Naval Command and the Flag Officer Sea Training before he took over as the Flag Officer Commanding, Maharashtra and Gujarat Naval Area. On promotion to Vice Admiral, he was the Chief of Staff, Eastern Naval Command, Commandant of National Defence College and the Vice Chief of Naval Staff. Prior to taking over as CNS he was the Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Southern and Western Naval Commands. He is recipient of PVSM and AVSM awards. On January 1, 2017, Admiral Sunil Lanba took over as the Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee.

Air Chief Marshal B.S. Dhanoa

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Chief of the Air Staff

Air Chief Marshal Birender Singh Dhanoa took over as the 25th Chief of the Air Staff on January 1, 2017. Commissioned into the Flying Branch of the IAF as a fighter pilot in June 1978, Air Chief Marshal Dhanoa is a Cat ‘A’ Qualified Flying Instructor and has over 3,000 hours of flying on a variety of fighter aircraft with an impeccable flight safety record. He is an alumnus of Rashtriya Indian Military College, the National Defence Academy and the Defence Services Staff College, Wellington. The Air Chief Marshal has several laurels to his credit. As Commanding Officer of a front line ground attack fighter squadron, equipped with MiG-21 aircraft, he led the IAF during the conflict against Pakistan in 1999 to evict the enemy from the icy heights of Kargil. He has

held a number of command and staff appointments at operational commands, Joint Training Establishments and Air Headquarters. He has been Director Targeting Cell and Director Fighter Operations, Assistant Chief of Air Staff (Intelligence) at Air Headquarters, Senior Air Staff Officer at Eastern and Western Air Commands as also the Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief at South Western Air Command. For his experience and professional excellence, he was handpicked to establish an ‘IAF Training Team’ abroad. Before taking over as the Chief of the Air Staff, he was the Vice Chief of the Air Staff since June 1, 2015. In recognition of his meritorious services, he has been conferred the awards of PVSM, AVSM, YSM and VM by the President of India.

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indian defence

Who’s Who in Indian defence Public Sector Undertakings T. Suvarna Raju

Chairman and Managing Director, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited T. Suvarna Raju is an engineering graduate with an MBA (Marketing), M.Phil in Defence Strategies Studies and post-graduate diploma in intellectual property rights laws from the National Law School of India University. He is also an alumnus of National Defence College. Raju joined the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) on June 26, 1980, as management trainee and has worked in different capacities at HAL Aircraft Division, Overhaul Division before taking over as Director Design & Development on February 1, 2012. He is a firm believer that ‘Best of technology can never be bought, it can only be developed’. With this vision to transform the company into a technology powerhouse, he has been instrumental in taking various path-breaking measures to make R&D set up of HAL more competitive. He has the experience

in various facets of aerospace business and is currently steering a lot of futuristic projects such as UAVs, FGFA, MTA, civil aircraft development programme, etc. He has had an illustrious career at HAL and has contributed towards success of Jaguar production and overhaul facilities establishment at HAL. He was instrumental in transfer of technology of Hawk Mk 132 aircraft. He has been a member of various studies constituted by Indian defence services, be it for life extension of existing fleets or investigations into accidents and has received commendations for his professional involvement and contributions. He is considered an authority on performance based logistics (PBL) and has pioneered the concept in the country. He is a highly professional and competent executive. The Aeronautical Society of India has conferred him with Dr Biren Roy Trust Award for the year 2002 for his unstinted efforts in planning and establishment of new technologies at HAL.

M.V. Gowtama

Chairman and Managing Director, Bharat Electronics Limited M.V. Gowtama has taken charge as the Chairman and Managing Director of the Bharat Electronics Limited on November 8, 2016. He completed his B.Tech in electronics and communications from Sri Venkateswara University College of Engineering in Tirupati in 1983 and joined BEL, Ghaziabad unit, in the same year as a probationary engineer. He was initially posted to the D&E-Radar Division where he contributed to the development of receiver subsystem of cyclone warning radar which won the R&D award. He was transferred to the Hyderabad unit in May

1986 where he worked in the D&E, testing, system integration, installation & commissioning groups of Ajanta project till 1998. He completed M.Tech in advanced electronics from Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad, while in service. From 1998 to 2006, he worked on the Sangraha programme of the Indian Navy and with his team developed different ESM systems for submarines, helicopters, medium and long-range aircraft. Gowtama took over as GM (Technology Planning) at BEL Corporate Office, on February 1, 2010. Later he served as GM (Milcom) at BEL in Bengaluru and was Executive Director (Missile Systems) at BEL in Bengaluru till his elevation as Chairman and Managing Director of BEL.

D.K. Hota

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Chairman and Managing Director, Bharat Earth Movers Limited D.K. Hota has assumed charge as Chairman and Managing Director with effect from July 1, 2016. He joined the Board of BEML Limited on July 1, 2013, as Director (Human Resources). Hota has graduated in economics honours from St.

Stephen’s College in Delhi and post-graduation in HR from XLRI. He has over three decades of professional experience in HR and business and served in various capacities in the Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL) including CEO of HPCL Biofuels. Prior to joining BEML, he was heading the Natural Gas Division of HPCL in Mumbai.

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 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

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CONTENTS

Participation by the Private Sector With the strategic objective of achieving self-reliance in defence production, the DDP has been making continuous effort to indigenise defence manufacturing wherever technologically feasible and economically viable. In May 2001, the defence industry sector, hitherto reserved for the PSUs, was opened for 100 per cent participation by the Indian private sector with FDI limit of 26 per cent, both subject to licensing. The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) issued detailed guidelines on licensing for the production of arms and ammunition. In July 2013, the government decided to increase FDI in the defence industry from 26 to 49 per cent. However, FDI beyond 26 per cent and up to 49 per cent was restricted to high-end technologies and was to be considered on a case-to-case basis, after clearance from the Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS). The Indian defence industry had suffered from a conservative approach that had restricted private sector investment in this segment to 26 per cent. However, with FDI up to 100 per cent, participation by the private sector in the Indian defence industry is now poised for a quantum leap as it is now easier to obtain sanction for large and capital-intensive projects. The situation is expected to improve dramatically in the coming years as the government has implemented the new Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) 2016 under which procurement of military hardware has been simplified. Coupled with the ‘Make in India’ programme, the NDA Government aims to build a credible military-industrial complex that can propel India to emerge as one of the world’s leading exporter of military hardware.

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TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

technology. Production and turnover of OFs and the DPSUs have been increasing steadily to meet the increasing requirements of the armed forces. The website of the department http://www.ddpmod. gov.in has been functional since January 2013.

INDIAN DEFENCE

E

stablished in November 1962, the Department of Defence Production (DDP) was mandated to develop a comprehensive industrial infrastructure to achieve selfreliance in defence production. Over the years, the department has established wide-ranging facilities for the production of a variety of defence equipment by Ordnance Factories (OF) and Defence Public Sector Undertakings (DPSUs). Products include arms and ammunition, tanks, armoured vehicles, heavy vehicles, earth-moving equipment, combat aircraft, helicopters, warships, submarines, missiles, electronic equipment, special alloys and special purpose steel. The DDP has the following organisations under its umbrella: n Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) n Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) n Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) n Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) n Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) n Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Limited (MDL) n Goa Shipyard Limited (GSL) n Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Limited (GRSE) n Hindustan Shipyard Limited (HSL) n Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited (MIDHANI) n Directorate General of Quality Assurance (DGQA) n Directorate General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance (DGAQA) n Directorate of Standardisation (DOS) n Defence Exhibition Organisation (DEO) n Directorate of Planning and Coordination (Dte of P&C) n National Institute for Research and Development in Defence Shipbuilding (NIRDESH) The OFs and the DPSUs have been on a constant drive to modernise, upgrade their capabilities and expand the range of products. They have developed a number of products indigenously and have acquired capabilities in various fields through transfer of

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

The Indian defence industry is now poised for a quantum leap as the NDA Government has permitted 100 per cent foreign direct investment (FDI) making it easier to obtain sanction for large and capital-intensive projects. Through the ‘Make in India’ programme, the NDA Government aims to build a strong and credible militaryindustrial complex that can propel India to emerge as one of the world’s leading exporters of military hardware.

REGIONAL BALANCE

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INDIAN DEFENCE INDUSTRY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

7


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CONTENTS TECHNOLOGY

radar, avionics and electronic warfare systems, sensors, nuclear biological chemical (NBC) defence, low-intensity conflict technologies and advanced computing. DRDO plays a significant role in providing scientific and technological advice to MoD in support of defence policy; as evaluator of defence equipment for the operational requirements of the military and generating new technological knowledge to be transferred for indigenous development of state-of-the-art weapon systems. It also advises the government on technical assessment of international security threats and military capabilities of both current and potential adversaries.

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INDIAN DEFENCE

Organisational Structure With its headquarters at New Delhi, DRDO is headed by the Director General who is also the Secretary Department of Defence Research & Development (DDR&D), Government of India. In September 2013, DRDO commenced implementation of the recommendation of the Rama Rao Committee that included decentralisation of the DRDO into seven technology clusters each headed by an empowered Director General (DG). At present, the DG, DRDO is assisted by seven DGs (Clusters) and five Chief Controllers R&D (CCR&D). The seven DGs (Clusters) are: DG Armament and Combat Engineering Systems (ACE), Pune; DG Aeronautical Systems (Aero), Bengaluru; DG Missiles and Strategic Systems (MSS), Hyderabad; DG Naval Systems & Materials (NS&M), Visakhapatnam; DG Electronics and Communication Systems (ECS), Bengaluru; DG Microelectronics, Devices & Computational Systems (MED&CoS), Delhi; and, DG Life Sciences (LS), Delhi. However, in May 2015, DRDO was reorganised and the office of scientific advisor to the Defence Minister was separated from the Secretary DRDO-cum-DG DRDO. In September 2016, the government re-designated the post of DG DRDO as Chairman, DRDO. In addition, DDR&D has one autonomous body, viz. Aeronautical Development Agency, one joint venture, viz, BrahMos Aerospace, four human resource institutions, i.e., Centre for

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

T

he Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has emerged as one of the premier scientific and technological organisations in the country and has played a significant role in the development of stateof-the-art platforms sensors and weapon systems. The organisation provides scientific and technological advice to the Ministry of Defence (MoD), functions as evaluator of defence equipment for operational requirements of the military and generates technological knowledge for the indigenous development of weapon systems. DRDO was formed on January 1, 1958, by merging the Defence Science Organisation, the units of the Technical Development Establishments of the Indian Army and the Directorate of Technical Development and Production. DRDO was then a fledgeling research establishment with just 10 laboratories. In 1980, the DRDO became a department under the Central Government and today it is one of its largest science and technology departments with a network of 52 laboratories and establishments spread all over the country. With a vision to empower India with cutting-edge technologies and to equip the services with internationally competitive systems, DRDO has proven its competence to produce state-of-the-art strategic and tactical military hardware and related technologies in diverse disciplines such as aeronautics, armaments, combat vehicles, combat engineering, electronics, missiles, life sciences, advanced materials, composites and naval systems. DRDO has expertise in system design, system integration, testing, evaluation and project management built over the last five decades, which has enabled it to develop indigenous capabilities in weapons and delivery systems. Today, DRDO has transformed into a highly professional and mature organisation with a strong technology base and management systems to undertake indigenous development of state-ofthe-art defence systems including design, development, integration and production. DRDO has achieved technological self-reliance in critical areas including ammunition, armoured systems, missiles,

BUSINESS

DRDO is steadfast in achieving self-sufficiency in defence requirement of the Indian armed forces. It has proven its competence to produce state-of-the-art strategic and tactical military hardware and related technologies in diverse disciplines such as aeronautics, armaments, combat vehicles, combat engineering, electronics, missiles, life sciences, advanced materials, composites and naval systems.

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ASDS Media

DEFENCE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (DRDO)

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

8


Director: A K Saxena Post Box No. 51, Station Road Agra Cantt, Agra — 282 001 Tel: 0562-25893274, 25885007 Fax: 0562-25893102 E-mail: director@adrde.drdo.in

ARMAMENT RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (ARDE) Director: Dr K.M. Rajan Dr Homi Bhabha Road Armament Post Pashan, Pune — 411021 Tel: 020- 25893274, 25885007 Fax: 020-25893102 E-mail: director@arde.drdo.in

CENTRE FOR ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE & ROBOTICS (CAIR) Director: Manimozhi Theodore DRDO Complex C.V. Raman Nagar Bengaluru — 560093 Tel: 080-25342646, 25244298 Fax: 080-25244298 E-mail: director@cair.drdo.in

CENTRE FOR FIRE, EXPLOSIVE & ENVIRONMENT SAFETY (CFEES) Director: Rajiv Narang Ministry of Defence Brig. S.K. Mazumdar Road Timarpur, Delhi — 110054 Tel: 011-23813239, 23907102 Fax: 011-2381 9547 E-mail: director@cfees.drdo.in

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Director: M.S. Easwaran Ministry of Defence DRDO, Belur, Yemlur Post Bengaluru — 560037 Tel: 080-25225121, 26572638 Fax: 080-25222326 E-mail: director@cabs.drdo.in

CENTRE FOR PERSONNEL TALENT MANAGEMENT (CEPTAM) Director: Dr Vijaya Singh Metcalfe House Delhi — 110 054 Tel: 011- 23882323 Fax : 011- 23810287 E-mail: director@ceptam.drdo.in, drdoentrytest@ceptam.drdo.in

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS AERIAL DELIVERY RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (ADRDE)

CENTRE FOR AIRBORNE SYSTEMS (CABS)

TECHNOLOGY

Director: Dr. J.V.R. Sagar DRDO, Kanchanbagh PO Hyderabad — 500058 Tel: 040-24347630 Fax: 040-24347679 E-mail: director@anurag.drdo.in

Director: P. Jayapal Ministry of Defence Defence Research and Development Organisation Marthahalli Colony Post Bengaluru — 560037 Tel: 080-25230680, 28517272 Fax: 080-25230856, 25234781 E-mail: director@cemilac.drdo.in

COMBAT VEHICLES RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (CVRDE) Director: Dr P. Sivakumar Avadi, Chennai — 600054 Tel: 044-26383722, 26364001 Fax: 044-26383661, 26385112 E-mail: director@cvrde.drdo.in

INDIAN DEFENCE

ADVANCED NUMERICAL RESEARCH & ANALYSIS GROUP (ANURAG)

CENTRE FOR MILITARY AIRWORTHINESS & CERTIFICATION (CEMILAC)

DEFENCE AVIONICS RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT (DARE) Director: Dr K. Maheswara Reddy Post Box No. 9366 C.V. Raman Nagar Bengaluru — 560093 Tel: 080-25347704, 25347707 Fax: 080-25347717 E-mail: director@dare.drdo.in

DEFENCE BIO-ENGINEERING AND ELECTRO MEDICAL LABORATORY (DEBEL) Director: Dr Upendra Kumar Singh Post Box No. 9326 C.V. Raman Nagar Bengaluru — 560093

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Director: M.V.K.V. Prasad New Thippasandra Post Bengaluru — 560 075 Tel: 080-25248603, 25057037 Fax: 080-25283188 E-mail: director@ade.drdo.in

REGIONAL BALANCE

AERONAUTICAL DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (ADE)

BUSINESS

Indian Defence R&D Establishments


indian defence Tel: 080-25280692, 25058425 Fax: 080-25282011 E-mail: director@debel.drdo.in

Tel: 040- 24340511, 24340546, 24583000, 24583010, 27208045 Fax: 040-24340109 E-mail: director@drdl.drdo.in

DEFENCE ELECTRONICS APPLICATION LABORATORY (DEAL)

DEFENCE INSTITUTE OF HIGH ALTITUDE RESEARCH (DIHAR)

Director: Dr R.S. Pundir Post Box No. 54 Raipur Road Dehradun — 248001 Uttarakhand Tel: 0135- 2787084, 2787086 Fax: 0135-2787265, 2787290 E-mail: director@deal.drdo.in

Director: Om Prakash Chaurasia PIN — 901205, C/O 56 APO Tel: 01982-252096, 252224 Fax: 01982-252096 E-mail: director@frl.drdo.in

DEFENCE ELECTRONICS RESEARCH LABORATORY (DLRL) Director: Dr Anil Kumar Singh Chandrayangutta Lines Hyderabad — 500005 Tel: 040-24440061 Fax: 040-2787161, 2787128 E-mail: director@dlrl.drdo.in

DEFENCE FOOD RESEARCH LABORATORY (DFRL) Director: Dr Rakesh Kumar Sharma Siddarth Nagar Mysore — 570011 Tel: 0821-2473783, 2579003 Fax: 0821-2473468 E-mail: director@dfrl.drdo.in

DEFENCE METALLURGICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (DMRL) Director: Dr Vikas Kumar Kanchanbagh PO Hyderabad — 500058 Tel: 040-24340681, 24340233, 24340155, 24345116 Fax: 040-24340683, 24341439 E-mail: director@dmrl.drdo.in

DEFENCE INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY (DIAT) Vice Chancellor: Dr. Hina A Gokhale Simhagad Road Girinagar, Pune — 411025 Tel: 020- 24389428, 24389426, 24389427 Fax: 020-24389411, 24389509 E-mail: director@diat.drdo.in

DEFENCE RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (DRDE) Director: Dr. D. K. Dubey Tansen Road Gwalior — 474002 Tel: 0751-2341550, 2341856 Fax: 0751-2341148 E-mail: director.drde@drdo.in

DEFENCE INSTITUTE OF BIOENERGY RESEARCH (DIBER) www.spguidepublications.com

Indian Defence R&D Establishments

Director: Dr Madhu Bala Goraparao PO Arjunpur Haldwani — 263139, Uttarakhand Tel: 05946-232532, 232040 Fax: 05946-232719 E-mail: director@diber.drdo.in

DEFENCE RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT LABORATORY (DRDL) Director: M.S.R. Prasad Chandrayangutta Lines Hyderabad — 500005

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DEFENCE RESEARCH LABORATORY (DRL) Director: Dr Sanjai K Dwivedi Post Box No. 2, Tezpur — 784 001, Assam Tel: 03712-258508, 258836 Fax: 03712-258534 E-mail: director@drl.drdo.in

DEFENCE INSTITUTE OF PSYCHOLOGY & ALLIED SCIENCES (DIPAS) Director: Dr Bhuvnesh Kumar Lucknow Road, Timarpur Delhi — 110054 Tel: 011-23946257, 25079601 Fax: 011-23932869, 23914790, 23983149 E-mail: director@dipas.drdo.in

DEFENCE SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION & DOCUMENTATION CENTRE (DESIDOC) Director: Dr. Alka Suri Metcalfe House New Delhi — 110054 Tel: 011-23902443, 23812252 Fax: 011-23819151 E-mail: director@desidoc.drdo.in

DEFENCE INSTITUTE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH (DIPR) Director: Dr K. Ramachandran DRDO, Ministry of Defence Lucknow Road, Timarpur Delhi — 110054 Tel: 011-23923560 Fax: 011-23916980 E-mail: director@dipr.drdo.in

DEFENCE TERRAIN RESEARCH LABORATORY (DTRL) Director: Dr M.R. Bhutiyani Metcalfe House Delhi —110054 Tel: 011-23811599, 24648566 Fax: 011-23812494 E-mail: director@dtrl.drdo.in

DEFENCE LABORATORY JODHPUR (DLJ) Director: Dr S.R. Vadera Ratanada Palace, Jodhpur — 342011 Tel: 0291-2510275, 2511057 Fax: 0291-2511191, 2510260 E-mail: director@dlj.drdo.in

ELECTRONICS AND RADAR DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENTS (LRDE) Director: S.S. Nagaraj C.V. Raman Nagar Bengaluru — 560093 Tel: 080-25243873, 25243816 Fax: 080-25242916 E-mail: director@lrde.drdo.in

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CRPF

CONTENTS

India’s Internal Security Perspective

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

1

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BUSINESS INDIAN DEFENCE ASIAN WHO’S WHO REGIONAL BALANCE

 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

I

ndia faces enormous chalTerrorism   Major General Umong Sethi (Retd)   In 2016, India ranked 7th on the lenges in providing equity in Institute of Economics and Peace’s growth to all sections of her population placed in different geographical zones and having Global Terrorism Index (GTI) recording improvement of one place varied economic and cultural correlates. The variance in level over 2015. Terrorism in India is characterised by strikes by Pakistan of human development, prosperity, education and infrastruc- sponsored terror groups, left wing extremists and separatist groups. ture availability adds to the complexity of the task. Cyber and digi- The proxy war launched by Pakistan over Jammu and Kashmir is tal connectivity has enabled differently placed people and regions the main source of Islamist terrorism. The intelligence agencies to comprehend the uneven progress and lack or abundance of have been able to interdict few modules of ISIS that were active opportunities for growth available to them and others. This has recruiting potential men and women for the for the terror outfit. resulted in show of dissatisfaction by groups of people including LWE violence has been the cause of maximum number of casualoccasional resorting to violence and causing disruptions. In fact, tiesin States of Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Odisha. India’s many risks to internal security emanate as consequences of India’s North East Region has for the past many decades been subjected to economic rise. Internal migration, urbanisation and digital con- unrest by ethnic secessionist movements. A large number of terror groups seek political recognition nect have brought to the fore new opportunities and challenges for through attacks. Majority of terror attacks result in low casualties. managers of internal security. The scale of the internal security challenge is truly mas- This is substantiated by statistical findings. First, in 2015 around 73 sive. The size and scope of the security arena spread is vast i.e., per cent of attacks were non-lethal though the terror strikes recordapproximately 3.2 million square km with nearly 1.3 billion ed an increase of 4 per cent over 2014. Second, of the 49 different people in habiting it. There is 7,500 km of coast line and another terrorist groups that engaged in terrorist acts in 2015, 31 groups did 6,000 km of land borders to be managed. Virtual borders and not kill anyone. Third, there were 18 groups that had a fatal attack, cyber challenges are relatively new phenomenon that needs down from 27 groups in 2014. Fourth, four groups accounted for 72 to be addressed. Many dilemmas are posed by new ‘triggers’ per cent of all deaths in 2015. As per survey of violent incidents published in www.securitythat can precipitate a major security crisis in relatively short time. The intensity, frequency and geographical spread of risks.com, majority of terrorist attacks in India in 2016 involved internal security incidents require agile and timely response either bombings/explosions (47 per cent) or armed assaults (18 per that stretches the internal security resources. Besides, the diver- cent). In addition, kidnappings were particularly dominant in India sity of challenges is enormous. State sponsored terrorism from (15 per cent of all attacks, compared to 10 per cent worldwide), Pakistan, Left Wing Extremism (LWE), insurgent movements in as were facility/infrastructure attacks (12 per cent of all attacks, the North Eastern States continue to perpetrate violence, dis- compared to 6 per cent worldwide). More than half of the terrorsensions and impede progress in some parts of the country. ist attacks in India in 2016 took place in four states: Jammu and Radicalisation, rise of fundamentalism, drug and human traf- Kashmir (19 per cent), Chhattisgarh (18 per cent), Manipur (12 per ficking, terror financing, handling social strife, disaster and cent), and Jharkhand (10 per cent). The deadliest attack in India in 2016 took place in July, when pandemic management, rise in white collared and cyber-crime confront security specialists in greater manner than ever before. the Communist Party of India—Maoist detonated explosives and These require a multi-pronged approach to sustain and acceler- opened fire on Central Reserve Police Force personnel in Bihar state. Sixteen people were killed in the attack, including six assailate improvements in the security environment.

TECHNOLOGY

The scale of the internal security challenge is truly massive. The size and scope of the security arena spread is vast i.e. approximately 3.2 million square km with nearly 1.3 billion people inhabiting it.


 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS solutions to their issues, as seen in various secessionist and rebel movements in the North East and Eastern regions, to direct acts of terrorism driven by global outfits as was seen in the 26/11 terror strikes at Mumbai and finally the societal schisms in a multi-polar populace that at times breed breakaway thinking. In the recent past, a growing number of incidents have led to increased visibility of this matter. The government’s response in some cases was aggressive and timely. It seemed from these incidents as if the government was indicating changes in India’s approach to its internal security strategy. Then came the Uri attack on September 18, 2016. Eighteen soldiers of the Indian Army were martyred and many others injured in the terrorist attack in the early hours of Sunday morning. All four militants were killed within a few hours of the commencement of the attack, though combing operations to clear the entire area took longer. However, the causalities suffered by the Army (including injured personnel) were so heavy that it caught the attention of the entire Indian Nation and an atmosphere got created, especially by the television media, for a savage response to teach, a perverse and recalcitrant neighbor, a lesson. This incidentally was the fifth major attack in 2015-16 by Pakistan based terror modules, assisted by their army and the ISI in recent times. After the Uri attack the assertion by Prime Minister Narendra Modi that those behind the terror attack in Uri in Kashmir “will not go unpunished” was followed by the Prime Minister’s speech at Kozhikode on Saturday September 24, 2016, the venue of three days National Council Meeting of the BJP, where he said that Indians would never forget the gruesome act of killing 18 soldiers in Uri. Thus a general feeling seemed to be created that the nation was veering towards a possible military action. On the night of September 28 and 29, 2016, India’s Special Forces (SF), generally known as Para Commandoes carried out a four hour long operation against the terrorists who had concentrated across the LC in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir.

