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In This Issue
>> LEad story
Page 4 Indian Army Launches Surgical Strikes along the Line of Control Pakistan considers the jihadi tanzims as their strategic assets to be used suitably both in peace and in war. Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd)
Page 5 India Responds to Uri Terror Strike Lt General P.C. Katoch (Retd) Page 6 Technologies used in Border and Perimeter Security — The Indian Context
The proxy war by Pakistan started in 1989 and has continued since then. India has continued to fight it defensively since then. Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd) Page 7 Reconnaissance, Surveillance, Target Acquisition and Precision Technologies
A soldier camouflaged
Modernisation of Special Forces
Target acquisition is the detection, identification and location of a target to such a degree that it can be effectively neutralised or destroyed Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd) Plus Second Joint Tactical Exercise held by Indian and Chinese Armies in Ladakh Lt General P.C. Katoch (Retd)
Indo-Sri Lanka Joint Military Exercise Mitra Shakti 2016 in Ambepussa, Sri Lanka
Globally, Special Forces are being used to further national interests of respective countries. Their employment is an extension of foreign policy of the concerned country. 9
India-Russia Joint Military Exercise Indra 2016 in Vladivostok
News in Brief
Lt General P.C. Katoch (Retd)
he surgical strikes conducted by the Indian Special Forces in the Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (PoK) on September 28 in response to the Pakistan-sponsored terror attack on an Army base in Uri has been much talked about, debated, dissected and politicised for vote-bank politicking by political parties of all hues. They sure gave a political message to Pakistan but considering the manner and distances, these were well within capability of regular infantry troops. Despite being subjected to decades of proxy war by Pakistan, India has
failed to optimise its considerable Special Forces potential. Incidents like these surgical strikes raise the fervour about Special Forces in India momentarily, after which everything returns to routine.
Employment of Special Forces Globally, Special Forces are being used to further national interests of respective countries. Their employment is an extension of foreign policy of the concerned country. Leading nations employing Special Forces proactively trans-frontiers include the United States, Russia, UK and Israel. US Special Forces (USSF) are operating in some 120 countries including USSF presence in
diplomatic missions in foreign countries. Since China has already positioned PLA troops in development projects abroad including in Pakistan, PoK, Nepal, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Seychelles and other countries in garb of workers and technicians, we can safely posit a sizeable section being Special Forces. Pakistan has employed the Special Services Group (SSG) actively in Afghanistan, J&K, Nepal and Bangladesh, and is forging links with extremist/terrorist organisations in India.
Despite India being subjected to decades of proxy war, our hierarchical understanding of trans-border employment of Special Forces ironically is limited to short distanced
Applied for 5/2016 SP’s Land Forces
E D I T O R I A L
>> LEAD story
In the early hours of September 18, 2016, four terrorists from Pakistan struck a brigade headquarters administrative base at Uri and killed 17 unarmed and unsuspecting soldiers in their tents. The nation’s anger at this dastardly act was visible and perceptible. While the four terrorists were killed soon enough, the people all over the country demanded retribution for this cowardly act. Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s government recognised the need for decisive
action and rose to the occasion. The riposte came 10 days later and on the night of 28/29 September Indian Army’s Special Forces struck at seven launch pads of the terrorists across the line of control (LoC) along a frontage of about 200 km in two different Corps Zones of the army thus achieving complete surprise over the Pakistani military establishment and inflicted considerable casualties on the terrorists and destroyed their structures and more importantly were able to extricate themselves back across the LoC without suffering any casualties. This action by itself proved to be a manifestation of the changed and aggressive overall strategy of the Government of India to deal with the ‘proxy war’ waged by Pakistan against us since 1989. At the international level also there was no negative response to the strikes by India which goes to
prove the increasing acceptance by the international community of the right of every country to defend itself from terror attacks that are arising outside the borders of the country whether the perpetrators are state or non-state actors. The ‘surgical strikes’ gave rise to vigorous vote bank politics with some other political parties/ political leaders claiming that such actions were undertaken during their regimes/ period also but they did not advertise the facts. And this gave rise to an entirely new set of controversies with agreements and denials from a number of prominent personalities. The statements and counter statements by politicians of literally every political party made no impact on the people who know the inanities that our political leaders are capable of uttering. They are savvy enough to understand to whom the credit
needs to be given but what dismayed many of us veterans was the active participation of some members of our community who only managed to confuse the issues rather than clarifying them. “Discretion is the better part of valour” is an old English proverb that our community veterans need to revisit and imbibe. What was perhaps most thrilling and satisfying was the punctured conceit and vanity of some of our so-called intellectuals (defence analysts) who from time to time so pompously remind us that our army lacks professionalism despite having little or no knowledge about the armed forces. They were put in their place. One of these self-styled analysts was reminding us of this fact only a few days back on a TV channel. Having spent 40 years of my life in the Army and having fought two wars, i.e., in 1965 and in 1971, and hav-
photographs: US Army, Indian Army
physical or direct type of actions executed at unit or subunit level. Special Forces potential in asymmetric wars in furthering national security objectives and employment as extension of foreign policy is little understood. Special Forces should actually be central to our asymmetric response, which does not necessarily imply operating in units or subunits. In most cases, such Special Forces response does not even automatically relate to physical attack, physical attack being only the extreme and potentially most dangerous expression of asymmetric warfare. The key lies in achieving strategic objectives through application of modest resources with the essential psychological component. Stephen Cohen aptly summed up the concept when he wrote in his book The Idea of Pakistan, “The task of Special Forces is the proxy application of force at low and precisely calculated levels, the objective being to achieve some political effect, not a battlefield victory.” In India, we have been looking at battlefield victory at tactical level.
Indian Special Forces
We have a variety of Special Forces including Army’s Parachute (Special Forces) Battalions, MARCOS (Marine Commandos) of Navy, Garuds of Air Force, Special Action Groups (SAGs) of the National Security Guard (NSG) under the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), and Special Groups (SGs) of the Special Frontier Force (SFF) under the Cabinet Secretariat; all of which comprise the Special Forces of India. However, no integration has been affected yet despite
India has consistently ignored four global Special Forces truths: humans are more important than hardware; quality is better than quantity; Special Forces cannot be mass produced; competent Special Forces cannot be created after emergencies arise 2
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Special Forces in action
the Naresh Chandra Committee recommendation to establish a Special Operations Command (SOCOM). There is no concept of ‘support elements’ including dedicated intelligence, fire support, air support, etc.
India has consistently ignored four global Special Forces truths: humans are more important than hardware; quality is better than quantity; Special Forces cannot be mass produced; competent Special Forces cannot be created after emergencies arise. Authorised annual expansion rate of US SOCOM is generally1.8 to a maximum
of 2.5 per cent, which includes ‘support elements’. In our case, the Army alone went in for 120 per cent increase. Expansion at this scale is proven recipe for diluting the manpower of Special Forces, their equipping and most importantly their overall combat capacity including without adequate means for advanced specialist training.
Equipping Special Forces Special Forces equipping must be ‘packaged’, not piecemeal since it is directly related to the quantum of success of any operation.
ing commanded my brigade in Jammu and Kashmir during the peak days of militancy from 199193, I am aware that we have the finest soldiers in the world and if the officers measure up to the requirement of leading them (which by and large they do) they can outperform any army in the world despite the obsolete equipment with which they are equipped. So was the case this time. We at SP’s Land Forces wish to convey our thanks to the soldiers and officers who planned and carried out the surgical strikes. Well done and keep the flag flying high.
Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd)
Hand-held laser target designators have been authorised to Army’s Special Forces since year 2001 but have not been provisioned yet. The Army also has the problem of re-supply / replacement of imported special equipment since concurrent action of ‘introducing’ the equipment into service has not been taking place. There is lack of standardisation of equipment in our Special Forces – no centralised special equipment procurement for the military and non-military Special Forces. The absence of corner shots with the NSG employed during the 26/11 Mumbai terrorist attack was conspicuous although this equipment was held with the Special Group of the SFF past few years. Surveillance, communications and night vision equipment though authorised can be improved both in quality and quantity. Presently, equipping voids exist from the very basic to bigger operational requirements. The basic rucksack provided officially is so inferior that Special Forces units are using own funds to buy good quality rucksacks. Similarly, no worthwhile rappelling gloves and rappelling ropes are officially supplied, both in quality and quantity. A major void exists in the provision of a battlefield information system that would enable multiple Special Forces detachments operating widespread over long distance and deep inside enemy territory communicating with a special operations command post at the parent battalion headquarters, Corps level FMCP (Force Multiplier Command Post) and directly to the air force for calling air strikes. Equipment must have all-weather, all-terrain operability and survival capacity for strategic tasks including surveillance and target designation in areas of strategic interest.
