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In This Issue Page 3 Modernisation Through ‘Make in India’ – COAS The acquisition process has been prioritised and has been divided into three categories: First is Critical, second is Important and third is Essential. Ranjeet Kumar Page 4 Pathankot Terror Strike – Pattern Remains the Same We fail to recognise and acknowledge that there are no non-state actors in Pakistan – each and every one of them is linked to the ISI. Lt General P.C. Katoch (Retd) Page 6 Infusing Technology to Enhance Training Processes for Modern Warfare
‘Our security response system needs to encompass the entire spectrum of conflict’ On January 6, 2016, Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd), Editor of SP’s Land Forces, interviewed Chief of the Army Staff General Dalbir Singh in his office in South Block. In a free and frank atmosphere, this highly decorated and widely experienced Chief of the Indian Army spoke about the roles and modernisation status of the Indian Army. He elaborated on the professional and institutional ethos which makes the Indian Army one of the most potent fighting forces in the world whose professional competence, courage, valour and sacrifices for the country are legendary. photograph: Indian Army
Advancements in fields of simulation technology, neuro sciences and sports medicine provide for the desired tools to make training effective and need to be extensively utilised. Major General Vijay Singh Page 8 Resumption of Indo-Pak Talks The breakthrough in Indo-Pak relations during the ‘Heart of Asia’ conference in Islamabad recently is a welcome step close on the heels of the NSAs of the two countries meeting in Bangkok. Lt General P.C. Katoch (Retd) Page 10 Lt General J.F.R. Jacob – A Legend Laid to Rest
Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd) presenting a copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2015-2016 to Chief of the Army Staff General Dalbir Singh
Lt General P.C. Katoch (Retd) Plus
SP’s Exclusives News in Brief
SP’s Land Forces (SP’s): How do you perceive the current global and regional security environment? What kind of challenges do they pose for India? Chief of the Army Staff (COAS): The contemporary security environment is dynamic and poses challenges across the entire spectrum of conflict to include both conventional and unconventional scenarios. These range from traditional ‘Land Centric Threat’
along our borders to ‘Asymmetric Threats’ including proxy war and its manifestations. There are emerging challenges in information dimension and space domain as well, besides cyberspace which is all encompassing. We are keeping ourselves ready and alert to take on all challenges accordingly. The apex National Security Establishment as well as the armed forces are fully engaged in maintaining operational readi-
ness and enhancing capabilities, including in collaboration with like-minded friendly countries, to deter and defeat threats across the entire spectrum, if and when they manifest. SP’s: The fight against terrorism has become a priority among all nations. The ISIS in Iraq and Syria, the largest terror group in the world, aims to create an
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E D I T O R I A L
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In over 19 months in power, Prime Minister Narendra Modi seems to be facing more challenges now than in the period when he was elected to the office. His beginning was bold and dynamic especially considering the fact that the opinion makers were apprehensive about his ability to capably steer India’s foreign policy. Modi’s diplomatic achievements have silenced the critics. Modi Government’s aggressive diplomatic outreach saw him undertaking 37 foreign trips across five continents till January 2016. His personal rapport with world leaders has given a new and different meaning to Indian diplomacy. However, his foreign policy push has not softened the opposition, especially the Congress Party which continues to oppose anything and everything that he does. While the Prime Minister’s foreign policy push is to be admired,
there is no clarity of NDA Government’s Pakistan policy. The deadlock of stalled talks seemed to have been broken after Modi and Nawaz Sharif’s unscheduled meeting at climate change talks in Paris. This was followed by the Prime Minister’s surprise meeting with his Pakistani counterpart Nawaz Sharif in Lahore on his way back home after a day-long trip to Afghanistan and a two-day visit to Russia. However, the onset of the new year saw the attempts to resume the comprehensive dialogue process with Pakistan receiving a sudden jolt by the terror attack in Pathankot by Pakistan-based Jaish-e-Mohammed terrorists and it remains to be seen how this situation will play out. Nearer home, the worsening situation in Nepal and Maldives are two other major problems. The changes in Myanmar indicate positive developments, however India will have to balance its equation with the military and the political leadership. The NDA Government inherited a poor state of economy in mid2014. However, the first budget presented by the government has been termed as a “lost opportunity”; the government failed to utilise its honeymoon period to push major structural reforms and the economy is still not out of the woods.
Islamic caliphate across the world. In our neighbourhood Pakistan is virtually a factory for training terrorists and is indulging in state-sponsored terrorism. Additionally a large number of professional terror groups are available for hire. How is the growth of terrorism and other related forms of asymmetric warfare going to affect India in the future and what steps would the Army like to take to prepare for this type of conflict? COAS: The recent massacre at San Bernardino, California, on December 2, 2015, whose perpetrators can be traced back to Pakistan and who had pledged allegiance to the Islamic State are indicative of the growing footprints of ISIS, particularly in the Af-Pak. No part of the world can remain insulated from this looming threat and their sponsors in our neighbourhood. We have taken proactive steps to institutionalise intelligence sharing with like-minded countries and develop cogent response mechanism to thwart their designs. The likely ‘spillover effect’ of terrorism from Af-Pak remains our immediate concern as Taliban had demonstrated the potency of its resurgence in the capture at Kunduz on September 28, 2015. Regionally, we are shoring up the capability of Afghanistan National Security Force (ANSF) to combat this threat through training and in advisory capacity. Jammu and Kashmir is most vulnerable to the nefarious designs of ISIS/Pak, be it radicalisation of youth or ‘lone wolf ’ attacks motivated by its divisive ideology. We are constantly monitoring these developments in concert with other security and intelligence agencies and are fully prepared to meet the growing threat of asymmetric warfare being waged by forces inimical to India’s interests. SP’s: Three additional commands were to be raised, namely the Cyber Command, Special Forces Command and the Aerospace Command. What is the current status of these projects? In light of the growing challenge of international terror groups
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Let us now have a look at the defence modernisation in the country. A decade and more of severe and unprecedented neglect by the political leadership of the country under UPA rule to modernise the three Services has left them gasping for breath to stay alive and relevant to the roles and missions earmarked for them during hostilities/war. As far as the Army is concerned, General V.K. Singh (Retd), a former Chief of Army Staff (COAS), wrote a letter regarding the status of equipment in the Army to the Prime Minister on March 12, 2012. It highlighted that the mission reliability of mechanised vehicles was poor, the artillery was obsolete and inadequate, air defence was antiquated, armour was unreliable due to regular barrel accidents caused by mismatch between indigenous barrels and ammunition, nightfighting devices were insufficient, aviation corps helicopters needed urgent replacements, and holdings of all types of missiles, antitank and specialised ammunition was critically low. Following this it seems that the Ministry of Defence (MoD) had asked Army Headquarters to fasttrack acquisitions and the list of essentials was prepared and sent. However, the situation has im-
should Special Forces Command be given the priority for raising? COAS: The security environment in India’s neighbourhood is complex and in a state of constant turmoil/evolution. Threats and challenges are multidimensional, thus our security response system needs to encompass the entire spectrum of conflict. Info warfare, cyber warfare and weaponisation of space are an emerging dimension of threat. While certain capabilities in the Cyber, Special Forces and Aerospace domains already exist, these are to be jointly built upon by the Services in keeping with the national security requirements. As a first step, we are presently considering raising of tri service agencies for each of these domains, as part of a ‘Phased Adaptive Approach’. SP’s: In April 2015, the Defence Ministry decided to downsize the 90,000-strong Mountain Strike Corps that was announced by UPA to act as a counter to the expanding Chinese military capabilities and intrusions. It was to be raised over seven years at a budget of `64,478 crore. Now, it seems that the force will have 35,000 soldiers and the cut has been attributed to “severe fund shortage”. What is the status of raising of the Mountain Strike Corps? COAS: In consonance with our perspective planning with reference to capability development along northern borders, the Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) in July 2013 had sanctioned accretions for the Indian Army which includes the Mountain Strike Corps. As far as raising of the force is concerned, I can assure you that it is progressing as per approved schedule. Creation of desired capability to mitigate the threats being faced by nation is a priority for the armed forces as well as for the government. The sanctioned raisings will be completed in the desired time frame. Immediate equipping and arming of these forces has been done from the existing stocks held with the Indian Army and indents have been initiated to make up these
proved marginally only in respect of some munitions. Adding to the existing shortages is the new raising of the Mountain Strike Corps for our Eastern theatre, which is expected to reduce the Army’s reserve stocks called ‘War Wastage Reserves’ in terms of equipment and munitions further. The capital budget, which is meant for procurement of equipment, when analysed for the years 2014-15 and 2015-16 seem to suggest that no significant changes in equipment status of the Army will come about in the near future. Three landmark decisions of MoD of May 2015 have generated considerable interest in the Indian defence industry and have shown government’s resolve in preferring ‘Make in India’ route. The first goahead has been given to Tata-Airbus combine for the manufacture of transport aircraft to replace the ageing fleet of Avro 748 aircraft. The proposal entails procurement of 16 C-295 aircraft off the shelf from the foreign vendor and manufacture of 40 aircraft in India with complete transfer of technology to the Indian partner. This project is a game-changing initiative as it is considered to be an ideal platform for the integration of the private sector and the development of alternate facilities for the manufacture of aerospace systems.