TECHNOLOGY

Kapoor (RETD)  

BUSINESS

I

ndia’s Homeland Security (inter  LT GENERAL V.K. nal security) and its security structure is the responsibility of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), Government of India. In the Indian context in the era immediately after independence, threats to India were mainly external — from hostile nations. Despite the recommendations of various committees instituted by the government of the day, the internal security threats were never so acute as to seriously induce the political leadership to reform the internal security apparatus. However, as the challenges and threats to the internal security of India grew, the government felt compelled to focus on this dimension of national security. Today’s definition of security acknowledges political, economic, environmental, social and human thread, among other strands that impact the concept of security. Today, it is the concern for security of the lowest common denominator of every society, namely the ‘human being’, which has resulted in the development of the concept of ‘human security’ with focus on the individual and the people. Therefore, the definition of security is related to the ability of the state to perform the function of protecting the well-being of its people. Prakash Singh the former DG BSF and UP Police and a prolific writer on internal security issues says “Successive governments have not cared to codify the country’s internal security doctrine and all governments have also ignored this vital area and taken ad hoc decisions on crucial matters. The US and UK revise their national security doctrines every year and place them in the public domain. We have done nothing of the sort, despite the fact that our internal security problems are far more complex. There is no long-term policy for Jammu and Kashmir, nor is there any strategic vision to tackle the Maoist insurgency. No wonder, while violence levels are periodically brought down, they spiral again, and it becomes a game of snakes and ladders.” India’s internal security challenges have varied roots — from across the border hostilities permeating as insurgency in Kashmir and the North East; to sections of community opting for military

INDIAN DEFENCE

Internal security is defined as the process of keeping peace and maintaining safety within a state or nation. It has also been defined as the act of keeping peace within the borders of a sovereign state or other self-governing territories generally by upholding the national law and defending against internal security threats.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

PIB

The Ministry of Home Affairs & Central Armed Police Forces

REGIONAL BALANCE

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Homeland Security

Who’s Who in Indian Home Ministry Rajnath Singh

Minister of Home Affairs Rajnath Singh entered politics in 1974 and in 1977 he was elected as an MLA in the Uttar Pradesh Assembly. He was elected MLC for Uttar Pradesh Legislative Council in 1988 and became Education Minister in 1991. During his tenure as Education Minister in UP he established some landmark decisions by introducing the AntiCopying Act and Vedic Mathematics in the syllabus. He became a member of the Rajya Sabha in 1994. On November 22, 1999, he became Union Surface Transport Minister. During this period he got the opportunity to initiate the NHDP

(National Highway Development Programme), a dream project of Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee. On October 28, 2000, he became Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh and was twice elected as MLA from Haidargarh constituency in Barabanki.On May 24, 2003, he became Union Minister of Agriculture and subsequently for Food Processing. During this period he initiated a few epochmaking projects like Kisan Call Centre and Farm Income Insurance Scheme. He became the BJP National President on December 31, 2005, a post he held till December 19, 2009. In May 2009, he was elected Member of Parliament from Ghaziabad and in 2014 from Lucknow parliamentary constituency. On May 26, 2014, Rajnath Singh took over as the Union Minister for Home Affairs.

Kiren Rijiju

Minister of State for Home Affairs Born in Nafra, Arunachal Pradesh, on November 19, 1971, Kiren Rijiju’s life is an embodiment of national integration. After doing his schooling from Arunachal, he did his BA (Hons) from the prestigious Hansraj College of Delhi University and followed it up with a law degree from the Faculty of Law, Delhi University. He is married to Joram Rina Rijiju, an Assistant Professor of History and have three children. In 2004 he was elected to the 14th Lok Sabha from West Arunachal Pradesh constituency, which is one of the larg-

est in the country. As MP, Rijiju quickly earned the respect of his more seasoned colleagues by his active participation in parliamentary work both inside and outside the House and he was duly adjudged as the Best Young Parliamentarian by the media. Despite growing up in one of the most remote and underdeveloped regions of the country, he has embraced the opportunities life has offered him and today is widely recognised as the voice of the North East both within the Government of India and in the public eye. Rijiju was elected to the 16th Lok Sabha on May 16, 2014. In recognition of his work, he was inducted by Prime Minister Narendra Modi into the Council of Ministers as a Minister of State in the Ministry of Home Affairs on May 26, 2014.

Hansraj Gangaram Ahir

Minister of State for Home Affairs Hansraj Gangaram Ahir was born on November 11, 1954, at Nanded, Maharashtra. He did his schooling from Chandrapur. He is married to Smt. Lata Ahir and has three children. He has been a Member of Maharashtra Legislature Council in 1994-96 and was elected to Lok Sabha in 1996, and re-elected in 2004 and was a member of Standing

Committee on Coal & Steel; Committee on Food Management in Parliament House Complex; and Standing Committee on Agriculture. He was also a member of the Joint Parliamentary Committee on WAKF. He has been a member of Business Advisory Committee and Chairperson of Committee on Coal & Steel. In recognition of his work, he was inducted as Union Minister of State for Chemicals & Fertilisers since November 9, 2014, and he held this post till he took over as the Minister of State in the Ministry of Home Affairs.

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Rajiv Gauba

Home Secretary Rajiv Gauba (born on August 15, 1959) has taken over as Union Home Secretary w.e.f. August 31, 2017. Gauba joined the Ministry of Home Affairs as Officer on Special Duty (Home Secretary Designate) on June 27, 2017. Prior to this, he was Secretary, Ministry of Urban Development. Earlier, in Government

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of India, he has worked in the Ministries of Home Affairs, Defence, Environment & Forests and Electronics and Information Technology. Shri Gauba has also served as Chief Secretary, Government of Jharkhand and in the International Monetary Fund (IMF) representing the country for four years on the Board of IMF. Belonging to Punjab, Shri Gauba is a Physics graduate and is a 1982- batch Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer of Jharkhand cadre.

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

5

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

section five

NEW Asian Who’s Who: Leadership Afghanistan 330, 338 Algeria 330, 339

Australia Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Cambodia People’s Republic of China Egypt Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Libya Malaysia

330, 340 330, 342 330, 343 331, 345 331, 346 331, 347 331, 348 331, 349 332, 351 332, 353 332, 354 332, 355 332, 357 332, 358 333, 359 333, 360 333, 360 333, 361 333, 361 333, 363 333, 363

Myanmar Nepal North Korea Sultanate of Oman Pakistan The Philippines Qatar Saudi Arabia Singapore South Korea Sri Lanka Syria Taiwan Tajikistan Thailand Turkey Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Republic of Yemen

333, 364 334, 365 334, 366 334, 375 334, 367 334, 368 334, 369 335, 370 335, 370 335, 372 335, 373 335, 375 335, 376 336, 377 336, 377 336, 379 336, 380 336, 381 336, 381 337, 382 337, 382

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

MoD Organisations & Contacts of Asian Countries Australia 306 Bangladesh 309 Brunei 310 Indonesia 313 Japan 314 Malaysia 316 Mynamar 319 The Philippines 320 Singapore 323 South Korea 326 Sri Lanka 327 Thailand 328 Vietnam 329

REGIONAL BALANCE

Contents

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

TECHNOLOGY

Asian Who's Who


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Asian who’s who With effect from the last edition of SP’s Military Yearbook, we had introduced a new chapter ‘MoD organisations and contacts of Asian countries’ within the regular ‘Who’s Who in Asian Defence Forces’ section. In this edition we have further included the profiles of top leadership as much up to date as possible apart from the extensive information on Ministries of Defence in major Asian countries with critical facts like organisational structure, contact details, etc. We sincerely hope that these information, which have been further added, will make SP’s Military Yearbook even more useful and will especially enable all the stakeholders from the aerospace and defence industry in doing business and collaborate more expeditiously.

TECHNOLOGY

Note from the Editor-in-Chief:

Countries being covered in the ‘MoD Contacts and Organisations of Asian Countries’ are:

1. Afghanistan 2. Algeria 3. Australia 4. Bahrain 5. Bangladesh 6. Bhutan 7. Brunei 8. Cambodia 9. People’s Republic of China 10. Egypt 11. Indonesia 12. Iran 13. Iraq 14. Israel

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15. Japan 16. Jordan 17. Kazakhstan 18. Kuwait 19. Kyrgyzstan 20. Laos 21. Lebanon 22. Libya 23. Malaysia 24. Myanmar 25. Nepal 26. North Korea 27. Sultanate of Oman 28. Pakistan 29. The Philippines

30. Qatar 31. Saudi Arabia 32. Singapore 33. South Korea 34. Sri Lanka 35. Syria 36. Taiwan 37. Tajikistan 38. Thailand 39. Turkey 40. Turkmenistan 41. United Arab Emirates 42. Uzbekistan 43. Vietnam 44. Republic of Yemen

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REGIONAL BALANCE

 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

Countries being covered with the ‘Asian Who’s Who: Leadership Profiles’ are:

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

n Australia: MoD contact details and organisational structure n Bangladesh: MoD contact details n Brunei: MoD contact details and organisational structure n Indonesia: MoD contact details and organisational structure n Japan: MoD contact details and organisational structure n Malaysia: MoD contact details and organisational structure n Myanmar: MoD organisational structure n Philippines: MoD contact details and organisational structure n Singapore: MoD contact details and organisational structure n South Korea: MoD contact details and organisational structure n Sri Lanka: MoD contact details and organisational structure n Thailand: MoD organisational structure n Vietnam: MoD contact details and organisational structure


Asian who’s who

Who’s who in asian defence forces Compiled by SP Guide Publications team (as on May 25, 2018)

q AFGHANISTAN

Commander of the Naval Forces Major General Mohamed-Larbi Haouli

q BAHRAIN

Head of State and Government (President) Dr Mohammad Ashraf Ghani

Commander of the Air Forces Major General Abdelkader Lounes

Head of State/ King of Bahrain King Hamad Bin Isa Al Khalifa

First Vice President Abdul Rashid Dostum

Chief of the Territory Air Defense Forces Staff Major General Ali Baccouche

Prime Minister Prince Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa

Second Vice President Sarwar Danesh

Commander of the Gendarmerie Major General Menad Nouba

Defence Minister Lieutenant General Tariq Shah Bahrami

Ministry of Defence B.P. 184 Alger Gare, Algeria Tel: +213 21 711515

Foreign Minister Salahuddin Rabbani

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Minister of Interior Lt General Shaikh Rashid bin Abdulla Al Khalifa

Interior Minister Wais Ahmad Barmak

q AUSTRALIA

Chief of General Staff of the Armed Forces Lieutenant General Mohammad Sharif “Yaftali”

Head of State Queen Elizabeth II (since February 6, 1952)

Commander of the Air Force Major General Abdul Wahab Wardak

Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull

Ministry of Defence Opposite Presidential Palace Kabul, Afghanistan Tel: +93 20 2300331, 2100452, 2100458

Defence Minister Marise Payne

q ALGERIA Head of State (President) Abdelaziz Bouteflika Prime Minister Ahmed Ouyahia Vice-Minister of National Defense and Chief of Staff of the People’s National Army Lieutenant General Ahmed Gaid Salah Commander of the Land Forces Major General Ahcene Tafer

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Crown Prince, Deputy Supreme Commander and First Deputy Prime Minister Salman bin Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa

Governor General Peter Cosgrove

Deputy Prime Minister Shaikh Mohammed bin Mubarak Al Khalifa Deputy Prime Minister Shaikh Ali bin Khalifa Al Khalifa Deputy Prime Minister Jawad bin Salem Al Arrayed Deputy Prime Minister Shaikh Khalid bin Abdulla Al Khalifa Minister for Defence Affairs Major General Yusuf bin Ahmed bin Hussain Al Jalahma

Chief of the Defence Force Air Chief Marshal Mark Binskin Chief of Army Lt General Angus John Campbell Chief of Navy Vice Admiral Tim Barrett Chief of Air Force Air Marshal Leo Davies

Ministry of Defence P.O. Box 245 Manama Bahrain Tel: +973 665599 Fax: +973 663923

Chief of Joint Operations Vice Admiral David Lance Johnston

q BANGLADESH

Department of Defence Campbell Park Offices, Post Box 7911 Canberra BC ACT 2610 Australia Tel: +61 2 61449190

Head of State (President) Md Abdul Hamid

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Asian who’s who

Asian Who’s who: leadership PROFILES Compiled by SP Guide Publications team (as on May 25, 2018)

 Afghanistan  Mohammad Ashraf Ghani President, Afghanistan

Born in Logar province, Afghanistan in 1949, Dr Ghani earned his first degree in 1973 from the American University in Beirut. He returned a year later to teach at Kabul University before leaving for New York’s Columbia University for a masters degree in Anthropology. The intended two year stint got extended when pro-Soviet forces came to power in Afghanistan and he stayed back for his Ph.D. He also taught at the University of California, Berkeley and Johns Hopkins University and enjoyed a 11 year tenure at the World Bank as lead anthropologist but returned to Afghanistan following Taliban’s ouster in 2001.

Dr Ghani was also the Special Adviser to ambassador Lakhdar Brahimi from the UN Secretary General’s special envoy and a pro bono Chief Adviser to Interim President Karzai. As the Finance Minister he undertook various reforms – issued a new currency in record time, computerized the operations of treasury, fired corrupt officials from the ministry and refused to pay the army until they produced a genuine roster of soldiers. He was awarded the Sayed Jamal-ud-Din Afghan medal and recognized as the Best Finance Minister of Asia in 2003 by Emerging Markets. In 2010, he served as chairman of the Transition Coordination Commission but resigned to run for presidential elections in 2014 and won.

Lt General Tariq Shah Bahrami

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Minister of National Defense, Afghanistan

Born in Char Bagh village, Afghanistan in 1967, Lieutenant General Tariq Shah Bahrami graduated from Military University in 1986. He received Senior Officers’ Training in 1988 and in 2014 mastered Martial Arts from Loyal command and General Staff College in United Kingdom. He has participated in military training courses in USA, UK and Afghanistan. Starting his military career in 1986 as a Deputy Company Commander, he was soon promoted to commander. In 1988, he became a battalion Deputy Commander and a year later, rose to Commander of the Battalion. Post Taliban regime, he was appointed as the Head of Documentation and Liaison for the

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Re-establishing Afghan National Army Commission. In 2003 he served a five-year term as office in-charge for the 201st Corps Commander. Thereafter, till 2012 he worked as Commander for 444 Commando Forces Unit in Helmand province. During this stint, Bahrami played an important role in claiming Marja, Nadali and Washir districts from Taliban forces. He was appointed as General Manager of Planning and of Operations Directorate for Special Forces Units at the Interior Ministry. Bahrami has been instrumental in bringing reforms in Tashkeel — an organizational chart detailing all staffing positions and levels during his short stint as Chief Deputy Minister of the Ministry of Interior Affairs in 2016. Most recently, he was appointed as Acting Defense Minister in a Presidential Decree.

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CONTENTS

Asian Who’s who: leadership PROFILES: Algeria

army appointed Defence Minister Chadli Bendjedid. Bouteflika lost his position as foreign minister and in 1981 went on a self-imposed exile after corruption charges. Returning six years later, he joined the FLN and won the presidency amidst allegations of rigging in 1999. As President, Bouteflika focused on rebuilding the country and granted wide-ranging amnesty to militant Islamist groups within Algeria to resolve a long-standing civil conflict. Though this effort to reduce rebel activity was somewhat successful, during his second term in 2004, insurgents re-formed as an arm of Al-Qaeda and carried out many suicide bombings. By 2005, Bouteflika started experiencing health problems but was elected to a third term in 2009. Rarely seen in public after suffering a stroke in 2013, he sought a fourth term as president in 2014 and won.

Lt General Ahmed Gaid Salah

Chief of Staff of the People’s National Army and Vice-Minister of National Defense, Algeria Born in 1940 in the Batna district of Algeria, Lieutenant-General Ahmed Gaid Salah holds dual roles in Algerian governance. He joined the maquis at the age of 17 in 1957 and soon rose through the ranks to be appointed as the Company Commander of the 21st, 29th and 39th battalions of The National Liberation Army (ALN). After a training in Algeria and at the Academy of Vystrel in the former USSR, he had to assume various posts such as Artillery group Commander, Brigade Commander, Commander of the 3rd Military Region and Commander of the

2nd Military Region within the land battle corps. In 1994 he was appointed as the Land Forces Commander. From 2004 he started serving as the Chief of Staff of the People National Army. He was also promoted to the rank of LieutenantGeneral in 2006. He has been serving as the Vice-Minister of National Defence and Chief of Staff of the People’s National Army since 2013. Lieutenant-General Ahmed Gaid Salah was awarded the National Liberation Army medal, the People National Army medal 3rd chevron, Medal of the PNA participation in the middleeast wars 1967 and 1973, bravery medal, the military merit medal and the honour medal.

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Born in 1937 in the northeastern city of Morocco, Oujda, politician Abdelaziz Bouteflika became President of Algeria in 1999 and has won successive term elections since. In 1957, he joined the National Liberation Front (FLN) to overthrow the French rule, three years into the Algerian war for independence. He became an officer in the National Liberation Army (ALN) in 1960 and served as Foreign Minister in 1963. He also participated in the 1965 coup led by Houari Boumedienne that removed the then President Ahmed Ben Bella. He continued to serve as foreign minister in the new government. At the time of Boumedienne’s death in 1979, he seemed a likely successor but the

TECHNOLOGY

President, Algeria

BUSINESS

Abdelaziz Bouteflika

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

  Algeria 

Major General Ahcene Tafer

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ASIAN WHO’S WHO

School of Infantry before he was promoted to the rank of General in 1993 and then appointed Major General in 1999. In 1994, he was also authorised to the position of Head of Staff of the Land Forces and then, the Commander of the 3rd Military Region (RM) in 2000. Currently, he occupies the position of Commander of the Land Forces since August 2004. He was decorated with the medal of the ALN, the medal of the military merit, the medal of the National Popular Army (ANP) 2nd chevron and the medal of honor.

REGIONAL BALANCE

Born in 1943 in El-Milia, Algeria, Major General Ahcene Tafer joined the ranks of the National Liberation Army (ALN) in 1961. He has military diplomas in the fundamental training and the branch courses and Staff in Algeria as well as for higher studies of war abroad. He also holds a degree in political sciences. Tafer has served as the commander of Battalion of Infantry, Brigade of Mechanised Infantry, Branch

INDIAN DEFENCE

Commander of the Land Forces, Algeria


CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

6

383 387 413 465 513 519

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

One  GDP & Military Expenditure Two Central & South Asia Three East Asia, Pacific Rim & Australia Four West Asia and North Africa Five Developments in Asia-Pacific Region Six Equipment & Hardware Specifications: An Overview

REGIONAL BALANCE

Contents

INDIAN DEFENCE

BUSINESS

Regional Balance

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

section six


CONTENTS CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

1 GDP & Military Expenditure 2019

2016

2016

1

Afghanistan

20.889

21.657

22.925

561.347

34,656.03

2

Algeria

178.287

197.629

208.773

3,901.87

40,606.05

3

Australia

1,379.55

1,500.26

1,581.89

51,872.52

24,127.16

4

Bahrain

34.895

37.841

39.703

22,599.90

1,425.17

5

Bangladesh

261.374

285.817

312.794

1,458.85

162,951.56

6

Bhutan

2.334

2.547

2.8

2,687.86

797.76

7

Brunei

12.743

14.438

14.791

26,935.12

423.20

8

Cambodia

22.252

24.36

26.628

1,277.70

15,762.37

9

China

12,014.61

14,092.51

15,543.71

8,115.83

13,78,665.00

10

Democratic People's Republic of Korea

NA

NA

NA

25,368.62

11

Egypt

237.073

NA

NA

3,686.07

95,688.68

12

India

2,611.01

2,848.23

3,155.23

1,749.16

13,24,171.35

13

Indonesia

1,015.41

1,074.97

1,152.89

3,604.28

2,61,115.46

14

Iran

431.92

418.875

413.114

5,026.67

80,277.43

15

Iraq

197.699

223.258

233.402

4,532.74

37,202.57

16

Israel

350.609

373.751

390.656

37,192.14

8,547.10

17

Japan

4,872.14

5,167.05

5,362.22

38,982.89

1,26,994.51

18

Jordan

40.487

42.553

44.794

5,549.14

9,455.80

19

Kazakhstan

160.839

179.25

190.469

7,456.44

17,797.03

20

Kuwait

120.351

135.305

140.146

25,868.68

4,052.58

21

Kyrgyzstan

7.163

7.588

8.029

1,066.95

6,082.70

22

Laos

16.984

18.337

23

Lebanon

51.457

53.62

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TECHNOLOGY

2018

BUSINESS

2017

INDIAN DEFENCE

Country

20.059

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 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

Sr. No.

Population (Thousands)

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Estimated Gross Domestic Product Per Capita (Figures in US$)

Total estimated GDP, all figures in US$ billion


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CONTENTS BUSINESS INDIAN DEFENCE

a larger role in global affairs and coordinate manufacturing throughout the region. Initially announced in September 2013, the plan envisages six land corridors, including a land bridge between Western China and Western Russia as well as a route linking China to the Middle East through the Central Asian republics. The land routes will be supported by the Maritime Silk Road, which will connect Chinese ports with those in Singapore, India, Pakistan, the Middle East and eventually the eastern Mediterranean. Around 60 countries are involved, including nations in East Africa and Oceania, with a cumulative estimated investment of as much as $8 trillion. The architects of the plan see it as a way to bridge the “infrastructure gap” and thereby accelerate economic growth in every participating nation. The construction of rail links, roads and port facilities will help form a cohesive economic area that will also benefit from increased trade and cultural exchanges. Exhorting all countries to participate in the summit in May 2017, Chinese president Xi Jinping suggested that “what we hope to create is a big family of harmonious co-existence.” But India, an emerging economy that shares a contested border with China, worries about containment and new pathways for aggression from Pakistan. India’s refusal to participate in the Summit which was attended by leaders from 29 countries as well as the heads of the United Nations, International Monetary Fund and World Bank is due to China’s investment in the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, or CPEC, which passes through Pakistan-occupied Kashmir. India, announced in an official statement: “No country can accept a project that ignores its core concerns on sovereignty and territorial integrity.” Indian foreign secretary S. Jaishankar articulated this position at the 2017 Raisina Dialogue: “China is very sensitive about its sovereignty. The economic corridor passes through an illegal territory, an area that we call Pak-occupied Kashmir. You can imagine India’s reaction at the fact that such a project has been initiated without consulting us.” Other nations also wonder if hegemonistic designs are hidden behind the rationality of connectivity and trade. The policy initiative aims to enhance China’s centrality in the global economic unilateral approach. But how the project is conceived and implemented so far belies the rhetoric of multilateralism emanating from Beijing.