Rapid expansion has left Army’s Special Forces units holding mix of Tavor assault rifles and AK-47s. There is severe shortages in supply of training ammunition for Tavors which is entirely dependent on import. There is also total void against authorised quantities of hardware, major ones being: heavy machine guns; underwater rifles; 60mm mortars, disposable anti-tank rocket launchers; disposable flame throwers; satellite phones; airborne SAR systems; VHF repeaters; solar panels for charging; light strike vehicles; GP delivery system (GPADS) 2-tonne category; GPADS 4-tonne category; underwater cameras; underwater driver propulsion vehicles; digital compasses; GPSs; laser target designators; video cameras for HX transmission; still cameras for HX transmission; night scope with adapter; remote detonator transmitters; remote detonator receivers, and radio controlled detonators. In
RELENTLESS JOURNEY OF EXCELLENCE SINCE 1964
>> LEAD story photograph: DPR
Special Forces of modern armies act as vanguard for induction of futuristic weapons, equipment and technologies into the rest of the armed forces. Indian Special Forces have no such concept. addition, major deficiencies exist in assault rifles with night sights; GPMG with night sights; AGL with night sights; 40mm UBGL; pistols; ATGM with TI; SAM with night sight: carbines with night sight; tactical computers; ground-to-air LUP; radio transmitter beacons; combat military free-fall parachutes and compatible oxygen equipment; high resolution binoculars; passive night vision binoculars; night vision binoculars with communication and range finder; HHTIs, and passive night vision goggles. Special Forces of modern armies act as vanguard for induction of futuristic weapons, equipment and technologies into the rest of the armed forces. They have inbuilt R&D facilities that not only undertake research but are capable of customising available commercially available off the shelf (COTS) weapons and equipment to Special Forces needs. Indian Special Forces have no such concept. Special Forces of modern armies wear body armour made
cial gloves and boots as well. But the revolution is in lightweight electronics, foolproof communications and information systems.
of revolutionary materials, carry armourpuncturing knives, and don visions systems that can combine visual data with infrared and feeds from UAVs overhead. Their helmet mounted night vision goggles fuse imaging systems that combine a thermal camera with night-vision light intensification, allowing the shooter to seamlessly track a target from daylight to a dark tunnel. The system also allows the shooter to transmit and receive real-time colour video and other battlefield information. Their combat uniform and jackets are breathable (providing various levels of wicking, temperature control) and have space for wearable batteries. Bullet proof vests have been replaced by
Tactical PICO Assaulters Plate Carrier given the increasing weight of sensors, batteries and other tools. However, the operator can add armour for his sides, groin, etc, the new PICO can be configured as a dynamic load carrying system that transfers some of the weight to a belt that rests on the hips. PICO is made of new material called PV; combination of military spec nylon and Dupont Kevlar that decreases material weight by 20-50 per cent but is about 10 times stronger than standard tactical nylon material. The Emerson CQC-15 is folding blade that is ‘armour piercing’ capable of tremendous cutting, slicing, piercing capability, which can be opened by one hand. There are spe-
We need integration of our considerable Special Forces potential for better response to modern-day challenges. The highest central agency must oversee their strategic tasking, manning, equipping, training, consolidation, operational and intelligence inputs, inter-agency synergy and the like. An urgent requirement is to establish a Special Forces Command with both publicised overt capabilities (to serve as deterrence) and deniable covert capabilities in order to create the necessary deterrence against irregular/asymmetric, fourth-generation warfare launched by our adversaries. Therefore, the command and control of Special Forces with access real time national intelligence will need to be well thought out. A national policy for employment of Special Forces needs to be evolved and put in motion. We must go for incognito deployment of Special Forces in areas of India’s strategic interests for strategic surveillance, controlling the fault lines of our adversaries, targeting the sources of cross-border terrorism and continuous shaping of the battlefield in furtherance of national interests and objectives.
Conclusion Increasing asymmetric threats and national security challenges indicate use of SF more for strategic roles rather than tactical roles within own leaders. We must optimise this potential, ensuring we give them the best (equipping included) and take the best out of them. SP
5/2016 SP’s Land Forces
>> CROSS-BORDER TERRORISM
Indian Army Launches Surgical Strikes along the Line of Control Pakistan considers the jihadi tanzims as their strategic assets to be used suitably both in peace and in war. This suits China too which is opening up a China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) to Gwadar Port via PoK for which large amounts of funds are being invested by China to the tune of $46 billion. Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd)
ince 1989 Pakistan has waged an unrelenting asymmetric war on India which we call “proxy war”. We have been dealing with the terrorists sent by jihadi tanzims like the Lashkar-e-Toiba or Jaish-e-Mohammed who have their home and hearth in Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (PoK). They are funded, equipped, abetted, trained, logistically sustained and launched by Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) and the Pak army across the line of control (LoC) or the international border based on the situation that favours them to achieve the optimum results in destruction of human life and infrastructure in India. This is in keeping with the strategy of “bleeding India through a thousand cuts”. Their targets currently are mostly security forces personnel (Indian Army, J&K Police and Central Police Forces deployed in J&K). By so doing their intention is to keep the Indian Army engaged on the borders which is an important overall aim both for Pakistan and for China and hence the latter is supporting them in many ways. They consider these jihadi tanzims as their strategic assets to be used suitably both in peace and in war. This suits China too which is opening up a China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) to Gwadar Port via PoK for which large amounts of funds are being invested by China to the tune of $46 billion. The Federal Bureau of Investigation, an American Government intelligence agency, in its first ever open acknowledgement in 2011 in US Court said that Pakistan’s InterServices Intelligence sponsors terrorism in Kashmir and it oversees terrorist separatist groups in Kashmir. The Indian Army deployed along the LoC has a well coordinated counter-terror grid to neutralise the infiltrated terrorists who cross the LoC whereas currently in the hinterland the other security agencies, mainly J&K Police and Central Police Forces, have been managing the insurgency within Kashmir which has now waned to an insignificant level and they are now dealing with a restive population whose penchant for creating unrest is phenomenal. Currently it is this issue that has to be tackled politically in Jammu and Kashmir. The terrorists who infiltrate into J&K have a short lifespan. In 1993-94 when I was commanding an armoured brigade in Jammu, the insurgency and terrorism was at its height and the lifespan of a jehadi varied from a few days to a few weeks. So many questions used to be asked as to why do they undertake such missions when they know that they will not be able to return to their homeland? The answer is quite simple. They are recruited from among the poorest sections of Pakistan’s society and are promised a considerable amount of funds
SP’s Land Forces 5/2016
for their families. They are also motivated to think that as a jehadi if they die they will achieve Heaven (Jannat). When they come for a mission they are given drugs and injections of morphine and thus even if they are shot, but not in a vital place in the body, they continue to fight till the last breath. The insurgency and terrorism in J&K have caused widespread destruction and loss of life. Thousands of locals and security forces personnel have perished in this fight.
