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Towards a safer India.

February-March 2012

SPâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

Volume 9 No 1

AN SP GUIDE

R

`100.00 (India-based Buyer Only)

P U B L I C AT I O N

2011 20 011 2012 20 012

40TH ISSUE

Editor-in-Chief Edi itor-in-Chief

JJayant Ja yant Ba Baranwal aran nwal

ROUNDUP

WWW.SPSLANDFORCES.NET

IN THIS ISSUE

T h e O N LY j o u r n a l i n A s i a d e d i c a t e d t o L a n d F o r c e s

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Wide-ranging Vehicles for Diverse Roles

COV E R STO R Y

Armour in Future Conflicts PHOTOGRAPH: PIB

Currently, the Indian Army is looking for multipurpose vehicles (MPVs), light bullet proof vehicles (Lt BPVs), light strike vehicles (LSVs) for the infantry battalions for its various roles in external and internal security duties and reconnaissance vehicles for the armoured and mechanised units and NBC units Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor PAGE 8 Indian Army Modernisation â&#x20AC;&#x201C; An Introspection The facade of the yearly refined DPP over the years has done little to accelerate modernisation. The gap between the Indian Army and the Peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Liberation Army (PLA) is widening alarmingly in favour of the latter. Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch PAGE 10 Indigenous Strategic and Tactical Missiles

T-72 (FWMP) passes through the Rajpath during the 60th Republic Day parade

The Agni missile programme is a family of MRBM to ICBM ballistic missile systems developed by DRDO under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme.

AFVs will endure the changes in the nature of future wars. However, they must not be seen in isolation as stand-alone weapon systems, but as part of an all arms group enabling and sustaining decisive manoeuvre and high intensity battle at close quarters through superior survivability against precision attacks and dumb munitions.

Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand

n LT GENERAL (RETD) V.K. KAPOOR

PAGE 12 Social Networking and Cyber Threats Cyber crime has shifted from simple scams including phishing, spoofing, worms and viruses to more sophisticated attacks shutting down network servers and cloud-based systems affecting companies and individuals. Social networking sites are fertile grounds for breeding cyber crime. Lt General (Retd) P.C. Katoch PLUS Right hand Drive HMMWV Interview: William Blair, President, Raytheon India News in Brief

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n order to examine the effectiveness and employment of armour in future conflicts, it will be prudent in the first instance to understand the basic characteristics of an armoured fighting vehicle (aFV). the characteristics which aFVs give to ground forces enable the latter to conduct decisive manoeuvre as well as direct high intensity offensive action in order to surprise, paralyse and dislocate an enemy. in open terrain (plains and deserts), armour predominant combat forces are employed to lead the advance of offensive formations, to cut off enemy lines of communication or to occupy key terrain in enemy held area in order to dislocate the enemy and destroy him at a time and place of own choosing.

Nature of Future Wars analysis of current and past conflicts, emerging technologies, geostrategic environment and the emerging challenges indicate various trends in future wars. While the details of evaluation and appraisal differ in their content and quality, some shared conclusions with regard to the future trends emerge quite clearly. the main conclusion is that major state to state wars will be a rarity and low intensity conflict will prevail. thus many professionals in the armed forces all over the world feel that the days of largescale armour employment are over because of the focus on low intensity operations. in india, due to the heightened employment of the indian army in counter-insurgency and other low-intensity operations in the past two decades or so, similar beliefs are held by

many officers. they are of the opinion that conventional wars of the past are unlikely to be fought due to the changed nature of future conflicts. However, most of the military analysts differ on this issue. they feel that the geopolitical and geostrategic environment in South asia or even in the larger region which is termed as Southern asia (the arc extending clockwise from north africa, West asia and South east asia to the indian ocean) are such that limited conventional conflicts cannot be ruled out. they point towards the Kargil War in 1999 and the military standoff between india and Pakistan in 2001-02, after the attack on indian Parliament on december 13, 2001. india in fact is facing a dual challenge/threat, in the western theatre from Pakistan and in the eastern theatre

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COV E R STO R Y PHOTOGRAPHS: US Army, Krauss Maffei Wegmann

from China and these challenges/threats cannot be ignored because of the dubious conduct of both adversaries and the obvious collusion between them. the fallacy of the belief that conventional conflicts are unlikely has also been amply highlighted in israeli conflict against the Hezbollah in Lebanon in 2006. david e. Johnson of rand Corporation took stock of the israeli response to the war in Lebanon, in 2006, in a new monograph, military Capabilities for Hybrid War: insights from the israel defense Forces in Lebanon and Gaza. He has written that the israeli defence forces (idF) had such difficulties with the organised and well-trained Hezbollah forces in part, because in the preceding years, the idF focused so much of its training on countering the irregular threat presented by Hamas in Gaza. the idF focused roughly 75 per cent of training on “low-intensity conflict” and only 25 per cent on combined arms and manoeuvre—a decision that had grave consequences in the valleys of southern Lebanon. this resulted in the israeli army’s lack of coordination in joint combined arms fire and manoeuvre. the idF failed to properly integrate its air, ground, and fires assets when encountering organised Hezbollah units. after these, the idF reversed its training ratio to focus more on combined arms tactics, while scaling back on irregular skills. in view of the foregoing, there is a need to discuss and debate the issue of employment of armour in the future, in general terms, in the indian context, so as to enable professionals to appreciate the future of armour which could also result in some useful deductions regarding the design features of future tanks.

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M1A2 Abrams tank firing; (below) KMW Leopard1

Geographical Realities Fortunately, most of the senior hierarchy in india’s armed forces is more pragmatic in this regard keeping in mind our likely adversaries, Pakistan and China, their equipment pattern, and the geographical realities of the subcontinent. our borders with our two major adversaries comprise of varying terrain patterns. in the western theatre against Pakistan, we have glaciated terrain in Siachen area, mountainous terrain in Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh, plains in Punjab and semi-desert and desert terrain in rajasthan. thus extensive armour employment is possible in the Jammu region, in Punjab and in rajasthan. in the eastern theatre, the terrain opposite tibet autonomous region of China comprises of high mountains where limited employment of armour is possible in certain sectors only. However, in the mountains also, innovative employment of armour, where terrain so allows, can result in gaining advantages which are out of proportion to the force employed.

integrated theatre plan so that larger forces comprising more than one strike corps can be employed synchronously from one theatre or from two different theatres to cause maximum destruction of enemy forces. this would involve large-scale employment armour and mechanised forces and close synergy between strike and pivot formations of the army and the combat aircraft of the indian air Force (iaF). the iaF will have to play a dominant role in the destruction of enemy mechanised and armoured forces on the battlefield and therefore joint planning between the army and the air Force will be

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Transformation of the Army recently, exercise Sudarshan Shakti was held in the rajasthan desert. the aim it seems was to test the transformational concepts of the indian army and integrated theatre concept of operations was practised. military officers are aware that in any offensive operations planned on the subcontinent, the aims would either be to capture territory or destroy enemy forces or a combination of both. any territory captured across the international boundary would invariably have to be returned, though it could temporarily be used for post-conflict bargaining. the territory captured across disputed border like the line of control, may be retained, though in the present global environment that too would be unrealistic. Hence destruction of forces would be a more important objective which would have a long-term economic impact on the adversary.

Integrated Theatre Concept For destruction of large armoured and mechanised forces, battles will have to be planned and orchestrated according to an

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The manoeuvre to dislocate the enemy, to get behind him and to demoralise him, so as to impose our will on him will continue to be an important role for armoured forces and indirect firepower alone will not be able to achieve this effect despite the advent of precision munitions

essential. it is here that a truly integrated theatre would be very useful. the success in this battle will depend upon the synergy and close coordination achieved by the army and the iaF; intra-theatre (within a theatre) between the pivot and the strike corps of that theatre; inter-theatre (inter-command) between the strike corps of two adjoining theatres of operations along with their iaF counterparts. Such operations can only be achieved by the armour and other mechanised components of the army.

Characteristics of Tanks/Tank Warfare Shock Effect: Currently, there is no method by which an all arm force can surprise and paralyse an opponent and cause dislocation on the ground without the use of armour. the modern armoured fighting vehicle is a versatile and unique weapon system which through innovative employment can achieve a lethal effect on the battlefield called “shock action”, which can help in attaining strategic objectives most economically. Shock action results from a combination of mobility, armour protection, accurate and direct firepower and excellent communications, which constitute the basic characteristics of an aFV. this quality of armour also fulfills an important tenet of operational art called “operational shock”, a term adopted from russian word “Udar”. manoeuvre theory seeks to defeat enemy without destroying all his forces. operational shock is the Soviet term for a state of disintegration of resolve. operational shock results from depriving commanders the ability to sense their environment or exercise control over their tactical elements or both. Both physical and cognitive means are used

to achieve it and the armour constitutes the physical means and is indispensable in the land battle. Survivability: another important byproduct of these characteristics is its “survivability”, both on nuclear and non-nuclear battlefields. there is currently no other weapon system which can match the survivability of an aFV. However, a new battlefield environment is emerging due to the advent of stand-off, multi-spectral sensors with real time communications that give situational awareness so that targets can be acquired, prioritised and destroyed, by day or by night, in all weathers, throughout the battlefield, with stand-off weapon systems firing precision attack munitions. this threat will extend throughout the area of operations. Hence it is being pointed out by analysts that indirect and stand-off engagements from aircraft, unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCaVs) and long-range artillery can relieve armour from the role of destroying enemy combat elements at close quarters. moreover, due to the high threat posed by the above systems, armoured forces may find it difficult to close in with their intended objectives without neutralising the opponents deep attack systems. in this regard, the effectiveness of the US air power in destroying iraqi armour that manoeuvred during a sandstorm in order to meet the coalition forces is often cited. as the coalition forces closed in on Baghdad, iraq’s medina, Baghdad and Hammurabi divisions, counting on the cover provided by the sandstorm, repositioned them to meet the coalition forces. JStarS and long-range UaVs detected the movement and guided B-1 and fighterbombers to intercept them. Using ir targeting devices that could penetrate the clouds of sand, the aircraft inflicted severe damage on iraqi armour. Will the aFV be able to survive such an environment in the future? this question is bothering military professionals and military analysts. this dilemma in itself is not new. the experience of employing armour in an area riddled with manportable anti-tank guided missiles was first endured during the Yom Kippur War in 1973 and influenced military doctrines all over the world. But because in essence it was an omni-dimensional threat, it posed no significant problem. it was countered by a combination of technology [use of explosive reactive armour] and tactics. the threat now is far greater due to the multiplicity of systems, the ranges over which they operate, the variety of characteristics that are exploited to acquire a target and then guide munitions on to the target, multiple directions from which a platform can be attacked, the reliability of munitions and the reducing cost to achieve the effect. the above threat is likely to test the ingenuity of an aFV designer if he sets out to provide an all-inclusive counter. However, there is also a danger in overplaying the threat to the aFV at present. the current analysis does not take into account the opponents creative thinking and the fact that “a strong desire is the mother of all inventions”. experience with technology also warns us against adopting any simple equation of military superiority based on superior sensors and communications because all sensors have a problem of distinguishing energy received from targets with energy received from other sources and this provides an opponent with the opportunity to deceive, confuse and mislead. technology will, sooner or later, provide counters to the types of sensors being used currently. Some analysts point out that unmanned sensors can be blinded by lasers, while artillery and multiple rocket batteries used for deep attack can themselves be attacked by tactical ballistic missiles and precision munitions. attack aviation [attack helicopters] can be countered by well laid air defence ambushes while enemy air power can be countered by our own air power. in any case, no matter how good the sensor to shooter technology is, the ability of aFVs grouped together with the mechanised