depleted stocks. The government is committed to recuperate these stocks at the earliest. Resolute steps are being initiated to ensure that there is no depletion of stocks and necessary financial support is provided for the sustenanceof new raisings as well as modernisation plans of the Indian Army. SP’s: Effective surveillance and reconnaissance are an essential part of current and future capabilities at unit and formation level? UAVs are critical to this requirement. What is the concept of Indian Army in this respect and where are we at present? COAS: An integrated Battle Field Surveillance System, with mutually complementary sensors at all levels, provides the required combat information to the decision makers. UAVs are the only aerial means of ISR and target acquisition available to the Field Commander for employment of his long-range vectors to engage targets in depth, hence are a potent force multiplier. In order to afford comprehensive and gap free surveillance all along the borders, there is a need to augment the present holding of UAVs. The requirement of additional UAVs has been included in the Long-term Integrated Perspective Plans (LTIPP) and their procurement is being pursued expeditiously. SP’s: What is the current policy on women’s entry into the armed forces, Permanent Commission for Women Officers (WOs) and what is the Army’s stand on women being enrolled in the combat arms such as the armoured corps and the infantry? COAS: The Permanent Commission has already been extended to women officers in AEC & JAG and at present IA is holding 54 Permanent Commission WOs. Issues related to granting of Permanent Commission to Women Officers in Technical and Combat Support Arms are being studied. SP’s: The ratio of revenue to capital budget in the army’s portion of the defence budget leans heavily in favour of the former in view
The second major decision involves the acquisition 145 pieces of M777 ultra-light howitzers from the US through the foreign military sales for close to `2,900 crore. BAE Systems has agreed to shift its complete ‘assembly, integration and testing’ facility to India and the guns would be manufactured in partnership with an Indian company. In addition, an inflow of close to $200 million is expected against the offset obligations. Finally, in a landmark decision, the government has approved a Russian proposal to build 200 Russian Ka-226T Kamov light helicopters in India, with full technology transfer. It is apparent that the above mentioned ‘Make in India’ initiatives are the harbinger of much bigger plans to reduce dependence on imports: exciting times are in the offing for the indigenous defence industry, including the private sector. This issue carries articles covering modernisation, Pathankot terror strike, resumption of IndoPak talks and infusing technology to enhance training.
Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd)
of the larger manpower. This leaves a relatively smaller sum in capital budget for new procurements and modernisation. What can be done to improve this situation? COAS: The force level of the IA is based on the overall threat perception for both existing and perceived threats in the current and future scenarios. Currently the strength of standing Army is approx 1.23 million wherein, mostly, the ‘soldier’ himself is a weapon system. This accounts for relatively higher amounts being allocated to revenue head accounting for salaries and sustenance purposes. Thus leading to a perception of skewed ratio of funds, being heavily in favour of revenue at the cost of capital. I must point out that capital acquisition and modernisation of the Army gets due priority. The modernisation/capital budget is separate from the revenue (salary and sustenance) budget. The capital budget is not based on the expenditure/allocation for revenue budget but on requirements projected, prioritised and sanctioned by a collegiate involving the CCS, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Defence and Army HQ. The onus of procurements rests on all the stakeholders. The capital modernisation budget over the years has been in sync with the absorption capabilities of the various organisations involved. SP’s: What tactical concepts should the Army adopt in view of the stated position of the Pakistan Army with regard to the use of tactical nuclear weapons on the battlefield? COAS: As we all know Pakistan has been a revisionist state, which has, thus far, attempted to balance its conventional asymmetry through proxy war against India. I would emphasise that our nuclear doctrine is comprehensive and unambiguous and India possesses credible deterrence against any nuclear threat. Measures to prepare IA to fight in such conditions in terms of doctrine, training and equipment are in place. Upgrades of existing equipment are being addressed at highest level on priority. SP
Modernisation Through ‘Make in India’ – COAS The acquisition process has been prioritised and has been divided into three categories: First is Critical, second is Important and third is Essential photograph: SP Guide pubns
he TRADITIONAL annual army Day media interaction of the Chief of the Army Staff General Dalbir Singh was hijacked by the issue of terror attacks on Pathankot airbase and the role played by Army along with other security agencies. However, the Chief of the Army Staff (COAS) did talk at length about the security challenges the Army is facing and its modernisation process. Regarding modernisation, the Army Chief revealed that the acquisition process has been prioritised and has been divided into three categories: First is Critical, second is Important and third is Essential. According to the Chief, the Army Headquarters has made provisions for seven items under Critical, 17 systems under Important and rest in Essential category. “We are focusing on the critical and important areas in last two years,” said the Army Chief. The artillery guns and upgradation of air defence guns like Schilka have been included in the Critical list, which are being upgraded regularly. In this list, we are also giving priority to the SRSAM and MRSAM system acquisitions and all are moving in desired manner. The acquisition of selfpropelled towed guns and other categories of guns are moving in right directions. The upgradation of the mechanised forces are also going on,” said the Army Chief. The Defence Acquisition Council has also cleared third-generation missile systems. Akash missile has also been inducted in the Army. We are totally focusing on modernisation. The COAS revealed that “the Vice Chief keeps a track on the modernisation process on a daily basis and I take a look at it on a weekly basis. ‘Make in India’, I feel, is critical. Many systems we have to buy immediately and then there are systems to be acquired through the transfer of technology.” The Army Chief rejected media reports that the decision to set up the Mountain Strike Corps has been curtailed substantially. He emphatically rebutted media reports that the Mountain Strike Corps will not be set up in its original plan, due to funds crunch. The Army Chief asserted that it is going as per plan and the Corps will be raised as per schedule by 2021. He also repudiated media reports that there has been instructions from certain quarters to slow down the raising of the Corps. He asserted that there has been no budgetary cuts. Talking about Army’s role in national security the Chief said that the Indian Army and media play a crucial role in national security. It is this convergence and synergy of efforts that plays a vital link in national security and society. He complimented the media for their support to the Indian Army which has been a force multiplier in nation-building efforts. In Indian context the challenges the Army is facing is to preserve national interests against internal and external threats. Referring to disputes on the line of control (LOC) and line of actual control (LAC) and ceasefire violations and insurgency in the Northeast, the Army Chief asserted that the Army is ever ready to face any challenges thrown to them. He
Chief of the Army Staff General Dalbir Singh Answered to SP’s on Army Day Press Conference SP’s Land Forces: Quick questions Jayant Baranwal: What are the new security challenges? COAS: The dynamics of security challenges keep changing with time, the environment prevailing not only in India but in our neighbourhood and across. The new security challenges that have now emerged, one is cyber threat which is a main challenge that we have to counter. We are taking certain steps towards this, whether it is creation of firewalls, the number of layers that we are creating, the age gap between the computers, the education of people on ground and also sensitising the environment. We have a cyber group here at the Army Headquarters and there are establishments created, certain organisations at the formation level which are looking into this aspect. Also, we carry out a cyber audit periodically to ensure that the security of this aspect is taken care of. This is one basic area, otherwise asymmetric threat has only increased. Every time you find the answer to one, another comes up. Baranwal: Are we equipped enough today to handle any kind of conflicts or we are still stuck with the point where General Malik had said during Kargil “We shall fight with what we have”?
said that effective management of undemarcated LAC on northern borders, consolidation of internal security situation in the Northeast remains an ongoing commitment. Regarding the ongoing proxy war in Jammu and Kashmir and insurgency in the Northeast, the Chief said that the national security challenges continue to pose serious threats. To effectively meet all these challenges this gives inherent primacy to land forces. Apart from the traditional economic threats we have the existing external and internal threats and regional security dynamics.