The URI Attack On September 18, 2016, a terrorist group of four terrorists struck a battalion administrative base in Uri Sector. Some 18 soldiers of the Indian Army were martyred and many others injured in the terrorist attack in the early hours of Sunday morning. All four militants were killed within a few hours
behind the terror attack in Uri in Kashmir “will not go unpunished” was followed by the his speech at Kozhikode on September 24, 2016, the venue of a three-day National Council Meeting of the BJP, where he said that Indians would never forget the gruesome act of killing 18 soldiers in Uri. Thus a general feeling seemed to be created that the nation was veering towards a possible military action.
terland of the country to carry out terrorist activities. Lt General Ranbir Singh, the Director General Military Operations (DGMO), in a news conference on September 29, after the strikes said: “Based on very credible and specific information which we received yesterday that some terrorist teams had positioned themselves at launch pads along the LoC with an aim to carry out infiltration and terrorist strikes in Jammu & Kashmir and in various other metros in our country, the Indian Army conducted surgical strikes last night at these launch pads,” The External Affairs Ministry spokesman Vikas Swarup was also present. The actual operation was carried out by teams of 4 and 9 Para SF (Special Forces), who are under Headquarters Northern Command. The operation was possibly conducted in both 15 and 16 Core Zones, across a frontage of about 200 km at five different locations. The operation was carried out along the LoC which meant that the penetration across the LoC was not more than 1 to 3 km in order to destroy/ neutralise the terrorists who were waiting at the launch pads for infiltration across the LoC to the Indian side. “Surprise”, a cardinal principle in such operations was fully achieved. This is evident from the fact that while one soldier had serious injury due to a mine explosion, all SF personnel returned to base. Thus also proving the skill, professionalism, training and motivation of our junior leaders and soldiers of SF. About 40 terrorists were neutralised. UAVs and other intelligence and surveillance means were employed which gave specific and credible inputs about the presence of terrorists at the launch pads which were kept under constant surveillance for few days prior to the actual operation. The Para SF teams were directed to commence the move after last light on September 28. It seems that a total of about 200 personnel of the SF were employed. They were probably tasked to infiltrate from our army localities/ posts along the LoC, through known gaps based on good information about the terrain and Pakistan Army deployment. Key planning parameters were: Full surprise; swift and surgical conduct. Nil or minimum casualty to own troops. No troops or casualty, if any, to be left behind. Maximum attrition. The parameters were achieved fully.
Surgical Strikes by Indian Army
Pakistan – A State in Constant Denial
On the night of September 28/29 India’s Special Forces (SF), generally known as Para Commandoes, carried out a fourhour-long operation against the terrorists who had concentrated across the LC in PoK. Their aim was to obviously infiltrate into Jammu and Kashmir and into the hin-
Pakistan, however, dismissed India’s claim as “fabrication of truth”. They said that it is a “quest” by India to create media hype by rebranding cross-border fire as surgical strike. Pakistan is a state in constant denial because this status of denial has been witnessed after every major terrorist attack
of the commencement of the attack, though combing operations to clear the entire area took longer. However, the casualties suffered by the Army (including injured personnel) were so heavy that it caught the attention of the entire Indian nation and an atmosphere got created, especially by the television media, for a savage response to teach our perverse and recalcitrant neighbour a lesson. This incidentally was the fifth major attack by Pakistan-based terror modules, assisted by their army and the ISI in recent times. These attacks include Gurdaspur (Dina Nagar) on July 27, 2015, Pathankot IAF Base on January 2, 2016, Pampore attack on June 25, 2016, Poonch attack on September 11, 2016, and Uri attack on September 18, 2016. After the Uri attack the assertion by Prime Minister Narendra Modi that those Illustration: Anoop Kamath
The casualties suffered by the Army were so heavy that it caught the attention of the entire Indian nation and an atmosphere got created for a savage response to teach our perverse and recalcitrant neighbour a lesson
RELENTLESS JOURNEY OF EXCELLENCE SINCE 1964
>> CROSS-BORDER TERRORISM / Viewpoint against India. After 2008 Mumbai attacks which killed 164 civilians and injured 308, Pakistan disowned any connection to the operation. However Ajmal Kasab, one of the ten terrorists who was captured alive, disclosed that the attackers were members of Lashkar-e-Toiba, among others. The Government of India said that the attackers came from Pakistan, and their controllers were in Pakistan. On January 7, 2009, Pakistan confirmed the sole surviving perpetrator of the attacks was a Pakistani citizen. On April 9, 2015, the foremost ringleader of the attacks, Zakiur Rehman Lakhvi, was granted bail against surety bond of `2,00,000 ($2,000) in Pakistan.
After Action Political Response The military action, now being called counter-terrorist action, came against the background of the mounting pressure on the Modi Government to walk its “tough-onterror“ talk. The public uproar for retaliation was visible in the entire country. Hence the BJP and the government have reasons to celebrate. The response won the approval and appreciation of the entire political class, with even opponents who accused Modi Government for being `hawkish’ applauding the feat of Army and pledging support: a development which could lead to setting of a new benchmark for response to Pakistanbacked terrorism.
Diplomatic Response As of April 2016, Prime Minister Narendra Modi has made 40 foreign trips. These excursions include state visits and summits on five continents, including the visits to the United States to attend the UN General Assembly, following his Neighbourhood First and Act East policies. During the year 2015 saw Prime Minister Narendra Modi undertook a whirlwind tour of 26 countries. In 2016, Modi completed the three-nation tour of Belgium,
United States and Saudi Arabia that began March 30 and concluded on April 3, 2016. On May 22-23, 2016, Modi visited Tehran. The Prime Minister was criticised by opposition political parties within the country for spending more time abroad, however the positive impact of such visits is only ascertained during crisis and the surgical strikes was one such crisis which saw the world powers including the Islamic world supporting India. Our diplomatic success can be summed up in the words of Ambassador G. Parthasarthy, a former Ambassador to Pakistan, who says: “The attack destroyed staging areas for terrorists preparing to cross the LoC and eliminated some of their Pakistan Army backers. This military action came after a high-voltage diplomatic offensive led personally by Prime Minister Modi in forums like G-20 and ASEAN, focusing on growing anger in India at unrelenting Pakistani support for terrorist violence. External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj reinforced the Prime Minister’s efforts speaking out at the UN General Assembly. All this led to open expressions of support for India from major world powers like Russia, US, UK, France, and Germany. Even China was cautious in its response, urging ‘restraint’. But, what has shaken Pakistan is the support for India from Saudi Arabia, UAE, Qatar and Bahrain—countries Islamabad regarded as ‘natural allies’.”
Pakistan’s Likely Response It would be prudent to expect a military response to the surgical strikes from Pakistan due to the nature of Pakistani state in which they have built up an image of themselves as ‘the big macho tough guy’ with in the country, despite the fact that they have lost every war they have fought against India. Moreover General Raheel Sharif, who has built a formidable reputation for himself within Pakistan, is retiring
in about six weeks time and there is talk of him being promoted to the rank of a Field Marshal. Thus he cannot be seen to be lower than the best. Hence he may consider an equivalent military response necessary to restore his image. Another offensive option is not to employ the Pakistani military but instead use jihadi groups along with the sleeper cells already available in India to carry out major strikes in the hinterland of India to show their reach and the level of violence they can unleash.
What Should be our Future Course of Action Gurmeet Kanwal, the military analyst, suggests that if they continue their terrorist activity, all options which can inflict maximum punishment on the Pakistan military should be planned for, such as artillery strikes, use of artillery guns in direct firing role to destroy Pakistani bunkers, and forward posts, use of precision guided munitions to ensure least amount of collateral damage, raids by Special Forces and Border Action Teams (BATs). In the hinterland we should get our intelligence machinery integrated through the concept of National Counter Terrorism Centre (NCTC) and establish the national intelligence grid at the earliest. General public and infrastructure constitutes the easiest and most vulnerable targets for terrorists and hence we have to put our act together in the hinterland. Military is capable of looking after itself. Mere neutralisation of the terrorists will not suffice because the perpetrator of the crime is presently going scot-free and that is the Pakistan Army and hence their army needs to be targeted. We should examine how covert operations can be conducted and how financial and military assistance can be provided to the Baluchis, and to the Pakhtoons.