Central Asia Central Asia, central region of Asia, extending from the Caspian Sea in the west to the border of western China in the east; it is bounded on the north by Russia and on the south by Iran, Afghanistan, and China. The region consists of five former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan. It is a region that once used to

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 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

C

entral and South Asia together account for about one-quarter of the world’s population. Both the regions have countries that are mostly under developed and poor. Central Asia lies at the crossroad of Europe and Asia, and together with South Asia constitutes one of the most unstable regions of the 21st century. It encompasses the world’s largest landmass (39,95,800 sq km) and has vast natural resources, including significant reserves of oil and gas. Historically, it has acted as a crossroad for the movement of people, goods and ideas between Europe, West Asia, South Asia and East Asia. On the other hand, South Asia is strategically important because it lies astride the main sea routes from West Asia to the Far East. India’s growth outlook has improved as the impact of demonetisation exercise undertaken in November 2016 seems to be fading, and recent key structural reforms continue to pay off. This was stated by International Monetary Fund (IMF) ahead of the G20 meeting in July 2017. In November 2016, India had demonetised `500 and `1,000 notes, which accounted for about 86 per cent of the total currency in the system. The country’s growth declined to 6.1 per cent in January-March quarter of 2017 as currency replacement dented demand. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) remains bullish on India’s growth potential and has retained its GDP forecast for the country at 6.7 per cent in 2017 and 7.4 per cent in 2018. In its World Economic Outlook Update, it also estimated that the Indian economy would grow by 7.8 per cent in 2019, which make the country the world’s fastest-growing economy in 2018 and 2019, the top ranking it briefly lost in 2017 to China.“The aggregate growth forecast for the emerging markets and developing economies for 2018 and 2019 is unchanged… Growth is expected to… pick up in India…,” said the report, which was released ahead of the World Economic Forum meeting in Davos. India is likely to overtake Chinas growth prospects in 2018 because China’s GDP continues to decelerate, with a growth forecast of 6.6 per cent for 2017, as it transitions from an export and investment based economy to one based on domestic consumption as per the International Monetary Fund (IMF). In its latest report on the Asia-Pacific, the IMF said that despite its own growth slowing amid economic transition, China continues to drive global growth. According to the IMF data, China’s GDP grew by 7.3 per cent in 2014, 6.9 per cent in 2015 and 6.7 per cent in 2016, while growth projections for 2017 and 2018 are 6.6 per cent and 6.2 per cent respectively. China’s grand One Belt, One Road project is a combination of the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, and is designed to promote connectivity and cooperation among Eurasian nations via land and sea. The project demonstrates China’s quest to play

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Central & South Asia

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

2


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regional balance be called the ‘Centre of the World’. Given its abundant energy resources and by virtue of its geographical location, it has consistently been in the limelight. In the 19th century, it was the theatre of the classic great game which was played out between the Russian and the British empires. Later, it became a prized possession of the Soviet Union. The collapse of the Soviet Union led to the independence of the Central Asian states. The 9/11 terrorist attacks in the United States brought further global attention to this region, reiterating its geostrategic relevance. Along with this, the presence of hydrocarbons has again made this region important. The key players in this region are the United States, Russia and China. Central Asia’s landscape can be divided into the vast grassy steppes of Kazakhstan in the north and the Aral Sea drainage basin in the south. About 60 per cent of the region consists of desert land, the principal deserts being the Karakum, occupying most of Turkmenistan, and the Kyzyl-Kum, covering much of western Uzbekistan. Most of the desert areas are unsuitable for agricultural use except along the margins of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya river systems, which wind their way northwestward through Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and eastern Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan after rising in mountain ranges to the south and east. Those two major rivers drain into the Aral Sea and provide most of the region’s water resources, though northern Kazakhstan is drained by rivers flowing north into Russia. On the east and south Central Asia is bounded by the western Altai and other high mountain ranges extending into Iran, Afghanistan, and western China. Central Asia experiences very dry climatic conditions, and inadequate precipitation has led to heavy dependence on the Syr Darya and Amu Darya for irrigation. The region as a whole experiences hot summers and cool winters, with much sunshine and very little precipitation. The scarcity of water has led to a very uneven population distribution, with most people living along the fertile banks of the rivers or in fertile mountain foothills in the south-east; comparatively few live in the vast arid expanses of central and western Kazakhstan and western Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. The Fergana Valley is the best suited land in Central Asia for hosting a large population. Soviet leader Josef Stalin split the valley up between the Soviet republics that would become the countries of Central Asia to ensure the region remained divided, however, Uzbekistan controls most of the basin itself; Tajikistan controls the most accessible entrance to the valley from the west; and Kyrgyzstan controls the high ground around the valley. Uzbekistan also controls several exclaves within Kyrgyzstan’s portion of the valley, affording the Uzbek Government and Uzbek citizens (including militants) access fairly deep into Kyrgyz territory. These complex geographic and political divisions ensure that no one country can dominate Central Asia’s core, and hence Central Asia itself. Russia’s conquest of the region began in the 17th century and continued until the last independent Uzbek khanates were annexed or made into protectorates in the 1870s. Soviet rule replaced that of the Russian tsars after the Russian Revolution of 1917, and thereafter the region was increasingly integrated into the Soviet system through a planned economy and improved communications. In the 1920s and ’30s the Soviet government created five Soviet socialist republics (S.S.R.) out of the region: the Kazakh S.S.R., the Uzbek S.S.R., the Kirgiz S.S.R., the Tajik S.S.R., and the Turkmen S.S.R. Under Soviet rule, southern Central Asia undertook the large-scale cultivation of cotton to supply the U.S.S.R.’s textile industry with raw material. When the Soviet Union collapsed, all five Central Asian Soviet socialist republics obtained their independence in 1991, becoming the sovereign and independent nations of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan. The outlook for Central Asia’s economy in 2017 has improved with unexpected recovery in some countries driven by both domestic and external factors. Growth in the subregion as a whole is expected to reach 3.2 per cent in 2017 and 3.8 per cent in 2018, higher than the 3.1 per cent

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Central & south asia

and 3.5 per cent forecast in Asian Development Outlook 2017 Most experts agree that the balance of power is changing in Central Asia, with Russia and China playing a greater role than the US, which had been the key guarantor of stability in the region until recently. The US is now facing a diminished presence in the region with the withdrawal of its troops from Afghanistan. However, “sustainable development” of the region is still on the agenda of US foreign policy experts, even though the US has “scaled back” its presence and is not going to be “a critical decider” in the region, according to Eugene Rumer, the director of the Russia and Eurasia Program at Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. He says that Washington will “come back to normality” and save its presence in the region – a step that would be “mutually acceptable” for all stakeholders. According to Rumer, the US is interested in making Central Asia a prosperous region, “free of geopolitical competition.” However, will such a scenario come true, taking into account China’s increasing influence in Central Asia and Russia’s attempt to maintain its clout there? To quote Carnegie Moscow Center Director Dmitri Trenin, there are no reasons to believe that Russia and China will compete politically at least for the next 10 years. After all, Russia is “a guarantor of security” in Central Asia, and Beijing doesn’t see the Russian forces in this region as a threat to China’s national interest. There are signs of an emerging regionalism though it remains inchoate. Even in their present form, however, they pose the question of whether the countries of Central Asia are on the cusp of creating some new kind of entity to reflect their common heritage and shared interests. Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan could provide the kind of leadership that France and Germany gave the European Union in its early days. Central Asians are actively grasping toward giving the new spirit of regionalism some kind of institutional expression. This is the larger purpose behind Uzbekistan’s proposed region-wide initiative to devise a comprehensive water treaty that the UN can embrace and ratify. The Foreign Ministers have also met recently in order to plan a gathering of the Presidents, without outsiders. At that meeting, expected soon, the Presidents will chart out their future course of action. They are studying examples of regionally based consultative organizations elsewhere. ASEAN, the Nordic Council, the Arab-Maghreb Union, the Association of Caribbean States, and the East African Community are but a few of the possible models. A group of analysts in Kazakhstan has already called for such a regional approach, not in opposition to the many larger entities like the EU, SCO, or the EEU, nor as an alternative to the existing national states, but as a kind of second-story on the national houses that have successfully survived their first quarter century. The Central Asia Union of the 1990s is no more, but the impulse that gave rise to it has revived and is stronger than ever. The major powers should understand that cooperation and coordination among the states of Central Asia is not against anyone. It is for Central Asia itself—its stability, and its peaceful development. Ultimately, it is also in line with the core interests of all the great powers. External powers should not seek to join or to attend meetings as observers. To the extent that the Central Asians themselves seek it they should be prepared to work with them as a collectivity, and in accordance with the rules they set for their joint activity. They should work with the Central Asians as a group, not around them. All of the six countries of Greater Central Asia seek good relations with China, Russia, the United States, and the European Union. To this end they have embraced some form of balance as the key to such relations. If the six countries together affirm this principle, as is likely, then the big powers should accept it as a reality and should desist from interfering directly in the Central Asians’ regional deliberations. It may be too much to expect external powers to abstain from interfering in the process of regional self-definition that is going forward today in Central Asia. Nonetheless, it would be wise for them to do so: A greater degree of cooperation and coordination across the region is a positive

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regional balance way to foster economic and social progress and to prevent such negative phenomena as drug trafficking, criminality, and radical Islamism. Above all, it has the real potential of promoting stability, which all major external powers profess to be their goal.

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Pakistan-Afghanistan Region Camps of Pakistan-backed militant groups have mushroomed across the Line of Control in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (Pok), with 20 more coming up since the Indian army launched a surgical strike on terror launch pads in September 2016. When the Indian army had mounted the surgical assault, there were around 35 training camps of various militant groups across the LoC and many were dismantled and shifted deep inside Pakistan occupied Kashmir. Quoting intelligence reports in first quarter of 2017 government officials said at 20 new terrorist camps have come up, while the earlier ones have also returned closer to the LoC, taking their number from 35 to 55. All these camps are “actively operating”, they said. In the first four months of 2017, there were 60 infiltration attempts along the LoC in which 15 terrorists managed to enter into Jammu and Kashmir. Quoting intelligence reports, Indian officials said as of May 1, 2017, around 160 terrorists are active in the Kashmir valley and their Pakistani handlers have instructed them to intensify attacks on security forces to keep the “pot boiling and the LoC active”. In July 2016, anti-India protests broke out across the Kashmir valley following the death of local militant leader Burhan Wani. Violent demonstrations and protests calling for an independent Kashmir have continued through November 2016, with more than ninety people killed and thousands wounded in the heavy-handed response by Indian security forces. In September 2016, armed militants attacked a remote Indian Army base in Uri, near the Line of Control, killing ninteen Indian soldiers in the deadliest attack on the Indian armed forces in decades. Indian officials have accused Pakistani militant group Jaish-e-Mohammad, a group with alleged ties to the Inter-Services Intelligence—Pakistan’s main intelligence agency—of being behind the attack. Tensions along the LoC in Jammu and Kashmir remain high between the nuclear-armed neighbors with cease fire violations taking place regularly. It is learnt that recently the Indian Army has used 105mm artillery field guns for a brief period, according to The Indian Express news paper. Ever since the ceasefire in November 2003, Army has usually resorted to the use of artillery as a final resort after it has utilised personal weapons and mortars. The Army’s change in tactics in terms of its response comes amidst reports of the Pakistani Army using heavy calibre weapons, namely 120mm mortar, on the LoC against the Indian Army five times this year. A recent report revealed that 138 Pakistan Army personnel were killed in 2017 in “tactical operations and retaliatory cross-border firings” along LoC by Indian Army. As per India’s Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), The terrorist related violence has been on a steady increase in Jammu and Kashmir in the past three years with 222 incidents recorded in 2014, 208 in 2015, 322 in 2016 and as many as 318 people, including 203 terrorists and 75 security personnel, were killed in terror-related incidents in Jammu and Kashmir in 2017. This information was given to the Indian Parliament by the Minister of State for Home, during Question Hour in December 2017. Pakistan’s disputes with neighboring India and Afghanistan periodically erupt in violence. Domestic attacks involving disparate terrorist and insurgent groups, and counter-offensives by Pakistan’s military, have killed tens of thousands of Pakistanis over a decade and forced nearly 1.5 million from their homes. Sectarian violence against minorities is fueled by a narrow vision for Pakistan’s national identity that has been promoted by political movements and state institutions. The inability of state institutions to reliably provide peaceful ways to resolve competing interests has encouraged groups to see violence as a legitimate alternative. The violent instability of Pakistan, the world’s sixth-most populous nation, poses a threat to

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Central & south asia

regional and international security. However, the country has expanded its economy and begun addressing energy shortages and investing in infrastructure, steps that have begun to boost the economic growth vital to improved stability. With continued violence in Kashmir and a heightened threat of terrorist activity by Pakistan-based militant groups, the threat of a serious military confrontation between India and Pakistan remains high.

Afghanistan The American war in Afghanistan is the longest and one of the costliest military operations in United States history. Yet, the Taliban are back in many parts of the country from which they had been purged, and militants associated with both the Taliban and the Islamic State frequently attack civilians. Afghan forces still lack the manpower, equipment and training needed to take back large areas of territory from Taliban control. President Trump announced in August 2017 that he would send more troops to Afghanistan as part of his strategy to “win” the conflict. The plan that Trump spelled out is similar to that of President Barack Obama and prioritizes counterterrorism and training Afghan forces. But, he said, “We are not nation-building again. We are killing terrorists.” Achieving a just peace in Afghanistan is difficult without institutionalization of good governance and rule of law, based on the country’s progressive constitution. At the heart of this endeavor—to secure the future of its youthful population with 70 per cent under the age of 25—is to fight and eliminate endemic corruption. Corruption weakens Afghanistan’s nascent state and empowers its enemy. It is the mother of all threats to Afghanistan’s stabilization and sustainable development. Sustainable development is intertwined with security and democratic governance. In the Afghan context, human security and protective security are mutually reinforcing one another. Investment in one delivers dividends for the rest and vice versa. That is why in 2016 Brussels Ministerial Forum, the NUG presented for international support Afghanistan’s comprehensive National Peace and Development Framework (NPDF). One year on since the Brussels Forum, the Afghan government has made notable progress toward fiscal sustainability and increased public service delivery. Afghanistan’s Ministry of Finance has met and exceeded every one of its revenue targets set by IMF, while managing expenditure within constraints. The Afghan parliament recently approved the proposed national budget, which for the first time reflects the fiscal realities of Afghanistan. In parallel to these and other poverty reduction efforts, the Afghan government has continued to help develop the private sector to create sustainable jobs and drive growth. So far, better business licensing has been advanced; punitive tax penalties abolished; and public-private partnerships legislation developed. And much more is being done to provide the right environment for attracting and retaining domestic and foreign investment in Afghanistan’s virgin markets. Deteriorating security situation and the crippled and aid-dependent economy and the lack of employment opportunities in Afghanistan have contributed heavily to an increasingly intense brain drain. Reaching a peace deal with Gulbuddin Hekmatyar’s Hezb-i-Islami was a major breakthrough for the Afghan government in the pursuit of securing stability for the troubled country. Moreover, in pursuit of regional connectivity, the Afghan government is trying its best to use the country’s strategic location to encourage trans-Asian connectivity. Thus the recent opening of a freight train connection with China and, by the same token, a railway line with Turkmenistan increases the chances of Afghanistan becoming a regional trading hub that could spur economic growth in the region. China has to realize that to fulfill its dreams of “One Belt, One Road,” it needs a secure and stable Afghanistan in place. Within the country, despite failing to address unemployment, the Afghan government was successful in generating more revenue than its set target for 2016, which is deeply significant for the economic development of the

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CONTENTS WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS

There is no overarching security architecture or formal coalition of powers in southern Asia. Nor does it seem practical or realistic to try to impose such an overall architecture on the region at present. There have been sporadic attempts to build up a body of law and practice on security issues in the region. For instance, a SAARC Regional Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism was signed as early as 1987. But these attempts have proved ineffective without extradition and other arrangements, and in the absence of political will. Cross-border terrorism still receives support from state organs in Pakistan. Nor is there a regionwide forum dedicated to discussion of regional security issues. Instead, the countries have relied on bilateral arrangements, and on informal agreements and understandings to ensure that threats to one or more states are tackled. Southern Asian countries do not today face existential national security threats from abroad. Even though some politicians find it convenient to claim external threats, the real threats to national security today are internal. Only in the case of Pakistan and Afghanistan are their internal threats existential – threats to their very existence as states. Pakistan is yet to establish viable state systems based on a common sense of nationhood and is challenged by large organised groups of its own citizens, with some outside support, seeking to establish a religious state, or a caliphate, or to abolish the state altogether. This perpetual source of instability in the western part of southern Asia prevents effective regional cooperation. Frankly, it is hard to see an early end or solution to this problem from within Pakistan. Afghanistan’s long and often successful resistance to these forces suggests that there is more hope there of a benign outcome. The situation in West Asia, which has deteriorated over the last decade, is further fuelling terrorist, extremist and radical religious forces. For the present, we are, therefore, left seeking means to manage and contain the problem. Given trans-border ethnicities, there is fertile ground in South Asia for separatist movements and insurgencies. Many of these insurgent groups operate in less governed spaces and across national boundaries. Fortunately, cooperation among states in dealing with these movements has improved in the last decade, and the countries are, by and large, get-

Central & South Asia n Kazakhstan n Kyrgyzstan n Tajikistan n Turkmenistan n Uzbekistan n Afghanistan n Bangladesh n Bhutan n India n Nepal n Pakistan n Sri Lanka

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

South Asia

ting better at dealing with these problems through a combination of political and other means. Deaths from terrorism and internal conflict in south Asia have declined steadily in the last decade except in certain regions. The risks of inter-state conventional conflict in the area have been managed successfully for over four decades now, and its costs and risks are now better appreciated than in the 1950s and 1960s. Indeed, in some ways, the fact that there are two nuclear weapon states in southern Asia has actually stabilised the situation as far as conventional conflict is concerned and has driven conflict to other sub-conventional levels – to terrorism, covert action and forms of asymmetric warfare. The other aspect of national security that is increasingly relevant is maritime security in the Indian Ocean. When India started reforming its economy in 1991, external merchandise trade accounted for 16-18 per cent of GDP. By 2014, that had risen to 49.3 per cent, and over 80 per cent of that was carried by sea. The proportion has since dropped as world trade has shrunk. This gives us an idea of how important the Indian Ocean is to India’s security. For maritime states like Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, the Maldives and for Myanmar, the Indian Ocean and its security is critical to their economic well being. The South Asian scene has been marred by hostility between the nuclear-armed India and Pakistan, and even more by internal unrest in most of the countries of this region. India is battling terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir, in its north-eastern states and in the rest of the country. Left-wing extremism (LWE) has affected a large number of some states. In terms of geographical spread, the worst affected states are Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha and Bihar. However, pockets also exist in Maharashtra, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Telangana and Uttar Pradesh. LWE remains an area of concern for internal security of the country. The Centre’s revamped strategy to tackle the Naxal menace seems to be bearing fruit, with statistics showing a significant improvement on the ground. There were only 58 districts affected by Left-Wing Extremism (LWE) in 2017, said a report on The Times of India, as against 75 districts in 2015 and 67 in 2016. The report quoted data compiled by the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) to say that 90 per cent of the attacks took place from just four states: Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Odisha. Officials attributed this to a redrawn anti-Maoist strategy, under which they are targeting senior leadership of the extremists and their informers. The Ministry of Home Affairs also uploaded details of LWE violence on its website. It reported a reduction in LWE violence in all states of the country, with the only exception being Andhra Pradesh. In Andhra, there were 26 incidents reported in 2017 as against 17 in 2016, but it did report a drop from 2015, when there were 35 incidents of LWE in Andhra Pradesh. But in every other state, the number of incidents have dropped significantly.

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country and public spending. Corruption has remained a key inhibitor of growth and prosperity. Apart from generating employment opportunities, the Afghan government needs to install experienced professionals in the security sector to overcome gaps. A lack of proper leadership combined with an increase in corruption in the security ranks has had severe repercussions. The government needs to put all internal differences aside and bring decisive reforms to the security apparatus. In Afghanistan, Pakistan has never ceased to support the very enemy that the United States and allied forces have been struggling to defeat. Its army and intelligence service remained throughout “an incubator and enabler of extremism.” Washington’s inability “to solve the riddle” of Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence and “to stop its covert interference in Afghanistan” constitutes the “greatest strategic failure of the American war.” The Afghan government, in February 2018, has approved a new security plan for the capital, Kabul, following a series of deadly militant attacks there. Interior Ministry spokesman Nasrat Rahimi said on February 7, 2018, that the new plan will be implemented in the next two weeks. Rahimi said more than 100 streets leading into the center of Kabul will be put under heavy surveillance as part of the plan. He said it includes as many as 52 measures, most of which will not be revealed to the public. The plan is due to be implemented in three phases, with the first focused on areas most threatened, he said. President Ashraf Ghani has sacked seven army officers, including two generals, for “professional negligence” over the attack on the military compound.

INDIAN DEFENCE

Central & south asia


regional balance KAZAKHSTAN  General Information

Area Capital Coastline Population Ethnic Divisions

Religions

Languages

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Literacy Government Suffrage Administrative Divisions

: 27,24,900 sq km : Astana : 0 km (landlocked) : 18,360,353 (July 2016 est.) : Kazakh (Qazaq) 63.1 per cent, Russian 23.7 per cent, Uzbek 2.9 per cent, Ukrainian 2.1 per cent, Uighur 1.4 per cent, Tatar 1.3 per cent, German 1.1 per cent, other 4.4 per cent (2009 est.) : Muslim 70.2 per cent, Christian 26.2 per cent (mainly Russian Orthodox), other 0.2 per cent, atheist 2.8 per cent, unspecified 0.5 per cent (2009 est.) : Kazakh (official, Qazaq) 74 per cent (understand spoken language), Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the “language of interethnic communication”) 94.4 per cent (understand spoken language) (2009 est.) : 99.8 per cent : Presidential Republic : 18 years of age; universal : 14 provinces and 2 cities

Defence Total Armed Forces

: Active: 39,000 (Army: 20,000; Navy: 3,000; Air: 12,000; MoD: 4,000) Terms of Service : 12 months Paramilitary Forces : 31,500 National Guard: 20,000 State Security Service: 2,500 est Border Service: 9,000 est

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Central & south asia: Kazakhstan

Security Environment After having fully consolidated the state for 25 years, President Nursultan Nazarbayev of Kazakhstan has recently initiated the process of devolving some presidential powers to the Mazhilis (Parliament) and the Government. The 76-year-old Nazarbayev, the most popular and accomplished President, has been in power since even before the Soviet collapse in 1991. In 2015, he won a fifth term with an overwhelming 98 per cent of the vote. But early this year (January 25, 2017), in an address to the nation, Nazarbayev called for amending the constitution to give more power and responsibilities to the parliament and the government for managing social and economic development. He said “vertical separation of power was necessary to overcome the enormous difficulties of state formation” including to meet the impending “global and regional challenges”. The proposed reform, he said, is a “serious redistribution of power, democratization of the political system as a whole.” Under the new system, the President would focus only on strategic, foreign policy and national security matters while serving as “supreme arbiter” between the various branches of government. In essence, the Government and Parliament would be solely responsible for running the country’s affairs. It seems that about 40 functions are to be transferred to Parliament. These include the Parliament’s role in the formation of Government, bringing amendments, choosing the cabinet, and lawmakers holding a “vote of no confidence” on a sitting cabinet. What it all means is that the Government would be accountable to the Mazhilis rather than to the President. In January 2018, Kazakhstan has assumed the rotating presidency of the UNSC. Kazakhstan’s Senate Chairman Kassym-Jomart Tokayev noted “this event is an historic victory for Kazakhstan…made possible by the international authority of President Nursultan Nazarbayev.” Military Expenditure in Kazakhstan decreased to 1504.30 USD Million in 2016 from $2046.20 million in 2015. Military Expenditure in Kazakhstan averaged $941.72 million from 1993 until 2016, reaching an all time high of $2046.20 million in 2015 and a record low of $273.80 million in 1999. Representatives of the Kazakh Ministry of Defense and the Pakistan military establishment signed a joint plan of action for 2018 during a meeting of the Kazakh-Pakistani Joint Military Commission, held in Astana, the press service of Kazakhstan’s Defense Ministry said on November 11, 2017. The delegation of Pakistan was led by Lieutenant-General Malik Zafar Iqbal, Chief of the Headquarters of the Joint Chiefs of Staff of the Armed Forces of Pakistan.