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D I T O R I A L

COV E R STO R Y The landmark event of the past two months has been the Southern Command Exercise “Sudarshan Shakti”, a joint exercise of Southern Army and South Western Air Command held in the Thar desert of Rajasthan. The Exercise in December 2011 was witnessed by the Supreme Commander of Armed Forces, the President of India, Pratibha Devisingh Patil, who was accompanied by the Defence Minister, A.K. Antony, the Chief of Army Staff (COAS) V.K. Singh, and selected Members of Parliament. While it was ostensibly held to validate the operational preparedness of the Southern Army in a tri-service environment, it was actually used to verify and validate the new concepts of the Indian Army, which revolve around network-centric operations, integrated theatre battle and the transformational initiatives taken by the present COAS, who together with the Southern Army Commander, Lt General A.K. Singh, were the main architects of the transformational study which aims at making the Army a more agile, versatile, lethal and networked force. Both Generals are highly respected for their professional integrity and competence in the Indian Army. Another epoch making event whose contours

are still unfolding, in our neighbourhood, is the impasse between the Pakistan Army Chief, the democratically elected Government of Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani, and Pakistan’s Supreme Court on the Memogate case. Pakistan Prime Minister Gilani asserted in an interview to China’s People’s Daily that the Pakistan Army Chief and DG ISI had violated the ‘rules of business’ by sending their replies as respondents in the Memogate case to the Supreme Court without routing these replies through the government channels as obliged to do so. Significantly, this assertion was made by the Pakistan Prime Minister while the Pakistan Army Chief was visiting China. The Pakistan Army Chief through a note issued publicly by the military ISPR asserted that the allegations made by Pakistan Prime Minister against the Pakistan Army Chief and DG ISI were “very serious’ and had “very serious ramifications with potentially grievous consequences for the country”. The threat was obvious considering the past history of Army takeovers in Pakistan. This led to the dismissal of the Pak Defence Secretary, Lt General (Retd) Khalid Naeem Lodhi. As a result Pakistan Army Chief held

<<

an emergency meeting of his Corps Commanders while the Pakistan Government summoned a special session of the Parliament. While many analysts have put their minds and their pens to work on this issue, what seems certain is that these happenings promise to bring about a change in the relations and equations between the Pakistan Army and the democratically elected civilian government in Pakistan on a more permanent basis to the advantage for the latter, a development, which would favour peace and stability in the region. This issue carries articles on “Armour in Future Conflicts”, “Agni Missile Programme”, “Social Networking and Cyber Threats”, “Indian Army Modernisation” and “Special Purpose Vehicles” among others. Happy reading!

Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor

PHOTOGRAPH: Israel Defence Force

infantry and other combat elements to seize and hold ground, to deny its use to the enemy and to secure it for use by own troops is currently indispensable. moreover, the manoeuvre to dislocate the enemy, to get behind him and to demoralise him, so as to impose our will on him will continue to be an important role for armoured forces and indirect firepower alone will not be able to achieve this effect despite the advent of precision munitions. troops on the ground with aFVs lend an unmistakable aspect of power to a situation which cannot be fulfilled by stand-off engagements alone. even a militarily powerful nation like the US have learnt this lesson the hard way in afghanistan and iraq where operations are still continuing, many months after the military campaign was won virtually against no opposition. in view of the above rationale, many experts on tank designs are predicting that the prime characteristic of future aFVs may well be “survivability” to be able to transit through the battle zone unscathed.

Merkava Mark 4 tank

assisted by global positioning systems [GPS] for an up to date “situational awareness”, an integrated command, control, communications, computers, information, intelligence (C4i2) system to view the entire battle space as one composite whole so as to deal with targets in a coordinated and coherent manner, and long-range precision firepower by the most appropriate means (ground/air/naval) or a combination thereof. integration of the fire power resources of the three services will ensure optimum effect on the target while the choice is left to the integrated force commander to use the most appropriate and the most effective weapons. india lacks such technology and such capability currently. in fact, this technology is not available in the South asian region. india would have to acquire and develop these technologies with assistance from its strategic partners. She would do well to invest in these technologies at the earliest so that we are ready for future wars when we are required to fight them.

Focus on Protection and Survivability Effects Based Operations india is likely to face more complex threats and challenges in the future than ever before, but the content is likely to vary substantially and the circumstances are also likely to be different and this is where the military dilemma arises—where, when, for what purpose and how will future wars be fought? in the absence of concrete information, the answer lies in building capabilities and skills which can endow us with the potential of achieving effects that we wish to impose on the opponent on future battlefields. the western world calls it “effects based operations”. Suitably designed aFVs, as a part of the combined arms formations, will continue to play a dominant role in integrated air-land operations by virtue of their survivability, speed and shock effect even in the future, in terrain which favours their employment. in this regard it may be noted that apart from the plains, riverine and desert terrain, even in the mountainous regions of our northern and western borders, there is some scope for employing aFVs innovatively and skillfully both along the “line of control” and the “line of actual control”.

Part of a Combined Arms Team many professionals who have a fetish for attritional aspects of warfare generally fail to appreciate the unique qualities of aFVs which endow a commander with the ability to win battles against many odds. of course, aFVs cannot function in isolation. any system whether it operates on land, sea or air must be integrated with other systems within a service to form a Combined arms

team along with the weapon systems of the other two services in order to achieve operational synergy against an opponent. Failure to realise this important wider context will result in sub-optimisation of our fighting capabilities. employment of aFVs as part of combined arms combat teams and groups could result in obtaining advantages which are disproportionately higher as compared to the effort employed. this requires “out of the box” thinking.

New Technologies the next important issue with regard to employment of armour is that of new technologies. there is no doubt that technology will play a predominant role in designing the conduct of future wars and should be combined with innovative operational art, to win these wars. india is facing an entirely new technology era and needs to integrate new technologies as warfighting systems for which the requirement is to first decide upon a new joint warfighting doctrine and then evolve weapons and other systems to suit the former. Large sized holding and strike formations of the indian army, whose roles are a product of an environment which is fading away, will have to give way to smaller, more agile, more responsive and rapidly deployable formations in which armour will play a very

significant role. employment of fully integrated brigade and divisional sized task forces in the future would require, introduction of three key technologies which are: intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (iSr) system that will keep track of enemy and own forces movements through advanced sensors and platforms like aircraft, UaVs and satellites

India is facing an entirely new technology era and needs to integrate new technologies as warfighting systems for which the requirement is to first decide upon a new joint warfighting doctrine and then evolve weapons and other systems to suit the former

By virtue of their unique characteristics, aFVs will remain the pivot around which battle groups are formed and arranged on ground. the focus of future tank designers may shift to protection and survivability as compared to firepower and mobility and this may be achieved through a combination of technologies. While signature reduction to avoid detection is one possible area to explore, once detected, the aFV will have to be equipped with active and passive means, including the destruction of the threat to avoid acquisition. if acquired, the aFV would have to have a higher degree of responsiveness by resorting to hard and soft kill mechanisms built into the vehicular system. there is also a school of thought which advocates survivability of an aFV being achieved through a collective system rather than being platform based, which could be activated as per requirement. this could include unmanned platforms for high risk functions such as reconnaissance.

Enduring Changes in conclusion, it can be stated that the aFVs will endure the changes in the nature of future wars. However, they must not be seen in isolation as stand-alone weapon systems, but as part of an all arms group enabling and sustaining decisive manoeuvre and high intensity battle at close quarters through superior survivability against precision attacks and dumb munitions. The author is former Commandant of the Army War College who has commanded an independent armoured brigade and armoured division

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SPECIAL PURPOSE VEHICLES

Wide-ranging Vehicles for Diverse Roles Currently, the Indian Army is looking for multi-purpose vehicles (MPVs), light bullet proof vehicles (Lt BPVs), light strike vehicles (LSVs) for the infantry battalions for its various roles in external and internal security duties and reconnaissance vehicles for the armoured and mechanised units and NBC units PHOTOGRAPH: AM General

n LT GENERAL (RETD) V.K. KAPOOR

There are at least 17 variants of the HMMWV in service with the United States armed forces

AM General’s Humvee

F

or indian armY, tHe term special vehicle has a number of connotations and therefore there are a large variety of vehicles which fall under this term. they range from the heavy vehicles category like the tank transporters which are meant to transport 40 to 60 tonne tanks mounted on trailers towed by more powerful high mobility vehicles to high mobility trucks required to carry heavy logistic loads like fuel oil and lubricants (FoL) and tank, artillery and air defence ammunition, when moving across country, away from metalled roads, behind strike formations, in offensive operations. the latter (special logistic vehicles) cater to all types of logistic loads to enable the strike formations to have a “self-contained capability” for a limited period of time during which period the combat engineers are expected to lay “tracks” in the area overrun by the attacking formations to establish their normal daily replenishment schedule. thus the concerned formations establish their daily replenishment schedule through a supply chain management established by the administrative staff of the higher formation. the replenishment vehicles which move on tracks made by the engineers are based on normal trucks which may be termed as heavy or medium depending mainly upon their load carrying capability. the medium category is used as ambulances for transportation of troops, or even mounting of heavier weapons, etc. these types of vehicles are available in the market except that the ones used by the army are specially modified according to the service requirement and all are invariably 4x4 wheeled drive with a better capability to travel across the country, away from metal roads. another category of heavy vehicles are the heavy recovery vehicles of the electrical and mechanical engineers (eme) for recovering tanks, infantry combat vehicles, missile vehicles, command post vehicles, and other heavy vehicles which break down or get stuck in mud or sand.

www.spslandforces.net

Light and Medium Category Vehicles in the light and medium vehicles category are also included vehicles which are used for transportation of limited number of troops, liaison of commanders, radio fitted vehicles of commanders at various levels, for mounting of heavy weapons, movement of reconnaissance teams for reconnaissance of terrain and obstacle systems and for special purposes such as nuclear, biological and chemical (nBC) reconnaissance. all these types of vehicles have the same chassis but are modified for their specific role. Currently, the indian army is looking for multi-purpose vehicles (mPVs), light bullet proof vehicles (Lt BPVs), light strike vehicles (LSVs) for the infantry battalions for its various roles in external and internal security duties and reconnaissance vehicles for the armoured and mechanised units and nBC units. this article gives a few examples of high mobility multipurpose (wheeled) vehicles available in the market which can be put to use in the above roles.