Let Pakistan face three to four adversaries simultaneously. Let them get a taste of their own home-grown menace used against us. Our concerned external intelligence agency must be tasked to achieve this at the earliest with strict time lines. We must increase the costs for Pakistan or else we will continue to be at the receiving end as indeed we have been suffering for the past nearly three decades. Pakistan’s strategy of making India “bleed through a thousand cuts” must turned on its head to make them suffer the consequences of the adversary employing the same strategy in their vulnerable regions. In the meanwhile my recommendations are that we should increase the funding to the defence establishment in the country, and hasten our modernisation process. Our Defence Minister should modify the scheme of ‘Make in India’ and procure the latest proven small arms from friendly foreign countries such as the United States, Russia or Israel. We do not need to wait for a modern assault rifle. Buy a hundred thousand from one of these countries and ask them to set up manufacturing plants in India. I am sure that they would be glad to do it. Similarly we need to hasten the procurement of artillery howitzers and replace the obsolete, 40 years old, helicopters of the army. Let the Apache attack helicopters come to the army so that surgical strikes can be done more meaningfully by the army with its own assets and against deeper targets in the future. Necessary air effort for deeper strikes will be provided by the IAF. The Defence Minister and his team of advisors need to put their act into place and speed up the modernisation of the army, which today is the least modernised out of the three services and is likely to be the most operationally employed service in the future due to the asymmetric and hybrid wars that are more likely in the future on the western as well as on the eastern front. SP
India Responds to Uri Terror Strike Photograph: IAF
Lt General P.C. Katoch (Retd)
ndia executed surgical strikes against multiple terrorist launch padscum-training camps in four sectors of Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (PoK) on night September 28/29. Post the Uri terrorist attack, Nawaz Sharif had shed the fake mask of friendship he had been showcasing in response to Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s overly friendly overtures. After the Pakistani-sponsored terror attack on the IAF base at Pathankot on January 2, 2016, Nawaz had indicated that he would cooperate in the probe. However, not only did he later deflect action harping on “lack of evidence (as in case of 26/11 Mumbai terrorist attack), post the terrorist attack on the army camp at Uri, he refuted any Pakistani involvement and instead blamed India for orchestrating the attack to divert attention from the situation in Kashmir Valley. However, the capture and interrogation of the Pakistani origin guides who helped the Pakistani terrorists during the Uri terrorist attack again confirmed Pakistani army’s direct involvement in organising and directing the Uri terror attack. In well planned and coordinated surgical strikes Indian Army’s Special Forces struck multiple terrorist locations in PoK over a widely dispersed area. Some 35-40 terrorists were reportedly killed. Some Pakistani army soldiers though taken by surprise tried to interfere with our Special Forces operations but were also gunned down in the process. The success of these actions also should be seen in the backdrop of the fact
that the Pakistani army was on high alert for last 10 days, not to mention the night fighting of F-16s over Islamabad and Nawaz Sharif and his Defence Minister along with Sartaj Aziz and Army Chief Raheel Sharif talking of war and twitching their nuclear tails. The surprise achieved was total with not a single casualty to our troops. In fact, the Pakistani posts along the LoC only woke up after our Special Forces had returned back. One of the major reasons for the Pakistani army being caught totally off guard despite being put on high alert was perhaps they never imagined India would respond in this manner. Post the Uri terror attack, there was tremendous pressure on the Modi Government to retaliate.
But all along the intended targets were being kept under constant surveillance. And these were struck at the right time in brilliant fashion. This has sent a loud and clear message to Pakistan that India will not remain mute spectator to Pakistan-sponsored terrorism, relying only on diplomacy. The notion on certain quarters of India being a soft state has also been laid to rest. Prime Minister Modi has demonstrated that his leadership is class apart. That the United States has issued a statement they would not intervene is also credit to Prime Minister Modi’s acumen. Our Special Forces boys and the IAF helicopter pilots who flew them deserve high commendation. Interestingly, the Pakistani media has criticised escalation along the LoC but has
“rejected” India’s claim of having conducted above cross-border surgical strikes. Obviously, the Pakistani military and Nawaz Sharif and Co can’t explain to their public how these multiple surgical strikes were conducted so successfully while they had been bandying about war, high alert, nuclear war and such like gibberish. Pakistan curbing terrorism is out of the question since the Pakistani military not only holds Pakistan and the Pakistani public to ransom, they have infiltrated every department and organ in Pakistan; economic, administrative or whatever. In 2007, Pakistani scholar Ayesha Siddiqa in her book Military Inc stated that the Pakistani military’s private-industrial-corporate complex was to the tune of $20 billion already. This amount would have multiplied many more times, and to retain this power and money, the Pakistani military must have conflict both with India and Afghanistan. So, escalation by Pakistan is very much on the cards. We should be geared for terrorism panIndia and escalation in the forms of terrorist attacks – even CBRN lone wolf attacks. In addition, cross-border attacks from Pakistan could increase. Should there be more escalation, Pakistan can be expected to ‘deploy’ her nuclear weapons and publicise the same. Besides calling her nuclear buff, she has to be told that India’s ‘No-First Use’ doctrine applies to the ‘threat’ of nuclear attack as well. Additionally, our Special Forces have already been conducting joint training. Should Pakistan continue with her proxy war on India and Afghanistan, there should be ample opportunities for joint operations by these two forces against Pakistan. SP
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>> Border Protection
Technologies used in Border and Perimeter Security — The Indian Context The proxy war by Pakistan started in 1989 and has continued since then. India has continued to fight it defensively since then. Photographs: BEL, Indian Army
Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd)
ate 1980s and early 1990s saw the emergence of a ‘proxy war’ in the state of Jammu and Kashmir launched by the Pakistan-based terror groups supported in all respects by the Government of Pakistan and their military. In due course it became amply clear that Pakistan had adopted the socalled strategy of “bleeding India through a thousand cuts” by sending terrorists from various jihadi tanzims like the Lashkar-e Toiba, and Jaish-e-Mohammed who were equipped, trained, funded and launched across the line of control (LoC) and at times across the international land and maritime borders by the Pakistan Army and their ISI (Inter-Services Intelligence) to destroy targets in India. This proxy war started in 1989 and has continued since then. India has continued to fight it defensively since then. The intensity of attacks have varied from year to year. Since 2015, the militants have increasingly undertaken high-profile fidayeen attacks against the Indian security forces. In July 2015, three gunmen attacked a bus and police station in Gurdaspur and on January 2, 2016, four to six gunmen attacked the Pathankot Air Force Station. Indian authorities blamed Jaish-e-Mohammad for the latter attack. On September 18, 2016, four heavily armed terrorists attacked an Indian Army brigade headquarters in Uri, near the LoC in a predawn ambush. They lobbed 17 grenades in three minutes. As a rear administrative base camp with tents caught fire, 18 army personnel were killed and many more were injured. A gun battle ensued during which all the four militants were killed. The heavy casuallties among the soldiers caught unawares, generated anger among the people compelling the government to take note of it. India retaliated on the night of 28/29 September by launching what the Indian Army termed as “surgical strikes” by India’s Special Forces (SF). It seems that 8 teams of about 20 to 30 SF personnel each, over a frontage of about 200 km infiltrated across the LoC and destroyed the terrorist camps where the terrorists were waiting to be launched into operations on India side of the LoC. Substantial number of casualties were caused among the terrorists. The Uri terror strike by the terrorists from Pakistan and subsequent surgical strikes by India once again highlighted the need for strengthening the border security with effective fencing and use of various types of sensors and other aids.
Indo-Pakistan Border Fencing India-Pakistan border (IPB) measures 3,323 km and its subdivision is 1,225 km in J&K out of which 740 km constitutes the LoC (which is an undemarcated border), 553 km in Punjab, 1,037 km in Rajasthan and 508 km in Gujarat.
SP’s Land Forces 5/2016
In order to curb the attempt of infiltration and cross-border crimes along the IndoPakistan border, the government has sanctioned 2,030.44 km of floodlights along the international border in the states of Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan and Gujarat. The work has been more or less completed except for some portion in Jammu and in Gujarat.
Laser Fencing During the Pathankot attack on January 2, 2016, the terrorists had used one of the riverine tracts located 5 km downstream of Bamiyal near Tash border outpost in Punjab to enter the Indian territory. Hence, for such areas BSF had decided to install laser fencing two years ago. There are 45 such vulnerable spots along the Indo-Pak border in Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir where it will be installed and as of April 29, 2016, eight infrared and laser beam intrusion detection systems have started functioning in the porous treacherous and riverine tracts along the international border in Punjab.