ARMY Strength : 20,000 4 regional comd: Astana, East, West and Southern Forces by Role Manoeuvre Armoured Tk Bde : 1 Mechanised Mech Bde : 3 Air Manoeuvre Air Aslt Bde : 4 Combat Support Arty Bde : 3 SSM Unit : 1 Cbt Engr Bde : 3 Equipment by Type Armoured Fighting Vehicles MBT : 300 T-72BA Recce : 100: 40 BRDM-2; 60 BRM-1 IFV : 609: 500 BMP-2; 107 BTR-80A; 2 BTR-3E

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Forces by Role Manoeuvre Mechanised Naval Inf Bde : 1 Equipment by type Armoured fighting vehicles

:

70 BTR-82A

AIR FORCE Strength Forces by Role FTR FGA

: 12,000 (incl AD) : 1 sqn with MiG-29/MiG-29UB Fulcrum; 2 sqn with MiG-31B/MiG-31BM Foxhound : 1 sqn with MiG-27 Flogger D; MiG-23UB Flogger C; 1 sqn with Su-27/Su-27UB Flanker;

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS

Coastal Defence

BUSINESS

Personnel : 3,000 Equipment by Type Patrol and Coastal Combatants : 24 PCG : 3 Kazakhstan with 2 quad lnchr with 3M24 Uran (SS-N-25 Switchblade) AShM, 1 3M47 Ghibka Inchr with Igla (SA-N-10 Grouse) SAM PBF : 5: 3 Sea Dolphin; 2 Saygak PB : 16: 4 Almaty; 3 Archangel; 1 Dauntless; 4 Sardar; 1 Turk (AB25); 2 Zhuk (of which 1 may be operational); 1 Other Logistics and Support : AGS 1 Zhaik

INDIAN DEFENCE

NAVY

1 sqn with Su-27/Su-30SM Flanker Ground Attack : 1 sqn with Su-25 Frogfoot TPT : 1 unit with Tu-134 Crusty; Tu-154 Careless, 1 sqn with An-12 Cub, An-26 Curl, An-30 Clank, An-72 Coaler, C295M Trg : 1 sqn with L-39 Albatros Atk Hel : 5 sqn with Mi-24V Hind TPT Hel : Some sqn with Bell 205 (UH-1H); H145; Mi-8 Hip; Mi-17V-5 Hip; Mi-171Sh Hip; Mi-26 Halo Air Defence : Some regt with S-75M Volkhov (SA-2 Guideline); S-125 Neva (SA-3 Goa); S-300/S300PS (SA-10/10B Grumble); 2K11 Krug (SA-4 Ganef ); S-200 Angara (SA-5 Gammon); 2K12 Kub (SA-6 Gainful) Equipment by Type Aircraft : 103 combat capable FTR : 46: 12 MiG-29 Fulcrum; 2 MiG-29UB Fulcrum; 32 MiG-31/MiG-31BM Foxhound FGA : 43: 12 MiG-27 Flogger D; 2 MiG-23UB Flogger C; 21 Su-27 Flanker; 4 Su-27UB Flanker; 4 Su-30SM ATK : 14: 12 Su-25 Frogfoot; 2 Su-25UB Frogfoot ISR : 1 An-30 Clank TPT : 19: Medium 2 An-12 Cub; Light 16: 6 An-26 Curl, 2 An-72 Coaler; 6 C295; 2 Tu-134 Crusty; PAX 1 Tu-154 Careless TRG : 17 L-39 Albatros Helicopters ATK : 20 Mi-24V Hind (some upgraded) MRH : 24: 20 Mi-17V-5 Hip; 4 Mi-171Sh Hip TPT : 13: Heavy 4 Mi-26 Halo; Light 9: 3 Bell-205 (UH-1H); 6 H145 UAV ISR : Heavy 2 Wing Loong AD : SAM Long-range : S-200 Angara (SA-5 Gammon); S-300 (SA-10 Grumble); 40+ S-300PS (SA-10B Grumble) Medium-range : 2K11 Krug (SA-4 Ganef ); S-75M Volkhov (SA-2 Guideline) Short-range : 2K12 Kub (SA-6 Gainful); S-125 Neva (SA-3 Goa) Point-defence : 9K35 Strela-10 (SA-13 Gopher) Air-Launched Missiles AAM : IR R-60 (AA-8 Aphid); R-73 (AA-11 Archer); IR/ SARH : R-27 (AA-10 Alamo); SARH R-33 (AA-9 Amos); ARH : R-77 (AA-12 Adder – on MiG-31BM) ASM : Kh-23 (AS-7 Kerry); Kh-25 (AS-10 Karen); Kh-29 (AS-14 Kedge) ARM : Kh-27 (AS-12 Kegler); Kh-28 (AS-9 Kyle); Kh-58 (AS-11 Kilter) Border Service (Ministry of Interior) : est 9,000 Equipment by Type Aircraft : Light: 4 An-26 Curl Helicopters Tpt : Medium 15: 1 Mi-171; 14 Mi-171Sh

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

APC : 359: 150 APC (T) MT-LB, 207:190 APC (W) BTR-80; 17 Cobra; 2 PPV Arlan Engineering & Maintenance Vehicles AEV : MT-LB Anti-Tank/Anti-Infrastructure MSL : SP: 3+: 3 BMP-T; HMMWV with 9K111-1 Konkurs (AT-5 Spandrel); 9P149 Shturm (MTLB with AT-6 Spiral) MANPATS : 9K111 Fagot (AT-4 Spigot); 9K111-1Konkurs (AT-5 Spandrel); 9K115 Metis (AT-7 Saxhorn) Guns : 100mm 68 MT-12/T-12 Arty : 611 SP Art : 246: 122mm 120 2S1; 6 Semser; 152mm 120 2S3 Akatsiya Towed : 150: 122mm 100 D-30; 152mm 50 2A65 Msta-B (122mm up to 300 D-30 in store) Guns/Mors : 120mm 25 2S9 Nona-S MRLs : 127: 122mm 100 BM-21 Grad; 220mm 3 TOS-1A; 300mm 24: 6 BM-30 Smerch; 18 IMI Lynx (with 50 msl); (122mm 100 BM-21 Grad; 220mm 180 9P140 Uragan all in store) Mors : 63 SP 120mm 18 Cardom; 120mm 45 2B11 Sani/M120 Surface-To-Surface Missile Launchers SRBM : 12 9K79 Tochka (SS-21 Scarab)

REGIONAL BALANCE

Central & south asia: Kazakhstan


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TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS INDIAN DEFENCE

domestic demand and a gradual recovery in the global economy and commodity prices. n China’s economy will grow 6.5 per cent in 2017 and 6.3 per cent in 2018, compared with 6.7 per cent in 2016, as the government rebalances toward consumption and services. n In the rest of the region, including the large economies in Southeast Asia, growth is expected to pick up slightly to 5 per cent in 2017 and 5.1 per cent in 2018, up from 4.9 per cent in 2016. n As a whole, the economies of developing East Asia and Pacific are projected to expand at 6.2 per cent in 2017 and 6.1 per cent in 2018. n Poverty in the region is likely to continue to fall, driven by sustained growth and rising labor incomes. n The global environment and domestic vulnerabilities still pose risks to the region’s prospects. These include: faster-than-expected interest rate hikes in the US; protectionist sentiments in some advanced economies; and rapid credit expansion and high levels of debt in several East Asian countries. n To address these risks, the report recommends that policy makers continue to focus on prudent macroeconomic management and ensuring sustainable fiscal balances in the medium term. n Growth in the region will continue to be driven by strong domestic demand, including public, and increasingly private, investment. This trend will also be supported by gradually rising demand for exports, as emerging markets and developing economies recover. n The slow pace of recovery in commodity prices will benefit commodity exporters in the region, but won’t unduly hurt the economies of commodity importers in East Asia. n In China, growth will continue to moderate, reflecting the impact of the government’s measures to reduce excess capacity and credit expansion. As a result, the report expects activity in the real estate sector to slow down. n In the short term, policy makers should prioritise measures that counteract global risks threatening the availability and cost of external finance, as well as export growth. n Across the region’s large economies, increasing fiscal revenues can help governments finance programmes that boost growth and foster inclusion while reducing risks to fiscal sustainability. n Some smaller commodity-exporting economies will need to take steps to increase their fiscal solvency. n In China, the government can sustain its efforts to reduce corporate debt and restructure state-owned enterprises, tighten the regulation of shadow banking and address rising household mortgage

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

E

ast Asia and the Pacific Rim (EAPR) cover all the Asian countries east of Myanmar. Australia, though not strictly a part of the region, has been included because of its strategic location astride the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The three important powers in the region are the United States, China and Japan. China is the largest country in this region and a major concern for the other countries of the region who wish to cope with its growing economic and military might. China, while being apprehensive of the US hegemony and assertiveness, is also aware that the latter’s presence in the area prevents an independent military role for Japan, its historical antagonist who under Prime Minister Shinzo Abe is evolving a new security posture. The region’s growth outlook for 2017-19 remains broadly positive. China’s growth moderation and rebalancing are expected to continue. In the region’s other large developing economies, growth is projected to pick up slightly. Poverty has continued to decline in most countries and is projected to fall further. Global and regional vulnerabilities place a premium on macroeconomic prudence. Mobilizing additional revenues will create space for measures to support growth and foster inclusion. Some smaller commodity-exporting economies need to focus on lowering threats to fiscal solvency. Much of the region may need to adjust accommodative monetary policies. In China, reforms of the corporate sector, including restructuring of SOEs, and measures to bring credit growth under control are critical to reducing vulnerabilities. Elsewhere in the region, improvements in financial supervision and prudential regulation will be required. Developing EAPR economies could benefit significantly from improving the quality of public spending, deepening regional integration, and reducing the agricultural sector’s increasingly adverse environmental footprint. Major issues which are impacting the security environment in East Asia are: Japan’s Defence Policy and China’s Military Strategy, Korean Peninsula, Taiwan, US Interest in the Region and ASEAN activities. In delivering the spring version of the fund’s World Economic Outlook in 2017, a broad report on the international economy that is updated several times a year, the IMF’s economists took the opportunity to warn again against protectionist tendencies in developed economies. The fund forecast a growth rate in 2017 of 3.5 per cent, compared with 3.1 per cent in 2016. EAPR remains one of the main growth drivers of the world economy. The World Bank update in April 2017 gives the following key findings with regard to the region covering East Asia and Pacific Rim: n The outlook for developing East Asia is expected to remain broadly positive in the next three years, with growth driven by robust

REGIONAL BALANCE

East Asia, Pacific Rim & Australia

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

3


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regional balance

East Asia, Pacific Rim & Australia

debt. Reforms to reduce excess industrial capacity could be complemented with improved social transfers and labor policies. n With credit growth remaining high across much of the region, including Vietnam, the Philippines and Lao PDR, the report suggests an emphasis on strengthening regulation and enhancing supervision. n The longer-term challenge for the region lies in sustaining rapid growth while ensuring greater inclusion. Governments can address these challenges by increasing productivity and investment, which have slowed recently in several economies, as well as by improving the quality of public spending. n In the face of rising protectionism outside the region, East Asia can seize opportunities to advance regional integration, including by deepening ongoing initiatives, lowering barriers to labor mobility and expanding cross-border flows of goods and services within the ASEAN Economic Community. n Policy makers can put future economic prospects on a more sustainable path if they take steps to reduce pollution caused by farming, a rising threat amid the intensification of agriculture in the region.

Japan cannot be complacent in its diplomacy under Prime Minister Abe. Japan’s main foreign policy aim has been to consolidate rule-based liberal international order, as Japan has clear limit in its military power. The rule of law in international community is, therefore, an important basis for Japan’s foreign policy. However, China’s denial of the ICJ’s ruling on the South China Sea, and Russia’s annexation of Crimea in 2014 together with Donald Trump’s victory in the US Presidential election in 2016 seriously caused serious unpredictability and anxiety in the future of liberal international order. The future of Northeast Asian regional order also seems uncertain. North Korea has repeatedly caused tensions in this region, and China’s military buildup accelerates arms race in Asia. China’s assertive maritime activities make regional cooperation more difficult. However, as the probability of the ratification of the TPP by all the signatories now seem unlikely, Japan’s need to enhance regional economic cooperation particularly within the framework of the China-Japan-Korea (CJK) trilateral cooperation. Though Japan’s international influence is limited, Prime Minister Abe continues to be a key player among the G7 countries in 2017 in responding to international crises which we will perhaps see in the coming years.

Japanese Foreign and Security Policies

Chinese Military Strategy

On December 5, 2016, Shizo Abe became the fourth longest serving prime minister in the postwar Japan after Eisaku Sato, Shigeru Yoshida, and Junichiro Koizumi. Before Abe became prime minister for the second time in December 2012, six prime ministers stayed in power only around one year respectively. Abe won two lower house elections and two upper house elections since December 2012 until July 2016. This is an unprecedented record. rime Minister Abe visited 66 countries and regions in total in the last four years. In September 2014, Abe’s visits to foreign countries outnumbered all his previous prime ministers. His name is now well known to many people in the world, and he can now enjoy friendly personal relationship with many foreign leaders including President-Elect Donald Trump whom Abe met on November 17. Prime Minister Abe met with President Vladimir Putin 16 times including his most recent meeting in Yamaguchi on December 15 and 16. Abe made many records in foreign and security policy. Prime Minister Abe published Japan’s first National Security Strategy in December 2013, and established Japan’s National Security Council in the same month. These make it possible to present nationally coordinated long-term strategy. Inter-departmental rivalry often hampered smooth policy-making process in Japan. Besides, the security bills which were passed in September 2015 broaden Japan’s security activities in international arena. Japan’s government named this as “proactive contribution to peace”. Japan can now exercise collective self-defense right to a limited extent. Together with new defense guidelines between Japan and the US, Japan’s Self Defense Forces can now more deeply collaborate with US Armed Forces. At the same time, Japanese government under Abe’s Cabinet has been expanding security cooperation with likeminded countries, such as Australia, India, the UK and France. To sum up, Japan now presents much higher profile in international politics. It is often said that Abe’s aim is to contain China by creating a coalition which encircles China. This is simply wrong, as the rise of China has been the basis of Japan’s economic growth. China is Japan’s biggest trading partner, and Japan has been the biggest provider of both ODA and FDI in sum. As the national interests of the second and the third biggest economic powers are closely tied, two governments agreed on establishing “Mutually Beneficial Relationships based on Common Strategic Interests” at the time of the first Abe’s Cabinet. In November 2014, two governments elevated the bilateral relationships based on newly agreed “Four Points Principles”.

Notable 2016 Chinese military developments include reforms intended to enhance the People’s Liberation Army’s (PLA) ability to conduct joint operations; improve its ability to fight short duration, high-intensity regional conflicts at greater geographic distances from the Chinese mainland; and strengthen the Communist Party’s control over the military. These changes include establishing new command elements and units including the Joint Staff Department, Joint Operations Command Center, Overseas Operations Office, Joint Logistics Support Force, and reorganising the Central Military Commission into 15 functional departments, offices, and commissions. The PLA has also established five regionally based joint theaters: Northern, Central, Western, Southern, and Eastern, and using its increasing power to assert sovereignty claims over East and South China Seas features including photographically documented construction at military outposts in the Spratly Islands such as Fiery Cross, Mischief, and Subi Reefs featuring runways at least 8,800 feet long, large port facilities, and water and fuel storage. This report also notes Beijing’s annual military spending increased an average of 8.5 per cent annually in inflation-adjusted terms between 20072016 and that Chinese leaders appear committed to maintaining increased defence spending with slowing national economic growth. Such spending reached $144.3 billion per year in 2016, although the Department of Defense (DOD) maintains this actual annual spending exceeds $180 billion but that poor accounting transparency makes calculating these military expenditures difficult, that Beijing’s published military budget excludes research and development and foreign weapons purchases, and that noted defense analysis firm Jane’s 360 expects China’s defense spending to increase annually by 7 per cent reaching $260 billion by 2020. This military modernisation targets capabilities with the potential to weaken critical US military-technological advantages. China seeks to enhance its modernisation by acquiring foreign military and dual-use technologies through cyber espionage, foreign direct investment, and exploiting Chinese nationals having access to these technologies. 2016 saw China use its intelligence services and other illegal approaches to violate US laws and export controls to obtain national security and export-restricted technologies, controlled equipment, and other materials. This was demonstrated in August 2016 by the US sentencing a naturalised citizen to 50 months imprisonment for conspiring with a Chinese national to violate the Arms Export Control Act by attempting to illegally buy and export jet engines used in F-16, F-22, and F-35 fighter

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CONTENTS

East Asia, Pacific Rim & Australia

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

East Asia, Pacific Rim & Australia

N. Korea

S. Korea

BUSINESS

China

Taiwan

Laos Vietnam

Cambodia

Philippines

INDIAN DEFENCE

Brunei Singapore

I

n

d

o

n

e

s

i

a

Australia

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Thailand

REGIONAL BALANCE

Myanmar


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regional balance aircraft, the MQ-9 unmanned aerial vehicle, and related technical data. The growing use of the Chinese Coast Guard and China Maritime Militia to advance Beijing’s maritime claims is noted. Additional noteworthy developments chronicled here include Army modernisation emphasising across theatre mobility exercises, combat brigade mechanisation, creating high mobility infantry and combined arms battalions, and delivering advanced command, control, communication, computers, and intelligence (C4I) equipment providing real-time data-sharing at division and brigade level. China’s Navy is retiring legacy combatants and replacing them with larger multi-mission ships featuring advanced anti-ship, anti-air, and anti-submarine weapons and sensors. This modernisation facilitates a naval transition from “near sea” defence to a mixture of “near sea” and “far seas” protection. The Air Force now includes 2,700 aircraft (not including UAV’s) and is modernising rapidly closing the gap with Western forces in a broad range of capabilities while also possessing of the world’s largest forces of advanced surface-to-air missiles. The People’s Liberation Army Rocket Force (PLARF) is responsible for China’s land-based conventional and nuclear missiles and is enhancing modernization of its arsenal including deploying the DF-26 Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile capable of conducting conventional and nuclear precision strikes against ground targets and conventional strikes against western Pacific Ocean naval targets. The Strategic Support Force (SSF) established in late 2015 is believed to guide the PLA’s cyber, electronic warfare, and space missions. The PLA appears to see space as a “commanding height” and continues striving to develop Beijing’s space and counter-space capabilities by enhancing its space-based intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance, satellite communication, and navigation, meteorology, human spaceflight, and robotic space exploration capabilities. Chinese strategic objectives include perpetuating Communist Party rule, maintaining domestic stability, sustaining economic growth and development, defending national sovereignty and territorial integrity, securing great power status by acquiring regional preeminence; and safeguarding overseas interests. China maintains an active defense strategy stressing operational proactivity, using coercive tactics short of armed conflict with the US and its Asia-Pacific allies to advance its interest, beginning construction of an overseas military base in Djibouti in February 2016, and increasing its Anti-Access/Area Denial capabilities against adversary forces that might deploy or operate in the Western Pacific’s air, electromagnetic, information, maritime, and space domains in the event of a contingency operation directed against Taiwan. Additional Beijing strategic objectives include a nuclear weapons policy emphasising maintain a nuclear force capable of surviving a first strike and responding with enough strength to inflict unacceptable damage on an enemy and increasing support for the spectrum of its defence industry in missile, space, aviation, naval, and shipbuilding sectors. For nearly two decades, the unclassified version of this report has become essential reading for those interested in Chinese military, security, and strategic developments. Its contents feature relevant insights on how the US and allied countries may need to respond to China’s growing military power and capabilities along with its increasing geopolitical assertiveness. This analysis is augmented with helpful maps, charts, photographs, and statistics to enhance visual understanding and comprehension of Chinese military capabilities and strategies. Concern over the strength and readiness of the US military in relationship to China and other strategic threats has become more apparent in US strategic analysis. The Trump Administration’s recently proposed 2018 defense spending budget request proposes increasing

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the Pentagon’s discretionary budget by $52 billion to $639 billion and includes military modernization funding by increasing the number of Navy ships, expanding Air Force tactical fleet readiness including increasing the number of F-35 fighters, reversing Army troop reductions, strengthening the Marine Corps, and creating a larger, more capable, and lethal military force aspiring to maintain US superiority on air, cyberspace, land, sea, and space with countering Chinese assertiveness being a key factor prompting this increased military spending. The congressional budget process in coming months will see how much of this proposed increase the Pentagon receives and how much of it will be implemented to counter China in subsequent years.

US Interest in Asia Pacific in Trump Era While the Asia-Pacific does not rank highly in US President Donald Trump’s worldview, his administration looks to be adopting a more muscular security policy in the region than that of his predecessor. During the 2016 election campaign, Trump’s “America first” rhetoric and hostility towards allies Japan and Korea sparked regional concerns about US retrenchment. But Trump is not shaping up to be an isolationist in Asia. In fact, he may prove to be more forcefully engaged than many US allies and partners will like. Since the election, Trump has outlined hard line positions on China, Taiwan, and North Korea, raising the spectre of greater instability in the region. Shifts in US Asia policy will likely produce more volatile relations in the Asia-Pacific—not just between competitors like the United States and China, but potentially between Washington and its allies and partners as well. Three main elements are likely to define Trump’s approach to Asia. First, a confrontational attitude to China on most bilateral issues. Second, a supportive but transactional stance on US allies in Asia. And third, a military first approach to the “rebalance to Asia” that attaches little importance to engaging Southeast Asia or to the liberal internationalist goals of Barack Obama’s initiative. These shifts in US Asia policy will likely produce more volatile relations in the Asia-Pacific—not just between competitors like the United States and China, but potentially between Washington and its allies and partners as well. Such dynamics are still in flux. Trump’s administration is mercurial and its Asia policy is inchoate: gleaned from tweets, essays, statements, and early diplomatic interactions by the president and his cabinet. The judgements presented here could change, perhaps substantially, as personnel and policies settle over time. Details pertaining to economic review, security environment and the armed forces of the countries of this region are as follows: n Australia n Brunei n Cambodia n People’s Republic of China n Indonesia n Japan n North Korea (Democratic People’s Republic of Korea) n South Korea (Republic of Korea) n Laos n Malaysia n Myanmar (formerly Burma) n The Philippines n Singapore n Taiwan n Thailand n Vietnam

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East Asia, Pacific Rim & Australia: AUSTRALIA

Area : 77,41,220 sq km Capital : Canberra Coastline : 25,760 km Maritime Claims : Territorial sea : 12 nm Contiguous zone : 24 nm Exclusive economic zone : 200 nm Continental shelf : 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin Population : 2,32,32,413 (July 2017 est.) Ethnic Divisions : English 25.9 per cent, Australian 25.4 per cent, Irish 7.5 per cent, Scottish 6.4 per cent, Italian 3.3 per cent, German 3.2 per cent, Chinese 3.1 per cent, Indian 1.4 per cent, Greek 1.4 per cent, Dutch 1.2 per cent, other 15.8 per cent (includes Australian aboriginal .5 per cent), unspecified 5.4 per cent Note: data represent self-identified ancestry, over a third of respondents reported two ancestries (2011 est.) Languages : English 76.8 per cent, Mandarin 1.6 per cent, Italian 1.4 per cent, Arabic 1.3 per cent, Greek 1.2 per cent, Cantonese 1.2 per cent, Vietnamese 1.1 per cent, others 10.4 per cent, unspecified 5 per cent (2011 est) Literacy : 99 per cent Government : Parliamentary Democracy (Federal Parliament) under a Constitutional Monarchy; a Commonwealth realm Suffrage : 18 years of age; universal and compulsory Administrative Divisions : Six states and two territories

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ARMY Strength Forces Command Force by Role Command Manoeuvre Mech

: 29,000

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES TECHNOLOGY

Australia’s strategic environment is most influenced by three factors: the status of the US-China relationship, America’s willingness to defend the rules-based global order in Asia, and the stability of the Asian region. The 2016 Defence White Paper directly and indirectly gives the answers to these challenges. This Defence White Paper looks out to 2035 to identify where and what sorts of security challenges are likely to arise and what capabilities Defence – the Australian Defence Force (ADF) and the Department of Defence – will need to meet them. This Defence White Paper is based on a comprehensive review of Australia’s strategic environment, including the changes underway in the Indo-Pacific region, encompassing the Indian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean, and across the world and the implications of these changes for Australia and for Defence. This includes an assessment of the different challenges created by the complex dynamics between states and the ongoing threat posed by non-state actors, including terrorists that seek to launch attacks internationally, regionally and within Australia. The government’s defence strategy is supported by increased defence funding, which will grow to 2 per cent of Australia’s gross domestic product by 2020-21, three years ahead of the government’s 2013 election commitment. The Government has introduced a new 10-year funding model for Defence which gives Defence the long-term funding certainty it needs The Government’s long-term funding commitment to Defence will see the Defence budget grow to $42.2 billion in 2020–21, reaching two per cent of Australia’s GDP based on current projections. . The Defence White Paper is a key part of the government’s commitment to a safe and secure Australia. The government’s funding plan provides $29.9 billion more to defence over the period to 2025-26 than previously planned, enabling approximately $195 billion of new investment in their defence capabilities in this period. The Defence White Paper is a key part of the government’s commitment to a safe and secure Australia. Australia possesses capable, well-trained and equipped armed forces, which have also considerable recent operational experience. Its primary military ally remains the US, a relationship it views as central to regional security. It is also forging closer defence ties with Japan and India.Australian Air Force engagement in the Middle East continued with ‘Operation Okra’, which began in Iraq in October 2014, before being extended to cover Syria in September 2015. Air missions against ISIS are being carried out using six F/A-18 Hornet aircraft, a KC-30A tanker transport and an E-7A Wedgetail airborne earlywarning aircraft. Recapitalisation of the air force’s inventory continued in 2015 with the delivery of the last of eight C-17 airlifters, while the service will add a further two KC-30A tankers to its fleet of five in 2018. The first of its P-8A maritime-patrol aircraft were delivered in 2016. There are plans to reequip the navy with new surface combatants and a replacement for the Collins class submarines.