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Humvee the high mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HmmWV), better known as the Humvee, is a military 4x4 (wheel drive) motor vehicle manufactured by am General. it has largely taken over the roles formerly served by smaller Jeeps. it is extensively used by the United States armed Forces and now it is also used by a large number of other countries and organisations. its civilian adaptations (Hummer series of vehicles) have also become quite popular. the Hummer series was also inspired by the HmmWVs. the Humvee uses independent suspensions and portal geared hubs similar to portal axles, which ensures 16 inches of ground clearance. the vehicle also has disc brakes on all four wheels, and four-wheel double-wishbone suspension. the brake discs are not mounted at the wheels as on

Special purpose vehicles range from the heavy vehicles category like the tank transporters to high mobility trucks required to carry heavy logistic loads like fuel oil and lubricants and tank, artillery and air defence ammunition, when moving across country, away from metalled roads, behind strike formations, in offensive operations

conventional automobiles, but are inboard, attached to the outside of each differential. the front and rear differentials are torsion type, and the centre differential is a regular, lockable type. there are at least 17 variants of the HmmWV in service with the United States armed forces. HmmWVs serve as cargo/troop carriers, automatic weapons platforms, ambulances (four litter patients or eight ambulatory patients), toW missile carriers, howitzer prime movers, avenger pedestal mounted stinger platforms, direct air support vehicles, shelter carriers, and other roles. the HmmWV is capable of fording 2.5 ft (76 cm) normally, or 5 ft (1.5 m) with the deep-water fording kits installed. optional equipment includes a winch (maximum load capacity 2,700 kg) and supplemental armour. the m1025/m1026 and m1043/m1044 armament carriers provide mounting and firing capabilities for the m134 minimum, the mk 19 grenade launcher, the m2 heavy machine gun, the m240G/B machine gun and m249 LmG. the m1114 "up-armoured" HmmWV, introduced in 2004, also features a similar weapons mount. in addition, some m1114 and m1116 up-armoured and m1117 armoured security vehicle models feature a common remotely operated weapon station (CroWS), which allows the gunner to operate from inside the vehicle, and/or the Boomerang anti-sniper detection system. recent improvements have also led to the development of the m1151 model, which is quickly rendering the previous models obsolete. By replacing the m1114, m1116, and earlier armoured HmmWV types with a single model, the US army hopes for lower maintenance costs.

IVECO Defence Vehicles Based in Bolzano, northern italy, iVeCo defence Vehicles are well-known for their ability to apply advanced automotive innovations and leading edge protection solutions to practical and purpose-built designs, resulting in a full range of military trucks, armoured vehicles, protected and multirole vehicles. at present it is estimated that over 30,000 iVeCo vehicles are in military

service worldwide. multi-role vehicles were developed to counter the evolving threat. the multi-role vehicle range encompasses 4x4 personnel carrier and patrol vehicles which combine exceptional mobility, agility and terrain accessibility with high levels of protection against both ballistic and mine attack. they are equally effective in both peacekeeping and counterinsurgency missions. Light multi-role vehicle (LmV) is a purpose built military vehicle which nonetheless benefits from the use of many commercial components. rugged and highly mobile, it is designed as a chassis cab which permits the installation of many different modules including a cargo platform, an ambulance and a weapon carrier. anti-mine protection has also been given a high priority, with the over-riding aim being to ensure the survival of the crew. Since LmV’s first deployment to afghanistan, iVeCo’s integrated solution has ensured the survival of all of its occupants whenever the vehicle has been attacked. the LmV was selected for frontline duties by the armies of italy (1,260 units), UK (401 units), Spain (120 units), norway (60 units), Belgium (440 units), Croatia (10 units), the Czech republic (21 units), and most recently austria (150 units).

General Dynamics General dynamics Land Systems (GdLS) Stryker introduced in 2000 is a eightwheeled, medium-weight vehicle which has lived up to its name by saving countless numbers of war fighters. Stryker now has a new version, the double-V Hull. the Stryker vehicle can reach speeds of more than 100 kmph and handle any type of terrain. it also has 10 different configurations and 85 per cent commonality across the entire fleet. the General dynamics light armoured vehicle (LaV) platform has built a reputation for mission-ready vehicles. With over 9,000 LaV deployed around the world, GdLS offers militaries the most advanced technologies combined with combat-proven survivability. LaVs give soldiers enhanced mobility, increased firepower and superior protection to meet the demands of the 21st century. GdLS, mine resistant ambush protected (mraP) family of vehicles includes the Buffalo, Cougar and its variants, and other speciality vehicles, which are at the forefront of blast- and ballistic-protected technology. these vehicles perform in the field because they are first rigorously tested at Land Systems' research centre for blast technology and the counter improvised explosive device (ied) centre. the vehicles are designed specifically for domestic and international Continued on page 6


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SPECIAL PURPOSE VEHICLES

Right hand Drive HMMWV The vehicle will be available both through FMS and DCS PHOTOGRAPH: AM General

n SP’S CORRESPONDENT

am General’s entrance into the right hand marketplace demonstrates the commitment and engineering excellence required to exceed the expectations of new international customers. With over 70 countries that require right hand drive such as Singapore, indonesia, malaysia, india and the United Kingdom, the right hand drive HmmWV is the perfect solution for fighting forces that demand an adaptable, versatile and affordable light tactical vehicle. “With over 2,80,000 HmmWVs in service worldwide, the logistical benefits of the right hand drive HmmWV are unequalled to any other light tactical vehicle available today,” said alpaugh. “We continue to provide driver and vehicle training, field service representatives, technical support and service parts around the globe for the HmmWV and other military wheeled, tracked and support vehicles.” am General has delivered more than 2,80,000 HmmWVs worldwide including 40,000 for more than 50 different international military customers. in addition, am General provides contract vehicle assembly, global vehicle and driver training, complete logistics support, spare parts and field-service representatives.

A

m GeneraL iS introdUCinG the new right hand drive m1165 HmmWV at the Singapore air Show to be held from February 14 to19, 2012. the right hand drive high mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HmmWV) boasts the same unsurpassed performance, mobility, versatility and reliability that have made the HmmWV family of vehicles the workhorse of military forces around the world. to ensure that all customers are provided the same opportunity to modernise their fleets, the right hand drive HmmWV will be available through both foreign military sales (FmS) and direct military sales (dCS). “We studied the right hand drive market and realised that there is no other light tactical vehicle available that can compete with the HmmWV,” said rick alpaugh, Vice President, international Sales, am General. “We worked very closely with our design, engineering and production teams to ensure that the right hand drive HmmWV meets the same high quality standards as the left hand drive HmmWVs in use with the US military.”

Continued from page 4 PHOTOGRAPHS: US Army, Wikipedia

military customers and protect their occupants from land mines, hostile fire and ieds, commonly identified as roadside bombs. or 40 mm automatic grenade launcher. duro is a high-mobility military tactical vehicle developed by General dynamics european Land Systems-mowag in Switzerland. the duro (durable and robust) multi-purpose vehicle was developed for the Swiss army by Bucher-Guyer in 1994. mowag, owned by General dynamics, acquired the rights to the vehicle from Bucher-Guyer in 2002.

up to 4,000 m above sea level and is capable of negotiating a mountain pass of up to 4,650 m high. it is an 8x8 wheeled drive. the truck is designed around a four axle allwheel-drive configuration with a single-tyre wheel arrangement. the first and second axle wheels are steerable. the cab is arranged over the engine and provided with a mechanicallyoperated cab tilting mechanism.

Mungo 2

Rheinmetall Yak

www.spslandforces.net

the Yak is an armoured and mine-protected multi-purpose transport vehicle, developed by rheinmetall as a private venture. it is based on the Swiss mowag duro iiiP chassis. the rheinmetall YaK is a highly mobile vehicle, specially developed for military requirements. it is co-produced with mowag. German army uses this versatile vehicle as a mobile ambulance and mobile command post for its military police, explosive ordnance disposal teams. Bundeswehr plans to obtain a total of 296 of these vehicles by 2012. the rheinmetall Yak is based on two fixed components, chassis with the cab and interchangeable modular shelter. it can be quickly modified to suit wide variety of missions. the vehicle has a payload capacity of 5,500 kg. it is used to transport troops, cargo or materials. depending on the configuration, it can carry up to 12 soldiers. the vehicle can be fitted with a roof-mounted remotely controlled weapon station, armed with 7.62-machine gun or 40-mm automatic grenade launcher.

URAL-532301 Multi-purpose Army Truck this russian truck is intended to mount weapons and military equipment, used to tow truck artillery gun systems, can be attached to special and transport trailers and carry personnel and military cargoes on all types of roads and terrain. the truck can operate at an ambient air temperature ranging from +50 to -50 degree Celsius and an altitude of

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General Dynamics Stryker DHV

Norwegian Iveco LMV

Krauss-maffei Wegmann (KmW), europe´s market leader for highly protected wheeled and tracked vehicles, has received an order from the German army for the assembly and delivery of 31 further mUnGo 2 multi-purpose vehicles for the Special operations division (dSo). the first three pre-series prototypes were delivered and qualified technically and tactically in an operational test. the delivery of another 31 vehicles will be completed until 2013. as all other vehicles of the mungo family of air-portable vehicles, with its small size and low overall weight the mungo 2 multi-purpose vehicle was specifically developed for transportation on a CH53 transport helicopter. With its universal hydraulics and transport system, this multipurpose version is particularly suitable for the mission-specific transport of munitions, fuel, maintenance and nBC decontamination equipment. a quick-change system for front mounting implements additionally enables the deployment of engineering systems. With a payload of up to 1.5 tonnes, the mungo 2 multi-purpose vehicle can additionally transport supply or armament in trailer operations. tailored specifically to the requirements of highly-mobile air-portable forces and built on the system criteria of the mungo-family, the mungo 2 multi-purpose vehicle additionally convinces through a chassis optimised in continuous improvement for special missions, for example in afghanistan. in addition, the vehicle is perfectly protected against ballistic, mine and ied threats. Fully armoured and separated from the chassis, the floor along with a safety cell provides maximum protection for the two-headed crew.


INDUSTRY / INTERVIEW

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‘We feel we’re a trusted partner to India’ Prior to Singapore Air Show and Defexpo 2012, SP’s Land Forces caught up with William L. Blair, President of Raytheon India. Excerpts of the interview covering his thoughts about the shows and what these mean for India. SP’s Land Forces (SP’s): What does the company plan for the Singapore Air Show? William Blair (Blair): We’ll be showcasing many of our core military technologies. as it is an air show, we’ll be focusing on our airlaunched weapons and our suite of advanced surveillance, sensors and radars. But we’ll also have land-based technologies as well. SP’s: What is the relevance of the Singapore Air Show to India? Blair: if a delegation from india were to visit our stand at Singapore, they would find many solutions that are relevant for india’s requirements. For example, we’ll display our platform independent suite of air-launched weapons which could go on either of the aircraft that are being considered for medium multi-role combat aircraft (mmrCa). another example is some of the maritime surveillance technology we’ll have on display, which is highly relevant to a nation with thousands of kilometres of coastline. You could almost say Singapore will be a sneak-preview for defexpo, with the main difference being that at Singapore we’ll be somewhat broad-based as this show is focused on all of asia, while at defexpo, we’re properly focused on the needs of our indian partners. SP’s: Can you give an example of what you’ll be offering that would be of interest to the Asian market?