What is Laser Wall? The laser wall is a mechanism that
detects objects passing across the line of sight between a laser source and a detector, and sets off the alarm if it’s breached. The laser walls are equipped with night and fog operability tools to ensure functioning in low visibility conditions. The laser sensors are connected through satellite-based signal command system to ensure remote monitoring. Although expensive, but it is an effective solution to plug the loopholes and checkmate the enemy. (Top) Weapon locating radar; (above) border fencing
Presently, 609 Border Out Posts (BOPs) are already existing along the IPB and additional 126 BOPs (including upgradation of 38 BOPs in Jammu) along the Indo-Pakistan border have been sanctioned to reduce the inter-BOP distance to 3.5 km. The construction of these additional BOPs will provide the entire necessary infrastructure for the accommodation, logistic support and the combat functions of the Border Security Force (BSF) troops deployed on the IndoPakistan borders. The project was targeted to be completed by 2013-14. However, there is spillover in works due to constraints like public protests, delay in the land acquisition and statutory clearances, etc. In addition to the newly sanctioned BOPs as mentioned above, 70 BOPs were sanctioned under the composite scheme for Gujarat sector of the Indo-Pak border. The wire fencing on the international border with Pakistan has been completed however it has not proved to be foolproof due to gaps caused by terrain difficulties in riverine terrain and in recent decisions it seem
that India is now likely to install an Israel type of border fence along our western border. Home Minister Rajnath Singh who had visited Israel in November 2014 has seen the fence and its effectiveness in Israel. He has announced the government decision to seal the entire stretch of 3,323-km-long Indo-Pak border by December 2018. Intelligence inputs indicate that Pakistan is all set to infiltrate large number of terrorists into India. The Home Minister has also said that the work will be done in a planned way, with a monitoring framework set up to review the progress, monthly, quarterly, biannually and annually. On the question of securing the riverine belts, and areas where it is geographically unfeasible to put a physical barrier along the border, he said that the government will look into technological solutions to ensure every inch of our land is guarded. Infiltration has also been attempted through the international border in Punjab and J&K in addition to trans-border smuggling of goods, narcotics and fake Indian currency in Punjab, Rajasthan and Gujarat.
Technologies Employed in Israeli Border Fencing Home Minister Rajnath Singh had visited one of the border outposts in Gaza and was “greatly impressed” by the technology used in the highly sophisticated border security system of Israel which includes highquality long-range day cameras along with night observation systems employing thirdgeneration thermal imagers. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu had reportedly told Singh that Israel was “ready and willing” to share with India its technology for border protection. Israel is hailed to have the best border protection system in the world, and depends more on technology than humans to protect its border. The technology includes high-quality longrange day cameras along with night observation systems, third-generation thermal imagers, long-range detection radars, electronic touch and motion sensors on the fence as well as underground sensors to detect any tunneling attempts. The Israeli border fencing along West Bank, Gaza and Egypt also Continued on page 8...
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Reconnaissance, Surveillance, Target Acquisition and Precision Technologies Target acquisition is the detection, identification and location of a target to such a degree that it can be effectively neutralised or destroyed Photograph: AeroVironment, Thalesraytheon
Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd)
entities have focused on image intensifiers that amplify small amounts of visible light, such as starlight, DARPA’s investments have focused primarily on thermal imaging, which enables vision under no-light conditions by detecting thermal wavelengths in or near the infrared range. Highly heat-sensitive imagers can detect adversaries who are in camouflage during the day or night, and can determine not just the presence of a vehicle but whether it has been operated recently by detecting residual engine heat. Significant investments in the field of cryogenically cooled, very-highperformance infrared imagers, which use chilled sensors to suppress background electromagnetic noise and increase sensitivity to low-energy signals. DARPA is also developing new processing technologies to fuse data from multiple sensors observing multiple objects, and to automate the detection of objects and activities of interest. To solve the problem of identification of threats, work is going on using advanced pattern analysis, discovery and prediction algorithms, which hold the promise of offering enhanced support for time-sensitive operations.
n its earlier years, artillery guns fired directly at the targets due to limited range thus acquisition and engagement of targets was easy but as the range of the guns increased, it was not possible to aim at the target from the gun end. Thus evolved the system of observation post officers (OPs) who deployed ahead of the guns to a position from where they could see the target, calculate its position from a map and pass the target data to the gun end through a radio or line or both. For obvious reasons the deployment had to be on own side of the border or at a safe distance. The ballistic data was then calculated for the target and the guns fired. OP officer then corrected the fall of shot, accuracy of which was effected by weather conditions, effect of gravity and zone of the gun. As the range of gun increased, it became more difficult to see the target by a ground OP which resulted in the employment of an airborne OP which was named Air OP. Earlier the platform was a small fixed-wing aircraft and currently they have rotary-wing aircraft. There were many developments to improve target acquisition at night by the use of night vision devices, use of UAVS for acquisition and assessment of damage of distant targets, technology to engage small targets and moving targets, automatic target recognition and technologies for precision engagement of targets. The advent of missiles including cruise missiles made target destruction, faster, and accurate in all-weather conditions. As usual the United States leads in all these technology developments. This article pertains mainly to artillery RSTA and precision technologies.
Thales Thales was awarded contracts to design and build system by combining optronics sensor head and integrated C2 which offers discretion, protection, survivability and quick deployment. It is an all-weather system with a retractable telescope mast. The optronic head integrates compact thermal camera (CATHERINE) which provides high day/night performance. Thales’ ORS is meant for Artillery of UAE. It is an artillery forward observation and battlefield surveillance system, with multi-sensor capabilities (radar & optronics) mounted on a mast and fitted on M 113 vehicles.
Reconnaissance , Surveillance and Target Acquisition (RSTA) Target acquisition is the detection, identification and location of a target to such a degree that it can be effective neutralised or destroyed. But before this process is initiated there is a requirement to carry out RSTA. The RSTA systems play an increasingly important role providing armed forces with situational awareness and target acquisition. Electro-optic infrared, radar and laser systems provide the army with exceptional battlefield capabilities. These systems are integral to the target acquisition and reconnaissance (ISTAR) capabilities of the modern military forces and seen as a critical force multiplier. These systems are mounted on vehicles to provide them mobility. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency’s (DARPA’s) contributions to RSTA and precision guided munitions (PGM) started in the 1960s working on an array of technologies including lasers, electro-optical sensors, microelectronics, data processors and radars which would eventually become critical components of the first precision systems. PGMs are ideal for surgical strikes. Some examples of a few developments in RSTA technologies by (DARPA are:
Raytheon Long-range Advanced Scout Surveillance System (LRAS3). The LRAS3 is a long-
(Top) Raven UAV; (above) AN/TPQ-37 Firefinder radar
Improving Position, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) Without GPS. PNT is an
essential element for the warfighter but PNT depends upon satellite signals which is potential vulnerable. To overcome this, DARPA is developing a family of highly precise and accurate navigation and timing technologies that can function in case the GPS is jammed. Advanced sensor and radar technology. The advancements in this field have
made it possible to detect small targets, such as armoured vehicles in adverse weather conditions or under camouflage. DARPA’s Jigsaw programme has developed a 3D imaging laser radar able to detect vehicles masked by camouflage or foliage. Its foliage-penetrating RSTA and engagement radar enable unprecedented detection of targets concealed by obstacles.This would be ideal for India’s Anti-
Maoist operations in the eastern region. Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit programme. Gallium arsenide chips
were developed through this programme which also enabled the RF and millimetrewave circuits needed in precision weapons. High-altitude LIDAR Operational Experiment (HALOE). This system provid-
eds a very high quality high-resolution 3D data, at a very fast rate and from much longer ranges. This was employed in support of US forces in Afghanistan. Night into Day. From the beginning of warfare, cover of darkness has always put the defence forces at a disadvantage. Starting with low-tech illuminating flares, the systems progressed to sophisticated image-intensification goggles that are able to amplify very small parts of ambient light. While other research
range multi-sensor system for the US Army scout, providing detection in real-time, recognise, identify and geo-locate distant targets. The LRAS3 gives 24-hour capability with the combination of: Forward-looking infrared (FLIR) sensor, GPS, Eyesafe laser rangefinder and Day TV camera. It can be mounted on any high mobility vehicle like the Stryker or a Humvee truck It can also be deployed dismounted. Long-range Scout Surveillance System (eLRAS3). eLRAS3 is the next genera-
tion long range scout surveillance system with third-generation FLIR. eLRAS3 meets or exceeds all LRAS3 requirements, with a 55 per cent reduction in sensor weight and volume and is fully compatible with all existing LRAS3 platforms. TOW Improved Target Acquisition System (ITAS). The TOW, ITAS provides a highly
mobile, adverse weather, day or night capability to counter armour at greater standoff ranges. ITAS increases target detection, acquisition, recognition and engagement
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>> Technology / Border Protection ranges; fires all versions of the TOW missile from both the M41 ground launcher (dismount mode) and the M1121 high mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle platform. Weapon Locating Radars (WLR). Location of enemy’s and then carry out engagements to neutralise them is done by WLRs. India has AN/TPS-37 and for shorter ranges a BEL made WLR.