BUSINESS

Security Environment

INDIAN DEFENCE

Reserve

: Active: 57,800 (Army: 29,000; Navy: 14,400; Air: 14,400) : 21,100 (Army: 13,200; Navy: 3,150; Air: 4,750)

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Total Armed Forces

 General Information

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Defence

: 1 (1st) div HQ (1 sigs regt)

TO READ: THE COMPLETE ARTICLE 3 (1st, 3rd & 7th) mech inf bde (1 armd cav regt, 2 mech inf bn, 1 arty regt, 1 cbt engr regt, GET 1YOUR sigs regt, 1COPY CSS bn) NOW! 2017– SP's Military Yearbook  | 2018 |  45th Issue  | 417

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CONTENTS Iraq The situation in Iraq is essentially the consequence of the US policies towards Iraq since 1990-91 but particularly of the US invasion of Iraq in 2003 and its subsequent military occupation, marked by thoroughly inept governance, till 2011 when US troops finally withdrew leaving behind a broken country wracked by sectarian strife and internal insurgencies. The immediate trigger is the unfortunate reality that during the eight years of the US installed Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki’s increasingly blatantly partisan rule, the Sunnis were steadily and continuously sidelined and have been completely alienated; the relationship between the Shia and Sunni communities has never been as poisonous as it is today. A Sunni backlash was inevitable. This is what was witnessed in Iraq and it manifested in particular by the lightening takeover of the Sunni dominated provinces of Iraq and the establishment of the Islamic Caliphate on June 30, 2014, by the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, the ISIS, an extremist militant group even more radical and brutal than Al Qaeda. After outstanding successes initially the so-called Islamic State (IS) has lost ground in Iraq. The recapture of its stronghold Ramadi

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Five years after the Arab Spring, West Asia is witnessing two major military conflicts in Syria and Yemen. Several states are deeply polarised and at the edge of breakdown, and there is proliferation of jihadis across the region, engaged in extraordinary brutality against enemy states and “heretic” communities. The violence, the fear of jihadi contagion, and the possible breakdown of state order across West Asia have pulled in international powers into the region’s conflicts. Though the ongoing conflicts and competitions are the result of recent developments in the West Asian state systems, the battle lines have been deliberately shaped on the basis of primeval sectarian cleavages and animosities that have been resurrected and imbued with a contemporary resonance to serve modern-day political interests. The sectarian divide, or the division between the Sunni and Shia communities of Islam, is now the principal basis for mobilisation of support against the “existential” threat perceived mainly by Sunni leaders from the Shias, primarily on account of what they see as an increasing Iranian influence in West Asia and its “interference” in their domestic politics by encouraging Shia aspirations and agitations. This nascent sectarian cleavage soon became part of a larger political competition between the region’s Islamic powers, Iran and Saudi Arabia, as they sought to assert claims for leadership of the Islamic world and assiduously attempted to broaden their support bases across West Asia, North Africa and other parts of Asia.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

G

eo politically, West Asia is the most important region of the world. The strategic geographical location of West Asia has made the region from ancient times the centre of world focus among nations and Empires as they tried to control the trade route to the east. West Asia is an area which is strategically situated at the junction of the three continents of Asia, Europe and Africa. In this way it commands the approaches of these continents. It is an area of unique historical importance. Huge oil deposits, which were discovered in the early 20th century, have further augmented its strategic importance as the economies of a number of developed countries are critically dependent on its oil. Saudi Arabia is geographically the biggest country in West Asia. It is also the richest, as it has the largest oil reserves. Iran, Iraq and some of the smaller countries like Kuwait and United Arab Emirates (UAE) also have huge oil deposits. The concept of ‘West Asia’ is in limited use, as it significantly overlaps with the Middle East. The term is sometimes used for the purposes of grouping countries in statistics. It describes the geographical position in relation to Western Europe rather than location within Asia. Due to this perceived Eurocentrism, international organisations such as the United Nations have replaced Middle East with the term Western Asia. Except for Israel, a Jewish country, all other states of West Asia and North Africa are Muslim countries. Ethnically, most of the Muslim states are Arab and predominantly Sunni. The exceptions are Iraq, which is largely dominated by Shias, and Iran, which has both non-Arab and Shia populace. This region is the birthplace of three of the world’s most widespread religions—Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Politically, most of the states are monarchies, sheikhdoms or single-party dictatorships and enjoy very little democratic freedom. The essence of the socio-political tumult sweeping the region has been such that the people at large have overcome their fear of the existing regimes and called for drastic and fundamental political transformations, including regime changes. This has led to dramatic changes in domestic political environments in most of the countries of the region. Though the West Asian region is exposed to a completely new set of challenges, threats and an uncertain future but it is clear that the new political dispensation will not be forced to follow for long the ‘Accepted Order’ laid down by the West. However, the newly formed regimes, most of them Islamists, would be quite difficult to deal with. The emerging political order in West Asia is also marked by considerable shifts within individual countries as well as at the regional level. The Islamist parties are on the rise across the region whereas the economic concerns have also risen to the forefront.

REGIONAL BALANCE

West Asia and North Africa

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

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by US-backed Iraqi forces on December 28, 2015, Mosul in July 2017 and Tal Afar in August 2017 has caused significant set backs to the ISIS and by the fourth week of August 2017, Iraqi forces had retaken almost all of Islamic State’s stronghold in the north-west of the country, the Iraqi military has said. The US-backed operation in Tal Afar came just over a month after Mosul was retaken from the terror group, ending its three-year rule over Iraq’s second city and confining the extremists to ever-shrinking pockets of the country, stretching to the Syrian border. It was from Mosul that Isis had declared its self-proclaimed caliphate over parts of Iraq and Syria in 2014. The one thing that really brought together the fractious sects and ethnic groups of Iraq—the Kurds, the Shia and most of the Sunnis—was their shared hatred of ISIS. With ISIS sharply declining in power, the tensions that have long existed in Iraq between these various groups will likely reassert themselves which highlights the bigger picture: ISIS was never the root problem in Iraq—even though it certainly created great misery among those it lorded over—but rather the group was the symptom of deeper problems that exist in the Middle East that are unlikely to disappear anytime soon. ISIS, after all, is a branch of al Qaeda in Iraq, which was founded more than a decade ago. After suffering a near total defeat by US forces in Iraq between 2007 and 2010, al Qaeda regrouped in neighboring Syria as that country descended into a civil war beginning in 2011. Al Qaeda in Iraq subsequently rebranded itself as ISIS. ISIS emerged in Syria because it was seen as one of the few Sunni groups truly capable of standing up to the brutal Shia Alawite regime of Syrian dictator Bashar al-Assad. Similarly, ISIS did well in Iraq when it swept across the country in 2014, in part, because many Iraqi Sunnis were fed up with the deeply sectarian Shia government of then-Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki. The deep divisions between many Sunnis and Shia in both Iraq and Syria and also in countries such as Yemen, where Sunni Saudi Arabia and Shia Iran are fighting a proxy war, are likely to continue for many years. These are the conditions that will surely set the stage for the emergence of perhaps another version of ISIS. At the same time, the collapse of governance in Arab countries such as Libya, Yemen and Syria provided the breeding ground for groups such as ISIS and al Qaeda that thrive in countries where there is a leadership vacuum.

in a “vicious cycle of IMF debts.” Cairo received a loan of some $1.25 billion (among other loans) from the International Monetary Fund in 2016 to support Egypt’s economic reform program, but Egypt has not been able to pay all of its external debts. With foreign investment in some sectors of the economy prohibited, regulatory inefficiency, Sisi and his cash-poor government are trying to prove they can save a sputtering economy with mega projects. But, according to Newsweek, “while investing in infrastructure can create jobs and jump-start economic growth, many in Egypt question whether the country can afford Sisi’s projects when so many Egyptians are living in poverty.” Whether Egypt can hold back discontent over soaring prices and economic woes remains to be seen. Egypt has been in a state of unease since Egypt’s former President Hosni Mubarak was toppled during the Arab Spring uprising in 2011. Militant Islamic groups, including the Islamic State and Al-Qaeda, operate in the Sinai Peninsula, as do anti-establishment and revolutionary groups such as the Popular Resistance Movement and Harakat Sawaid Masr. The overall terrorism and political violence level for Egypt is very high. Also, political discontent within the government is likely to grow, “increasing the risk of sporadic, and potentially more sustained, protest activity,” reports Aon Risk Solutions. Brookings reports that the Islamic State rose within the Sinai Peninsula due to the “failure of securitized counterterrorism as a strategy. The political violence that has transformed Sinai into a conflict zone is rooted more in local grievances festering for decades than in ideological motivations. Had such grievances been meaningfully addressed by past Egyptian regimes, as well as their Western allies, the violence debilitating the peninsula arguably could have been prevented.” Executive and legislative power is divided between the military and an interim administration hand-picked by the generals after the overthrow of Mohammed Morsi’s government in July 2013. In addition, various pressure groups connected to the old Mubarak regime continue to wield considerable influence from the background, trying to preserve their political and business interests. With no consensus on the exact relationship between key state institutions, Egypt is looking at a long struggle for power involving the military and civilian politicians.

Egypt

The Israeli government continued to enforce severe and discriminatory restrictions on Palestinians’ human rights; restrict the movement of people and goods into and out of the Gaza Strip; and facilitate the unlawful transfer of Israeli citizens to settlements in the occupied West Bank. Punitive measures taken by the Palestinian Authority (PA) exacerbated the humanitarian crisis in Gaza caused by the closure enforced by Israel. The PA in the West Bank and Hamas in Gaza escalated crackdowns on dissent, arbitrarily arresting critics, and abusing those in their custody. In February, the Knesset, Israel’s parliament, passed the Regularization Law, which allows Israel to retroactively expropriate private Palestinian land on which settlements have been built, though the High Court of Justice issued an injunction freezing its implementation in August. Between July 2016 and June 2017, Israeli authorities authorized construction work on more than 2,000 new housing units for settlers in the West Bank, excluding East Jerusalem. Israel operates a two-tiered system in the West Bank that provides preferential treatment to Israeli settlers while imposing harsh conditions on Palestinians. While settlements expanded in 2017, Israeli authorities destroyed 381 homes and other property, forcibly displacing 588 people as of November 6, in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, as part of discriminatory practices that reject almost all building permit applications submitted by Palestinians.

President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi took power after the July 2013 coup that led to the removal of President Mohammad Morsi. His authoritarian manner of rule has not helped the country’s already abysmal human rights record. Public criticism of the country is banned, and according to Human Rights Watch, “Members of the security forces, particularly the Interior Ministry’s National Security Agency, continued to routinely torture detainees and forcibly disappeared hundreds of people with little or no accountability for violations of the law.” Political opposition is practically nonexistent, and civil society activists can face prosecution—possibly imprisonment. The National Council for Human Rights reports that inmates in Cairo’s infamous Scorpion Prison suffer abuses “at the hands of Interior Ministry officers, including beatings, forced feedings, deprivation of contact with relatives and lawyers, and interference in medical care.” Leaders of nongovernmental organizations are being arrested and detained; their assets are being frozen, and they are banned from traveling outside of the country—presumably so that they don’t receive foreign funding to pursue “acts harmful to national interests.” There is, effectively, no check on the harsh government of Sisi. Corruption, mismanagement, political unrest and terrorism are the reasons for Egypt’s severe economic issues. Inflation, food shortages, soaring prices, cuts to energy subsidies have all harmed the general population. According to Al-Monitor, Egypt’s economy is “trapped”

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Israel and Palestine - Events of 2017

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CONTENTS

West Asia and North Africa

TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

West Asia & North Africa

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BUSINESS

Turkey


regional balance Israel continued to maintain its decade-long effective closure of Gaza, exacerbated by Egypt’s keeping its own border with Gaza largely sealed, and to impose restrictions that limit supply of electricity and water, restrict access to medical care and educational and economic opportunity, and perpetuate poverty. Approximately 70 per cent of Gaza’s 1.9 million people rely on humanitarian assistance. Between January 1 and November 6, 2017, Israeli security forces killed 62 Palestinians, including 14 children, and injured at least 3,494 Palestinians in the West Bank, Gaza and Israel, including protesters, suspected assailants or members of armed groups, and bystanders. Palestinians killed at least 15 Israelis during this same time, including 10 security officers, and injured 129 in conflict-related incidents in the West Bank and Israel. In April and May, hundreds of Palestinian prisoners spent 40 days on hunger strike seeking better conditions. As of November 1, Israeli authorities incarcerated 6,154 inmates on what they consider security grounds, the overwhelming majority Palestinian, including 3,454 convicted prisoners, 2,247 pretrial detainees and 453 administrative detainees held without charge or trial, according to the Israel Prison Service. The PA and Hamas arrested activists who criticized their leaders, security forces, or policies, and mistreated and tortured some in their custody. The Independent Commission for Human Rights in Palestine (ICHR), a statutory commission charged with monitoring human rights compliance by the Palestinian authorities, received 205 complaints of torture and ill-treatment by PA security forces and 193 such complaints against Hamas security forces as of October 31. Hamas authorities executed six people during this same period following trials that lacked appropriate due process protections. Israel’s near-total closure of the Gaza Strip, particularly restrictions on movement of people and on outgoing goods, together with Egypt keeping its border with Gaza mostly closed, continued to have severe consequences for the civilian population. Measures taken by the PA to pressure Hamas further exacerbated the impact of the closure. Its decision in January to stop buying fuel from Israel that it had been supplying to Hamas authorities and its request in May for Israel to cut the electricity the Israeli government sells to the PA for use in Gaza significantly reduced already limited electricity supply, imperiling critical health, water, and sanitation services. As of November 6, lethal force by Israeli forces resulted in the killing of 17 and injuring of at least 215 Palestinians in Gaza, the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) reported. The Israeli authorities have declared an area inside Gaza near the border with Israel to be a “no-go” zone, justifying it as a means to prevent crossborder attacks. Israeli soldiers fire at people who enter that zone and at fishermen who venture beyond six nautical miles from the shore—the area to which Israel restricts Gaza fishing boats. Israel temporarily expanded the fishing zone to nine miles between May and June and again between October and December. Israel says it restricts access to the sea to prevent the smuggling of weapons into Gaza.

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How to Achieve a Peaceful Solution for Palestine Since the end of the cold war, the United States has not so much as considered using the sort of pressure it once did, and its achievements during the past quarter-century have been accordingly meagre. US policymakers debate how to influence Israel, but without using almost any of the power at their disposal, including placing aid under conditions of changes in Israeli behaviour, a standard tool of diplomacy that officials deem unthinkable in this case. The former Israeli defence minister Moshe Dayan once said: “Our American friends offer us money, arms and advice. We take the money, we take the arms, and we decline the advice.” Those words have become only more resonant in the decades since they were uttered. Until the US

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and Europe formulate a strategy to make Israel’s circumstances less desirable than the concessions it would make in a peace agreement, they will shoulder responsibility for the oppressive military regime they continue to preserve and fund. When peaceful opposition to Israel’s policies is squelched and those with the capacity to dismantle the occupation don’t raise a finger against it, violence invariably becomes more attractive to those who have few other means of upsetting the status quo. Through pressure on the parties, a peaceful partition of Palestine is achievable. But too many insist on sparing Israelis and Palestinians the pain of outside force, so that they may instead continue to be generous with one another in the suffering they inflict.

Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas’s Speech February 2018 The above Speech before the UN Security Council in February 2018 whose centerpiece was the convening of an international peace conference by midyear and creation of a multilateral mechanism to replace the US as the key mediator between Israelis and the Palestinians. It also included the following demands: acceptance of “Palestine” as a full member of the UN; mutual recognition between Israel and “Palestine” on the basis of the pre-1967 lines; the creation of a new multilateral mechanism to assist the parties negotiate the core issues; preservation of the two-state solution and rejection of partial solutions or provisional borders; a cancellation of the US decision to move its embassy to Jerusalem; minimal land swaps and east Jerusalem as the capital of a new Palestinian state. While Abbas—by putting forward a plan—will be seen as the party now taking the initiative and putting Israel on the defensive, if he had hoped that his appearance at the Security Council would give the plan some traction, he is likely to be disappointed. Not because there are not some on the council—such as the Swedes, French and Russians—who would like to move it forward, but, rather, because they, too, are not blind to what is happening in Jerusalem, and realize that they will have to wait so see how the current political drama, of allegations of corruption on part of the Prime Minister Netanyahu plays out in Jerusalem, before moving forward with dramatic diplomatic steps. The right-wing religious coalition government of the prime minister, Binyamin Netanyahu, is facing policy and personality clashes and mounting questions over Mr Netanyahu’s conduct, leading to an early election prior to the 2019 date. Israeli-Palestinian tensions are l;ikely to persist in 2018-22. Israel-US ties are strong under a Trump presidency.

Syrian Civil War—the Current Situation The fight against the Islamic State (also known as ISIS) emerged as the top priority for Syria’s multiple warring parties in 2017. The government, with the assistance of Russia, Iran and Hezbollah, retook large parts of Central and Eastern Syria from ISIS while US-backed Syria Democratic Forces controlled Raqqa. The race to secure territory and consolidate gains was accompanied by grave violations of human rights and humanitarian law that have come to characterize the Syria conflict. More than 400,000 have died because of the Syrian conflict since 2011, according to the World Bank, with 5 million seeking refuge abroad and over 6 million displaced internally, according to UN agencies. By June 2017, the UN also estimated that 540,000 people were still living in besieged areas. The Syrian government has launched numerous chemical weapons attacks on civilians in opposition-held areas. With Russia and Iran’s support, the Syrian government has conducted deliberate and indiscriminate attacks against civilians and civilian infrastructure, withheld humanitarian aid, employed starvation as war tactic, and forcibly displaced Syrians in contravention of international law. The Syrian government’s practices of torture and ill-treatment in detention and enforced disappearances continue.

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Iran

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TECHNOLOGY

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

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President Hassan Rouhani secured a second four-year term in office in May 2017, in an election marked by debate over the state of civil and political rights in Iran. Executions, especially for drug-related offenses, continued at a high rate. Authorities in the security apparatus and Iran’s judiciary continued to target journalists, online media activists, and human rights defenders in an ongoing crackdown, in blatant disregard of international and domestic legal standards. The judiciary continued to execute individuals at a high rate, particularly for drug offenses. Human rights groups reported that Iran executed at least 476 individuals as of November 27, 2017, including five individuals who were sentenced to death for crimes they allegedly committed as children. On August 13, the Iranian parliament approved

a long-awaited amendment to the country’s drug law that significantly raises the bar for a mandatory death sentence for drug-related offenses. The Guardian Council, a body of 12 Islamic jurists, approved the amendment in October and the law went to force on November 14. On Novemrber 21, Abbas Jafari Dolatabadi, Prosecutor of Tehran , stated that 3,300 individuals convicted of drug offenses have filed appeals under the new law. Under Iran’s penal code that went into force in 2013, judges can use their discretion not to sentence children to death. However, a number of individuals who were retried under this provision for crimes they allegedly committed as children have been sentenced to death anyway. Iran continues to provide the Syrian government with military assistance and plays an influential role alongside Russia and Turkey in the Syria negotiations currently taking place in Astana, Kazakhstan. Human Rights Watch has documented a pattern of deliberate and indiscriminate attacks on civilians as well as torture by the Syrian government. On Octotber 13, President Trump announced he was not certifying Iran’s compliance with the nuclear agreement signed in 2015 between Iran and the five permanent members of the UN Security Council, plus Germany and the European Union. Instead Trump asked Congress to re-evaluate conditions for reimposing sanction on Iran. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has maintained that Iran is complying with the terms of the agreement. Details pertaining to economic review, security environment and the armed forces of the countries of this region are as follows: n Algeria n Egypt n Libya n Bahrain n Iran n Iraq n Israel n Jordan n Kuwait n Lebanon n Sultanate of Oman n Qatar n Saudi Arabia n Syria n Turkey n United Arab Emirates n Republic of Yemen

BUSINESS

Non-state armed groups have also committed a host of violations. The groups have launched deliberate and indiscriminate attacks against civilians, abducted, and arbitrarily detained activists, used excessive force to stifle protests and interfered with humanitarian aid delivery. ISIS has reportedly used civilians as human shields, and employed landmines and other IEDs causing significant harm to civilians and civilian infrastructure. Civilian casualties from airstrikes by the US-led coalition fighting ISIS increased with a local group, the Syrian Network for Human Rights, reporting 2,286 civilian deaths since the beginning of the campaign until September 2017. A number of these strikes raise concerns that the coalition failed to take necessary precautions to avoid and minimize civilian casualties. While accountability efforts remained blocked at the Security Council, the UN General Assembly established in December 2016 a mechanism to assist in the investigation of serious crimes, preserve evidence and prepare cases for future criminal proceedings The Syrian war is creating profound effects far beyond the country’s borders. Lebanon, Turkey, and Jordan are now housing large and growing numbers of Syrian refugees, many of whom have attempted to journey onwards to Europe in search of better conditions.The UN recently reported that around 440,000 displaced Syrians returned to their homes in the past year. According to UNHCR, those displaced mainly returned to Aleppo, Hama, Homs and Damascus to find family members and check on their property. With much of Syria in ruins, millions of Syrians having fled abroad, and a population deeply traumatised by war, one thing is certain: Rebuilding Syria after the war ends will be a lengthy, extremely difficult process.

INDIAN DEFENCE

West Asia and North Africa


regional balance ALGERIA

Republican Guard: 1,200 Legitimate Defence Groups: 1,50,000 est

 General Information

Area Capital Coastline Maritime Claims Territorial sea Exclusive fishing zone Population Ethnic Divisions Religions Languages

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Literacy Government Suffrage Administrative Divisions

West Asia and North Africa: Algeria

: 23,81,741 sq km : Algiers : 998 km : 12 nm : 32-52 nm : 40,969,443 (July 2017 est.) : Arab-Berber 99 per cent, European less than 1 per cent : Muslim (official; predominantly Sunni) 99 per cnet, other (includes Christian and Jewish) <1 per cent (2012 est.) : Arabic (official), French (lingua franca), Berber or Tamazight (official); dialects include Kabyle Berber (Taqbaylit), Shawiya Berber (Tacawit), Mzab Berber, Tuareg Berber (Tamahaq) : 80.2 per cent : Presidential Republic : 18 years of age; universal : 48 provinces

Defence Total Armed Forces

: Active: 1,30,000 (Army: 1,10,000; Navy: 6,000; Air Force: 14,000); Reserve: 1,50,000 (Army 150,000) to age 50 Terms of Service : Conscript liability 18 months, only in the army (6 months basic, 12 months with regular army often involving civil projects) Paramilitary Forces : 1,87,200 est Gendarmerie: 20,000 National Security Forces: 16,000

2017470  | SP's Military Yearbook  | 2018 |  45th Issue

Security Environment It is expected that Abdelaziz Bouteflika and his allies to remain in power in 2018-22, although uncertainty over the president’s health—he is likely to stand in the 2019 presidential election—simmering social discontent and industrial action will weigh on political stability. The economy is likely to remain dependent on energy despite diversification policies. Rising gas production will support GDP growth, but at an annual average of around 3 per cent in 2018-22, the pace of growth will be modest. In a region beset by turmoil, Algeria has appeared to be a bedrock of stability. Having learnt from its earlier experience with unrest in October 1988, it was able to buck the trend sweeping across the region in 2011, largely through the use of hydrocar-bon rents and the initiation of limited political reforms. The latter have, however, yet to bear fruit. With Islamic State retreating in Iraq, Syria, Libya and elsewhere, Algeria—the country with a population of 40 million – may be seen as an easy prey. Jihadists are not wasting time getting increasingly entrenched in the oil rich areas in the southern part of the country – the vast area beyond the Atlas Mountains and the High Plateaux that border the Mediterranean, comprising 85 per cent of the national territory and but less than 9 per cent of its population. In October 2016, the Islamic State (ISIS) formally announced the start of operations in Algeria. Its leaders have threatened to strike the whole North Africa, including the countries of Maghreb. Terror threats in Morocco, the Algeria’s neighbour, have become more frequent with a swelling number of Moroccan youth out of work and rural poverty going rampant. The possibility of social discontent resulting from government spending cuts and tax hikes poses a risk for Algeria. The political will to rationalize inefficient, inequitable and costly subsidies has been repeatedly expressed by President Bouteflika himself. However, such reforms requires improved safety nets, a cash transfer system reaching the needy, a solid media campaign to ensure better public understanding during its implementation, and, a stronger statistical system that allows monitoring of households’ living conditions more frequently. These accompanying measures are medium term in nature and take some time to put in place.