Blair: Well, one example that comes to mind is our intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (iSr) technology solutions. the capabilities we offer to our customers are very relevant to the broader asian region and map directly to some of the pan regional challenges all our customers face. For example nearly 80 per cent of today’s global trade is transported in ships’ hulls and securing maritime supply chains against disruption presents an enormous challenge for the globalised world. over 60,000 vessels transit the Straits of malacca every year with much of the cargo aimed at meeting critical energy needs of asia-Pacific countries. raytheon is a world leader in addressing a wide range of littoral and deep ocean threats. the company’s maritime patrol aircraft capabilities provide an integrated solution for enhanced situational awareness and mission effectiveness that addresses a wide range of challenges customers currently face. these include border security, maritime surveillance, disaster relief, environmental monitoring and multiple military applications. empowered with exportable signals intelligence and unique tactical maritime technology, raytheon’s maritime patrol aircraft capabilities are designed to meet the needs of civil and military customers in the asia-Pacific region. our maritime based reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition capabilities, versatile exportable sensor offerings and multi-int integration expertise for multiple

platforms enable us to create the right solutions for mission needs while providing a clear path for future upgrades as needed. SP’s: What are some other technologies you will showcase at Singapore that would be of interest to India? Blair: i talked about our air-launched weapons portfolio of course, but we’ll also have a suite of land combat weapons, such as the Javelin weapon system and manportable Serpent launcher. We’ll also have details on excalibur there, as well as a range of sensors that focus on our maritime and littoral surveillance solutions, some already discussed here. additionally, we have a number of other capabilities for international customers from the most advanced electro-optical/infrared sensors to cutting edge radar surveillance technologies. Surveillance and sensor capabilities for india include the aaS-44C (V) multi-spectral targeting systems for use on mH-60r and mH60S helicopters and the aPY-10 and SeaVue xmC surveillance radars. onboard the mH-60r helicopter, our airborne low frequency Sonar and mK 54 lightweight torpedo provide the sensor and weapon for an anti-submarine warfare mission. the mK54 is also deployable from the P8 Poseidon aircraft. the SeaVue radar family is known for its proven ability to detect small maritime vessels in high sea states, has been acknowledged for detecting stealthy self propelled

semi-submersible crafts that pose a significant threat to the US homeland security. at raytheon, we’re ready to bring this capability to india where maritime and coastal surveillance are of paramount importance. this versatile airborne surveillance radar can also be used for commercial and military applications, including customs drug enforcement, border surveillance, exclusive economic zone (eeZ) monitoring, illegal traffic monitoring, and oil spill detection. SP’s: Does Raytheon view India as an important market? Blair: the term ‘market’ implies a strictly business arrangement. and with raytheon in india, you have a relationship that extends well beyond a contract on a piece of paper. raytheon has been in india for more than 60 years, and after that length of time, i think it’s safe to say we feel we’re a trusted partner to india. We’ve expanded our company’s footprint in india by moving our operations to a new, larger office in delhi and adding more people to the team. additionally, in the past few years we’ve developed tie-ups with a variety of indian entities, to include defence public sector undertakings and private companies. We are in the process of finalising a number of additional arrangements. So, the answer to your question is, raytheon wants to build on and expand its relationships in india, and be the trusted partner of choice to both private industry and government.

Raytheon buoyant about Indian market In a press conference held in New Delhi, Raytheon officials demonstrated the company’s varied solutions on offer for the Indian Army

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yeing for a greater pie of the growing indian defence market, the US defence company raytheon is in talks with many indian public and private sector companies for possible partnerships in its various programmes—missiles, network-centric systems, solutions for homeland and cyber security, coastal surveillance, etc. addressing a press conference ahead of the army day in new delhi, the company officials briefed the media about the different programmes they have on offer for the indian army. the company is trying to broaden its footprint in india with the sale of its air-to-air Stringer, Javelin, excalibur, talon laser guided rocket, Serpent, etc., as well as its tactical radios for indian defence forces. raytheon’s air-to-air version of its famous Stinger missile is a part of the weapons package with the aH-64d Block iii apache Longbow proposed for the 22 attack helicopter deal of the indian air Force. the officials though optimistic about partnerships with indian private sector for homeland and cyber security solutions, denied reports of raytheon’s much talked about partnership with reliance and termed it as a ‘rumour’. on being asked by Jayant Baranwal, editor-in-Chief, SP’s Land Forces to elaborate on possible indian partnerships in india and

the potential private industry partners, the officials said, “raytheon is looking at small and medium enterprisses (Smes), defence public sector undertakings and big private sector companies as well. the indian private sector’s role in the civil domain is world class, but the tricky thing is to bring them into the defence sector. We need to fill in the gaps.” the company has already tied up with Precision electronics to jointly develop communication technologies for military and civil use. William L. Blair, President, raytheon india, informed that the company has developed a vehicle-launched version of the Javelin anti-tank guided missile and is in talks with tata motors for developing it to meet the indian requirements. Brad Barnard, Senior manager, international Business and Strategy for raytheon missiles System (rmS) informed that the raytheon’s Serpent missile, which is ideal for india’s military and paramilitary requirements, will be demonstrated at defexpo 2012. He further informed that the rmS has responded to a request for information (rFi) for 120mm mortar terminally guided munitions and is looking for a potential partner in india.

replying to another query by Jayant Baranwal on raytheon’s strength over its european and israeli competitors in the indian army’s battlefield management system (BmS), the officials said that situational awareness is a crucial factor. “our potential digital radio capability without GPS suits well with BmS. Lack of dependency on infrastructure and greater situational awareness gives us an edge over our competitors.” With regard to the US Government’s limitations on transfer of certain technologies to india, the company said that the company has had many successful transfer of technology (tot) programmes across the globe under the US guidelines, and is optimistic about india as well. “in india, we need to prove by winning over some key programmes. We know we need to indigenise, but we will do that with the support of the US Government.” the company is also in talks with indian companies for possible partnership for excalibur, a precision-guided, longrange artillery projectile. “We have identified the core capability in india and we hope to finalise the partnership soon,” said Barnard. —Sucheta Das Mohapatra

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M O D E R N I S AT I O N

Indian Army Modernisation – An Introspection The facade of the yearly refined DPP over the years has done little to accelerate modernisation. The gap between the Indian Army and the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) is widening alarmingly in favour of the latter. Faced with a two-front threat, India needs to accelerate the pace of modernisation of the Indian Army, duly prioritised and executed within laid down time frames. PHOTOGRAPHS: SP Guide Pubns

n LT GENERAL (RETD) P.C. KATOCH

T-90S Tank

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iVen itS SiZe, HiStorY and ambitions, india will always march to the beat of its own drummer,” says ashley tellis. Very apt, but who is the drummer, what is his proficiency, and what is the quality of his drums? although Prime minister manmohan Singh acknowledges that China is ahead of us in science and technology; our defence modernisation is woefully lagging with inadequate budgetary allocation, bureaucratic red-tapism, inadequate defence Procurement Policy (dPP), coupled with the lack of strategic culture. Lack of focus on research and development (r&d) has stifled defence indigenisation, as indicative with indian army, which is forced to even import assault rifles and carbines. indian army’s 600-odd modernisation schemes amounting to over `70,000 crore in the eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12) continue to be encumbered with bureaucratic procurement processes. the facade of the yearly refined dPP over the years has done little to accelerate modernisation. the gap between the indian army and the People’s Liberation army (PLa) is widening alarmingly in favour of the latter. Faced with a two-front threat, india needs to accelerate the pace of modernisation of the indian army, duly prioritised and executed within laid down time frames.

Modernisation Plans

Schilika AD Gun

www.spslandforces.net

Threats and Challenges Global and regional security concerns coupled with growing internal security challenges define india’s security environment. the conventional threats from traditional adversaries colluding with each other, continuing presence of terrorist, and the fundamentalist forces in its neighbourhood; has prompted india to carry out force accretion in order to maintain a high level of defence vigilance and preparedness. the recent antiindia coup in Bangladesh, which failed, indicates how fragile peace across frontiers next to any neighbouring country is. developments in afghanistan-Pakistan and Pakistan-China collusion have brought South asia to the centre stage of conventional and sub-conventional conflict and instability. terrorism, low intensity conflict motivated by economic disparity, religious fundamentalism, narcotics trade, threat of nuclear weapons falling in wrong hands, etc, remain issues of concern in our region. Proxy war conducted by Pakistan and the various radical jehadi outfits promoted by them through terrorism continue unabated. China’s strategy of encircling india through its neighbours and confining it within the subcontinent is apparent and palpable apart from the outlandish claims to entire arunachal Pradesh. internally, india faces a series of low-intensity conflicts characterised by tribal, ethnic and left-wing movements and ideologies. thus the security challenges facing india are varied and complex.

Requirement “In the coming years, we need to build greater surveillance (satellites, aerial and ground-level), night fighting and rapid deployment capabilities,

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ing targets in near real time with enhanced ranges and lethality to achieve ascendancy over the enemy. the aim would be to employ overwhelming firepower/force at the point of decision. the backbone of such a structure would be well-designed communication architecture at the national level with integrated networks which are integrated with the sensors for speedily transmitting fused and integrated data through command and control echelons enabling greater situational awareness for commanders at all levels.

particularly for mountains. We need improved C4I2, surveillance equipment, more helicopters, ultra-light howitzers and lighter infantry weapons and equipment.” –Former CoaS General V.P. malik on January 15, 2012 the emerging threats and challenges mandate that india should be prepared to fight hybrid wars in future which may involve the armed forces in simultaneously fighting limited conventional conflicts on two fronts, out of area operations, counter insurgency and counter proxy war operations in the domestic arena, low-intensity asymmetric wars, cyber wars, Un peacekeeping and peacemaking operations, etc. the internal situation is likely to get worse with tech savvy terrorists even engaging in cyber, maritime, chemical, biological and radiological terrorism, egged on by China and Pakistan. the indian army’s focus should be on a preparedness profile and status which has rapid deployment Forces for defensive and offensive operations, smaller fully integrated Strike Forces (integrated with air power and air assault formations) for the initial stages of offensive operations followed by larger “follow up” formations if the war lasts longer than anticipated. Capabilities must be built to fully exploit aerospace, cyber and electromagnetic

domains throughout the spectrum of conflict. additionally, india should have forces for lowintensity conflict operations (LiCo), power projection and out of area contingencies (ooaC). indian army would also need Special Forces for special operations and a nuanced internal security/counter-insurgency force for LiCo through reengineering of its existing forces. nCW capable forces and command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (C4iSr) capabilities, will become a necessity with enhanced situational awareness, capability of identifying, monitoring and destroy-