COBRA of Germany. The COBRA (counter battery radar) is also a phased array radar which can locate mortars, rocket launchers and artillery batteries and to provide information for countering them. Has a detection range of 40 km and is capable of locating and classifying up to 40 batteries in two minutes.
Thales Raytheon’s AN/TPQ-37 Radars.
Size of UAVs depends upon whether it is employed at platoon/company/battalion or brigade level. AeroVironment’s RQ11BRaven. This is a lightweight tactical UAV, weighing 1.9 kg, which provides aerial observation, by day or night, at line-of-sight ranges of 10 km or more and provides real-time colour or IR imagery to ground control and remote viewing stations, as well as IR laser illumination of ground targets.
After the lifting of sanctions on India during 2001, the US sold 12 AN/TPQ-37 Radars to India under the FMS programme. The radars were integrated on a Tatra truck. The Firefinder (FF) AN/TPQ-37 is a mobile phased array radar which automatically locates single or multiple hostile artillery and rocket launched weapons. The system then directs effective counter fire against the hostile weapon. The radar uses a combination of radar techniques, computer controlled signal processing, and automatic height correction to detect, verify and track the projectiles in flight, and to automatically extrapolate both the firing position and the impact point. The AN/TPQ-37 is capable of first round detection at ranges of 3 to 50 km, dependent on weapon type. BEL Weapon Locating Radar (WLR).
This is also a mobile phased array radar developed by India. This counter-battery radar is designed to detect and track incoming artillery and rocket fire to determine the point of origin for counter-battery fire. The WLR has been jointly developed by the Defence Reseach and Development Organisation’s (DRDO) Bengaluru-based laboratory, LRDE and the Government owned Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL). It has a range for artillery 2-30 km, for rockets 4-40 km and mortars 2-20 km.
AAI (an operating unit of Textron Systems) Shadow®. The Shadow® is des-
ignated as the RQ-7B in US and operates at brigade level. It has range up to 125 km. RQ-7B transmits imagery and telemetry data directly to the Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System, Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System and other systems in near real time. General Atomics Aeronautical Systems’ Gray Eagle™ UAV. Gray Eagle® is an
extended range/multi-purpose which can carry out the role for persistent RSTA and attack operations. It has an endurance of 25 hours, speeds up to167 knots, can operate up to 29,000 feet and carries 488 kg of internal and external payload. The aircraft can carry multiple payloads aloft, including EO/IR with laser designation, SAR, communications relay and four Hellfire missiles.
Israel Aerospace Industries’ (IAI) Searcher UAV. Searcher is a multimission
tactical UAV which can carry out the role of surveillance, reconnaissance, target acquisition, artillery adjustment of fire and damage assessment. Searcher has been constantly improved from Mk 1 to Mk II and Mk III. The Searcher Mk III has multiple operational configurations, SAR/GMTI (Ground Moving Target Indicator), SIGINT and EO/ IR has a maximum altitude of 23,000 ft, and of endurance of 18 hours and mission radius is 350 km. IAI’Heron. Heron 2 is the largest mediumaltitude long-endurance UAV built in Israel with an operational altitude of 45,000 ft and is capable of missions of more than 36 hours duration. It provides deep-penetration, widearea, real-time intelligence to national agencies, theatre commanders and lower echelons with primary role being intelligence, surveillance and target acquisition.
Precision Guidance Munition (PGM) A PGM (also called smart weapon, smart munition, smart bomb) is a guided munition designed to precisely hit a specific target and also to minimise collateral damage. Brief details are given below. M982 Excalibur. This is a 155mm extended range guided artillery shell developed by Raytheon Missile Systems and BAE Systems AB. It is a GPS-guided munition, capable of being used for close support of within 75-150 m of friendly troops. It has a range of 40-57 km and circular error of probabality (CEP) of around 5-20 m. Excalibur was developed as a longer-ranged alternative to conventional artillery shells with GPS guidance for improved accuracy.
M712 Copperhead. This can be fired from a 155mm calibre, is fin-stabilised, terminally laser guided, explosive shell intended to engage hard point targets such as tanks, self-propelled howitzers or other high-value targets. It can be fired from many types of 155 calibre artillery guns like M777, M198, etc. The projectile has a minimum range of 3 km and a maximum range of 16 km. For Copperhead to function, the target must be illuminated with a laser designator. Once the laser signal is detected, the on-board guidance system will operate the steering vanes to manoeuvre the projectile to the target. Copperhead operates in two modes. With good visibility and high cloud ceiling, Ballistic mode is used. Glide mode is used with low visibility and low cloud ceiling. XM395 Precision Guided Mortar Munition (PGMM). This is a 120mm
guided mortar round developed by Alliant Techsystems. Based on Orbital ATK’s Precision Guidance Kit for 155mm artillery projectiles, XM395 combines GPS guidance and directional control surfaces into a package that replaces standard fuzes, transforming existing 120mm mortar bodies into PGMs. It has CEP of 5 m at 7,000 m. M898 155mm Sense and Destroy Armour (SADARM) shell. SADARM can be
fired from a normal 155mm artillery gun. SADARM shell has a nose-mounted M762/ M767 fuse set to burst at 1,000 m above the target to release two SADARM submunitions. The submunition is ejected from the projectile with the help of two parachutes. Each sensor with the submunitions has a millimetre radiometer which scans an area of 150 m in diameter that tracks and guides the submunition onto the target. SP
Technologies used in Border...continued from page 6 consists of latticed steel, topped and edged with razor wire, extending at least two metres below ground and in some sections reaching seven metres above the ground. Ditches and observation posts with cameras and antennae line the route. In an electronic fence, an electronic pulse runs through the fence, setting off an alarm on contact that will allow security guards to locate the exact spot of attempted infiltration.
Line of Control Fencing and Sensors used The Indian line of control fencing is a 550-km barrier along the 740-km disputed 1972 LoC (or ceasefire line as it was called earlier). The fence, constructed by India, generally remains about 150 metres on the Indian side. Its stated purpose is to exclude arms smuggling and infiltration by Pakistani-based terrorists. The barrier itself consists of double-row of fencing and concertina wire 2.4 to 3.7 metres in height, and is electrified and connected to a network of motion sensors, thermal imaging devices, lighting systems and alarms. They act as “fast alert signals” to the Indian troops who can be alerted and ambush the infiltrators trying to sneak in. The small stretch of land between the rows of fencing is mined. The construction of the barrier was begun in the 1990s, but slowed in the early 2000s as hostilities between India and Pakistan increased. After a November 2003 ceasefire agreement, building resumed and was completed in late 2004. LoC fencing was completed in Kashmir Valley and Jammu region on September 30, 2004. According to Indian military sources, the fence has reduced the numbers of terrorists who routinely cross into the Indian side to attack targets by 80 per cent. Gaps between posts exist along the LoC and can only be covered through patrolling or ambushes which spreads the security forces thin on the ground and is not 100 per cent foolproof despite best efforts espe-
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cially in hours of darkness, fog and adverse weather. Pakistan has been employing heavy cross-border firing to assist infiltration and terrorists have also been using explosives to make gaps in the fencing or dig tunnels under the fence. In addition, heavy snow buries the fence especially in north Kashmir and large portions are also destroyed annually because of avalanches. The new fence tried out in consultation the Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE) uses stronger material and will have night-vision cameras, alarms and visual map displays integrated with the fence, all linked to a monitoring room, giving the local military commanders realtime data enabling quick reaction against any attempt to tamper with the fence. The fence is also proposed to be lit up using LED lighting where feasible.