COAS: There are areas where there has been very little progress or no progress. For example, the acquisition of artillery guns. For the last 28 years, we have not got a single piece added to our inventory, so there are certain deficiencies of that kind. But there has been substantial progress, at least in the last year-and-a-half, on this account. Very large number of clearances have been given on major procurement cases. Talking about Arty itself, 814 guns were cleared. Whether it is Vajra or Dhanush, they are at various stages of procurement. So a large number of procurement cases of major equipment and ammunition are definitely moving ahead. It will take some time. I think in the near future we will start feeling the effect. Baranwal: Will fast-tracked modernisation process keep the ‘Make in India’ on side to meet the immediate and critical requirements? COAS: For both the critical and important projects, we will Buy and Make (Indian), because if it is critical, it is immediate and ‘Make in India’ will take some time. We will straight away provide what is minimum required, thereafter, through the transfer of technology we will make the balance quantity. SP
Army Design Bureau The Army Chief said that a large number of measures have been initiated to expedite the induction of modern hardware and systems. The acquisition of systems will be done through the Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) which should be getting promulgated very soon. This will surely ensure probity and transparency, and greater accountability in defence acquisitions. The Army Chief said that no nation can aspire to acquire a great power status without indigenous research and development and defence production base. In line with the ‘Make in India’ programme of
the Government of India, the Indian Army is pursuing an ambitious indigenisation programme to meet the modernisation target. Our advances in this domain have been substantive. General Dalbir Singh said that he would like to share that maximum acceptance of necessity for the Army has been accorded in the category of Buy and Make (Indian). He also claimed that 50 per cent of the procurement contracts have been issued to the Indian industry. In the past two years, 55 per cent of our modernisation budget has been spent on indigenous industry to meet long-term needs of the Indian Army. In line with the ‘Make in India’ programme the Indian Army is pursuing indigenous programme. In last five years we have cleared 63 per cent of procurement contracts with Indian industry. In terms of value, 55 per cent of Indian budget has been spent on indigenous programme. The Army Headquarters has also set up the Army Design Bureau to provide technical inputs to the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) along with the relevant manufacturing agencies. The Army thus would find it easier to help in ‘Make in India’ programme. Despite the technological advances it is the man behind the machine, but it is the machine that counts. Under ‘Make in India’ scheme the future infantry combat vehicle (FICV), upgrades of BMP, future ready combat vehicle (FRCV) will be handed over to the Indian private sector for long-term needs of the Indian Army. Workshops have recently been conducted in Delhi and planned in major industrial hubs like Bengaluru and Ahmedabad. And we also occasionally organise meetings with the Indian industry. The Army Design Bureau is being set up to concentrate on design expertise and to provide technical inputs and expertise to DRDO and will also help in the ‘Make in India’ programme. All of these initiatives are designed to enhance domestic capabilities. Emphasising the importance of maintaining the high morale of the men, the Army Chief said that It is vitally important to maintain the human resource. He assured the nation that Army is highly motivated and fully ready to respond to threats. In response to a question by SP Guide Publications, the Army Chief said that “the security challenges keep changing in a dynamic environment. We focus on cyber threats and also carry out cyber audit. Besides, the asymmetric threat is on rise. There are areas in which there has been very little progress or no progress. For example, the acquisition of artillery guns as we have not got the guns for 28 years. However, we have seen progress in recent years. The acquisition of artillery guns have been cleared. Large number of procurement cases have been cleared. These are in various stages of implementation. The government has cleared the acquisition of 814 guns. The Vajra and Dhanush are in various stages of procurements and trials. As far as procurement of bullet proof jackets is concerned the acquisition process of about 1,86,000 bullet proof jackets is under way. First trials have been completed and the second trials are on. The Army has also issued new General Staff Qualitative Requirements (GSQR) for 60,000 bullet proof jackets.” SP
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Pathankot Terror Strike – Pattern Remains the Same We fail to recognise and acknowledge that there are no non-state actors in Pakistan – each and every one of them is linked to the ISI. The recent Modi-Nawaz bonhomie at Lahore also gave some wrong notion that Pakistani military and polity are on the same page – they are not. illustration: Vimlesh Kumar Yadav
Lt General P.C. Katoch (Retd)
he Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar’s statements “only one soldier was killed in actual operations”, “strategic assets are safe” and “operation was only for 36 hours with balance for combing” are no consolation to the nation. The ease with which the terrorists crossed the international border (IB), entered Pathankot Indian Air Force (IAF) base and inflicted more casualties than their numbers and the psychological impact speaks for itself. Since the operation was more or less left to the National Security Guards (NSG), one wonders why Parrikar travelled to Pathankot escorted by the Indian Army and IAF Chiefs when NSG is not under him and when he emphasised last word of closure of operation remains with NSG. The operation stretched beyond four days with six terrorists killed, own casualties seven to nine (some succumbing in hospital) including five from the Defence Security Corps (DSC) who were not equipped with night vision, or walkie-talkie radios and modern assault rifles. Almost 20 personnel on our side were also reported injured. The bomb disposal squad suffered one casualty and four injured ignoring lessons from the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) and Maoists booby-trapping their dead. An IAF base was chosen as the target because of its expanse, and part of the periphery secured only through patrolling makes access easy. Once inside, terrorists can lie doggo in underbrush or move from cover to cover retaining the initiative of firing at any movement. Besides, aircraft are lucrative trophies which can be targeted by small arms and the rocket-propelled grenades (RPGs) enhancing the terror and panic value. The Pathankot strike was planned in the same manner as the 26/11 Mumbai terror strike by the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), with former lot trained by Pakistani Marines and this time by the Special Services Group (SSG). Terrorists were in regular touch with their Pakistani handlers, who even arranged a taxi this side of the IB by calling from a Pakistani number. The Pathankot terror module was in touch with their handlers in Bahawalpur in Pakistan, headquarters of the Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM). The taxi was abandoned due to an accident and terrorists then hijacked the official car in which Salwinder Singh, the Superintendent of Police (SP) Gurdaspur, was travelling along with a friend and a cook (as described by Salwinder), for onward journey, terrorists taking with them only the jeweller hostage, who too was dumped with his throat slit. Salwinder’s statement is found fishy even by the Director of the National Investigation Agency (NIA). Why was he out on the sensitive night of January 1 in his official car without his personal SPO, without his personal weapon, vehicle’s blue light non-functional, escorted by his cook and a jeweller friend? Why did terrorists not take Salwinder hostage instead of the jeweller? There is speculation Salwinder travelled to Mazar to link up with terrorists, possibly helping them cross two checkpoints. NIA’s final findings will take time but the
SP’s Land Forces 6/2015
t o k n a h Pat e s a B F A I fact is that Punjab is flooded with narcotics from Pakistan in the past few years with institutionalised conduits on our side that obviously have political and police backing. The excuse being given that the night vision with the Border Security Force (BSF) in Bamiyal area was faulty fools no one. This was obviously by design and known to Pakistani Rangers. Significantly, the same infiltration route was also used during the recent Gurdaspur terror attack. Regular smuggling routes are also terrorist infiltration routes assisted from our side since crores of rupees are involved in narcotics. The ease with which a vehicle was arranged from the Indian side using a Pakistani telephone indicates the nexus. We fail to acknowledge there are no nonstate actors in Pakistan – each and every one of them is linked to the ISI. The recent Narendra Modi-Nawaz Sharif bonhomie at Lahore also gave some wrong notion that Pakistani military and polity are on the same page – they are not. Nawaz Sharif ’s own excuse in 1999 that he was not aware of the Kargil intrusions can hardly be believed – if he actu-
Pakistani military’s stranglehold on Pakistan is tightening. Its corporate-private business stood at $20.7 billion in 2007, and it defines the foreign and defence policies of Pakistan. In order to retain the power and money, the Pakistani Army must remain in confrontation with India and Afghanistan.