India faces a series of low intensity conflicts characterised by tribal, ethnic and left wing movements and ideologies. Thus the security challenges facing India are varied and complex

the artillery modernisation plan amounting to over `20,000 crore aimed at inducting howitzers, but the last such induction was in 1987 (400 pieces Bofors guns). the ordnance Factory Board (oFB) sat on the designs for 25 years despite being coaxed by the indian army. only recently they have agreed to produce prototypes of 155mm/39 calibre and 45 calibre. Since 1987, the 100mm and 122mm field guns of russian origin and the indigenously developed and manufactured 75/24 indian mountain Gun have become obsolete and the indian army still awaits procurement of some 1,500 howitzers of 155mm, 52 calibre. of these, 400 are to be procured outright and 1,100 manufactured indigenously with transfer of technology (tot). request for proposal (rFP) for these guns was issued in early 2011 and the evaluation process should be under way. additionally, 145 ultra light howitzers were to be procured from the US through foreign military sales (FmS) route from Bae Systems but are locked in legal complications. the indian army also needs 120 tracked and 180 wheeled 155mm Howitzers for artillery divisions, of which there is no news. one hundred and eight pieces of 130mm m46 russian medium guns have been successfully “up-gunned” to 155mm calibre with ordnance supplied by Soltam of israel, enhancing the range to 40 km with extended range ammunition. However, manufacture of ammunition by iai (israel) is delayed as iai has been blacklisted. Counterbombardment (CB) capability is also being upgraded, but at a slow pace. a minimum of 40 to 50 weapon locating radars (WLrs) are required for effective CB, especially in the plains, but only a dozen have been procured so far. in addition to the 12 an-tPQ 37 Firefinder WLrs acquired from raytheon, USa, under a 2002 contract worth $200 million (`1,000 crore), Bharat electronics Limited (BeL) is reported to be assembling 28 WLrs. these radars will be based on both indigenous and imported components and are likely to be approved for introduction into service after extensive trials that are ongoing. the radar is expected to match the capabilities of the Firefinder system and will have a detection range of about 40 km. as for army air defence artillery modernisation, the 40mm L/70 which is about four decades old, needs immediate replacement. Considering the high costs of the new weapon systems, indian army is going in for upgrades for L-70, ZU-23-2 twin gun, and ZSU-23-4 Schilka and is also looking for successors to L-70 and the ZU-23-2. the successor to Schilka (ZSU-23-4) already exists in the


M O D E R N I S AT I O N form of tangushka, but in limited numbers. a request for information (rFi) has already been issued to find a replacement for Schilka. in missile systems, Kvadrat (medium-range) and oSa-aK (short-range) are also at the end of their life cycle. they were to be replaced by akash and trishul surface-to-air (Sam) missiles but since these defence research and development organisation (drdo) projects have been inordinately delayed, they will also require replacements through foreign procurement. the process for acquiring a successor of oSa-aK in the form of quick reaction surface-to-air (Qr-Sam) is in progress. Similarly, the successor of Quadrat is to be a medium-range Sam (mr Sam). it is understood that a joint development programme of drdo with israel has been undertaken and when it fructifies, will meet the requirement of mr Sam for all three Services. two regiments of akash Sams are now being inducted for static missions of protecting vulnerable areas (Vas) and vulnerable points (VPs). a vital weakness in the overall air defence matrix is the lack of a battlefield management system which is also linked with the national air defence network. Bharat electronics Limited has now undertaken the development of such a system. as part of armour modernisation, of the 124 such tanks ordered earlier, two regiments have been equipped with arjun main battle tanks (mBt). additional 124 arjun mark ii tanks (with upgraded capabilities of firepower, mobility and protection) have now been ordered for another two regiments for delivery by 2013. earlier 310 x t-90 tanks had been ordered from russia, of which 124 fully assembled tanks were directly imported from russia and 186 kits were imported for assembly in india. the first indigenously assembled t-90S rolled out from the Heavy Vehicles Factory (HVF) in avadi in January 2004. additional 347 x t-90S tanks have been inducted into service which brings the total to 647 x t90S tanks. defects in fire control systems of t90S tanks due to excessive heating of turrets during summer is being remedied through air conditioning. the programme for modernising t-72 m1, ajeya, mBts remains unsatisfactory and has not progressed. around 1,700 t-72 m1s have been manufactured under licence at HVF, in avadi. the t72 m1 modernisation programme under Project rhino will extend the service life of the mBt by 20 years and enhance its accuracy with new fire control system (FCS) whose trials are under way. this will give night fighting capability through a thermal imager integrated with the tank’s FCS. the 300 x t-72 tanks have been fitted with thermal imaging stand-alone sights (tiSaS) while 300 more are in pipeline, totalling to 600 tiSaS. However, the overall night fighting capability of our armour is grossly inadequate and operationally unacceptable. modernisation of t-72 is way behind schedule due to complicated procurement procedures exacerbated by delayed decision-making and in-house disagreements. in mechanised infantry modernisation, units have been equipped with the BmP-2 iCV and 81mm carrier mortar tracked vehicle (CmtV). a command post, an ambulance, armoured dozer and engineer and reconnaissance vehicles have also been developed based on the BmP chassis. r&d for future iCV is currently being done aimed at indigenous manufacture. the SS-11 B1 atGm system has been replaced in missile battalions by miLan shoulder-fired antitank guided missiles (atGms). army aviation modernisation has been under way since its raising in 1986. Besides ‘Lancer’ helicopter, advanced light helicopter (aLH) dhruv has been inducted into service. the indian army has four squadrons of dhruv helicopters currently, which will increase to eight in due course. Few more modernisation projects are in pipeline: the advanced light helicopter (aLH) weapon system integrated (WSi) and battlefield support helicopters need to be inducted as soon as pos-

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sible to provide necessary operational capability. Chetaks (aerospatiale Sa316 alouette iii) and Cheetahs (Se316B alouette ii) helicopters have been in service of the nation for a long time. the vintage of the helicopters however is posing increasing challenges for maintenance of these machines. rFP for 197 reconnaissance and surveillance helicopters was given about two years back. out of these, 66

helicopters are planned for the iaF and 131 for the army. it is believed that the trials and evaluation of these helicopters are completed and finalisation of the deal is under way. as part of infantry modernisation, defence acquisition Council (daC) has approved procurement of a new assault rifle (5.56mm calibre) and a new generation carbine. assault rifles under consideration are

the Heckler & Koch G 36, assault rifle (German), Beretta 70/90 (italy), Sar 21 (Singapore), xm8 (USa), Steyer a3 (austria), tavor tar 21, imi Galil 5.56 and 7.62 (israel), arsenal aK-74 (Bulgaria), Herstal F-2000 (Belgium), and SiG SG 551(Switzerland) among others. new bullet proof jackets, balContinued on page 11

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MISSILES

Indigenous Strategic and Tactical Missiles The Agni missile programme is a family of MRBM to ICBM ballistic missile systems developed by DRDO under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme. The land version of the nuclear triad, the Agni series of ballistic missiles are a part of the “credible deterrence” against India’s potential adversaries. n LT GENERAL (RETD) NARESH CHAND

PHOTOGRAPH: PIB

from testing iCBms and similar strategic weapon systems.”

Agni-III missile

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He aGni SerieS oF missiles were part of the integrated Guided missile development Programme (iGmdP), which was an initiative of the ministry of defence to indigenously develop strategic and tactical missiles to meet india’s requirements. the nodal agency for the programme was the defence research and development organisation (drdo) in partnership with other indian Government labs and research centres. dr abdul Kalam, who later became the President of india, was one of the leading scientists of the iGmdP and later on oversaw the programme when he was advisor to the defence minister. the programme started in the early 1980s and closed in 2008. However, work on certain missile systems is still on. iGmdP includes the following missile systems: l agni series of missiles to include ground based short-range ballistic missiles (SrBm), medium-range ballistic missiles (mrBm) and intercontinental ballistic missiles (iCBm) l Prithvi short-range surface-to-surface missile system l akash and trishul surface-to-air missiles system l nag missile anti-tank missile system l astra missile air-to-air missile system the iGmdP has many successes to its credit like the surface-to-surface missile system. akash is being inducted into the iaF. army has also acquired it but for static role, trishul was not successful and was thus foreclosed.

Agni Missile Programme

www.spslandforces.net

the agni missile programme is a family of mrBm to iCBm ballistic missile systems developed by drdo under the iGmdP. they are the land version of the nuclear triad. the family of agni missile includes: l agni-i: an mrBm with a range of 7001,200 km l agni-ii: an iCBm with a range of 2,0002,500 km l agni-iii: an iCBm with a range of 3,000 plus km l agni-iV: an iCBm with a range of 3,200-3,700 km l agni-V: an iCBm with a range of 5,000 km range (under development) l agni-Vi: iCBm with a 10,000 km range (under development) Agni-I: in the backdrop of nuclear tests by india and Pakistan in 1998 and the Kargil War, it was felt by the indian strategic planners that there is the requirement for a SrBm to fill the gap between Prithvi-ii’s range of 250 km and agni-ii’s range of 2,500 km. thus agni-i was born from agni ii with a range of 700-1,200 km, carries a conventional payload of 1,000 kg or a nuclear warhead, is single stage and is powered by solid propellants. it was developed in a record time of 15 months and first tested on January 25, 2002. Agni-II: agni td was a forerunner of agni series of missiles. it was an irBm with a planned range of 1,200 km and had its first launch during may 1992 which failed. after

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Agni-V agni-V is a solid fuelled iCBm which has a planned range of 5,000 km and is currently under development. the tests are likely to start during the early part of this year. it has been designed by adding a third composite stage to the two-stage agni-iii missile and composite material has been used extensively to reduce its weight. agni-V would be canister launched for ease of transportation and launching. after the successful launch of agni- iV, Saraswat had said that “agni-V missile is currently undergoing integration and we may test fire it by the end of February next year. it is right on schedule and the successful test of agni-iV will prove to be a building block in the development of this missile.”

Development in Other Countries a few more failed attempts, it retired in 1994. although agni td did not succeed, it became a base for subsequent development of agni programme by providing critical technologies and design meant for long-range ballistic missiles. these were than optimised and further ruggedised. other aspects like solid fuel chemistry, re-entry vehicle (rV) and avionics were also modernised. rV is made of a carbon-carbon composite material that is light and able to sustain high re-entry thermal stresses in a variety of scenarios. agni td programme helped in reducing the gestation period of agni-ii development. agni-ii is a two stage iCBm which uses solid propellant, has a range of 2,000-2,500 km and the post boost vehicle (PBV) is integrated into the missile’s rV. the PBV is a complex, exoatmospheric manoeuvrable vehicle that is used to position and deploy the rV, anti-ballistic missile countermeasure packages and other associated objects. the PBV contains guidance, control and thruster hardware that allows it to reorient and move in 3d while it flies along its ballistic arc. the agni-ii requires a preparation time of only 15 minutes before launch as it is always in a ready-to-fire mode. the previous generation of missiles required almost half a day of preparation before they could be launched. the agni-iiat is a more advanced version of agni-ii which provides a better range and operating regime. the agni family of missiles uses a strap-down inertial navigation system (inS) for flight control and navigation. necessary inertial sensors were indigenously developed for the purpose, including laser rate gyros. an inS is a navigation aid that uses a computer, motion sensors and rotation sensors to continuously calculate via dead reckoning the position, orientation, and velocity of a moving object without the need for external references. Agni-III: agni iii uses solid propellant in both stages. agni-iii was tested on July 9, 2006, and after the launch, it was reported that the second stage of the rocket did not separate, and the missile had fallen well short of its target. agni-iii was tested successfully on april 12, 2007 and may 7, 2008. the successful tests validated the missile’s operational readiness. With a range of 3,500 km, it had a reach across most high-value targets of

india’s potential adversaries. it has a warhead of 1.5 tonnes. the circular error probable (CeP) has been reported as of 40 m, which makes it one of the most accurate strategic ballistic missiles of its class. a lower CeP makes the ballistic missile highly accurate and increases the kill efficiency of the weapon. the implications are that nuclear warhead of a smaller yield can be more effective when fired from agni-iii than a nuclear head of higher yield due to greater accuracy of agni-iii. thus india can deploy larger nuclear forces using lesser fissile/fusion material. Agni-IV: agni-iV was earlier known as agni ii prime and was tested on november 15, 2011. it has a range of 2,500-3,500 km and bridges the gap between agni ii and agni iii. agni iV is equipped with state-ofthe-art technologies including indigenously developed ring laser gyro and composite rocket motor. it’s a two-stage missile powered by solid propellant, with a warhead of one tonne. it is designed to increase the kill efficiency along with a higher range performance and can be fired from a road mobile launcher. a day after the successful launch of agni-iV missile, drdo Chief V.K. Saraswat stated that all the technologies and critical systems used in agni-iV worked perfectly and hit the target. Scientists will use the same package for launching agniV. He said agni-iV has propelled india into the elite League of nations having similar class of missiles including the US, russia and China. the indigenously developed technology produced by indian industry included ring laser gyros for navigation and accuracy, composite rocket motor, high performance onboard computer with distributed avionics architecture and a full digital control system which controls and guides the missile during its flight. Highlighting the importance of agni-iV test, Saraswat said, “this missile is lighter, more compact, difficult to detect by radars and counter-ballistic missile measures, and is world class. While agni-ii is nearly 47 tonnes, agni-iV is 20 tonnes, thereby giving us more operational freedom. We are now manufacturing carbon fibres, titanium, composite material and state-of-the-art navigation systems and no technology control regime can stop us now

Pakistan has got Ghauri-iii (3,0003,500 km), north Korea has musudan (3,200 km), iran has Shahab-5 (4,000+ km), israel has Jericho iii (6,000 km) and China has many including dF-3a, dF-4, dF-5 (CSS4), dF-21, dF-31 and the dF-31a with a range of 200 to 5,000 kilometres.