Technologies Available Globally Optical Surveillance This is is one of the oldest surveillance technologies around mainly made up of night vision, telescopes, binoculars and spotting scopes. Night Vision. A night vision device (NVD) is an optical instrument that allows images to be produced in ultralow levels of light virtually approaching total darkness. They are most often used by investigations agents, the military and law enforcement agencies, but are also used by civilians like hunters and wildlife photographers. Night vision devices were first used in World War II and the technology has evolved greatly since then, leading to several “generations” of night vision equipment with performance increasing and price decreasing. Spotting
Although everyone is familiar with binoculars, spotting scopes are less known. Spotting scopes are generally a single scope, or monocular with a greater
magnifications and are generally used by investigators and nature watchers. Telescopes. Whether you are looking at Mars, the moon or in open terrain you don’t get much better magnification than a telescope to see those finer details and this could be used to advantage for surveillance along a fence.
Electronic Fencing Electric fences are designed to create an electrical circuit when touched by a person or animal. A component called a power energiser converts power into a brief high voltage pulse. One terminal of the power energiser releases an electrical pulse along a connected bare wire about once per second. Another terminal is connected to a metal rod implanted in the earth, called a ground or earth rod. A person or animal touching both the wire and the earth during a pulse will complete an electrical circuit and will conduct the pulse, causing an electric shock. The effects of the shock depend upon the voltage, the energy of the pulse, the degree of contact between the recipient and the fence and ground and the route of the current through the body; it can range from barely noticeable to uncomfortable, painful or even lethal.
Perimeter Surveillance Radar (PSR) This is a class of radar sensors that monitor activity surrounding or on critical infrastructure areas such as airports, seaports, military installations, national borders, refineries and other critical industry and the like. Such radars are characterised by their ability to detect movement at ground level of targets such as an individual walking or crawling towards a facility. Such radars typically have ranges of several hundred metres to over 10 kilometres.
Battlefield Surveillance Radars It is generally a man-portable battery-powered electronic short-range battlefield surveil-
lance radar to provide all-weather surveillance against intrusion. The radar is capable of searching a specified sector and performing track while scanning for multiple targets. The radar detects, tracks and aids in classifying the moving targets. Such radar systems can be carried by one or two soldiers. They are compact and can be set up within a few minutes to match the speed and requirements of the users. The radar has sophisticated built-in software algorithms to detect, track and classify targets like crawling man, group of walking men, light and combat vehicles, and low flying helicopters. It also has a built-in interface for automatic transfer of target data to remote locations and capability of integration with imaging sensors. The radar is amenable for mast-mounted role on any light vehicle.
Unattended Ground Sensors For the detection of movement at a border crossing, Self-Powered Ad-hoc Network (SPAN) nodes may be equipped with ground-vibration or acoustic sensors, while for structural-integrity applications, stress sensors would be employed. According to Lockheed Martin, several undisclosed agencies within the US Government are currently testing the ability of unattended ground sensors to protect personnel stationed in war environments, and to assist with border surveillance. Lockheed Martin is not the only company providing wireless-sensor mesh networks for government use for military purposes or border protection. Since 2008, aircraft and defence company Textron has been providing its battery-powered MicroObserver Unattended Ground Sensors with built-in vibration sensors to track the presence of intruders on foot or in vehicles. More than 1,000 such sensors are presently in operation. Unattended ground sensors may be in the form of IR devices, pressure devices, magnetic devices, electromagnetic devices, or acoustic devices. SP
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Second Joint Tactical Exercise held by Indian and Chinese Armies in Ladakh Hand-in-Hand is good, but what about the stab in the back? Photographs: Indian Army
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Joint Tactical Exercise between India and China on ‘humanitarian assistance and disaster relief’ in Ladakh on October 19, 2016
Lt General P.C. Katoch (Retd)
he Indian and Chinese Army troops carried out a joint exercise in Eastern Ladakh on October 19, led by Brigadier R.S. Raman and Senior Colonel Fan Jun respectively. The day-long exercise on humanitarian assistance and disaster relief (HADR) was based on simulating an earthquake striking an Indian border village, followed by joint rescue operations, evacuation and rendering of medical assistance by the Indian and Chinese Army troops. An Indian Army statement said that the exercise was a great success and has not only refined the drills to provide succour to the border population in case of natural calamity but has also increased the level of trust and cooperation between the two border guarding forces along the line of actual control (LAC) in Eastern Ladakh. The exercise was actually a sequel to a similar joint exercise held on February 6 on the Chinese side of the LAC in the area of Border Personnel Meeting Hut at Chushul Garrison of Eastern Ladakh, along with Chinese troops of Moldo Garrison. Both these exercises compliment the Hand-in-Hand series of the India-China joint exercises and the effort of both the nations to enhance cooperation and maintain peace and tranquillity along the border areas of India and China. This year’s edition of ‘Hand-in-Hand’ will be held at Aundh, near Pune in Maharashtra, from November 15 to 27. Sure these HADR and Hand-in-Hand exercises are good to imbue confidence at the tactical level but when China abets Pakistani terrorism, it signals ‘stab in the back’ policy at the Chinese Government level. China stonewalling India’s membership of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) despite herself being a nuclear proliferator indicates she wants India constrained. The timing of establishment of United Liberation Front of Western South East Asia (UNLFN) by Chinese intelligence in Myanmar last year combining nine north-eastern militant groups including the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Khaplang) and the United Liberation Front of Asom can hardly be construed mere signal to Prime Minister Modi since Chinese have reportedly promised
to provide weapons and logistics to the new grouping as they want to keep things boiling in the North East in view of their claim on the state of Arunachal Pradesh. With all the talk about peace and economic development, and strong leadership of President Xi Jinping, it was hoped that China will shun the path of subterfuge. But it appears that Xi has decided to continue with the age-old Communist Party of China (CCP) path of hedging through asymmetric means. It is an open secret that militants in J&K are being financed by China and Chinese have established huge control over Kashmiri separatist leaders. The recent discovery of Chinese flags from terrorist hideouts in Baramula provides further evidence of Chinese nefarious designs. the China-Pakistan subconventional nexus dates back to the 1960s when Zhou Enlai advised Ayub Khan that Pakistan should prepare for prolonged conflict with India instead of short-term wars. He advised Pakistan to raise a militia force to act behind enemy (Indian) lines. In 1966, when a Pakistani delegation went to Beijing and was met by Zhou Enlai latter while discussing India raised his clenched fist and said, “This is capable of delivering a forceful blow, but if you cut off one finger, the fist loses its power, not by one-fifth, but by 50 per cent. If you wipe out a couple of hundred thousand of the enemy spread over a long front, its impact is not as great as wiping out an entire battalion or a brigade – the enemy’s morale is dealt a devastating blow. We know this from practical experience.” Witness the shamelessness with which China is protecting JeM chief Azhar Masood at the UN despite his role in numerous terrorist attacks in India. Besides, the United Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) report released in July 2016 has specifically highlighted both JeM and LeT involved in terrorist acts in Afghanistan. Now the question is will China stop stabbing India in the back, with her peace homilies laced with ambiguity and deceit? Another question is if major disaster strikes Taiwan, will China be amenable to India providing HADR to Taiwan? SP C
CMY K K
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Indo-Sri Lanka Joint Military India-Russia Joint Military Exercise Mitra Shakti 2016 Exercise Indra 2016 in Vladivostok in Ambepussa, Sri Lanka
he fourth edition of the India-Sri Lanka Joint Military Exercise ‘Mitra Shakti 2016’ is being conducted at Sinha Regimental Centre in Ambepussa, Sri Lanka from October 24 to November 6, 2016. The main focus of this edition of the joint exercise is to enhance interoperability while carrying out Counter-Insurgency (CI)/Counter-Terrorism (CT) operations under the United Nations mandate. A comprehensive training programme spanning 14 days has been drawn up for the purpose. The Indian Army contingent had reached Sri Lanka on October 23, 2016. The Indian contingent is represented by a platoon from the Rajputana Rifles Regiment and the Sri Lankan Army will be represented by a platoon from the Sinha Regiment. The opening ceremony was held on October 24, 2016, during which the troops of both contingents participated in a ceremonial parade. Brigadier B.L. Ratnayake, Commandant of Sri Lankan Sinha Regimental Centre from the Sri Lankan Army, addressed the troops. In the initial two stages, both armies would get familiar with the respective methodology of such operations, each other’s arms and equipment and the command and control systems. It will then graduate towards tactical understanding to enhance interoperability while carrying out CI/CT operations. The previous exercise with the Sri Lankan Army was successfully conducted in the month of September 2015 at Pune in India. ‘Mitra Shakti’ series of bilateral exercises is one of the major bilateral defence cooperation initiatives between India and Sri Lanka since 2013. SP
he eighth edition of India-Russia Joint Military Exercise ‘Indra 2016’ has begun in the Ussiriysk district in Vladivostok, Russia. Main focus of this edition of the joint exercise is on counter-terrorism operations in semi-mountainous and jungle terrain under the United Nations mandate. To achieve interoperability in joint operations, troops from both sides would acquaint themselves with the respective approach to such operations. A comprehensive training programme spanning 11 days has been drawn up for the purpose. The troops of Indian Army marched smartly alongside the Russian Army in an impressive opening ceremony of Exercise Indra 2016. Both contingents marched in unison, past the saluting dais, exhibiting their resolve to further the Indo-Russian friendship. Brigadier Sukrit Chadah, Indian Contingent Commander, addressed the two contingents and highlighted the need for jointness between the two nations to defeat terrorism. Loz, Vice Governor Primosski krai Province, and Major General Andrei Ivanovich Sichevoe, COS 5th Army from the Russian Army, also addressed the contingents. Some 250 soldiers of the Kumaon Regiment are representing the Indian contingent and the Russian Army is being represented by 250 soldiers from the 59th Motorized Infantry Brigade. Indra series of bilateral exercises is one of the major bilateral defence cooperation initiatives between India and Russia since 2003. The Indian contingent is scheduled to return to India on termination of the exercise in the first week of October 2016. SP Photographs: Indian Army
Photographs: Indian Army
Opening ceremony of the Indo-Sri Lankan Joint Military Exercise Mitra Shakti 2016
SP’s Land Forces 5/2016
(Top) Brigadier Sukrit Chadah along with Russian Major General Andrei Ivanovich Sichevoe, Cos 5th Army, reviewing the parade at Vladivostok, Russia; (middle) contingents line up for the opening ceremony of Exercise Indra at Vladivostok; (bottom) soldiers of both armies in jubliant mood after the opening ceremony at Vladivostok.