ally did not know then he was unfit for the post of Prime Minister. His brother, Shahbaz Sharif as Chief Minister of Punjab, has lately been doling out money to terrorist organisations. The recruiting base for both the military and terrorist organisations in Pakistan are common and many sections of the Pakistani administration are aligned with terrorist organisations, many politicians also having won elections with terrorist support. Pakistani military’s stranglehold on Pakistan is tightening. Its corporate-private business stood at $20.7 billion in 2007, and it defines the foreign and defence policies of Pakistan. In order to retain the power and money, the Pakistani Army must remain in confrontation with India and Afghanistan. The military is getting more and more radicalised, some even calling themselves ‘Allah’s Army’ in private conversation rather than Pakistani Army. Steeped in teachings of Zia-ul-Haq and Pervez Musharraf, there is little chance of change – remember Musharraf saying: “Even if the Kashmir issue is resolved, jihad against India will continue”. That is why you find little progress in punishing the 26/11 perpetrators, Zaki-urRehman Lakhvi getting royal treatment, Hafiz Saeed acting chief advisor to ISI and observed in areas across the line of control (LoC), and Sartaj Aziz making public statement that “Pakistan should not engage in war with those terrorist whose target is not attacking Pakistan.” The hierarchical response by India remains pathetic. During the IC-184 hijack the NSG was not moved to Amritsar for lack of an aircraft and psychologist being unavailable. The hierarchy was blissfully unaware that one Special Group of the SFF too is trained in anti-hijack and have their own aircraft available. During the 26/11, the then Home Minister was personally announcing how many NSG personnel are being dispatched, when would they leave Delhi and when would they reach Mumbai, the DG NSG (IPS officer) directing he wants the terrorists alive as if it was routine law and order situation. In the instant case of the Pathankot raid, despite advance warning of one complete day, 160 NSG personnel were dispatched to
deal with the situation in an IAF base that covers scores of square kms, little realising NSG is meant for point action of specific nature not area sanitisation. So, the perimeter of the IAF was not secured permitting easy entry to terrorists. Obviously, there is no understanding of using specialist troops. The deliberate ignoring of the better trained army was observed during the Gurdaspur attack was repeated in Pathankot with obvious results. The Army Special Forces were closer than the NSG but police oneupmanship ruled the roost. The hierarchy again wanted the hardcore terrorists alive not appreciating they are firing automatic weapons and capture of injured terrorists like Akmal Kasab is bonus. The irony in India is that the Congress Party which is crying blue murder faired equally badly, if not more. Ironically, both the US and China continue to support the Pakistani military in their own national interests despite all the generation of terrorism by that country. The United States that forced Pakistan to join the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) under the threat of “bombing it into stone age” can easily put enough pressure on Pakistan to end her proxy wars on India and Afghanistan, but does not do so. Even in the instant case of the Pathankot strike, where there is clear evidence of Pakistani handlers, US has made the routine perfunctory statement including that all countries in the region should cooperate in curbing terror. China is hand in glove with Pakistan even at the subconventional level against India. Not without reason Ashley Tellis of the Carnegie Foundation says, “India being subjected to terrorism suits many…India is a sponge that absorbs terror.” With simultaneous targeting of the Indian Consulate at Mazar-i-Sharif in Afghanistan in conjunction the Pathankot terrorist strike, the message from the Pakistani military is crystal clear; you can carry on with India-Pakistan dialogue but we will continue waging proxy war on you while our foreign office continues saying we condemn terrorism and Pakistan is also victim of terrorism. It does not matter that the frustration of the Pakistani Army never having won a single war is part of the motivation. The fact is that terrorism is the cheapest option to keep India on the boil and keep its security forces stretched. This is not a new narrative but has been on for past three decades plus. What India has failed to acknowledge is that subconventional war is the name of the game and irregular forces have emerged with greater strategic value over conventional and even nuclear forces, and reliance purely on conventional force and diplomacy is grossly inadequate. India has to fight terrorism on its own. At best India may get intelligence but that too only if it suits the national interest of the provider country. We have failed to learn lessons from terror strikes in the past decades including at military camps at Kaluchak, Tanda and the like. Our inward-looking policy has cost us much more dearly. We need to speedily build credible deterrence to counter Pakistan’s proxy war getting the handle on Pakistan’s fault lines. SP
Infusing Technology to Enhance Training Processes for Modern Warfare Advancements in fields of simulation technology, neuro sciences and sports medicine provide for the desired tools to make training effective and need to be extensively utilised Major General Vijay Singh
odern warfare has transcended extraordinary boundaries as a consequence of fast paced technological advancements in recent times. Highlighting the changed environment is a statement made by the Commander of the US Cyber Command who has predicted that “the next war will begin in cyber space”. The rapid expansion of war zone into the Space and Cyber domains and likewise the developments in battlefield transparency, enhanced weapon ranges coupled with high accuracy and lethality, information technology (IT)
based system, Information Warfare (IW) tools have placed immense challenges on the military planners and executioners of war. The Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) demands an extensive and methodical approach to preparation modalities for such eventualities. The canvas of preparing for a modern war is vast and encompasses a range of activities; however this article purely focuses on the all important arena of training processes that would enhance the operational effectiveness of man and machine. In addition to the basics, the training today needs to cover high-tech weapon systems, specialist equipment and system related to surveillance, electronic warfare, information and cyber warfare.
The importance of integrated and collective warfighting capability employing all available tools of modern-day war is also more pronounced than ever before. Likewise the physical and psychological preparation of all ranks as also training of leaders at all levels to cope with, understand and gainfully apply modern technology has also become an indispensable component of training. As of now, we have not fully exploited the available modern scientific tools and technology to train and there is immense scope for utilising these in a pragmatic and methodical manner. In the backdrop of contradictory constraints and requirement, in the form of shrinking training space, budgetary
limitations versus need for realistic integrated training in modern weapons systems and equipment in all the domains of warfare, it becomes all the more relevant to gainfully employ tools made available by modern-day technology. The increasingly relevant psychological and physical preparation of the human resource that further compounds training requirements also needs to be addressed using appropriate scientific tools. Advancements in fields of simulation technology, neuro sciences and sports medicine provide for the desired tools to make training effective and need to be extensively utilised. This article endeavours to identify the areas where this technology and other sci-
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Odu high-speed connector solutions for harsh environment military applications
DU, a worldwide leader in designing and manufacturing high performance connector solutions and cable assemblies, presents its high speed connector solutions as part of the ODU AMC portfolio to the global market. ODU AMC is an advanced miniature connector solution series designed for harsh environment applications. It is used extensively in soldier communications and future soldier systems that require significant weight and space reduction such as tactical radios, portable computers, navigation and surveillance systems, night vision, digital scopes, UAVs and airborne vehicles. Rugged, watertight and easy to clean, these lightweight, non-reflective connector systems have excellent EMI shielding within a compact housing. Individual contact configurations are available in one integrated connector solution: signal, low/high voltage transmission, coax/triax, compressed air inserts.
AMC Connector Solutions The ODU AMC series include four different types of connector solutions: ODU AMC High-Density, ODU AMC Push-Pull, ODU AMC Break-Away and ODU AMC easyClean. These advanced high speed connector solutions offer high performance data transmission, high bandwith transmission, high reliability and easy handling. The product portfolio of the ODU AMC HighDensity includes USB 3.0, USB 2.0 and an HDMI option. In addition to the USB 2.0 version and Ethernet designs with transfer rates of 100 Mbit to 10 Gbit, ODU also offers a connector that combines USB 2.0 and Eth-
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ernet transfer. The connection systems in the ODU AMC series are smaller and lighter than the MIL housings with RJ45 inserts. They are extremely robust, versatile and easy to handle. The ODU AMC system solutions also include protective caps that ensure fast and trouble-free handling of the connectors, the overall system, integrated cable assembly solutions and over-molding. ODU also offers options for “hot plugging” or hybrid insert configurations. ODU provides the full suite of complementary products and services including innovative options for cable-
assembly as well as receptacles with star flex termination, over-molding and turnkey system solutions. The shells are keyed and colour-coded to ensure reliable and simple handling. The main characteristics of this product series are: 5,000 mating cycles durability, Push-Pull or Break-Away function for maximum safety, watertight protection IP 68 and IP 69, optimised colour coding, highly reliable shielding properties (360°), operating temperature range of -51° C (-60° F) to +125° C (+257° F), salt spray resistance, high-speed data transfer capability, numer-
ous high density signal configurations and tailored versions for power (up to 15A) and data transfer (USB 3.0 with 5A power) in a very compact package. ODU high speed connector solutions includes a series of Push-Pull circular connectors and modular rectangular connectors that have a large applicability in industries such as industrial, measurement and testing and medical. ODU provides the full suite of complementary products and services including innovative options for cable assembly, overmolding and turnkey system solutions. Connections from ODU ensure reliable transmission of power, signals, data and media in numerous demanding application areas: in future-oriented growth markets such as medical technology, military and security technology, and energy, as well as in established sectors such as industrial electronics, measurement and testing, and automotive technology. ODU is one of the world’s leading connector systems suppliers and employs about 1,650 people around the world. Aside from the company headquarters at Mühldorf am Inn, the ODU Group has also an international production and distribution network in Europe, North America and Asia. ODU combines all relevant areas of competence and key technologies relating to design and development, machine tool and special machine construction, injection, stamping, turning, surface technology, assembly and cable assembly. SP Amit Mittal is the Business Development Manager for India who can be reached by e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org website: www.odu.de
technology entific tools could be applied to train the men in uniform for optimal and effective application of military resources in a modern-day war.