Credible Deterrence the agni series of ballistic missiles are a part of the “credible deterrence” against india’s potential adversaries. india views its nuclear weapons and long-range power projection programmes as the key to maintaining strategic stability in the asia-Pacific region. the successful launch of agni-iV signals to the world that india’s strategic missile programme has matured to a point where it can be deployed. indigenous ballistic missile capability has developed to a stage where it is now less vulnerable to technology denial regimes. it is quite natural for China and Pakistan to raise their vociferous concerns. the Chief of the naval Staff, admiral nirmal Verma placed india’s nuclear policy aptly when he stated on January 16, 2012, that the country will exercise the option of carrying out nuclear strikes if somebody does the “foolhardy” act of attacking it with atomic weapons. “only this (india using nuclear weapons) could happen, when somebody who possesses nuclear weapons does something as foolhardy as to use them. that will be the only occasion when our country would be involved in (its) utilisation,” navy Chief said reporters in delhi. admiral Verma was responding to a media query on army Chief General V.K. Singh’s statement on January 15, 2012 that nuclear weapons are not for fighting war but to have a strategic capability. noting that india had a ‘no first use’ policy with regard to nuclear weapons, Verma said, “it means there will be no occasion where we will use it (the weapons) first.” He said this policy was a “good one” and met all the requirements of the country. the command and control infrastructure is in place with the establishment of the Strategic Command in 2003 and all strategic assets are under it. However, the Cabinet Committee on Security is the only body authorised to order a nuclear strike against another offending strike with the Prime minister’s finger on the firing button.


M O D E R N I S AT I O N

<<

Continued from page 9 listic helmets, and boots anti-mine are also being procured. additionally, man portable third generation anti-tank guided missiles (atGm), under barrel grenade launcher (UBGL), 60mm mortars, enhanced range 81mm mortars and thermal imaging night sights for assault rifles are being looked at. Bullet proof vehicles and shot guns are being procured for counterinsurgency operations. For rapid reaction capability, specialised items for the Ghatak (Commando) Platoons of infantry Battalions are being procured. multimode grenades have been indented with the ordnance Factory Board (oFB) while request for proposal (rFP) has been issued for ammunition of rocket Launcher mark iii. infantry is also being provided with multi-purpose vehicles (mPVs), light bullet proof vehicles (Lt BPVs), light strike vehicles (LSVs) and additional snow mobiles. the future infantry soldier as a system (F-inSaS) is being initiated to make the infantryman a weapon platform with situational awareness, increased lethality and sustainability in the digitised battlefield. But the infantry is planning to develop Phase iii of F-inSaS (computer sub-system, radio sub-system, software and software integration) by themselves rather than being part of the battlefield management system (BmS) of the army, which amounts to re-inventing the wheel. at the forefront of capacity building in network-centric warfare (nCW) through information systems, the tactical command, control, communications and information (tac C3i) system under development with various sub-systems caters to aspects of auto-

Capabilities must be built to fully exploit aerospace, cyber and electromagnetic domains throughout the spectrum of conflict mated command and control, decision support, control of artillery fire, air defence, air space management, battlefield surveillance, battlefield management, etc. the tac C3i is expected to be fully operational in the latter half of this decade. the battlefield management system is already late, completion of which will overflow into the next decade. Communications modernisation is lagging behind. the tri-service defence communication network (dCn) is some years away. the tactical communication system (tCS) has been inordinately delayed and rFP for it is yet to be issued. the latter is also a setback to the required Corps level test beds for the tac C3i sub-systems. the Plan aren system is mostly outdated. the aSCon currently has limited capability to provide data links. the army intranet is not wholly secure and the army wide area network (aWan) caters only to text messaging albeit later versions are planned to also have voice and video capability. Special Forces are force multipliers in times of both war and peace. their tasking should include asymmetric warfare, unconventional/fourth generation warfare, special operations, reconnaissance, psychological operations, counter proliferation and the like, especially to control enemy fault lines. equipping of Special Forces is lagging woefully. “Packaged equipping” of sub-units has not taken off and critical equipment like laser target designators is yet to be provisioned. Combat military free-fall parachutes and oxygen equipment have been deficient for almost 15 years. the army’s emphasis has been on quantity rather than quality with the eighth such unit already raised. it

PHOTOGRAPH: SP Guide Pubns

Akash missile

would be prudent to consolidate the existing Special Forces battalions and fully equip them before adding any more.

Speed Up Way back in 1921, douhet had stated, “Victory will smile upon those who anticipate changes in the character of war, not upon those who wait to adapt themselves after the changes occur.” Lack of recognising these changes, lack of strategic culture with military outside the decision-making matrix, inadequate procurement processes and limited budgetary allocations, have all resulted in inordinate delay of required modernisation. there is little option but to ensure accelerated modernisation, optimising new technologies before we are kicked into realisation.

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>> C Y B E R S E C U R I T Y

Social Networking and Cyber Threats Cyber crime has shifted from simple scams including phishing, spoofing, worms and viruses to more sophisticated attacks shutting down network servers and cloud-based systems affecting companies and individuals. Social networking sites are fertile grounds for breeding cyber crime. n LT GENERAL (RETD) P.C. KATOCH

T

He BiGGeSt inFormation SeCUritY threats today is attacks on pervasive devices, social networking and physical systems related to information exchange with accredited cyber security issues. more than 150 social media sites are in vogue today. Such threats have become more acute due to sophistication of botnets and their commercialisation for committing cyber crimes to gain fiscal and other advantage. Globally, 95 per cent of spam is being generated by botnets and millions of computers are attacked via social networking sites where cyber defence is weak. mobile phone users are estimated to be three times in number to daily internet users numbering over 1.5 billion. Bulks of both these categories are hooked to social networking sites. You step out of the house and you find any number of people texting their smart phones on Facebook, tweeting on twitter or using other networking sites. most smartphones have increasingly attractive third party applications. While the number of

smartphone users may triple by the end of this decade, they make an attractive target for cyber criminals. it is easier for them to launch attacks, sabotage and take control of your critical data, communication devices and computers. With extensive implementation of devices like iPhones and iPads, new malware attacks are likely to affect smart phones, VoiP/mac, social media and even adobe’s acrobat reader.

growth of their popularity also has come equally large amount of malware. Shortened UrLs are the main technique used in attacking social networking sites and it is extremely difficult to identify the source of such attack as millions of people are logged onto the same website. Shortened UrLs are used to leverage news feed capabilities of

Dangers of Social Networking

With extensive implementation of devices like iPhones and iPads, new malware attacks are likely to affect smart phones, VoIP/Mac, social media and even Adobe’s Acrobat Reader

Social networking sites provide organisations with a mechanism for marketing online but they can also lead to serious consequences. Cyber criminals exploit the increased corporate use of cloud computing, social networking, and use of macs and smartphones for remote access. Cyber crime has shifted from simple scams including phishing, spoofing, worms and viruses to more sophisticated attacks shutting down network servers and cloud-based systems affecting companies and individuals. Social networking sites are fertile grounds for breeding cyber crime. With the incredible

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popular social networking sites. the victims are easily tricked into injecting malware and phishing. abbreviated UrLs are the attack method to innocently share link to an e-mail or webpage. mass distributed attacks are achieved by logging onto a compromised account on the social networking site by posting the short UrL linked to a malicious website. thousands of unsuspecting victims get infected in a matter of minutes as the social networking site automatically distributes this link to the victims’ friends in a multiplying spiral. all that the attacker has to do is to log on to a compromised social networking account and post a shortened link to a malicious website in the status area of the intended victim. though shortened UrLs are not the only method to effect malicious links in news feeds, they definitely are the primary method of attack and responsible for bulk successes. recent times have seen dramatic increases in frequency and sophistication of targeted attacks on enterprises. most social networking sites are being used as attack distribution platforms. Vulnerabilities of Java


C Y B E R S E C U R I T Y << together with more sophisticated attack/ infection tactics are being exploited to ingress traditional computer systems. only a single negligent user or unpatched computer is enough to give attackers access into an organisation from which to mount additional attacks on the enterprise from within. as a popular cross-browser, multi-platform technology, Java is an appealing target for attackers. Wide availability of attack toolkits and software programmes that can even be used by novices to facilitate launch of widespread attacks on networked computers, has made the threat more complex. Phoenix toolkit that exploits Java vulnerabilities was responsible for most web-based attacks during the last year. in fact, two-thirds of webbased threat activity observed by Symantec during 2010 was attributed to attack toolkits. more and more cases of identities being wiped out from social networking sites and even being taken over by someone else are coming to light. this is no more a matter of fiction and yesteryear movies. theft of a single identity in a social networking site can cause considerable damage to both the individual and the organisation. e-commerce too is being exploited by cyber attackers while users order goods online and request parcel delivery. in case of social networking sites, the users generally have their guard down and do not suspect the attack since the attacker attacks you through ‘your friend’. Cyber criminals now have automated tools capable of releasing very large volumes of malware with sophisticated features and extreme varieties. Smartphones are the laptops of tomorrow. as per estimates, about four to five billion smart phones maybe in use by 2020. today’s smartphones offer as many gateways for attack as the desk top computer. mobiles are threatening the enterprise today in a big way as their application stores become vast malware delivery systems when exploited by cyber criminals.