ARMY Strength Force by Role Mil Regions Manoeuvre Armoured Armd Divs (1st & 8th) Indep Armd Bde Mechanised Mech Divs (12th & 40th) Indep Mech Bdes Light Indep Mot Bde Air Manoeuvre AB Div Combat Support Arty Bns Engr Bns AD Bns Equipment by Type MBTs

: 1,10,000 : 6

: 2 armd div (3 tk regt; 1 mech regt, 1 arty gp) : 1

: 2 (3 mech regts, 1 tk regt, 1 arty gp) : 3 : 2 : 1 (4 papa regt; 1 SF regt) : 2 : 4 : 7 : 1,262: 367 T-90SA; 325 T-72; 300 T-62; 270 T-54/T-55

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Strength : 6,000 est Equipment by Type Submarines: SSK 4: 2 Kilo (FSU Paltus) with 6 single 533mm TT with Test-71ME HWT/3M54 Klub-S (SS-N-27B) AShM; 2 Improved Kilo (RUS Varshavyanka) with 6 single 533mm TT with Test-71ME HWT/3M54E Klub-S (SS-N-27B) AShM

CONTENTS Naval Aviation Equipment by Type MRH : 6 Super Lynx 300 SAR : 12: 6 AW101 SAR; 4 Super Lynx MK130

COAST GUARD Strength : est 500 Patrol and Coastal Combatants : 55: PBF: 6 Baglietto 20; PBF: 49: 6 Baglietto Mangusta, 12 Jabel Antar, 21 Deneb, 4 El Mounkid, 6 Kebir PB with 176mm gun Logistics and Support : AR: 1 El Mourafek, ARS 3 El Moundjid, AXL 5 El Mouderrib (PRC Chui-E) (2 more in reserve)

AIR FORCE Strength Force by Role Ftr FGA G/A Elint Maritime Patrol ISR Tkrs Tpt

Trg Frigates: 7: FFGHM 4: 3 Adhafer (C28A) with 2 quad lnchr with C-802 (CSS-N-8 Saccade) AShM, 1 FM-90 lnchr with HQ-7 SAM, 2 triple 324mm ASTT, 2 Type-730B CIWS, 1 76mm gun (capacity 1 hel); 1 Erradii (MEKO 200AN) with 2 octuple lnchrs with RBS-15 Mk3 AShM, 4 8-cell VLS with Umkhonto-IR SAM, 2 twin 324mm TT with MU90 LWT, 1 127mm gun (capacity 1 Super Lynx 300) FF: 3 Mourad Rais (FSU Koni) with 2 twin 533mm TT, 2 RBU 6000 Smerch 2 A/S mor, 2 twin 76mm gun Corvettes: FSGM 3: Rais Hamidou (FSU Nanuchka II) with up to 4 twin lnchr with 3M24 Uran (SS-N-25 Switchblade) AShM, 1 twin lnchr with 9M33 Osa-M (SA-N-4 Gecko) SAM, 1 AK630 CIWS, 1 twin 57mm gun; FSG 3: Djebel Chenoua with 2 twin lnchr with C-802 (CSS-N-8 Saccade) AShM, 1 AK630 CIWS, 1 76mm gun PBFG : 9 Osa II (3) with 4 single lnchr with P-15 Termit (SS-N-2B Styx) AShM PB : 9 Kebir with 1 76mm gun Principal

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Hels Atk Tpt Hels

AD SAM

Equipment by Type Combat capable Ftr FGA Atk

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

AGS AX

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

LST

: 14,000 : 1 sqn with MiG-25PDS/RU Foxbat; 4 sqns with MiG-29C/UB Fulcrum : 3 sqn with Su-30MKA Flanker : 2 sqns with Su-24M/Mk Fencer D : 1 sqn with Beech 1900D : 2 sqns with Beech 200T/300 King Air : 1 sqn with Su-24MR Fencer E, MiG-25RBSh Foxbat D : 1 sqn with IL-78 Midas : 1 sqns with C-130H/H-30 Hercules, L-100-30; 1 sqn with C-295M; 1 sqn with Gulfstream IV-SP, Gulfstream V, 1 sqn with IL-76MD/TD Candid : 2 sqns with Z-142; 1 sqn with Yak-130 Mitten; 2 sqn with L-39C/ZA Albatros; 1 hel sqn with PZL Mi-2 Hoplite : 3 sqn with Mi-24 Hind (one re-equipping with Mi-28NE Havoc) : 1 sqns with AS-355 Ecureuil; 5 sqn with Mi-8 Hip; Mi-17 Hip H; 1 sqn with Ka-27PS Helix D; Ka-32T Helix : ADA bde: 3 : 3 regts with S-75 Dvina SA-2 (Guideline); S-125 Neva (SA-3 Goa); 2K12 Kub (SA-6 Gainful); S-300PMU2 (SA-20 Gargoyle) : 119 : 34: 11 MiG-25 Foxbat; 23 MiG-29C/UB Fulcrum : 44 Su-30MKA : 33 Su-24M/Mk French D

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BUSINESS

LSM

: LHD: 1 Kalaat Beni Abbes with 1 8-cell A50 VLS with Aster-15 SAM, 1 76mm gun (capacity 5 med hel; 3 LCVP; 15 MBT; 350 troops) : 1 Polnochny B with 1 twin AK230 CIWS (capacity 6 MBT; 180 troops) : 2 Kalaat beni Hammad (capacity 7 MBT; 240 troops) with 1 med hel landing platform : 1 El Idrissi : 1 Daxin with 2 twin AK230 CIWS, 1 76mm gun, 1 hel landing platform

INDIAN DEFENCE

NAVY

Amphibious Ships

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

: 134: 44 AML-60, 26 BRDM-2, 64 BRDM-2M with 9M133 Kornet (AT-14 Spriggan) IFVs : 1089: 685 BMP-1, 304 BMP-2M with 9M133 Kornet (AT-14 Spriggan); 100 BMP-3 APC(W) : 881+: 250 BTR-60, 150 BTR-80, 150 OT-64, 100 Fahd, 55 M-3 Panhard PPV : 2 Marauder PPV Anti-tank/anti-infrastructure MSL : MANPATS: 9K11 Malyutka (AT-3 Sagger); 9K111 Fagot (AT-4 Spigot); 9K111-1 Konkurs (AT-5 Spandrel); 9K115-2 Metis-M1 (AT-13 Saxhorn-2); 9K135 Kornet-E (AT-14 Spriggan); Milan RCL : 180: 82mm 120 B-10; 107mm 60 B-11 ATk Guns : 250: 57mm 160 ZIS-2 (M-1943); 85mm 80 D-44: 100mm 10 T-12 SP Arty : 122mm 140 2S1 Gvozdika; 152mm 30 2S3 Akatsiya; 155mm est 54 PLZ-45 Towed Arty : 393: 122mm 345: 160 D-30, 25 D-74, 100 M-1931 /37, 60 M-30; 130mm 10 M-46; 152mm 20 ML-20 (M-1937); 155mm 18 Type-88 (PLL-01) MRLs : 144: 122mm 48 BM-21; 140mm 48 BM-14; 240mm 30 BM-24; 300mm 18 9A52 Smerch MOR : 330: 82mm 150 M-37; 120mm 120 M-1943; 160mm 60 M-1943 Air Defence SAM : 106+: Short-range 38: 96K6 Pantsir-S1 (SA-22 Greyhound); Point-defence 68+: est 48 9K33M Osa (SA-8B Gecko); est 20 9K31 Strela-1 (SA-9 Gaskin); 9K32 Strela-2 (SA-7A/B Grail) GUNS : est 830 SP: 23mm est 225 ZSU-23-4 TOWED : est 605: 14.5mm 100: 60 ZPU-2; 40 ZPU-4; 23mm 100 ZU-23; 37mm est150 M-1939; 57mm 75 S-60; 85mm 20 M-1939 (KS-12); 100mm 150 KS-19; 130mm 10 KS-30

REGIONAL BALANCE

Recce

TECHNOLOGY

West Asia and North Africa: Algeria


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CONTENTS

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INDIAN DEFENCE

coagulation of the United States, Saudi Arabia, Israel and Egypt to the most recent fracture in the Gulf Arabs. Saudi Arabia, UAE and Bahrain broke off relations with Qatar for befriending Iran a move that was triggered by false leaks. Meanwhile President Trump has refused to certify to the US Congress that Iran is complying with the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) popularly known as Iran nuclear deal, thus putting the onus on the august body to either seek revision of the agreement or impose fresh sanctions on Iran. In the interim US Congress has already imposed a separate round of sanctions on Iran, North Korea and Russia for missile proliferation and other issues. To add to the turbulence in the Middle-East, Saudi Arabia called the missile launched from Yemen which was intercepted on the Riyadh Airfield in November 2017 as an act of war, blaming Iran for providing the same to the Houthi, rebel group. Iran has denied any links. The Palace Coup in Saudi Arabia where the Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman who is next in line to King Salman has cracked down on many members of the Royal Family has shaken the House of Saud and reverberations are being felt across the region. Lebanon has been caught in the vortex with Prime Minister Sa’ad Hariri resigning when on a visit to Saudi Arabia where he is reportedly detained. The future of energy security in the Asia-Pacific having the biggest petrol and diesel guzzlers in the World—China, India, Japan, South Korea and ASEAN states has emerged as the new concern. On the edge of Central and South Asia—Afghanistan is going through many security and political challenges with the National Unity Government on edge while the Taliban the main antagonist reportedly having an influence in 40 per cent of the country. If Afghanistan collapses the reverberations will impact the region as a whole. Northeast Asia has seen a rogue leader Kim Jong-un holding strong ally China to ransom as it continues missile and nuclear proliferation.

BUSINESS

Bhonsle (RETD)  

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

G

lobally and in much of the   BRIGADIER Rahul Asia-Pacific nations were adjusting their foreign policy to the nuances of a multi polar world order using multilateralism as the main tool of engagements when developments in the past one year denote a period of turbulence caused by numerous disruptions. While change is the only constant in international politics, disruption or disorder comes relatively less often. If change leads to commotion and chaos, disruptive forces take charge of lives of human beings as well as nations and in the interconnected flat world reverberations are felt globally. This is the hallmark of the geopolitics in today’s time and Asia-Pacific has also been impacted by the disruptions that have reverberated across the World. Take any regional complex in the World today from South America to North East Asia political economic and security flux is evident. Brazil and Venezuela are having their trepidations though internally, same is the case with the United States. Europe is passing through multiple transitions from the idea of the European Union (EU) questioned by BREXIT (Britain Exit of EU) to renewed phase of contestation with Russia- historical realities seem to be haunting the Continent. West Asia or more popularly known as the Middle East is perhaps the most turbulent where state and state-supported non-state actors have dismembered societies in at least three countries Syria, Iraq and Yemen. Loose militias as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Levant (ISIS) and the Al Nusra Front have assumed the spectre of the hydra headed monsters challenging established states. The ISIS is fragmenting, but the splinters of the fragmentation are likely to cause more than, “firecrackers,” as that witnessed in Iran on May 7 where terrorists could penetrate the Parliament. Diverse forces are at play which is leading to turbulence from the formation of the Islamic Military Alliance to Fight Terrorism (IMAFT),

TECHNOLOGY

While the Asia-Pacific region is seen as the global economic growth engine, there is a security deficit which cannot be wished away. China, India, ASEAN, Japan, South Korea are the largest economies in the region which continue to be the economic engines of the world despite a global slowdown. As emerging powers in the region realised their economic potential there is also recognition of a need to preserve their gains through security. Thus rising defence budgets are evident which has also manifested into competition for build up of arms, territorial claims and unfreezing of historical disputes.

REGIONAL BALANCE

PIB

Developments in Asia-Pacific Region

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

5


CONTENTS

ARMY EQUIPMENT

Multiple Rocket Launchers (MRLs)

 Abbreviations at the end of the yearbook

Light tanks (Lt Tks) Armoured Personnel Carriers/Infantry Combat Vehicles (APCs), (ICVs)

Self-Propelled Guns and Howitzers

Towed Anti-tank (A Tk) Guns, Guns and Howitzer

SP Anti-Aircraft Guns and SAMs : Type-98/Type-99, Type-99G, Type-90-II, North Industries Corporation (Norinco) Type-85-III : Type-62, Type-63, Type-63A

: Type-90, ZBD-04 IFV/ZBD (Type-97), Norinco VP1, Type-89 (YW 534), Type-85 (531H), Type WZ 501, Type-77, Norinco YW 531 APC : Type-83 152mm, PLZ45 155mm How, Enhanced PLZ45 systems Norinco, Type85 122mm How, 155mm (SP) System -SH1

: Type-59-1 130mm Fd Gun, Type-66 152mm Gun How

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Towed AA Guns

: Type-80 Twin 57mm SP AA Gun System, PL-9C, Almaz S-300 — ‘Offensive’ Air Defence, China’s SD-10A Air Defence System Low Altitude (Alt) SAM System : Chinese Type-56 14.5mm Gun, Norinco 37mm Type-74

Czech/Slovak Republics APCs/ICVs : BRDM-2, OT-64 C (SKOT-2A), BMP-1 & OT90 APC France MBTs Lt Tks APCs/ICVs

: Leclerc, AMX-30 : AMX-13 : Giat AMX-10P, Nexter Systems AMX-10P Marines, AMX VCI (ICV), Improved VAB 4 x 4 version (Wheeled), Panhard PVP, Panhard M3 SP Guns and Hows : GIAT Mk. F3 155mm SP Gun, GIAT 155mm, GCT SP Gun

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INDIAN DEFENCE

China Main battle tanks (MBTs)

: Type-90 122mm (40 round) MR System, WS-1B Multiple-Launch Rocket System

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

Army equipment is listed below by Country:

TECHNOLOGY

variants with new fitments based on new technologies to cater for new operational parameters. Thus the equipment may seem old but in fact may have undergone numerous upgrades to modernise it for current and future conflicts. n Some such variants of equipment have been included based upon information in the public domain and collated from various sources including other publications. For greater details, refer to other relevant media. n Specifications have been listed in general terms and common features spelt out. Details of sensors, weapon control systems and other such subsystems have been omitted as they may vary from craft to craft even within the same class or category. n The equipment held (types and numbers) in various countries of Asia along with other details is given in our chapter on Regional Balance.

REGIONAL BALANCE

T

his chapter contains specifications of some important military hardware being employed in the Asian region. Equipment having greater commonality within the region and those of comparatively recent origin have been chosen and presented for Army, Navy and Air Force separately. Salient details are as under: n The chapter begins with a summary of equipment of each manufacturing country followed by more detailed characteristics of each type of equipment of that country. n While the equipment mentioned is in use in the Asian region, each type of hardware is listed under its country of origin (manufacturer) like Russia, UK and the US. n The development of weapon systems being a long-term process, a composite unit like a tank, ship or an aircraft passes through various phases/stages of development and appears in different

BUSINESS

Equipment & Hardware Specifications: An Overview

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

6


regional Balance ARMY EQUIPMENT contd. SP AA Guns and SAMs

Germany MBTs

APCs/ICVs

India MBTs Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows MRLs Israel MBTs Reconnaissance Vehicles SP Guns and Hows Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows

Pakistan MBTs APC

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Russia MBTs

Lt Tks Recce Vehs APCs/ICVs SP Guns and Hows

Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows

: Krauss-Maffei Wegmann Leopard 2A7, Leopard 2A6, Krauss-Maffei Wegmann Leopard 2 MBT : Neuer Schutzenpanzer PUMA AIFV, Condor, Fuchs, Rheinmetall Landsystem Marder 1A3 ICV

: D-30 122mm Fd Gun, M-46 130mm Fd Gun, 155mm Gun How D-20 MRLs : Splav 300mm BM 9A52 (12 round) Smerch MR System, BM-21 122mm (40 round) MR System SP AA Guns and SAMs : ZSU-23-4 Quad 23mm SP AA Gun System, ZSU-57-2 Twin 57mm SP AA Gun System, 2S6M Tunguska System, SA-6 Gainful Lowto-Med alt SAM System, SA-8 Gecko Low Alt SAM System, SA-8B SAM System, SA-9 Gaskin SAM, SA-13 Gopher SAM System Towed AA Guns : ZU-23-2 Twin 23mm Automatic (Auto) AA Gun, S-60 57mm Auto AA Gun, 100mm anti-aircraft gun KS-19

: T-90, Arjun

Singapore SP Guns and Hows

: SSPH-1 Primus

: IFG Mk.2 105mm : Pinaka MR System

South Africa APCs/ICVs

: Casspir Mk. III, Ratel 90

: Panhard M3 VDA Twin 20mm SP AA Gun System, Crotale Low Alt SAM System, Shahine Low Alt SAM System, AMX-30 twin 30mm SP AA Gun System

: Merkava Mk3, Merkava 4, Sabra MBT : RAM family of light AFVs : Soltam L-33 155mm : Soltam M-71 155mm Gun/How

Italy SP Guns and Howitzer : Oto Palmaria 155mm, Oto Melara 155mm M109L [SP] Howitzer Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Howitzer : Oto Melara Model 56 105mm Pack How Japan MBTs Recce Vehs APCs/ICVs Type SU 60 SP Guns and Hows MRLs

equipment & hardware specifications: Army

: Type-74, Type-90, Mitsubishi TK–X MBT : Type-87 : Type-73, Type-89, Mitsubishi : Type-75 155mm, Type-99 155mm : Type-75 130mm (30 round) MR System

: Type MBT 2000 (Al Khalid), Type Al Zarrar : Type Saad, Type Talha, Type M113A2

: Black Eagle Development Tank, T-95, T-54, T-55, T-55 (Upgraded), T-62, T-64B, T-72, T-80U, T-90S : PT-76B : BRDM-2, PRP-4 : BMP-1, BMP-2, BMP-3, BMD-1 ACV, BTR50, BTR-80A, MT-LB, BTR-152VI : M 1973 (2S3) 152mm, M 1974 (2S1) 122mm (MSTA-S) 152mm Self-Propelled Artillery System 2S19

2017520  | SP's Military Yearbook  | 2018 |  45th Issue

South Korea MBTs Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Howitzer

: K1, Hyundai Rotem K2 MBT : 155mm KH179 How

Spain APCs/ICVs

: BMR-600

Sweden Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Howitzer Towed AA Guns

: Bofors FH-77 B 155mm : Bofors L-40/-70, 40mm Auto AA Gun

Switzerland APCs/ICVs Towed AA Guns

United Kingdom MBTs Lt Tks Recce Vehs APCs/ICVs SP Guns and Hows Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows

: Mowag Piranha : Oerlikon-Contraves GDF-002 and 005 Twin 35mm Auto AA Guns, Oerlikon Contraves 20mm GAI-B01 Auto AA Guns

: Chieftain Mk 5, Centurion Mk 13, Challenger 2, Khalid, Vickers MBT Mk 3 : Alvis Scorpion : Alvis Saladin, Daimler Ferret Mk 2/3 : Stormer, GKN Def Desert Warrior, FV432 : AS90 (Braveheart) 155mm SP Gun : 105mm Lt Gun (L 118), 155mm Lightweight How (M 777)

United States of America MBTs : M-1 Abrams, M-48 series, M 60 A3 Lt Tks : M-41, Sting Ray APCs/ICVs : M-113 A3 SP Guns and Hows : 15mm/ 52-calibre International Howitzer, M-107 175mm SP Gun, M- 109 Series of 155mm SP How, M-110 Series of 203mm SP How (8 inch)

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regional Balance NAVAL EQUIPMENT Navy equipment is listed below by Country: CHINA Strategic Missile Nuclear Submarines : Sui Class Jin Class Xia Class Han Class Shang Class Aircraft Carriers : Type 001 Conventional Submarines : Song Class Yuan Class Kilo Class Ming Class Qing Class (Experimental Submarine) Destroyers : Luzhou Class Sovremenny Class Luyang I/ II/III Class Luda Class Luhai Class Luhu Class Frigates : Jiangkai I/II Class Jiangwei II Class Jianghu 1/II/V Class Corvettes : Jiangdao Class

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INDIA Submarines : Aircraft Carriers : Destroyers : Frigates :

Shishumar Class Kilo Class Foxtrot Class Scorpene Class Arihant Class (SSBN) Chakra Class (SSN) Hermes Class Kiev Class (Ex Admiral Gorshkov) Indigenous Aircraft Carrier I (Vikrant under construction) Kashin Class Delhi Class Kolkata Class isakhapatnam Class Godavari Class Brahmaputra Class Talwar Class Shivalik Class

ISRAEL Submarines : Corvettes : Patrol Forces :

Dolphin Class Eilat (SAAR 5) Class Hetz (SAAR 4.5) Class Reshef Class Super Dvora Class

NORTH KOREA Submarines : Frigates :

Romeo Class Sang-O Class Yono Class Najin Class

2017546  | SP's Military Yearbook  | 2018 |  45th Issue

equipment & hardware specifications: navy

For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10, Equipment and Hardware Section. Soho Class RUSSIA Patrol Submarines : Destroyers : Frigates : Corvettes :

Kilo Class Lada Class Kashin Class Udayloy I & II Class Soveremennyy Class Krivak Class Admiral Gorshkov Class Admiral Grigorovich Class Gepard Class Buyan Class Steregushchy Class Nanuchka Class Tarantul Class

SOUTH KOREA Submarines : Chang Bogo Class Son Wonil Class Dolgorae Class Amphibious Assault : Dokdo Class LPH Go Jun Bong Class LST Destroyers : KDX1, 2 & 3 Class Frigates : Incheon Class Ulsan Class Corvettes : P O Hang Class For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10, Equipment and Hardware Section. THAILAND Aircraft Carriers : Amphibious Forces : Frigates : Corvettes :

Chakri Naruebet Class Endurance Class Nomed PS 700 Class Naresuan Class Gwanggaeto Class Oliver Hazard Perry Class Knox Class Jianghu II Class Tapi Class Khamronsin Class Ratnakosin Class

UNITED KINGDOM For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10, Equipment and Hardware Section. Destroyers : Type 45 or Daring Class Frigates : Type 43 or Duke Class Off-shore Patrol Craft : River Class Corvettes : Qahir Class UNITED STATES OF AMERICA For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10, Equipment and Hardware Section. Guided Missile Destroyers

: Gearing Class

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CHINA Strategic Missile Submarines 4 Jin Class (Type 094) (SSBN) Displacement, tonnes : 8,000 surfaced, 11,000 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 449.5 × 38.7 × 7.5 (137.0 × 11.8 × 2.3) Main machinery : Nuclear: 2 PWR; 150 MW; 2 turbines; 1 shaft Speed, knots : 20 Complement : 140 Missiles : SLBM; 12 JL-2 (CSS-NX-5); 2-stage solidfuel rocket; Inertial guidance with stellar update to over 8,600 km, 12,000 km or 14,000 km depending on the variant; single nuclear warhead of 1 MT or 3-8 MIRV of smaller yield. CEP 300 m approximate. Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533mm tubes) Countermeasures : Decoys: ESM. Radars : Surface search/navigation: Type-359; I-Band Sonars : Hull mounted passive/active; flank and towed arrays. Structure : Likely to be based on the Type-093 SSN design which in turn is believed to be derived from the Russian Victor III design. 2 Xia Class (Type 092) (SSBN) Displacement, tonnes : 6,500 surfaced, 7,000 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 393.6 × 33 × 26.2 (120 × 10 × 8) Main machinery : Nuclear; turbo-electric; 1 PWR; 58 MW; 1 shaft Speed, knots : 22 dived Complement : 100 Missiles : SLBM: 12 JL-1 (CSS-N-3); inertial guidance to 2,150 km (1,160 nm); warhead single nuclear 250 kT. Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533mm) bow tubes. Yu-3 (SET-

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CONTENTS :

3 Nuclear Propelled Attack Submarines Han Class (Type 091) (SSN) Displacement, tonnes : 5,000 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 385 x 33 x 24 (98 x 10 x 7.4) Main machinery : 1 nuclear pressurised water reactor, 1 shaft Speed, knots : 25 dived, 12 surfaced Complement : 75 Weapons : 6 x 533mm torpedo tubes for CET 65E and Type 53-51 torpedoes, up to 20 torpedoes or 36 mines Tube launched C-801 antiship missiles. Programme & Structure : The first nuclear powered submarines deployed by the PLA (Navy). Five boats of the class were built and commissioned between 1974 and 1990. The first two are reported to have been decommissioned. They are known for a noisy reactor and poor radiation shielding and are inhibited in their ability to launch missiles while submerged. The submarines are equipped with SQZ-262 sonar made in China. All boats deployed with the North Sea Fleet and based at Qingdao. 6 Shang Class (Type 093) (SSN) Displacement, tonnes : 6,500 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 372 x 37.2 x 33.6 (110 x 11 x 10) Main machinery : 1 nuclear pressurised water reactor, 1 shaft Speed, knots : 30 dived Complement : 100 Weapons : 6 x 533mm or 650mm torpedo tubes for a range of wire, acoustic and wake homing torpedoes and the submarine launched version of YJ-83 cruise missile. Programme & Structure : The Type 093G is reported to be an upgraded version of Type 093, China’s second-generation nuclear-powered attack submarine, which entered active service several years ago. With a teardrop hull, the submarine is longer than its predecessor and has a vertical launching system.