Simulation Based Military Training Modern day technology provides the capability to simulate the entire range and the depth of weapon systems and equipment in all the domains of warfare, including cyber and space. Simulation technology can effectively be employed for individual and collective training at all levels of warfare: tactical to strategic. Simulation, in military training, could be categorised into three types, namely live, constructive and virtual. l In live simulation, trainees use actual weapons or equipment in real time and space but the effect of these weapons or equipment is simulation using a combination of technologies. The Infantry Weapons Effectiveness Simulation System (IWESS) would be an apt example in this category wherein the trainees, divided into opposing sides, engage each other using contraption fitted on actual rifles and the ‘hits’ are depicted by a sensor based alarm fitted in the specially designed jackets worn by all the participants. ‘Paint Ball’ technology for depicting hits in a similar collective training event would also fall in this category. l Constructive simulation entails use or computer generated models to represent dynamics of combat wherein effects of human influence are represented through logical statements termed as combat rules. The system represents dynamic behaviour events occurring in battle and this provides participants an opportunity to train in effective employments of resources in various scenarios and levels of engagements from weapon on weapon level to formation and theatre level warfare. l In virtual simulation the participants experience the use of actual weapon or equipment in a lifelike situation despite being in a computer generated virtual environment. A three-dimensional environment can be created through use of head mounted displays and feel of weapons or equipment through data input devises like the hand-operated sensors and gloves. The option of combining constructive, virtual and live simulations in various permutations and combinations via a networked system could also be exploited for optimising training that incorporates most or all of the domains of modern warfare. A combination of simulators for weapons, war gaming software and physical move of troops plus logistics could be combined for collective training purposes at formation level. In essence, combine live training with simulation technologies for best result. A mock up of large size modern village, as obtaining on our western borders, with live size strictures for training of troops using virtual simulators to practise use of weapon systems ranging from small arms to artillery to tanks and constructive simulation for training of commanders could be one example of such a combination creation of integrated training nodes using live, constructive and virtual simulation systems for specific theatre of operations would facilitated effective terrain and operation specific training at all levels. To a very large extent simulators are being used effectively at various military training establishments, however these need to be regularly upgraded with high end technology and should be available in adequate numbers. It would be ideal if specialised simulators, custom built by the original equipment manufacturers (OEM) are part of the procurement deals, for example, Tata Motors could be asked to provide high-tech simulators suited to train drivers both in peace and warlike conditions in all
types of vehicles being supplied by them to the Army. Similarly these arrangements could be extended to artillery guns, tanks communication systems, etc. Secure networking of all premier training establishments to share knowledge base and impart distant online education, including in specialised areas of modernday warfare, as part of an integrated approach is an arena that needs to be exploited. Developing models that facilitate joint training through a networked system incorporating all relevant training establishments would enhance training value. For example, Army War College could be networked with CDM, MCTE, AD College, School of Arty, CMM Jabalpur and others as also the appropriate IAF and naval establishments during the war gaming exercises conducted for the higher command course to enhance learning value in addition to promoting jointness. Similarly in formation level training, online integration of appropriate groupings of all logistics agencies, IW, cyber, air force and naval organisations could be examined.
Modern Tools for Psychological Preparation and Leadership Development The modern-day warfare would be immensely staining on the mental well being of all its participants. The stresses and strains leading to mental fatigue transcending into some drastic actions having an adverse impact on outcome of battle or may be war is a possible reality in the future. Operators of lethal weapon systems or devices and commanders in field need to be mentally balanced at all times and it necessities mental robustness which needs to be developed through expert guidance and training where modern tools in the psychological domain need to be used for best results. The psychological preparation of a soldier, especially in the changed social environment from where the human resource is drawn, is equally essential as part of training and needs to be incorporated with an enhanced scope. In fact troops deployed in operational areas as of today also require psychological preparation as a norm. The advances made in neuroscience have now expanded it into an interdisciplinary science that collaborates with other fields including the allied discipline of psychology. It also exerts influence on other fields such as neuroeducation#. Today terminologies such as ‘Behavioural Neuroscience’ and ‘Neuropsychology’ have come into vogue and we need to exploit these developments for psychological preparation of men in uniform. Based on these developments in these fields there are online personality evaluation tests that have been evolved, for example, a test on website called www.scarf360.com. Such personality evaluation would facilitate understanding self and others and thereby enhance effectiveness of leaders and soldiers. A team of experts needs to study the modern tools in this area of science and suggest modalities of its incorporation into training at all levels. College of Defence Management, Secunderabad, that has the expertise in man management related subjects and presently not being exploited to its full potential is an ideal establishment for further developing capabilities in this field. Training of leaders to face the modern-day war challenges also demands methodical and continuous preparation at the mental plane which entails acquiring professional military knowledge and psychological preparation to understand and lead troops. The developing field of neuroleadership which refers to the application of findings from neuroscience to the field of leadership. Neuroleadership, the term coined by David Rock, claims to bring neuro scientific knowledge into areas of leadership development, management training,
change management education and coaching. Such modern tools if employed, after suitable modifications, can also be used for enhancing quality of leadership.
Medical Science Tools: Sports Medicine for Physical Training The developments in medical sciences today provide a scientific approach in the domain of physical fitness and prevention of injuries. Sports medicine also known as Sports and Exercise Medicine (SEM) has emerged as a distinct field of health care. SEM physicians specialise in treatment of athletes and other physically active individuals and have extensive education in musculoskeletal medicine apart from knowledge in other related medical domains. SEM physicians also advise on managing and preventing injuries. Given the nature of profession, physical fitness is a key focus area of military training and SEM can play a pivotal in facilitating, enhancing and retaining the desired physical standards in defence services personnel for all age profiles. There is adequate scope to promote and adopt the expertise in SEM to not only train athletes but also for routine physical training in the all military establishments conducting pre commission and recruit training and other physical training related establishments. SEM expertise would assist in prevention of injuries as also early recuperation from physical stress and strains which would translate into timely availability of the trainee for the following activities. Application of SEM can also be well used by units and formations to retain and enhance physical proficiencies of soldiers. In fact in operational areas, it would be an effective tool to facilitate recovery from moderate musculoskeletal fatigue
or injuries, for example, after long-range patrolling, counter-terrorist operations, etc, and making same troops available for tasks ahead in a faster time frame. Overall, it may be appropriate to state that use of SEM shall effectively facilitate training and thereby enhance operational effectiveness. A well analysed and suitably modified version of SEM needs to be adopted by the armed forces under aegis of the Medical Services to exploit its full potential in consultation with the military trainers.
Conclusion Science and technology are the governing concepts of our age, they have enabled weapons capable of destroying mankind. Modern-day warfare is complex and demands extensive training for optimal gains and enhanced effectiveness. In light of budgetary limitations, shrinking training areas and the need to preserve modern high technology and expensive weapon system and equipment for actual operation it is essential to employ modern training aids that today’s science and technology provide. Creative and innovative use of simulation systems, developments in neurosciences and SEM need to be essential components for training in all domains and levels of warfare. The subject encompasses a vast and varied training requirement within each domain of warfare in addition to the integrated and joint training aspects necessitating a comprehensive long-term perspective plan at the highest levels. This shall also have to be an iterative process as the fast paced advancements in science and technology would continue to change the nature or warfighting and there by the training for it. SP
6/2015 SP’s Land Forces
>> south asia
Resumption of Indo-Pak Talks The breakthrough in Indo-Pak relations during the ‘Heart of Asia’ conference in Islamabad recently is a welcome step close on the heels of the NSAs of the two countries meeting in Bangkok photograph: PIB
Lt General P.C. Katoch (Retd)
hairing the Combined Commanders Conference onboard INS Vikramaditya recently, Prime Minister Narendra Modi ‘amongst other things’ spoke of India’s difficult neighbourhood replete with challenges like terrorism, ceasefire violations, border transgressions, reckless nuclear build-up and threats, etc – a clear reference to Pakistan. The fact is that every time India has tried to reach out to Pakistan, the effort has been sabotaged through the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI)-sponsored terrorist acts, the Pakistani military’s cross-border actions including breeching the ceasefire, aiding and abetting infiltration, and even by the polity and diplomats as directed by the military. With reference to Kashmir, illegal occupation of Pakistan occupied Kashmir (POK) is the issue that needs to be discussed with Pakistan. Pakistani cries for plebiscite in Kashmir are redundant when the 1948 UN Resolution on Kashmir categorically stated Pakistan must withdraw its security forces from POK before any plebiscite could be undertaken. Pakistan killed the issue of plebiscite by not only withdrawing her security forces but conversely beefed up her security forces in POK, changed the demography of POK by moving large population to POK from other areas, and engineered massacre and exodus of Kashmiri Pundits from the Kashmir Valley as part of its proxy war. Pakistan has not given India most favoured nation (MFN) status despite India having given the same to Pakistan in 1996. In fact, Abdul Basit ruled out such possibility in near future while speaking to FICCI in May 2015. Nevertheless, it is always good to talk and that is why nations have been talking even while engaged in war with each other. For that matter Pakistan has been waging proxy war on us for past three decades plus.