Protection of one’s identity has become crucial, for which, social media identity protection services are available cise caution and not let your guard down. the users need to be as skeptical on their phones as they are on their computers—not giving away sensitive information to callers, being selective about which emails and text messages they open, and about which applications they install on their phones. in addition to not trusting unknown users or suspicious links on social networking sites, protection must be ensured by using services like UrL filtering, malicious JavaScript detection and UrL reputation services. available forms of protection must be exploited. explosion of

malware should be countered with the use of scalable, transparent and automated analysis system to obtain actionable malware intelligence and leverage the intelligence in meaningful ways. as usage of social networks increases, consumers and businesses are advised to be extra cautious as malicious code that targets mobile devices and uses social networking sites to propagate is becoming a significant concern. organisations need to give more attention to mobile security specifically when employees are outside the range of workplace safeguards. networks must be protected from mobile attacks via cloud-based security services. as for utilities, they must focus on end-to-end security from plant generation to the point of consumption in order to deflect vector attacks. Basic internal security governance around the use of these systems is essential.

Preventive Measures the emergence of social media and proliferation of mobile devices have provided new

avenues for malwares and different forms of cyber attacks. millions of accounts currently exist on social networking sites, Facebook and twitter together accounting for some 700 million accounts. Cyber criminals take advantage of this medium and are launching hundreds of attacks on a daily basis. Such attacks are consistent and happen around the clock. many fictitious accounts exist on these websites. trust-based relationships that access social-networking tools continue to infect corporate networks. attack tools that exploit Java have proliferated. the Phoenix toolkit was responsible for the most webbased attack activity in 2010. Cyber criminals are also exploiting cloud computing. as per an estimate, attacks against virtualised and cloud-based solutions increased, from four per cent in 2009 to 45 per cent in 2010. Common sense, caution and use of available automated protection measures are must. Protection of one’s identity has become crucial, for which, social media identity protection services are available.

INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION

2012

Terrorism and Social Networking the terrorists are increasingly using social networking sites to gather information and recruit people to join their cause. these social networks enable terrorist organisations to get personal with users, psychologically work on those inclined to the cause, and brainwash the educated and even affluent ones. Profiling of intended victims is being done by fooling them into accepting communication, even them luring into believing that they will discover who is secretly viewing their profile. messages are sent from other social network users who have already fallen into the trap of clicking on the link and following the scammers’ instructions. Children are more prone to fall into the trap and since they share social networking platforms and web pages with their friends and relatives, terrorists, scamsters and cyber attackers have a field day. Global terrorist organisations are able to recruit thousands of future terrorists in a matter of months through these social networking sites and it is well nigh impossible for governments to keep tag of millions/millions of daily users including those using smart phones. it is also not possible for any government to curb such communication or invade the privacy of individual users. While the Global War on terrorism (GWot) has been on for a couple of years with patchy success, it has really not helped reduce radicalisation. Cyberspace and in particular social networking has increased the pace of radicalisation especially since no Global War on Cyber terrorism (GWoCt) has been declared and not even international norms for cyberspace have been defined and affected. therefore, one can be sure of rapid spread of radicalisation resulting in expanding terrorism and cyber terrorism unless ways are found to monitor the bad guys, stop radicalisation and deal with them before they strike.

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News in Brief AGNI-V DEBUT TEST IN 2 MONTHS india’s most ambitious weapon, the 5,500 km range agni-V ballistic missile will undergo its much awaited first test in the next two months. the missile, which was scheduled for a debut test-firing in the december-January window, is being prepared for its first test around end-march. For telemetry and other reasons, the team has decided to hold off for better weather. the 22-metre long missile, which weights a whole tonne more than the agni-iii (owing to an additional stage), is capable of delivering a nuclear warhead to any part of China. though below the accepted range of intercontinental ballistic missiles (iCBms), the team has built the missile with maximum specifications required by the country’s strategic doctrine and nuclear command. Sporting a brand new all-composite rocket motor and advanced navigation systems, the agni-V will be among the most accurate ballistic missiles ever built. once the missile’s test schedule begins, it will have the capability to deploy multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles (mirVs), giving it much greater strategic flexibility. the missile will be road-mobile. the drdo is keen to capitalise on the “feel good” cheer following the successful november 2011 test of the agni-iV advanced ballistic missile.

19 YEARS OF CORPS OF ARMY AIR DEFENCE the Corps of army air defence (aad) celebrated its 19th anniversary on January 10. the Corps, which has sadly been in a state of chronic neglect, is finally on the threshold of deep transformation, both in terms of doctrine and equipment. Starting at the bottom, its oldest equipment, the Soviet-era ZU-23-mm guns are currently being considered for an upgrade, following a decision taken by the army in december 2009. the guns, which began inductions over three decades ago, are intended to be mated with a new electro-optical fire control system, electro-mechanical gun drives and new power supply for all the gun's systems. the effort is proving to be a challenge considering how old the guns actually are.

DELAY IN SURVEILLANCE SATELLITES the satellite requirements of the indian armed forces are being met from the existing satellites. Steps have also been taken for provision of dedicated satellite facilities for the armed forces. an integrated Space Cell (iSC) under Headquarters integrated defence Staff (HQ idS) has been constituted in august 2009. the iSC is coordinating action for acquiring the requisite space capabilities. Government has mechanisms in place to effectively exploit space resources for the defence and security of the country.

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ULTRA LIGHT HOWITZER GUNS FOR ARMY Ultra light howitzer is amongst the equipment that is included in the artillery Profile 2027 prepared by the artillery directorate of army. the procurement on single vendor basis from St Kinetics, Singapore, is sub judice. the option of procuring the equipment through the US Government (FmS route) is also being pursued. the field evaluation of ultra light howitzer comprises three parts viz. user trials, dGQa trials and maintainability trials. out of these, only user trials of the gun proposed to be procured through the US Government have been completed. the performance of the gun can be ascertained only after evaluation of all three trial reports. the field evaluation trial report of the guns was a confidential document. Four pages of draft field trial report were received in an anonymous envelope by the army Headquarters. an enquiry in the matter is under way. detailed instructions about security of classified documents exist. aberrations, if any, are dealt with as per the relevant rules.

ARMY PLANS 20 WAR GAMES WITH FRIENDLY NATIONS in its bid to have greater engagement with foreign militaries, indian army will this year hold about 15 to 20 bilateral war games with friendly nations like the US, russia, France and Britain, apart from neighbours Bangladesh, myanmar and nepal. the exer-

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cises, mostly focusing on counter-insurgency and anti-terrorism manoeuvres, will help in honing the skills of indian and other friendly troops in different scenarios, and improve their interoperability, as required under the United nations’ multinational joint military efforts for world peace. among the first exercises this year will be with Singapore at Babina in Uttar Pradesh, close to Jhansi, this march. during the india-Singapore exercise, both sides will pit their mechanised forces and tanks in battle with the terrorists in an urban scenario. the exercise is likely to be called “Bold Kurukshetra”. indian army’s counterinsurgency skills are much sought after by global powers due to the five-decade experience that it has gained in the north-eastern states and Jammu and Kashmir. With the US, the indian army’s mechanised infantry forces will hold an exercise, “Yudh abhyas,” in rajasthan this year, when they will both field their tanks and armoured personnel carrier. most other exercises are still under finalisation and the venues and dates are likely to be finalised soon. the other nations to join the exercises this year will be mongolia, Bangladesh, nepal, australia, and Central asian nations.

INDIAN ARMY DEMANDS ATTACK HELICOPTERS TO FORM ‘AVIATION BRIGADE’ the indian army has expressed the need for its own attack helicopters for aerial support to its tanks and troops in future battlefield scenarios. the concept of an aviation brigade has been created for the indian army for seamless battlefield operations. the need for the indian army was conceived and finalised during the “exercise Sudarshan Shakti” in the deserts of rajasthan. Hence, an aviation Brigade Headquarters may also be on the anvil. according to sources, indian army will have ‘aviation brigades’ which will comprise of three squadrons of helicopters. the first squadron will consist of helicopters used for airlifting heavy equipment, the second for reconnaissance purposes while the third

Concurrently, a month after kick-starting the ZU-23-mm-2B upgrade effort, the army also announced that it was in the market to identify the successors to the ZU-23 as well as the Swedish Bofors L-70 anti-aircraft autocannon. a recent internal assessment pegged the level of obsolescence in the corps at a worrying 70 per cent, unacceptable for such a crucial combat arm. the Corps is also preparing to receive a slew of new missile systems, including two regiments of the indigenous akash Sam, quick reaction Sams and man-portable air defence systems to replace the in-service igla. the Corp's Shilka anti-aircraft vehicles are also to be upgraded. in tandem, the Corps also stands to receive new sensors in the form of 3d radars, easily transportable low-level radars and specially configured radars for high altitude areas.

ARMY INDUCTS DAKSH ROBOTS impressed with the capabilities of india's first robotic weapon system, the daksh roV, the indian army has decided to obtain 100 more, over and above the 20 that it began to take deliveries in december. the fully indigenous robot, developed by drdo's research & development establishment (engineers) in Pune is capable of handling and defusing improvised explosive devices, keeping human operators well out of the potential blast radius. Considering the number of casualties and injuries the army and paramilitary forces have faced with mines and ieds in different conflict theatres of the country, the daksh has come along as a valuable asset. impressed with capabilities demonstrated during the trials, the army had ordered 20 daksh roVs in September 2010, and has now said it will need at least 100 more. the r&de lab is also building robotic vehicles for other roles, including urban warfare, counter-insurgency and precision engagement during firefights. Sources in the army reveal that similar products built by firms in the US and israel cost as much as six times more than the daksh, with very comparable capabilities. the bomb-defusing robot, made famous by the opening scene of Hollywood blockbuster The Hurt Locker are now standard assets in iraq and afghanistan, and are likely to be employed in insurgency theatres worldwide. in india, they will be deployed in Jammu & Kashmir first, but also find use in the northeast and in anti-maoist operations. robots are also being built for patrol and surveillance, intelligence gathering, decoys and a tank-sized robotic vehicle for battlefield search and rescue. –SP’s Special Correspondent

squadron in the aviation brigade will perform the most important task of providing air support to the advancing battle tanks. the current terrain conditions are such that closely integrated aerial support is essential for effective mechanised operations on the future battlefield. the indian army has indicated that a fresh approach to aerial support on the future battlefield is long overdue. as of now, indian army does not have its own attack helicopters. Hence, the task of providing air-support to advancing troops is performed by attack helicopters of the indian air Force. in order to achieve integrated aerial support, the indian army has to deploy attack choppers of its own which are customised to move continuously with the indian army formations on ground. this will lend greater combat edge to the field formations of the army.

BEML BH100 REAR DUMP TRUCK LAUNCHED WITH ALLISON H8610A BemL Limited, the premier earthmoving equipment manufacturing company under the ministry of defence, showcased its latest 100-tonne rear dump truck with an allison H8610a transmission in the fourth international mining, exploration, mineral Processing technology & machinery exhibition held at Salt Lake Stadium Ground, Kolkata, from January 28-31, 2012. BH100 is the largest rear dump truck produced by BemL. this new allison automatic equipped vehicle is designed to deliver outstanding productivity, reliability and durability, along with an increased level of manoeuvrability, comfort and safety. allison’s fully automatic power shifting transmissions combine all the benefits of proven, hydraulic torque converter technology with advanced closed-loop adaptive controls. a special feature of H8610a is the dual torque path which provides high torque for greater tractive effort at launch. advanced CeC2 controls link the engine, transmission, and vehicle systems for optimum performance and vocational value. optimisation of the entire driveline system results in consis-

tent shift quality, increased power train durability, and more efficient vehicle operation leading to greater fuel efficiency.