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WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

Structure

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

: : :

TECHNOLOGY

WEST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10, Equipment and Hardware Section. Submarines : Agosta Class (France, Spain) Daphne Class (France) HDW Class (Germany) Frigates : Al Riyadh Class (France) Madina Class (France) La Fayette Class (France) Descubierta Class (Spain) Fast Attack Missile Craft : Combattante Class (France) Ratcharit Class (Italy) Aircraft Carriers : Principe De Asturias Class (Spain)

Countermeasures Radars Sonars

BUSINESS

: Adelaide Class : Austin Class

INDIAN DEFENCE

Frigates Amphibious Forces

65E); active/passive homing to 15 km (8.1 nmnm) at 40 kt; warhead 205 kg. ESM: Type 921-A; radar warning. Surface search: Snoop Tray; I-Band. SQZ-3; hull-mounted; active/passive search and attack; medium frequency. Diving depth 300 m (985 ft). The Xia is a derivative of the Han Class SSNs, with an extended hull to accommodate 12 ballistic missile tubes.

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

NAVAL EQUIPMENT contd.

REGIONAL BALANCE

equipment & hardware specifications: navy


Transport Aircraft Germany Russia

: : : :

Transall C-160 Dornier Do 228 Ilyushin IL-76 Ilyushin IL-96

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France Germany India Italy Russia

: Eurocopter AS 332 Super Puma/AS 532 Cougar : Eurocopter AS 350 Ecureuil/AS 550/AS 555 Fennec : Eurocopter SA 360/AS 365 Dauphin, SA 365/366 Dauphin II, : AS 565 Panther : Eurocopter SA 316/319 Alouette III : Eurocopter SA 330 Puma : Eurocopter SA 341/342 Gazelle : Eurocopter (MBB) Bo-105 : Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) Dhruv : ALH–WSI (Armed Version) : Light Combat Helicopter (LCH) : Light Utility Helicopter – Under Development by HAL : AW101 VIP Communication : AW139 VIP Communication/SAR : Kamov Ka-52 Attack Helicopter : Kamov Ka-60/62 : Kamov Ka-226T Light Utility Helicopter : Kazan Ansat : Mil Mi-6 : Mil Mi-8 : Mil Mi-17 V5 : Mil Mi-24 Attack Helicopter

2017– SP's Military Yearbook  | 2018 |  45th Issue  | 567

WEAPONS EQUIPMENT VEHICLES

CONTENTS Helicopters

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

: Xian H-6A/H/M Strategic Bomber (Licensed Variant of TU-16) : Shenyang J8B, J8F & J8H Third-Gen Interceptor : Xian JH-7 & 7A – Fighter Bomber : Chengdu J-7, (licensed Variant of MiG-21 – Under replacement : Chengdu J-10A, J-10B & J-10S – FourthGen Multi-role Fighter : Nanchang Q-5 Fantan-Q-5C, Q-5D & Q-5E – Strike Aircraft : JF-17 Thunder Multi-role Combat Ai5rcraft : Chengdu J-20 – Fifth-Gen Stealth Aircraft : Shenyang J-11A, 11B & 11BH (Licensed Variant of of Su-27) : Shenyang j-16 Multi-role Fighter : Shenyang J-31 Fifth-Generation Stealth Aircraft Europe : Eurofighter Typhoon Tranche 1, 2 & 3A France : Dassault Mirage 2000C/D/N/5F, Dassault Rafale B/C India : LCA Tejas Mk I & IA Israel : IAI Kfir – Multi-role Combat Aircraft Russia : Mikoyan MiG-25R : Mikoyan MiG-29 : Mikoyan MiG-31/MiG-31BM : Mikoyan MiG-35 : Sukhoi Su-24 M/M2/MR : Sukhoi Su-25SM : Sukhoi Su-27 : Sukhoi Su-30M/M2 : Sukhoi Su-33 : Sukhoi Su-34P : Sukhoi Su-35 : Sukhoi Su-57 (T-50 PAK FA) – Under Development Sweden : Saab JAS-39 Gripen United Kingdom : Panavia Tornado BAE Systems Hawk 200 Series United States of America : Boeing F-15C/D Eagle : Boeing F-15E Strike Eagle : Boeing F/A-18A/B/C/D Hornet : Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet : Lockheed Martin F-16C/D Fighting Falcon : Northrop F-5F/N Tiger II : F-22A Raptor : F-35A/F-35B Lightening II Joint Strike Fighter

TECHNOLOGY

China

BUSINESS

Combat Aircraft

: Tupolev Tu-134 : Tupolev Tu-214 Spain : Airbus Military CASA C-212 : Airbus Military CASA CN-235M : Airbus Military CASA C-295 : Airbus A-400M Atlas Ukraine : Antonov An-12 : Antonov An-14 : Antonov An-22 : Antonov An-26 Antonov An-28 : Antonov An-32 Antonov An-70 : Antonov An-72 : Antonov An-74 : Antonov An-124 : Antonov An-132 : Antonov An-178 : Antonov An-225 United States of America : C-5M Super Galaxy : C-17A Globemaster III : Lockheed Martin C-130J-30 Super Hercules Brazil : Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante : Embraer Legacy 600 VIP Transport : Embraer 190 VIP Transport : Embraer 120 Brasila : Embraer 145 Utility : Embraer 121 Xingu : Embraer R 99 AEW/Elint Embraer KC-390 Medium-Lift Transport

INDIAN DEFENCE

Air equipment is listed below by platforms:

ASIAN WHO’S WHO

AIR EQUIPMENT

REGIONAL BALANCE

equipment & hardware specifications: air force


regional Balance AIR EQUIPMENT contd. United States of America

: Mil Mi-25/-35 Attack Helicopter : Mil Mi-26 : Mil Mi-28 : : : : :

Bell 407 Bell AH-1 Cobra/Super Cobra Boeing AH-64E Apache Boeing CH-47F Chinook Sikorsky UH-60/HH-60/S-70

Training Brazil India United Kingdom China/Pakistan

: : : : :

Embraer EMB-312 Tucano HAL HJT-16 Kiran Mk I/IA and Mk II BAE Systems Hawk Advanced Jet Trainer K-8 Karakoram Basic Jet Trainer L-15 Advanced Jet Trainer

Airborne Early Warning & Control Brazil Sweden United States of America Russia/Israel

: Embraer-145/R99 AEW : Saab 2000 AEW&C : Boeing E-3 Sentry, Northrop Grumman E-2C Hawkeye : Boeing E-767 AWACS : IL-76 with Phalcon System

Combat Aircraft China Hong–6 Western designation : B-6 User : China Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 499.

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Jian–7 Western designation Type

: F-7 : Single-seat fighter and close support aircraft : MiG-21 F (of Soviet origin)

Design based on Other versions (i) J-7 I (ii) F-7A (export version of J-7I; exported to Albania, Egypt, Iraq and Tanzania) (iii) J-7 II (modified and improved version of J-7I; also known as J-7B) (iv) F-7 B (upgraded export version based on J-7II with ability to carry air-to-air missiles, exported to Bangladesh, Iran, Jordan, Pakistan, Zimbabwe); F-7BS (Sri Lanka) (v) J-7 IIA (improved version of J-7 II) (vi) J-7 H (improved version of J-7 II with improved ground attack capability) (vii) F-7 M Airguard (export version of J-7 IIA) (viii) J-7 II M (Chinese version of F-7M) (ix) F-7 P Airbolt: (variant of F-7M to meet specific requirements of Pakistan Air Force including ability to carry 4 X air-to-air missiles; F-7 MP Airbolt (modified version of F-7 P) (x) J-7C (J-7 III) (design based on MiG-21 MF)

2017568  | SP's Military Yearbook  | 2018 |  45th Issue

equipment & hardware specifications: air force

(xi) J-7 D (J-7IIIA; Improved J-7C version) (xii) J-7E (third-generationJ-7 version based on J-7II airframe) (xiii) F-7 MG (export variant of J-7E) (xiv) F-7 PG (variant of F-7 MG modified for Pakistan Air Force) (xv) J 7/FT 7 Tandem two-seat operational trainer based on J-7 II Users : China (J-7 II/ IIA/ H/ IIM/ III/ IIIA/ E), Bangladesh (F-7M), Egypt (F-7A/B), Iran (F-7M), Myanmar (F-7M), North Korea (F-7), Pakistan (F-7P/PG) and Sri Lanka (F-7BS). Jian–8 NATO reporting name : Finback Western designation : F-8 User : China Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 499. Jianjiao–7 Western designation Users

: FT-7 : Bangladesh (FT-7B), China (JJ-7), Iran (FT-7), Myanmar (FT-7), Pakistan (FT- 7P/ PG) and Sri Lanka (FT-7). Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 499. Qiang–5 NATO reporting name : Fantan Western designation : A-5 Users : Bangladesh (A-5C), China (Q-5), Myanmar (A-5-C/-M) and Pakistan (A-5III). Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 499. FC–1 Export version : Super-7 Users : China, Pakistan Note: For details please refer to SP’s MYB 2009-10 Edition, Equipment and Hardware Section, page 500. Jianji–10 Western designation Type Design

Accommodation Range Armament

: F-10 : Multi-role fighter : Tail-less delta wing and close-coupled fore-planes; single sweptback vertical tail outward-canted ventral fins; single ventral engine air intake. : Pilot only, on zero/ zero ejection seat. : 1,000 nm : 11 external stores points, including one on centre line, tandem pairs on fuselage sides and three under each wing, the outboard wing stations each carrying PL-8 or later AAMs. Other potential weapons could include Vympel R-73 and R-77 AAMs; C-801 or C-802 ASMs; and laser-guided or free-fall bombs. : 250-300 nm : China

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Abbreviations A

A&E Ammunition and Explosives A&N Andaman and Nicobar A/S Anti-Submarine A/S Mortars Anti-Submarine Mortars AA-AB anti aircraft air burst/airborne AAAU active array antenna unit AAC Army Aviation Corps AAD Army Air Defence AAM air-to-air missile AAPTC Association of Asia-Pacific Peacekeeping Training Centres Ac/ac aircraft ACAS Assistant Chief of the Air Staff ACCCS Artillery Combat, Command and Control System/artillery command/ control and communications system ACCP Assistant Controller of Carrier Project ACEMU alternating current electrical multiple unit ACHR Asian Centre for Human Rights ACIDS Assistant Chief Integrated Defence Staff ACIDS (PP&FS) Assistant Chief Integrated Defence Staff (Policy Planning & Force Structures) ACM Advanced Cruise Missile/ Air Chief Marshal ACNS Assistant Chief of Naval Staff, Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (Submarines) ACNS (P&P) Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (Policy & Plans) ACOL Assistant Controller of Logistics ACOP Assistant Chief of Personnel ACOP (CP) Assistant Chief of Personnel (Career Planning) ACOP (HRD) Assistant Chief of Personnel (Human Resource Development) Acqn Acquisition ACWP&A Assistant Controller of Warship Production & Acquisition AD Air Defence ADA Aeronautical Development Agency ADC aide-de-camp ADC&RS air defence control and reporting system ADDC Air Defence Direction Centre ADDM Plus ASEAN Defence Minister Meeting Plus ADE Aeronautical Development Establishment ADG Army Avn Additional Director General Army Aviation ADG

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Procurement Additional Director General Procurement ADG Quartering Additional Director General Quartering ADG SD Additional Director General Staff duties ADGDV Additional Director General Discipline and Vigilance ADGEM Additional Director General Equipment Management ADGES Air Defence Ground Environment System ADGIS Additional Director General Information System ADGIW Additional Director General Information Warfare ADGMI Additional Director General Military Intelligence ADGMO Additional Director General Military Operations ADGMov Additional Director General Movement ADGMS (Navy) Additional Director General Medical Services (Navy) ADGOL Additional Director General Operation Logistics ADGPI Additional Director General Public Information ADGPS Additional Director General Personnel Services ADGSI Additional Director General Signal Intelligence ADGTA Additional Director General Territorial Army ADIZ Air Defence Identification Zone ADMM ASEAN Defence Ministers Meeting ADRDE Aerial Delivery Research & Development Establishment AESA active electronically scanned array AEW airborne early warning AEW&C airborne early warning and control Af-Pak Afghanistan-Pakistan AFNET Air Force Net AFP Armed Forces of the Philippines AG Adjutant General AGC Automatic Gain Control AGM air-to-ground missile AGPL actual ground position line AH attack helicopters AHEAD advanced hit efficiency and destruction AIEPG ASEAN-India Eminent Persons Group AIFVs Armoured Infantry Fighting Vehicles Air Aslt Bde Air Assault Brigade AIS automatic identification system

AIS AJT AKP AL ALCM ALH AMDR Amph Craft ANA ANC ANSF ANURAG ANVC AOC AON AOP APA APCs APDS APEC APFSDS APS APT AQAP AQIS AR AR&DB ARDC ARDE AREN ARF ARMREB ARMSCOR ARSA ARTC&S ARTRAC ARV ASAT ASBM ASCM ASCON ASCON ASDF ASEAN ASG AShM ASTE ASTROIDS

Automatic Information System advanced jet trainer Anshar Khalifa Philippines Awami League Air Launched Cruise Missile advanced light helicopter Air and Missile Defence Radar Amphibious craft Afghan National Army Andaman and Nicobar Command Afghan National Security Forces Advanced Numerical Research & Analysis Group Achik National Volunteer Council Army Ordnance Corps acceptance of necessity Air Officer-in-Charge Personnel advanced projects agency Armoured personnel carrier armour piercing discarding sabot Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation armour piercing fin stabilised ­discarding sabot Active Promotion System advanced persistent threat Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula Al-Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent Assam Rifles Aeronautical Research and Development Board Aircraft R&D Centre Armament Research & Development Establishment Army Radio Engineered Network ASEAN Regional Forum Armament Research Board Armaments Corporation of South Africa Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army Assam Rifles Training Centre and School Army Training Command Armoured Recovery Vehicle anti-satellite weapons Anti-ship ballistic missile anti-ship cruise missile Army Static Communication Network Army Static Communication Network Air Self-Defence Force Association of South East Asian Nations Abu Sayyaf Group Anti ship Missile Aircraft and System Testing Establishment Army Strategic Operational Information Dissemination System

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abbreviations ASW ATAGS ATAS ATBIP ATDS ATGM ATGW ATK ATM ATRCL AURA AVSM AWACS

anti-submarine warfare Advance Towed Artillery Gun System active-cum-passive towed array sonar Aviation Thermobaric Bomb of Increased Power advanced torpedo defence system anti-tank guided missile Anti Tank Guided Weapon Anti Tank air traffic management Anti Tank Recoilless Rifle Autonomous Unmanned Research Aircraft Ati Vishisht Seva Medal airborne warning and control system

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BADZ Base Air Defence Zone BARC Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Bbrs Bombers BDA Big Data Analytics BDE hq Brigade Headquarter BDL Bharat Dynamics Limited BDR Bangladesh Rifles BE Budget Estimate BEL Bharat Electronics Limited BEML Bharat Earth Movers Limited BFSR battlefield surveillance radar BHEL Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited BIFF Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters BIMSTEC Bay of Bengal Initiative for MultiSectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation BIT Bilateral Investment Treaty BM Border Management BMC2 Battle Management Command and Control BMD ballistic missile defence BMI brain-machine-interfaces BMS battlefield management system BMSy ballistic missile systems Bn (bn) Battalion BNP Bangladesh Nationalist Party BOMCA Border Management Programme in Central Asia BRI Belt and Road Initiave BRICS Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa BRO Border Roads Organisation BSF Border Security Force BSS battlefield surveillance system BTAD Bodoland Territorial Autonomous District BVR beyond visual range

C C-RAM

C4I

C4I2

C4I2SR

C4ISR

CABS CAD

B

C-DAC

C4

Centre for Development of Advanced Computing counter rocket, artillery and mortar

CAG CAIR CAM CAM CAPF CAR CAR CARAT CAREC CAS CASA CASSA CAW CBI CBM CBNG CBRN CBTA CBW CC CCA CCP CCS CCW Cdo Bn CDO gp CDS CEC CECA CELLDAR CEMILAC CEO CEP CEPA

2017578  | SP's Military Yearbook  | 2018 |  45th Issue

command, control, communications and computers command, control, communications, computers, information command, control, communications, computing, intelligence and i­ nformation command, control, communications, computers, information and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance Centre for Airborne Systems computer-aided design/current account deficit Comptroller and Auditor General of India Centre for Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Computer-aided manufacturing Casualty Attrition Model Central Armed Police Force Central Acquisition Radar Central Asian Republics Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Close Air Support Central Asia South Asia Council of Agencies Serving South Asians College of Air Warfare Central Bureau of Investigation confidence building measures carrier-based vanguard group chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear Cross-Border Transport Agreement Chemical and Biological Warfar control centre Central Coordinating Authority Chinese Communist Party Cabinet Committee on Security Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons Commando Battalion Commando Group Chief of Defence Staff cooperative engagement capabilities Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement cell phone radar Centre for Military Airworthiness & Certification Chief Executive Officer circular error probability Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement

CEPTAM

Centre for Personal Talent Management CERT Computer Emergency Response Team CES Common Economic Space CFC Combined Force Commander CFD computational fluid dynamics CFEES Centre for Fire, Explosive & Environment Safety CFL ceasefire line CFT Combating Financing Terrorism CGE Central Government Expenditure CHARI Commonwealth of Human Rights Initiative CHASNUPP Chashma Nuclear Power Plant CIA Central Intelligence Agency CIAT Counter-Insurgency and AntiTerrorist CIDSS command information decision support system CIG Counter-Insurgency Grid CIM Computer Integrated Manufacturing CIS Commonwealth of Independent States CISC Chief of Integrated Staff to the Chairman Chiefs of Staff Committee CISF Central Industrial Security Force CLAWS Centre for Land Warfare Studies CMC Computer Maintenance Corporation/ Central Military Commission CMD credible minimum deterrence CMDS countermeasure dispensing systems CMOS complementary metal-oxidesemicon-ductor CNC computer numerically controlled ­boring machines CNP comprehensive national power CNT Carbon Nano Tubes CoBRA Commando Battalion for Resolute Action COM Chief of Materiel COP Chief of Personnel COP Common Operational Picture COP common operating picture COPHC China Overseas Port Holding Company CORF Collective Operational Reaction Force CORPAT Coordinated Patrol COSC Chiefs of Staff Committee COTS commercial off-the-shelf CPC Central Pay Commission CPC Chinese Communist Party CPEC China-Pakistan Economic Corrido CPI (M) Communist Party of India (Maoist) CPMF Central Paramilitary Forces CPMIEC China National Precision Machinery Corporation CPS Controller of Personnel Services CRBC China Road and Bridge Corporation CrPC Criminal Procedure Code

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abbreviations CRPF CSA (ILMS) CSIS CSN CSS CSTO CT CU CUNPK CVLO CVM CVRDE CW CWO

Central Reserve Police Force Chief Systems Administrator (ILMS) Centre for Strategic and International Studies coastal surveillance network coastal security scheme/coastal surveillance system Collective Security Treaty Organisation computed tomography Customs Union Centre for United Nations Peace Keeping counter very-low observable Chakri Naruebet Class Combat Vehicles Research and Development Establishment cyber warfare Computational weapon optic

D DA DAB DAC DACIDS DARE DARPA DART DBSN DCIDSPP&FD

DCMG DCN DCNS DDG CS DDG DSC DDG MF DDG Pnr DDP&S DEAL DEBEL DERL DESIDOC DEW DF DFRL DG AAD DG Arty

Defence Attaché digital audio broadcasting Defence Acquisition Council Deputy Assistant Chief of Integrated Defence Staff Defence Avionics Research Establishment Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Driven Ammunition Reduced Time of Flight distributed battlefield sensor network Deputy Chief of Integrated Defence Staff, Policy Planning and Force Development Defence Crisis Management Group Defence Communications Network Deputy Chief of Naval Staff Deputy Director General Canteen Services Deputy Director General Defence Security Corps Deputy Director General Military Farms Deputy Director General Pioneers Department of Defence Production and Supplies Defence Electronics Application Laboratory Defence Bio-Engineering and Electro Medical Laboratory Defence Electronics Research Laboratory Defence Scientific Information & Documentation Centre Direct Energy Weapons Direct Finding Defence Food Research Laboratory Director General Army Air Defence Director General Artillery

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DG CW DG DCW DG EME DG FP DG Inf DG Mech Forces DG MP DG MS (Army) DG Org & Pers DG Pers DG PP DG RR DG WKS (Army) DGAQA

Director General Ceremonials and Welfare Director General Discipline Ceremonials & Welfare Director General Electrical and Mechanical Engineers Director General Financial Planning Director General Infantry Director General Mechanised Forces Director General Manpower Planning

DIPR DISB DIWM DLJ DMA DMRC DMRL DMSRDE

Director General Medical Services (Army) Director General Organisation and Personnel Director General Personnel Director General Perspective Planning Director General Rashtriya Rifles

Director General Works (Army) Directorate General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance DGICG Director General of the Indian Coast Guard DGIS Director General Information System DGMO Director General Military Operations DGNAI Director General Naval Armament Inspection DGND-SDG Director General Naval Design (Submarine Design Group) DGND-SSG Director General Naval Design (Surface Ship Group) DGNO Director General Naval Operations DGOF Director General Ordnance Factories DGONA Director General Naval Armament DGP Director General of Police DGQA Directorate General of Quality Assurance DGSPV & AOB Director General Special Purpose Vehicle & AOB DGST Director General Supply and Transport DGWE Director General Weapons and Equipment DHCP Dynamic Host Control Protocol DHD Dima Halam Daogah DIA Defence Intelligence Agency DIAT Defence Institute of Advanced Technology DIBER Defence Institute of Bioenergy Research DIHAR Defence Institute of High Altitude Research DIPAS Defence Institute of Psychology & Allied Sciences DIPP Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion

DMZ DOC DODP DOFA DOMW DoP DOS DOT DPB DPI DPKO DPM DPP DPS DPSUs DPT DQMG DRDB DRDE DRDL DRDO DRL DSA DSDI DSSC DT Dte of P&C DTN DTRL DTTI DU DURGA DVB-T DVD

Defence Institute of Psychological Research Directorate for Interaction with Services for Business Daulah Islamiya Wilayatul Mashriq Defence Laboratory Jodhpur Direct Marketing Association Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory Defence Materiel & Store Research & Development Establishment demilitarised zone Declaration on Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea Department of Defence Production Defence Offset Facilitation Agency Defence Offset Management Wing depth of penetration Directorate of Standardisation Department of Telecommunication Defence Procurement Board deep packet inspection Department of Peacekeeping Operations Defence procurement manual Defence Procurement Procedure Defence Planning Staff defence public sector undertakings Druk Phuensum Tshogpa Deputy Quarter Master General Defence Research and Development Board Defence Research & Development Establishment Defence Research & Development Laboratory Defence Research and Development Organisation Defence Research Laboratory Defence Space Agency Defence Spatial Data Infrastructure Defence Services Staff College disruptive technology Directorate of Planning & Coordination disruption-tolerant networking Defence Terrain Research Laboratory Defence Technology and Trade Initiative Delhi University directionally unrestricted ray-gun array digital video broadcasting-terrestrial digital versatile/video disc

E E-in-C EADS EAEF

Engineer-in-Chief European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company Euro-Asia Economic Forum

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abbreviations ECCC

Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia ECCM electronic counter countermeasures ECFA Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement ECIL Electronics Corporation of India Ltd ECM Electronic Countermeasures ED Equipment Depots EEU Eurasian Economic Union EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone ELINT electronic intelligence ELM Expeditionary Laboratory Mobile EMALS Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System EME Electrical and Mechanical Engineers EMP electromagnetic pulse ENPO Eastern Naga People’s Organisation EO electro-optical EOD Bn Explosive Ordnance Disposal Battalion EOFCS electro-optical fire control system EOIs expressions of interest EPC evolved packet core ERV exchange rate variation ESM Electronic Support Measures EU European Union EVMs electronic voting machines EW electronic warfare EXACTO Extreme Accuracy Tasked Ordnance