The Thaw The breakthrough in Indo-Pak relations during the ‘Heart of Asia’ conference in Islamabad recently is a welcome step close on the heels of the National Security Advisors (NSAs) of the two countries meeting in Bangkok. It may be recalled that Prime Minister Modi had invited all heads of SAARC nations, including Prime Minsiter Nawaz Sharif, for swearing-in of his government in May 2014. NSA Ajit Doval had occasion to meet his Pakistani counterpart N.K. Janjua in Bangkok on December 6 last year and the two discussed terrorism and more. Pakistan’s change of stance perhaps is also because of General Raheel Sharif ’s recent visit to the US where he was told to clamp down on all terrorist organisations. External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj then proceeded to Islamabad to attend the ‘Heart of Asia’ conference, where she called on Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and held discussions with Sartaj Aziz, Advisor to the Pakistani Prime Minister on Foreign Affairs. A Joint Indo-Pakistan statement issued subsequently highlighted: one, both countries condemned terrorism and resolved to cooperate in eliminating it; two, post meeting in Bangkok, the two NSAs to address all issues connected to terrorism; three, Pakistan assured India of expediting early conclusion of the 26/11 Mumbai terror attack trial, and; four, agreement to a Comprehensive Bilateral Dialogue, directing the
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A file photograph of Prime Minister Narendra Modi with the Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif
Foreign Secretaries to work out the modalities and schedule of the meetings under the dialogue including peace and security, CBMs, J&K, Siachen, Sir Creek, Wullar Barrage/Tulbul Navigation Project, economic and commercial cooperation, counter-terrorism, narcotics control, humanitarian issues, people to people exchanges and religious tourism. India’s earlier focus for the bilateral talks to be centred on terrorism was in accordance with the Ufa agreement while Pakistan wanted dialogue on all issues including Kashmir. The Indian refusal was because Pakistan was showing no inclination to bring to book the propagators of the 26/11 Mumbai terrorist attacks, and in fact was denying any Pakistani involvement under pretext of ‘non-state actors’ despite adequate evidence to the contrary. Significantly, Zakiur Rehman Lakhvi, one of the main perpetrators, continues to be treated as royalty by the Pakistani administration by accounts in Pakistan’s own media. That Pakistan continues to protect Dawood Ibrahim wanted by India is another issue. Then, Mullah Asim Umar, the head of AQIS is also a Pakistani national and obviously sheltered in Pakistan. However, now that Pakistan has assured expediting early conclusion of the 26/11 Mumbai terror attack trial, Prime Minister Modi has taken the initiative to resume the bilateral dialogue.
Pakistani Military Factor It is said that while armies have coun-
In the ultimate analysis, the success of the Comprehensive Bilateral Dialogue depends upon how much the Pakistani military permits it to succeed
tries, the Pakistani Army has a state for itself; Pakistan. The Pakistani Army is a zebra that is unlikely to change its stripes, drama of banning JuD and Haqqanis notwithstanding. Hence, Pakistan (read Pakistani Army that controls Pakistan’s foreign policy) will continue to use terrorist organisations as foreign policy tools in an effort to destabilise India. It was significant to note that in a surprise move just before Nawaz Sharif ’s last visit to the US, Lt General Nasser Khan Janjua replaced Sartaj Aziz as NSA – former being obvious appointee of Army Chief Raheel Sharif. If this denoted the shrinking civilian control over national security of Pakistan, it was obvious with the body language of Prime Minister Sharif when Prime Minister Modi met him in Paris on the sidelines of the climate change conference indicated that Sharif was under considerable strain. Spurt of global terror may have put the spotlight on Pakistan’s generation of terror, but Sharif heading a weak democracy held to ransom by the military. According to Jessica Stern in her treatise ‘Pakistan’s Jihad Culture’ published by Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), Pakistani officials admit albeit unofficially that Pakistan is infiltrating terrorists into India.
Future Portends Post the Peshawar massacre, Pakistani scholar Ayesha Siddiqa wrote, “There may be an internal division within the armed forces regarding what is considered a bigger threat — the internal or external — but there is almost a consensus on India being the key enemy...the basic mindset that drives violent extremism is likely to continue and even thrive”. No one knows the Pakistani military and polity better that Ayesha Siddiqa who also authored the book Military Inc: Inside Pakistan’s Military Economy in 2007, wherein she exposed the $20.7 billion Pakistani Army’s private business-cum-corporate empire, which would have grown exponentially in the last eight years. So, there is little chance about the military giving up that empire, which
thrives on maintaining hostilities with India and Afghanistan. The following adds substance to this: l Immediately post issue of the recent Indo-Pak joint statement in Islamabad, Abdul Basit made a statement insisting there are no terrorist camps in Pakistan, echoing what Musharraf had said when he was President, and ruling out any possibility of Pakistani sincerity in future talks. Significantly, Basit has again met Hurriyat hardliners according to media reports. l Musharraf had earlier said, “Even if the Kashmir issue is resolved, jihad against India will continue”. He showed his radical side again recently by stating, “Osama bin Laden, Ayman-al-Zhaveri, Haqqanis are our heroes ….We trained the LeT against India”. So, what should one expect from Musharraf ’s successors who adore him and don’t permit the Nawaz Sharif Government to proceed against him despite being charged with murder of a Balochi leader Nawab Akbar Bugti? l Pakistan has done nothing to curb terrorist activities of LeT, JuD and their cohorts. Sartaj Aziz himself gave a statement to BBC saying, “Pakistan should not engage in a war with those [insurgents/militants] whose target is not Pakistan.” l During an international seminar last year, a Pakistani politician admitted that earlier Punjab politicians in Pakistan were not for opening up with India but now there is total political consensus for opening up connectivity and trade with India. However, the Pakistani military has put its foot down against it. l If the Pakistani military wants, it can easily shut down the anti-India infrastructure and stop all infiltration into Jammu and Kashmir but on the contrary it is providing covering fire to assist infiltration. Prime Ministers Modi and Sharif will likely meet again during the World Economic Forum meeting in Davos commencing January 20. It likely that talks between the Pakistan and Indian foreign secretaries will take place after the two Prime Ministers meet in Davos. Sushma Swaraj has said Modi’s administration intended to have an “uninterrupted” dialogue process with Pakistan despite provocation from “saboteurs”. But in the ultimate analysis, the success of the Comprehensive Bilateral Dialogue depends upon how much the Pakistani military permits it to succeed. Pakistan’s former Foreign Minister Hina Rabbani Khar recently stated that the military still plays a bloated role in Pakistan’s politics, claiming the Prime Minister has “much less freedom than he ought to have.” There is also the question of how much pressure the Obama Administration is prepared to put on the Pakistani military, odd statements by US lawmakers notwithstanding. Will the US go by what Ashley Tellis described as India becoming a sponge for terror “protects us all” or will it go according to the subsequent advice by the same scholar saying, “The only reasonable objective for the US is the permanent evisceration of LeT and other vicious South Asian terrorist groups with Pakistani cooperation if possible, but without it if necessary.” SP
marketing feature >>
NATO Calibre Opens New Export Opportunities for msta-s Russia will undoubtedly strengthen its positions in the artillery sector of the world arms market by starting promoting its new 155-mm 2S19M1-155 Msta-S self-propelled howitzer. Specialists in the Rosoboronexport arms trade company believe that deep upgrading and conversion to NATO calibre will greatly increase customer interest in one of the most advanced artillery systems.
he new self-propelled howitzer is a profound upgrade of the 152-mm 2S19 Msta-S howitzer in service with the Russian Army since 1989, which showed itself to best advantage in two military campaigns in the Northern Caucasus. It has established a good reputation for high manoeuvrability and fire accuracy. However, despite impressive technical characteristics and combat capabilities, the 152mm Msta-S failed to gain popularity in the world arms market. Few countries only have procured small batches of this selfpropelled howitzer. Experts are unanimous in noting that this strange gap in Msta-S exports has been caused by a massive transition from the 152-mm Soviet calibre to 155-mm NATO standard started in the early 1990s.