GD TO SUPPLY GAU-19/B GATLING GUNS FOR US ARMY

General dynamics armament and technical Products has been awarded a contract for the production and supply of more than two dozen GaU-19/B Gatling gun systems for installation on the US army helicopters. Under the contract, the company will also provide field support, spare parts and logistics support to the army. Currently fielded on the US armed forces’ aircraft, ground vehicles and ships, the .50-calibre GaU-19/B is a lighter version of the GaU-19/a three-barrel heavy machine gun. the weapon offers quick reaction and greater firepower against light vehicles and ground forces when mounted on armoured personnel carriers (aPCs) or utility vehicles including the high mobility multi-purpose wheeled vehicle (HmmWV). When fielded as a secondary armament on larger weapon systems, the gun provides protection against close-in ground threats and air defence capability.

US ARMY DEPLOYS GDC4S RIFLEMAN RADIOS TO AFGHANISTAN the US army has deployed the General dynamics C4 Systems (GdC4S) joint tactical radio system (JtrS) handheld, manpack and small form fit (HmS) rifleman radio (an/PrC-154) and itronix Gd300 wearable computer with its 75th ranger regiment in afghanistan.


interception altitude and its degree of operational flexibility.

SAGEM TO UPGRADE M270 MULTIPLE-LAUNCH ROCKET SYSTEMS

as part of the planned operational assessments, the radios and Gd300 computers were deployed to provide rangers with intra-squad communications and run the tactical ground reporting (tiGr) system to send text messages, situation reports and other battlefield information. Conducted by the JtrS, HmS programme office and the ranger regiment, the operational assessment follows three separate successful evaluations in 2011 and will be responsible for the future fielding of the rifleman radio to the army as a whole.

ISRAEL TESTS ARROW 3 ANTIBALLISTIC MISSILE SYSTEM the israeli defense ministry has completed testing of the arrow 3 anti-ballistic missile system designed to protect the nation against long-range ballistic missile threats in the stratosphere. a model of the interceptor missile was launched during the testing in order to check the propulsion system, as well as other tracking sensors. an upgraded version of the arrow 2 defence system, arrow 3 is designed to intercept long-range missiles including intermediate-range ballistic missiles at altitudes of over 100 km as well as those equipped with non-conventional warheads. developed through a joint effort between the israel missile defense organisation and the US missile defense agency since 2002, the arrow 3 features capabilities similar to the systems present on the US aegis destroyers and is able to intercept missiles at great altitudes and distances. arrow 3 is capable of intercepting missiles from land as well as from sea, thereby, improving the destroyer’s capabilities in terms of missile-

Cassidian has awarded a contract to Sagem to supply its Sigma 30 inertial navigation system (inS) to upgrade the self-propelled m270 mars multiple launch rocket system (mLrS) artillery systems of the German, italian and French armies. Under the contract, five artillery regiments of the three armies will be upgraded to the guided multiple launch rocket system (GmLrS) configuration. designed specifically for high-performance land navigation and artillery applications, the Sigma 30 system employs digital laser gyro technology for operation in demanding conditions. the system can either operate independently or coupled to a latest-generation selective availability antispoofing module (SaaSm)-type GPS receiver and offers a pointing accuracy greater than one angular mil for azimuth and 0.5 mil for elevation. the Sigma 30 enables high-precision firing of new unitary warhead rockets to a range of several dozen kilometres, including in an electronic warfare environment as a component of the european Fire Control System (eFCS) integrated into the rocket launcher system. the navigation system is also capable of the digitisation of 105mm light cannons and 120mm smoothbore or riffled mortars. the system is used by nato and more than 25 armies worldwide for towed and tracked howitzers, mLrS, and mortars including Caesar, archer artillery systems, 2r2m mobile mortars, and the Pinaka multi-barrel rocket launcher in europe and the middle east.

RENAULT TO SUPPLY SHERPA TRUCKS FOR FRENCH ARMED FORCES

>> SHOW CALENDAR 20-23 February International Armoured Vehicles FiVe, Farnborough, UK www.internationalarmouredvehicles.com 24-25 February International Conference On Autonomous Unmanned Vehicles (iCaUV 2012) eagleton Golf resort, Bangalore, india http://icauv2012.org 13-15 march Soldier Modernisation Asia 2012 Swissôtel merchant Court, Singapore www.soldiermodasia.com/Event.aspx?id= 633676 27-29 march Future Artillery radisson Blu Portman Hotel, London, UK www.future-artillery.com/Event.aspx?id= 593180 29 march–1 april Defexpo India 2012 Pragati maidan new delhi, india www.defexpoindia.in 16-18 april Defence Logistics UAE 2012 armed Forces officers Club, abu dhabi, Uae www.defencelogisticsuae.com/Event.aspx?i d=626748 23-25 april Tactical Communications 2012 mayfair Conference Centre, London www.tacticalcommunicationsevent.com

renault trucks defense (rtd) has been awarded a contract to supply Sherpa medium trucks used to refuel the French armed forces’ aircraft. the trucks will be able to refuel all types of aircraft including unmanned aerial vehicles (UaVs) in rough terrain because of their mobility. the contract, awarded by the French armed Forces Fuel Service (Sea), is in response to a bid submitted by the company for the air-transportable multipurpose tactical tanker-truck (CCPta) tender floated in november 2011. the contract includes the supply of 30 vehicles and an option for an additional 20 trucks, and the qualification phase will be conducted in 2012, followed by deliveries in 2013. the Sherpa medium is a family of 6x6 and 4x4 tactical trucks with a tank capacity of 5m3, which is sufficient to refuel all types of aircraft, including eurocopter Cougar and tiger attack helicopters as well as UaVs.

AFGHAN ARMY TO RECEIVE RUSSIAN MI-17V-5 HELICOPTERS the afghan national army (ana) will take delivery of the remaining 12 mi-17V-5 multi-role military transport helicopters under contract with russia in July 2012, the russian Federal military-technical Cooperation Service has confirmed. the service said, “the remaining 12 mi-17V-5 helicopters and related equipment will be delivered during the first half of 2012.” the deliveries are part of a $367.5 million contract signed between the US army Forces Command and state-arm-exporter rosoboronexport in may 2011 for a total of 21 helicopters for the

nato mission in afghanistan. Besides the supply of helicopters, the contract also covers the delivery of spare parts, ground-service facilities, detachable armaments, as well as the rendering of logistical support.

BOEING TO DELIVER ADDITIONAL CH-47F CHINOOK HELICOPTERS

Publisher and Editor-in-Chief Jayant Baranwal Editor Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor Assistant Group Editor R. Chandrakanth Senior Technical Group Editor Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand Contributing Editor Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia Sr. Copy Editor & Correspondent Sucheta Das Mohapatra

the US army has awarded a $370 million contract to Boeing for the delivery of 14 additional CH-47F Chinook helicopters to australia and Uae as part of the US foreign military sales (FmS) programme. Under the terms of a previous FmS agreement between the US Government and the two countries, the company will provide seven of the 14 new Chinooks to the australian defence Force, while Uae will receive six aircraft. the company recently invested $130 million to establish a Chinook manufacturing facility near Philadelphia, US. the remaining aircraft will be delivered to the US army to fulfill its requirements, starting in 2014.

ITT EXELIS RECEIVES US ARMY SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS CONTRACT itt exelis has received a wide-band satellite communications (SatCom) operations and technical support (WSotS) contract to provide mission support for the US army’s wideband satellite operations centres and management sites worldwide. the $121million cost-plus-fixed-fee contract, awarded by the US army Space and missile defense Command (USaSmdC) and the army Forces Strategic Command (arStrat), includes a one-year base period of performance and six one-year option periods. Under the contract, the company will continue to provide support for the army’s global network and computer systems for critical military satellite communications.

DELIVERY OF THE 100TH BOXER the Boxer Programme division celebrated the delivery of the 100th Boxer on January 20, 2012. delivery of the vehicles to Germany is not yet at full speed, but sufficient Boxers are delivered by the arteC consortium to support the training of the German troops in preparation for the operations in afghanistan. Since august 2011 five Boxers of the armoured personnel carrier (aPC) type have been operating at full extent in masar-i-Sharif. another 75 Boxer vehicles in 3 versions are expected to be delivered for the German troops in 2012.

BAE SYSTEMS AND GENERAL DYNAMICS TEAM TO DEVELOP AFFORDABLE ‘SMART’ 81MM MORTAR ROUND Bae Systems and General dynamics ordnance and tactical Systems have teamed to develop, demonstrate, and produce the 81mm roll controlled guided mortar (rCGm), an affordable 81mm precision mortar round. the companies have been maturing the guided mortar technology over the last 12 months and will be conducting tactical demonstrations early in 2012. the 81mm rCGm uses the current UK L41 round and US m734a1 fuze, but incorporates GPS guidance and General dynamics’ patented roll Controlled Fixed Canard (rCFC) technology to provide a precision strike capability.

Contributors India General (Retd) V.P. Malik, Lt General (Retd) Vijay Oberoi, Lt General (Retd) R.S. Nagra, Lt General (Retd) S.R.R. Aiyengar, Air Marshal (Retd) Vinod Patney, Major General (Retd) Ashok Mehta, Major General (Retd) G.K. Nischol, Brigadier (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal, Brigadier (Retd) S. Mishra, Rohit Sharma Chairman & Managing Director Jayant Baranwal Executive Vice President (Planning & Business Development) Rohit Goel Administration & Coordination Bharti Sharma, Survi Massey Senior Art Director Anoop Kamath Design Vimlesh Kumar Yadav, Sonu Singh Bisht Sales & Marketing Director Sales & Marketing: Neetu Dhulia Head Vertical Sales: Rajeev Chugh SP’s Website Sr. Web Developer: Shailendra P. Ashish Web Developer: Ugrashen Vishwakarma Published bimonthly by Jayant Baranwal on behalf of SP Guide Publications Pvt Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, photocopying, recording, electronic, or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publishers. Printed in India by Kala Jyothi Process Pvt Ltd © SP Guide Publications, 2011 Annual Subscription Inland: `600 • Overseas: US$180 Email: subscribe@spguidepublications.com Letters to Editor editor@spslandforces.net For Advertising Details, Contact: guidepub@vsnl.com neetu@spguidepublications.com rajeev.chugh@spguidepublications.com SP GUIDE PUBLICATIONS PVT LTD Corporate Office A 133 Arjun Nagar, Opp Defence Colony, New Delhi 110 003, India Tel: +91(11) 24644693, 24644763, 24620130 Fax: +91 (11) 24647093 Regd Office Fax: +91 (11) 23622942 Email: guidepub@vsnl.com Representative Offices BENGALURU, INDIA Air Marshal (Retd) B.K. Pandey 534, Jal Vayu Vihar, Kammanhalli Main Rd, Bangalore 560043, India. Tel: +91 (80) 23682534 MOSCOW, RUSSIA LAGUK Co., Ltd, Yuri Laskin Krasnokholmskaya, Nab., 11/15, app. 132, Moscow 115172, Russia. Tel: +7 (495) 911 2762, Fax: +7 (495) 912 1260 www.spguidepublications.com www.spslandforces.net RNI Number: DELENG/2008/25818

1/2012

SP’s LAND FORCES

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SP's Land Forces February-March 2012  

Armour in Future Conflicts

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