F F-INSAS FAA FADEC

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FAE FATA FATF FBI FC FCAS FCORD Fd Arty Bns FDI FGA FGFA FGM FICCI FICN FICs FICV FII FIS FLN FM FMS FOAB FOC FODAG

Future Infantry Soldier as a System Federal Aviation Administration Full-Authority Digital Engine Control Fuel-air explosive Federally Administered Tribal Areas Financial Action Task Force Federal Bureau of Investigation fire control Future Combat Air System FICN Coordination Group Field Artillery Batallion foreign direct investment Fighter Ground Attack fifth-generation fighter aircraft Functionally Graded Materials Federation of the Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry Fake Indian Currency Notes fast interception crafts Future Infantry Combat Vehicles foreign investment institution Flying Instructor’s School National Liberation Front frequency modulation foreign military sales Father of All Bomb Final Operational Capability Flag Officer Offshore Defence Advisory Group

FOGA FOK FOMAG

Flag Officer Goa Area Flag Officer Karnataka Flag Officer Commanding Maharashtra and Gujarat FONA Flag Officer Naval Aviation FONOPS Freedom of Navigation Operations FOSM Flag Officer Submarine FPDA Five Power Defence Agreement FPVs Fast Petrol Vessels FRA Flight Refuelling Aircraft FRAP fragmenting payload FRCV Future Ready Combat Vehicle FSE first salvo effectiveness FTA Free Trade Agreement FTR Fighter

G GATT GCC GDP GE GHG GIS GIS GJM GMDSS GNC GNR GoM GPR-AB GPS GRSEL GSL GSLV GSPC GSQR GTA GTRE

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Gulf Cooperation Council Gross Domestic Product General Electric greenhouse gas global information system Geography Information System Gorkha Janmukti Morcha Global Maritime Distress and Safety System General National Congress Graphene Nano Ribbons Group of Ministers general purpose round air burst global positioning system Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Limited Goa Shipyard Limited geosynchronous satellite launch vehicle Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat General Staff Qualitative Requirements Gorkha Territorial Administration Gas Turbine Research Establishment

H HADR HAL HAUV HCHE HDBT HDW HELP Hels HEMRL HEU HF

2017580  | SP's Military Yearbook  | 2018 |  45th Issue

humanitarian assistance and disaster relief Hindustan Aeronautics Limited Hybrid Autonomous Undersea Vehicle higher capability high explosives hard and deeply buried target Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft Hydrocarbon Exploration and Licensing Policy Helicopters High Energy Materials Research Laboratory highly enriched uranium high frequency

HHTIs HMG HOTAS HPMs HSL HUD HuJI HUMINT HVF

hand-held thermal imaging devices Heavy machine gun Hands On Throttle-and-Stick high particles microwaves Hindustan Shipyard Limited Head-up display Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami human intelligence Heavy Vehicles Factory

I IAC IAEA IAF IAI IAP IAPTC IAS IB ICAO ICBM ICG ICG ICJ ICRC ICSS ICV IDAS IDAS IDEX IDP IDS IDSA IED IEW IFA (N) IFC IFF IFG IFV IGNOU IGNS IGPS IHL IISS IITF IJT IKR IM IMF IMG IMMOLS

Indigenous Aircraft Carrier International Atomic Energy Agency Indian Air Force Israel Aerospace Industries Integrated Action Plan International Association of Peacekeeping Training Centre Indian Administrative Service Intelligence Bureau/ Interceptor Boat International Civil Aviation Organisation intercontinental ballistic missile Indian Coast Guard International Crisis Group International Court of Justice International Committee of the Red Cross Integrated coastal surveillance system Infantry Combat Vehicle Integrated Defensive Aids Suite Indian Defence Accounts Service International Defence Exhibition and Conference Internally Displaced Person Integrated Defence Staff Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses improvised explosive device information electronic warfare Integrated Financial Advisor (Navy) inter-factional clashes identification friend and foe Indian field gun Infantry Fighting Vehicle Indira Gandhi National Open University Inspector General Nuclear Safety Intelligent Global Positioning System international humanitarian law International Institute for Strategic Studies India International Trade Fair intermediate jet trainer Iraqi Kurdistan Region Indian Mujahideen International Monetary Fund Inter-Ministerial Group Integrated Material Management

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abbreviations IMO IMRH IMU IMU INAS INDSAR INDU INMAS INSAS INSAT IOCL IoE IONS IOR IORA IOT IPA IPC IPKF IPMT IPSP IPV IPv4 IR IR&FC IRAL IRB IRDE IRENA IRNSS IRS IRST IS ISAF ISC ISI ISIL ISIS ISO ISR ISRO ISRR ISSA ISSAss ISTAR IT ITBP

On-Line System International Maritime Organisation Indian multi-role helicopter Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan inertial measurement unit Indian Navy Air Squadron Indian (Maritime) Search and Rescue Indian National Defence University Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences Indian Small Arms System Indian national satellite Indian Oil Corporation Ltd Internet of Everything Indian Ocean Naval Symposium international offshore rule Indian Ocean Rim Association Internet of Things Indian Production Agency Indian Penal Code Indian Peace Keeping Force Integrated Project Management Team Internal Peace and Security Plan inshore patrol vessels Internet protocol version 4 India Reserve/infrared/international relations Information Resource & Facilitation Centre Indo-Russian Aviation Limited India Reserved Battalions Instruments Research & Development Establishment International Renewable Energy Agency Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System Indian remote satellite infrared search and track information superiority International Security Assistance Force Information Sharing Centre Inter-Services Intelligence, Pakistan State of Iraq and the Levant Islamic State of Iraq and Greater Syria International Organization for Standardization intelligence, surveillance and ­reconnaissance Indian Space Research Organisation Indian Search and Rescue Region Institute for Systems Studies & Analyses International Social Security Association intelligence, surveillance, target ­acquisition and reconnaissance information technology Indo-Tibetan Border Police

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ITM ITR ITSPP IW IWESS IWI

Institute of Technology Management Integrated Test Range Integrated Tri-Service Perspective Plan information warfare Infantry Weapon Effect Simulating System Israel Weapon Industries

J J&K JAG JCPOA

Jammu and Kashmir Judge Advocate General Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action JeM Jaish-e-Mohammad JNU Jawaharlal Nehru University JOC Joint Operation Centre JOCOM Joint Operation Committee JODI Joint Organisations Data Initiative JSF joint strike fighter JSIC Joint Services Intelligence Committee JTC Joint Training Committee JTFI Joint Task Force on Intelligence JXR Joint Exercise for Rescue

K KAI KALI KANUPP KIM KKH KLA KMW KNO KPLT KRC KRG

Korea Aerospace Industries kinetic attack loitering interceptor Karachi Nuclear Power Plant Khilafa Islamiyah Mindanao Karakoram Highway Kamtapur Liberation Army Krauss-Maffei Wegmann, Germany Kuki National Organisation Kuki Peoples’ Liberation Tigers Kargil Review Committee Kurdistan Regional Government

L L&T Larsen and Toubro LAC line of actual control LACM Land-Attack Missile LACM land-attack cruise missile LASTEC Laser Science & Technology Centre LCA light combat aircraft LCH light combat helicopter LCM Local Communist Movement LCU landing craft utility LCVP Landing Craft Vehicle, Personnel LDP Liberal Democratic Party LeJ Lashkar-e-Jhangvi LEO/MEO low/medium earth orbit LeT Lashkar-e-Taiba/Toiba LEVCON leading edge vortex control surface LIA Lead Intelligence Agency LIDAR light detection and ranging LMG Light Machine Gun LNG liquefied natural gas LoC line of control

LORROS

Long-Range Reconnaissance and Observation System LRDE Electronics and Radar Development Establishment LRSAM long-range surface-to-air missile LSD Landing Ship Dock LSRB Life Sciences Research Board LST/LSL /LPD Landing Ship Tank/Landing Ship Logistics/Landing Platform Dock Lt Inf Divs Light Infantry Divisions Lt Tks Light Tanks LTIPP Long-term Integrated Perspective Plan LTPP Long-term Perspective Plan LTPPFC Long-term Perspective Plan Formulation Committee LTPPs Long-Term Perspective Plans LTTE Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam LUH light utility helicopter LWE left-wing extremism

M M-SAR MAC MADDLS

Maritime Search and Rescue Multi Agency Centre Mirror Airfield Dummy Deck Landing System MANET Mobile Adhoc Networks MANPAD Man Portable Air Defence MANTIS Modular Automatic and Network Capable Targeting and Interceptor System MARCOS Marine Commandos MaRV manoeuvrable re-entry vehicle MASINT measurement and signature ­intelligence MAV micro UAV MAV micro-air vehicle MBB Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm MBRL multi-barrel rocket launcher MBT main battle tank MCMVs Mines Counter Measures Vessels MCPP maritime capability perspective plan MCPP Maritime Capability Perspective Plan MD AWES Managing Director Army Welfare Education Society MD AWHO Managing Director Army Welfare Housing Organisation MDA maritime domain awareness MDL Mazagon Dock Limited MDSs mounted gun systems Mech Inf bde Mechanised Infantry Brigade MEDS micro-biotic electronics and disabling system MEL medium energy laser MEMS micro-electro-mechanical system MFN most favoured nation MFSTAR Multifunctional Surveillance Threat Assessment Radar MGO Master General Ordnance MHA Ministry of Home Affairs MIB Ministry of Information &

2017– SP's Military Yearbook  | 2018 |  45th Issue  | 581


abbreviations Broadcasting Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited Moro Islamic Liberation Front multiple-input multiple-output multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicle MIS management information system MMRCA medium multi-role combat aircraft MND Ministry of National Defense MNLF Moro National Liberation Front MNT Molecular Nanotechnology MOAB Mother of All Bomb MoD Ministry of Defence MORS Mortars MR maritime reconnaissance MRBM medium-range ballistic missile MRCC Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre MRCCs Maritime Rescue Coordination Centres MRD Motorised Rifle Division MRL multiple rocket launcher MRLs multiple rocket launchers MRMR Medium Range Maritime Reconnaissance MRO maintenance, repair and overhaul MRSAM medium-range surface-to-air missile MRSC Marine Rescue Sub-Centre MRTT multi-role tanker transport MS Military Secretary MSME Medium, Small and Micro Enterprise MSMEs micro, small, medium enterprises MSQA missile system quality assurance MTA multi-role transport aircraft MTAL Multi-role Transport Aircraft Ltd MTCR Missile Technology Control Regime MTRDC Microwave Tube R&D Centre MTT Mobile Training Team MW Mine Warfare MIDHANI MILF MIMO MIRV

N NAFTA NAIS NASA

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NASSCOM NATGRID NATO NBC NBDC NC3IN NCA NCCC NCSL NCTC NCTF

North American Free Trade Agreement National Automatic Identification System National Aeronautics and Space Administration National Association of Software and Services Companies National Intelligence Grid North Atlantic Treaty Organisation nuclear biological chemical defence National Bomb Data Centre National Command, Control, Communication and Intelligence National Command Authority National Cyber Coordination Centre National Coalition for Supporting Legitimacy National Counter Terrorism Centre Naresh Chandra Task Force

NCW NDA NDC NDC NDFB NDMA NDN NDRF NDSAP NDSAP NELP NFU NHRC NIA NIAT NIC NIRDESH

NITI NLD NM NMF NMRH NMRL NMSAR NMSARCA NMSRB NOS-DCP NPCIL NPOL NPR NPT NRB NSA NSC NSCN NSCN/IM NSCN/K NSCS NSEC NSG NSR NSS NSTL

2017582  | SP's Military Yearbook  | 2018 |  45th Issue

network-centric warfare National Defence Academy National Defence College Nationally Determined Contribution National Democratic Front of Bodoland National Disaster Management Authority Northern Distribution Network National Disaster Response Force National Data Sharing and Accessibility Policy National Data Sharing and Accessibility Policy New Exploration Licensing Policy no first use National Human Rights Commission National Investigative Agency Naval Institute of Aviation Technology National Informatics Centre/ National Intelligence Council National Institute for Research and Development in Defence Shipbuilding National Institution for Transforming India National League for Democracy Nao Sena Medal National Maritime Foundation naval multi-role helicopter Naval Materials Research Laboratory National Maritime Search and Rescue National Maritime Search and Rescue Coordination Authority National Maritime Search and Rescue Board National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan Nuclear Power Corporation of India Naval Physical & Oceanographic Laboratory National Population Register Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Naval Research Board National Security Advisor/National Security Agency National Security Council National Socialist Council of Nagaland National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Isak-Muivah) National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Khaplang) National Security Council Secretariat Naval Standing Establishment Committee National Security Guard/Nuclear Suppliers’ Group New Silk Road National Security Strategy Naval Science & Technological

NTG NTRO NUD NWWA

Laboratory Naval Technology Group National Technical Research Organisation Naval Unified Domain Navy Wives Welfare Association

O OBOR OECD OEM OFB OFC OIS ONGC OODA OPCW OPEC Ops Comd OPV OPVs ORBAT OROP OSCC OSINT OST OTH

One Belt, One Road Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development original equipment manufacturer Ordnance Factory Board optical fibre cable operational information system Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Observe-Orient-Decide-Act Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapon Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries Operations Command Offshore Petrol Vessels Offshore Patrol Vessels Order of Battle One Rank One Pension Offshore Security Coordination Committee open source intelligence Outer Space Treaty over the horizon radar

P PAT PBR PCA PCL PCVs PDAA PDACP PDALS PDAPP PDAPSA PDASE PDCP PDCPS PDCV PDEE PDESA PDFC

Perform, Achieve and Trade Patrol Boat, River Permanent Court of Arbritation passive coherent location Pollution Control Vessels Principal Director Aircraft Acquisition Principal Director Aircraft Carrier Project Principal Director Air Logistics Support Principal Director Aircraft Projects & Plan Principal Director of Adventure, Physical Fitness in Sports Activities Principal Director Aircraft Systems Engineering Principal Director Civilian Personnel Principal Director Civilian Personnel Services Principal Director Clothing & Victualling Principal Director Electrical Engineering Principal Director Ex-Servicemen Affairs Principal Director Foreign Cooperation

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abbreviations PDFM

Principal Director Fleet Maintenance PDG Parliament Duty Group PDIT Principal Director Information Technology PDLS Principal Director Logistics Support PDM Product Data Model PDMPR Principal Director Manpower Planning & Recruitment PDMS (M&S) Principal Director Medical Services (Hospital & Services) PDMS (P&M) Principal Director Medical Services (Personnel & Material) PDNA Principal Director Naval Architecture PDNAS Principal Director Naval Air Staff PDNCO Principal Director Net-centric Operations PDNE Principal Director Naval Education PDNI Principal Director Naval Intelligence PDNO Principal Director Naval Operations PDNOM Principal Director Naval Oceanology & Meteorology PDNP Principal Director Naval Plans PDNPF Principal Director Non-Public Funds PDNS Principal Director Naval Signals PDNT Principal Director Naval Training PDOA Principal Director Administration PDODY Principal Director Dockyards PDOH Principal Director of Hydrography PDOI Principal Director Indigenisation PDOP Principal Director Personnel PDP People’s Democratic Party PDP&A Principal Director Pay & Allowances PDPA People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan PDPRO Principal Director Procurement PDPS Principal Director Personnel Services PDSMAQ Principal Director Submarine Acquisition PDSMO Principal Director Submarine Operations PDSMS Principal Director Submarine Safety PDSOD Principal Director Special Operations & Diving PDSR Principal Director Staff Requirements PDSSD Principal Director Ship Systems & Development PDW Principal Director Works PDWE Principal Director Weapons Equipment PELE Penetrator with Enhanced Lateral Effect PFI Popular Front of India PGMs precision-guided munitions PIPVTR Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research PKO peacekeeping operations PLA People’s Liberation Army PLO Palestine Liberation Organisation PM Provost Marshal PML Pakistan Muslim League

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PML(N) PMOC PNT PoK POL PPBP

PPOC PPP PPP PSA PSO PSOC PSR PTF PVSM PXE

Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz) Principal Maintenance Officers Committee position navigation and timing Pakistan-occupied Kashmir petrol, oil and lubricants policy, exercise of planning, budgetary allocations and process of acquisition Principal Personal Officers Committee public-private partnership purchasing power parity Port of Singapore Authority Principle Staff Officer Principal Supply Officers Committee preliminary staff requirements Patrol Torpedo Fast Param Vishisht Seva Medal Proof and Experimental Establishment

Q QMG QRSAM

Quarter Master General Quick Reaction Surface-to-Air Missile

RADAR RAF RAM/RAP RAN RAW RBA RBG RCEP RCI RCL RCMA RCS ReCAAP

research and development Research & Development Establishment radio detection and ranging Rapid Action Force radar absorbent materials/paint Random Access Network Research and Analysis Wing Royal Bhutan Army Royal Bhutan Guards Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Research Centre Imarat Recoilless Rifle Regional Centre of Military Airworthiness radar cross section Regional Cooperation Agreement to Combat Piracy and Armed Robbery

RECCE/ Recce Reconnaissance REF Rapid Equipping Force RFI request for information RFP request for proposal RIAF Royal Indian Air Force RMA revolution in military affairs RNEP Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Programme ROC regional operating centres ROS remote operating stations ROV remotely operated vehicle RPA remotely piloted aircraft RRP-I Road Requirement Plan-I RSTA reconnaissance, surveillance and

target acquisition Rotary-winged UAVs

S SA to CNS SAARC SAD SAG SAGAR SAGW SAM SaR SAR SASE SASEC SATA SBE SCAF SCAPCC SCAPCHC

R R&D R&DE

RUAV

SCD SCO SCO SCS SCTC Scud SSM Bde SDI SDR SDR SEAD SEAL SF Engr Regt SFC SID SIDBI SIGINT SIMFIRE SIPRI SIRBs SITAR SLBM SLOC SM SMAC SMAC SNERDI SNR SoD

Scientific Advisor to Chief of Naval Staff South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation space asset domination Scientific Analysis Group Security and Growth for All in the Region surface-to-air guided weapons surface-to-air missile search and rescue surveillance and reconnaissance/ synthetic aperture radar Snow & Avalanche Study Establishment South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation surveillance and target acquisition strategic and business environment Supreme Council of Armed Forces Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Committee Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Higher Committee Standing Committee of Defence Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Shangahai Cooperation Organisation South China Sea State Counter-Terrorism Centres Surface to Surface Missile Strategic Defense Initiative software defined radio Strategic Defence Review Suppression of Enemy Air Defence Sea, Air and Land teams Special Forces Engineer Regiment Strategic Forces Command Signal Intelligence Directorate Small Industries Development Bank of India signal intelligence Simulated Fire Stockholm International Peace Research Institute Specialised India Reserved Battalions Society for Integrated Technology Application and Research submarine launched ballistic missile sea line of communication Sena Medal State Multi Agency Centre Subsidiary MAC Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute signal to noise ratio Suspension of Operation

2017– SP's Military Yearbook  | 2018 |  45th Issue  | 583


abbreviations SPB SPG SPHs SPIEF SQR SR-SAM SRBM SRE SSB SSBNs SSG SSKP SSM SSNs SSPL SSQAG STA Bn STEA

Sagar Prahari Bal Strategic Policy Group self-propelled howitzers St Petersburg International Economic Forum services qualitative requirements short-range surface-to-air missile short-range ballistic missiles security related expenditure Sashastra Seema Bal submarines with nuclear-tipped missile Special Security Group single-shot kill probability surface-to-surface missile nuclear powered attack submarines Solid State Physics Laboratory Strategic Systems Quality Assurance Group Supply and Transport Battalion Strategic and Technical Environment Assessment short take-off but arrested recovery short take-off and vertical landing Specialist Technical Panels

STOBAR STOVL STP Strat Msl Forces Strategic Missile Forces SUAS small unmanned aircraft systems Surv Surveillance SWAC South-Western Air Command SWATH small water plane area twin hulls SWBS Ship Work Breakdown Structure SYSM Sarvottam Yudh Seva Medal

T

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TACAN TacC3I

tactical air navigation tactical command, control, communications and information TACDE Tactics and Air Combat Development Establishment TAPI Turkmenistan-AfghanistanPakistan-India TASL Tata Advanced Systems Limited TBM theatre-range ballistic missile TBRL Terminal Ballistics Research Laboratory TBS twin balance sheet TCS Tata Consultancy Services TCS tactical communication system TECHINT technical intelligence TERI Tata Energy Research Institute TES terrorism, separaitism and extremism TEUS twenty-foot equivalent units

TFT THAAD

thin-film transistor Terminal High Altitude Area Defense TIKA Turkish Cooperation and Coordination Agency TKK Tamu-Kalewa-Kaleymyo Tkrs Tankers TNA Tamil National Alliance TNSM Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-eMohammadi TNW tactical nuclear weapons TNW tactical nuclear warhead ToT transfer of technology ToT Training of Trainers Towed ARTY Towed Artillery TPCR/ TPCRM Technology Perspective and Capability Road Map TPP Trans-Pacific Partnership TPT Transport TRADOC Training and Doctrine Command TSD Technical Support Division TTP Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan TTX Table Top Exercise TW three warfare

U UAC-TA

United Aircraft CorporationTransport Aircraft UAE United Arab Emirates UAS unmanned aerial systems UAV unmanned aerial vehicle UCAV unmanned combat aerial vehicle UDF United People’s Front UHF Ultra high frequency UHQ Unified HQ ULFA United Liberation Front of Asom UN United Nations UNCIVPOL United Nations Civilian Police UNCLOS United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea UNESCAP United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific UNFMOC UN Female Military Officers Course UNGA United Nations General Assembly UNHRC United Nations Human Rights Council UNMCOC UN Military Contingent Officers Course UNMOC UN Military Observers Course UNODC United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime UNPCAP UN Peacekeeping Course for African Partners

2017584  | SP's Military Yearbook  | 2018 |  45th Issue

UNPDC UNPKO UNSC UNSC UNSLOC UPA UPUA

UN Pre Deployment Course UNHRC Peacekeeping Operations United Nations Security Council United Nations Security Council UN Staff & Logistic Officers Course United Progressive Alliance Urban Perspective: Our Work in Urban Areas USA United States of America USAF United States Air Force USG Under-Secretary-General. USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USTRs United States Trade Represntatives UWSA United Wa State Army UYSM Uttam Yudh Seva Medal

V V-SAT VBIG VCAS VCDS VCNS VCOS VCR VHF VLO VM VRDE VSHORAD VSM VTOL

Very Small Aperture Terminal Valley Based Insurgent Group Vice Chief of Air Staff Vice Chief of Defence Staff Vice Chief of Naval Staff Vice Chief of Army Staff video cassette recorder Very high frequency very low observable Vayu Sena Medal Vehicles Research and Development Establishment very short-range air defence systems Vishisht Seva Medal vertical take-off and landing

W WAC Western Air Command WCS Weapon Control System WLR weapon locating radar WMD weapons of mass destruction WPN Weapons WSOI Weapon Systems, ORSA and Infrastructure WTO World Trade Organisation

Y YSM YTL

Yudh Seva Medal Yard Tug Small (small harbour tug)

Z ZUF

Zaliangrong United Front

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SP’s

2017 –

Military 2018

Yearbook

PROFILES (NEW): ASIA LEADERSHIP (44 COUNTRIES WELL COVERED) PLUS: UPDATED MoD ORGANISATIONS

SP’s

Military

Yearbook s

i

n

c

e

1

9

6

5

2017 –

2018 4 5th

i s sue

SeaGuardian

4 5th is s u e

MULTI-ROLE SINGLE SOLUTION editor-in-chief

Leading the Situational Awareness Revolution

jayant baranwal

www.ga-asi.com ©2018 General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc.

1802_SP_Aviation_(Mar)v1.indd 1

2/12/2018 1:51:05 PM

SP's Military Yearbook 2017-2018  

SP's Military Yearbook 2017-2018: PROFILES (NEW): ASIA LEADERSHIP (44 COUNTRIES WELL COVERED) PLUS: UPDATED MoD ORGANISATIONS AND ETC.

SP's Military Yearbook 2017-2018  

SP's Military Yearbook 2017-2018: PROFILES (NEW): ASIA LEADERSHIP (44 COUNTRIES WELL COVERED) PLUS: UPDATED MoD ORGANISATIONS AND ETC.

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