This is why Russia has lost some positions in this market segment. The introduction of the new 155-mm Msta-S must rectify such incongruity. The new Msta-S has an upgraded targeting and fire control system comprising ballistic computer, topographic survey and orientation system and satellite navigation equipment, designed to provide automatic targeting and data storage for at least 10 fire missions. The new howitzer can engage targets from closed firing positions, including with unaimed fire when there are no visible aiming points, and conduct direct fire by day and night and in mountains at elevation angles ranging from - 4 to +70 . It fires the 155-mm HE M1A4 and HE BB M1A4 NATO-standard high-explosive fragmentation rounds at the range of up
to 40 km. Provision is made for firing with the Russian laser-guided projectiles Krasnopol-M2. The automatic projectile and semi-automatic propellant charge loading systems facilitate crew work and provide high rate of fire (up to 6-8 rds/min) at all aiming angles. It means that a battery of eight howitzers can bring down up to three tonnes of projectiles in one minute upon a target. When firing at a maximum range, up to 70 projectiles will be up in the air simultaneously before the first projectile hits the target. The ammunition allowance is carried in the turret and includes 42 155-mm rounds for the howitzer and 300 12.7-mm cartridges for the anti-aircraft machine gun. At present the new 155-mm Msta-S howitzer is taking part in the important tender for supplying self-propelled howitzers to
the Indian Army. It surpasses its main competitors by rate of fire and cruising endurance, and at the same time it has smaller size and weight. In addition, the Russian howitzer can be loaded and fired in the all-round (360 ) sector in relation to the vehicle centerline. Experts note that the new Msta-S meets all modern requirements and at the same time surpasses the best world prototypes by a number of characteristics. It is worthy of mentioning that some customers, for instance India, may find it especially important that the Msta-S chassis is very much unified with the chassis of the T-90S main battle tank (which is being successfully manufactured in that country under licence). Thus it facilitates maintenance, repairs and spares delivery. SP
6/2015 SP’s Land Forces
Lt General J.F.R. Jacob – A Legend Laid to Rest photographs: indian army
Lt General P.C. Katoch (Retd)
ith the mortal remains of Lt General Jacob Farj Rafael Jacob having been laid to rest, a legendry General and a national hero, has transcended from history into eternal history. Born in Calcutta’s Baghdadi community in 1923, General Jacob as Chief of Staff of Eastern Command played a crucial role in the liberation of Bangladesh and securing the surrender of 93,000 Pakistani military during the Indo-Pak War of 1971. He had fought in World War II as well as the Indo-Pak War in 1965. He commanded Eastern Command and also served as Governor of Goa and Punjab. As a young officer he served in Iraq, North Africa, Burma Campaign and Sumatra. He commanded an Infantry Division during 1965. On his appointment as Chief of Staff Eastern Command, he dealt dexterously insurgencies in Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram in addition to giving a crushing blow to the Naxalites. With horrendous genocide unleashed in East Pakistan by Lt General Tikka Khan (Butcher of Bangladesh) under ‘Op Searchlight’ in March 1971 (5,00,000 to three million people estimated massacred, thousands of rapes and other atrocities), over 10 million refugees had flooded into India. At a time capture of even provinces of Chittagong and Khulna looked difficult, leave aside entire East Pakistan, and possibility of Chinese intervention in the event of any Indian action could not be ruled out, General Jacob was resolute in his belief that a “war of movement” to include capture of Dhaka could achieve victory; Dhaka as the capital and geopolitical centre of the region and the “war of movement” bypassing intermediary towns altogether since enemy would have fortified the intermediary towns and cities – neutralising enemy’s command and communication infrastructure. This very strategy was eventually accepted, worked beautifully and resulted in the biggest
Lt General A.A.K. Niazi signing the Instrument of Surrender under the gaze of Lt General J.S. Aurora. Standing behind (L-R) Vice Admiral Krishnan, Air Marshal Dewan, Lt General Sagat Singh, Lt General J.F.R. Jacob (with Flt Lt Krishnamurthy peering over his shoulder).
AD gunners in action during the war
surrender after World War II, even despite USS Enterprise sabre rattling in the Bay of Bengal and the Nixon-Kissinger duo fuming. Speaking to a journalist much later General Jacob said, “Tactics may win battles but it is strategy that wins wars. Aim has to be very clear. And my aim was to win Dhaka.” The Indian campaign was planned for execution in three weeks, but was executed in under a fortnight. On December 16, 1971, General Jacob flew to Dhaka to get Pakistan Army’s Lt General A.A.K. Niazi to agree to surrender, which latter had little choice but accept – a rare feat by General Jacob. Dhaka fell, despite 26,400 Pakistani soldiers in the city and only 3,000 Indian soldiers in the immediate area. In the words of General Jacob, “It was a total victory over a formidable, well-trained army. Had Pakistan fought on, it would have been difficult for us. We expected higher casualties.” Photos of Lt General A.A.K. Niazi signing the instrument of surrender seated next to Lt General Jagjit Singh Arora, Army Commander Eastern Command adorn military establishments across India. It is well known that Prime Minister Indira Gandhi wanted the Indian Army to go in earlier but Army Chief General (later Field Marshal) S.H.F.J. Manekshaw sought time till adequate ammunition and equipping could be provisioned. A study of the campaign by the National Defence College of Pakistan gave major credit to General Jacob for meticulous preparation and excellent implementation by the Corps Commanders. An article in The Times of Israel in August 2012, said, “Jack Farj Rafael Jacob, wildly accomplished and widely respected, is best known for his decisive role in the 1971 Bangladesh war. Indians and historians generally agree that his courage, strategic thinking and chutzpa changed the course of South Asian history.” Undoubtedly a great son of India, Lt General J.F.R. Jacob’s name will forever remain etched in gold in the annals of the history of India. SP
>> Sp’s Exclusives Army For New 30mm Ammunition For Infantry Vehicles
In what could be one of the largest recent stock procurements of new generation ammunition, the Army has published fresh interest. As part of a drive to beef up its mechanised forces and infantry, the Indian Army is planning to undertake procurement of new generation ammunition to replace the existing ammunition being fired by 30mm cannon gun fitted on BMP-2/2K. The ammunition is required for all the BMP-2/2Ks held with Indian Army (approximately 2,900 vehicles). With a view to identify probable vendors who can manufacture the said ammunition in India, the OEMs/vendors have been requested to rapidly forward information on the product which they can offer. The ammunition is intended to be fired from the existing 30mm cannon gun (2A42) mounted on BMP-2/2K being employed in varied climatic and terrain conditions varying from extreme hot and dusty desert conditions to extremely cold high altitude regions. The Army specifically is concerned over whether new ammunition types will involve any increase in the overall weight of BMP-2/2K due to the ammunition being offered replacing the existing ammunition, types of ammunition being offered, i.e. AP, APFSDS, HE, Incendiary, Proximity, Plastic or Practice, etc. Unless absolutely necessary, the Army would like to totally avoid any changes in the existing sighting system on its BMPs.
Stealthy Push For Non-Stealth Drones At DRDO January 11, 2016: With DRDO’s Rustom-II MALE UAV still to take to the air, work is currently gathering pace to provide the platform with greater low-observability features. “The main function of the landing gear is safe take-off and landing of UAV under various environmental and operational scenarios with the support of external pilot. A tricycle type retractable landing gear system with a steerable nose wheel consists of major subsystems, viz., Hydrogas Shock Absorber
SP’s Land Forces 6/2015
Strut, Hydraulic Actuation System with Sensors, Wheel & Brake and Nose Wheel Steering System and Mechanical Linkages. Interested development partners need to have expertise and wide experience in the area of high precision manufacturing of systems and components for aerospace application and operate full-fledged manufacturing facilities from medium precision to high precision to cater for manufacture of landing gear systems and components. In addition to this, firm must have experience to carry out assembly and limited testing. The DRDO has faced several delays in putting the more capable Rustom-II into the air despite assurances to the IAF and Army that demonstrations would take place in 2015. In all likelihood, the first flight of the Rustom-II will take place in mid-2016 from an airstrip near Bengaluru.
Terror Spurt Revives Infantry Modernisation Push The atmosphere of terror threats in the shadow of the Pathankot attack and continued threats along the LoC — including intermittent ceasefire violations — has heightened awareness of slow progress in infantry modernisation in the country. The Army’s Infantry Directorate has called for a meeting to speed up the erstwhile F-INSAS programme to provide infantry units with more integrated battlefield equipment. Tensions on the LoC have seen the use of hand-held thermal imagers and other equipment, but the Infantry Directorate of the view that far greater pace of modernisation is desirable towards a much more prepared soldier deployed in the forward areas. According to sources, apart from primary weapon and survivability modernisation, the Infantry Directorate is keen to shore up situational awareness and night-fighting equipment augmentation for soldiers, starting with those in Rashtriya Rifles and Special Forces units, and then to other regular infantry units. The coming weeks are likely to see a slew of fresh expressions of interest pertaining to the F-INSAS
programme. The Pathankot attack has also drawn renewed focus on airborne thermal/night vision sensors, peripheral wall sensors and other electro-optical equipment of a newer generation to shorten the sensor-shooter loop at sensitive establishments on the terror radar.
No Movement On Army’s Hand-launched UAS Push A routine procurement is now an emergent situation for the Indian Army’s Northern Command, with zero movement over three years in the effort to procure up to 50 hand-launched tactical surveillance drones. The Indian Army has been looking for 49 man-portable hand launched unmanned air systems specifically designed for tactical surveillance in the border areas of Jammu & Kashmir. The Army’s Udhampur-based Northern Command had floated a tender specifying the need for a system that is capable of over-the-hill reconnaissance and imagery surveillance aimed at tracking movement of terrorists or infiltrators, incursions, human movements and to battlefield intelligence. The Indian Army currently operates a small fleet of Searcher Mk.2 drones of Israeli origin, but requires unmanned systems deployable at the platoon and company level for tactical unit-level operations. In 2009, the Indian Army got a taste of such systems at Babina during Exercise Yudh Abhyas with the US Army, when the Raven UAS was deployed. The Indian Army has also got a chance to see indigenous hand-launched platforms like the NAL SlyBird and ADE Imperial Eagle, both of which are still currently in development. With the halting of the Nishant drone programme, the Army is especially keen to test fresh tactical platforms of Indian origin and build. SP —SP’s Special Correspondent For complete versions log on to: www.spslandforces.com
news in brief >> New Saudi-led military alliance formed to combat terrorism in Middle East Saudi Arabia has formed a military alliance to combat terrorism in Iraq, Syria, Libya, Egypt and Afghanistan. The coalition will comprise 34 countries including Arab, Middle Eastern, Asian and African countries such as Egypt, Turkey, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Pakistan, Malaysia and Nigeria. Islamic Military Alliance Secretary General Ihsan bin Saleh Tayib said that this new alliance aims to fight terrorism through all ways, means and mechanisms, confirms the keenness to fight in every place and time. Terrorism is a serious phenomenon that has swept all over the world, and it is necessary to address it with the cooperation of all countries. However, Saudi’s neighbouring Islamic nations such as Iran, Syria and Iraq were excluded from the alliance. The US and the UK have welcomed the announcement of the anti-terrorism alliance. US Defense Secretary Ashton Carter was quoted by Al Jazeera as saying: “In general, it appears it is very much in line with something we’ve been urging for quite some time, which is greater involvement in the campaign to combat ISIS by Sunni Arab countries.”
safety and improved reliability when it matters most.” The PAC-3 missile is a high-velocity interceptor, designed to defend against incoming threats posed by tactical ballistic missiles, cruise missiles and aircrafts. PAC-3 is presently used by six nations, which includes the US, the Netherlands, Germany, Japan, United Arab Emirates and Taiwan as well as South Korea, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Lockheed Martin is also under contract with Kuwait. Last year, the Defense Security Cooperation Agency announced the possible sale of PAC-3 missiles to Saudi Arabia, which was valued at $1.75 billion. The US Government gave its approval for the sale of PAC-3 missiles worth up to $1.41 billion with South Korea in November 2014.
Airbus Helicopters delivers H145M helicopters to German Armed Forces
Lockheed to supply PAC-3 missiles to US army
Lockheed Martin has won a $1.09 billion contract to build PAC-3 missiles for the US Army and its allied military forces, including the South Korean Army, Qatar and Saudi Arabian Army. The PAC-3 missiles will be used in the Raytheon-built Patriot missile defense system. The contract includes delivery of Patriot advanced capability-3 (PAC-3) missiles, and PAC-3 missile segment enhancement (MSE) missiles to the US Army. The US allies Saudi Arabia, South Korea and Qatar will get PAC-3 interceptors, launcher modification kits, and associated equipment and spares. Lockheed Martin Vice President Scott Arnold said: “Our PAC-3 and PAC-3 MSE interceptors are the most trusted and capable terminal air defence missiles in the world, and we’re proud to support our customers as they protect soldiers, citizens and infrastructure from adversary threats. All Lockheed Martin-built missile defence interceptors utilise advanced hit-to-kill technology enabling better accuracy, enhanced
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Airbus Helicopters announced the delivery of two lightweight military multi-role H145M helicopters (LUH SOF) to the German Armed Forces (Bundeswehr). The helicopters are the first two amongst 15 units ordered by the German Armed Forces and are expected to be used by the Kommando Spezialkräfte (KSK), the German Army’s Special Forces, in Laupheim. The H145M is the military version of the civil H145 aircraft, which has a maximum take-off weight of 3.7 tonnes. The H145M been designed for day and night missions, which will allow the army to use it for a wide range of military operations including utility, reconnaissance, search and rescue, armed scout, and medical evacuation.The Bundeswehr H145M also features a fast roping system for troops, cargo hooks, hoists, a pintle-mounted door gun, ballistic protection, and an electronic countermeasures system.
US to supply 114, M113A2 armoured personnel carriers to Philippines
The US Government has resolved to deliver 114, M113A2 armoured personnel carriers (APC) to the Philippines. The allocation will be executed as part of the Excess Defense Article Programme, which recommends the surplus defence equipment be reassigned to foreign governments or international organisations at a reduced price, or as a grant. The US delivered 77 units of M113A2 APC to help modernise the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP). The country paid around $1.4 million for the shipment of the APCs, reported DefenseNews. Philippine Army spokesman colonel Benjamin Hao was quoted by Associated Press as saying: “These will definitely help us improve our survivability, protection of our troops.” The AFP is due to receive 37 units on December 14, 2015, with the remaining units expected to be delivered by the end of this month. The Philippines recently received 28 M113A2 vehicles from Israel. The country is set to receive used military equipment from both Korea and Australia, with Japan contemplating the request,
reported the Wall Street Journal. The M113 is a military-tracked vehicle designed to transport 12 soldiers and a driver. It can also conduct amphibious operations, extended cross-country travel over rough terrain, and perform high-speed operations on improved roads and highways. More than 80,000 M113 vehicles are currently being used by at least 44 countries worldwide.
Construction Commences for India’s National Defence University The Ministry of Defence had acquired 80-hectare of land in September 2012 in Gurgaon for setting up of world class Indian National Defence University (INDU), the first of its kind in India. The foundation stone of the university was laid in May 2013. However, to meet the aspirations and need of the villagers of Binola and Bilaspur of having access from their fields to National Highway-8, Ministry of Defence transferred one hectare of land to Government of Haryana in August this year to be used by the villagers as village track. With all revenue related issues resolved, infrastructure development at the university finally commenced with the Bhoomi Pujan ceremony held at INDU site recently. Air Marshal A.S. Bhonsle of the Integrated Defence Staff was the Chief Guest on the occasion who laid the first brick for the construction of boundary wall, perimeter road, guard room and watch towers. The ceremony was attended by officials from the Ministry of Defence, Directorate of INDU, Chief Engineer, Delhi Zone, Revenue Department of Gurgaon, Police and villagers from Binola and Bilaspur. Air Marshal Bhonsle, while interacting with the villagers, stated that it is matter of pride for Manesar Tehsil in general and Binola and Bilaspur in particular to have a prestigious world-class institution in their area, which in the years to come will result in rapid growth in the neighbourhood and also provide job opportunities to the youth.
Acquisition of Bullet proof Jackets for Indian Army The procurement of bullet proof jackets for the authorised quantity as per Annual Provisioning Review is an ongoing process. The Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) had accorded acceptance of necessity (AoN) to procure 1,86,138 bullet proof jackets. Request for proposal (RFP) in this case has been retracted due to failure of samples given by vendors in trials. However, one time relaxation in existing financial powers of Vice Chief of Army Staff (VCOAS) has been given to procure 50,000 bullet proof jackets through revenue route. Further, Commands have been given approval to procure minimum inescapable quantity of bullet proof jackets through Army Commanders Special Powers Fund to meet urgent operational requirements. The bullet proof jackets are procured based on General Staff Qualitative Requirements (GSQRs) which are reviewed from time to time based on the requirement of the armed forces. This information was given by the Minister of Defence Manohar Parrikar in a written reply to Majeed Memon in Rajya Sabha recently. SP
Lt General M.M.S. Rai, GOC-in-C Eastern Army Command, took over as the Vice Chief of the Army Staff on August 1, 2015.
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Lt General Bipin Rawat, AVSM, YSM, SM, VSM, took over as the GOC-in-C of Southern Army Command on January 1, 2016.
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'Our security response system needs to encompass the entire spectrum of conflict' - Chief of the Army Staff General Dalbir Singh, Modernisat...