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>> News in Brief Defence Minister inaugurates HALSafran JV for Helicopter Engines The Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar inaugurated Helicopter Engines Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul (MRO) Pvt. Limited (HE-MRO), a joint venture of HAL and Safran Helicopter Engines (Safran HE), France at Sattari district, north Goa on October 25. The JV will provide MRO services for Safran TM333 2B2 and HAL Shakti engines installed on HAL-built helicopters operated by the defence services. Speaking on the occasion, Parrikar said this is a step towards creating employment opportunities with corresponding boost to the economic activities in Goa. “This is the right place for MRO activities related to helicopter engines. We have a local talent to meet the skill requirement for the project,” he added. With a fleet of over 1,000 engines, including 250 TM333 and 250 Shakti, India’s armed forces are one of the largest operators of Safran-designed helicopter engines. Shakti is the Indian designation for the Safran Ardiden 1H1, co-developed with HAL and produced under licence. Shakti is fitted to HAL’s ALH/Dhruv and has been selected to power the HAL-designed light combat helicopter (LCH). The Ardiden 1U variant powers the new light utility helicopter (LUH), a three-tonne single-engine aircraft that made its maiden flight in September 2016.
Celebrating 67th Raising Day by Territorial Army
The Territorial Army celebrated its 67th Raising Day on October 9, 2016. To mark the occasion, an impressive parade was held at the Army Parade Ground in New Delhi. In a befitting ceremony, General Dalbir Singh, the Chief of Army Staff, reviewed the parade and complimented the Territorial Army fraternity for doing yeoman service to the nation. Territorial Army was exemplified by a spectacular display of their capabilities during the parade which was commanded by Col Krishnandu Barker and comprised of 10 marching contingents, 15 bands and three tableaus of Railway Engineers, Oil Sector & Ecological Territorial Army units. Territorial Army soldiers, resplendent in their regimental attires, marched with military precision to the martial tunes displaying their impeccable standards and enviable bearing with enthusiasm and zeal. Tableaus of Ecological Task Force, Railway Engineers
>> Show Calendar 2–5 November Indo Defence JIExpo Kemayoran, Jakarta, Indonesia www.indodefence.com 23–24 November Future Armoured Vehicles Survivability Copthorne Tara Hotel, London, UK www.smi-online.co.uk/defence/uk/FutureArmoured-Vehicles-Survivability 5–7 December Future Ground Combat Vehicles Detroit, Michigan, USA www.groundcombatvehicles.com 15–16 February, 2017 Border Security Rome, Italy www.bordersec.com
and the Oil Sector units showcased the valuable contribution of the Departmental Territorial Army units to the nation in the fields of environment conservation and in maintenance of essential services like railways and oil production and supply. The parade was witnessed by other civil and military dignitaries, including military and defence attachés from friendly foreign countries. Several prominent personalities have come forward to join the citizens’ Army and have not only enriched it organisationally but have contributed immensely in enhancing its image amongst the youth of the nation. Territorial Army has grown into a force with multidimensional capabilities. The Chief of Army Staff applauded the good work done by the Territorial Army personnel in various fields and wished all ranks and their families good luck for a glorious future.
North Korea’s Musudan missile trial fails North Korea’s attempt to launch an intermediate ballistic missile near the city of Kusong has failed, according to the US and South Korean militaries. South Korea’s Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) has reported that the missile was believed to be a midrange Musudan projectile. The test-firing failed as the missile exploded immediately after it was launched near an airport in the North Pyongan province, the Associated Press reported. According to the US military, the missile did not pose a threat to North America. US Department of Defense spokesman commander Gary Ross was quoted by the news agency as saying: “We strongly condemn this and North Korea’s other recent missile tests, which violate UN Security Council Resolutions explicitly prohibiting North Korea’s launches using ballistic missile technology. Our commitment to the defence of our allies, including the Republic of Korea and Japan, in the face of these threats, is ironclad. We remain prepared to defend ourselves and our allies from any attack or provocation.” The UN Security Council has condemned the recent missile launches carried out in North Korea as these violate a resolution made by the 15-nation body. The resolution prohibits North Korea’s use of ballistic missile technology.
UAE’s cumulative defence expenditure to reach $140.8 billion by 2021 Efforts to modernise the military and improve defence will increase UAE’s defence expenditure from the average of $22.4 billion during 2012-16 to $28.2 billion during 2017-21, according to a report by Strategic Defence Intelligence (SDI). Titled ‘Future of the UAE Defense Industry – Market Attractiveness, Competitive Landscape and Forecasts to 2021’, the report states that the UAE’s cumulative defence expenditure during 2017-21 will grow to reach $140.8 billion by the end of the forecast period. UAE is estimated to spend $53.1 billion on defence procurements on a cumulative basis during the forecast period. Defence spending will be driven by UAE’s efforts to protect crucial infrastructure, its territorial dispute with Iran, and initiatives to expand the domestic defence industry. SDI also estimates the UAE’s defence expenditure as a proportion of its GDP to stand at 6.7 per cent, with an average per capita expenditure of $2,610 during the forecast period. The report adds that defence manufacturers can seek export opportunities in aerial platforms, missiles, naval platforms and surveillance areas. It also highlights other areas where the UAE is likely to invest, such as reconnaissance, space, cyber security, border control, and digital warfare initiatives. The US is the biggest supplier of equipment to the UAE, accounting for 65.4 per cent of the country’s arms imports.
US Army starts testing new joint light tactical vehicles The US Army has started testing joint light tactical vehicles (JLTVs) with a chassis that offers underbelly protection to soldiers. Oshkosh Defense delivered the first seven JLTVs in September for testing at different locations. More than 100 JLTVs will be delivered to the US Army and Marine Corps for testing over the next year at a rate of about ten per month, the army said in a statement. Manoeuvrability and automotive testing on the vehicles will be carried out at Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona, the Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland, and the Cold Regions Test Center in Fort Greely, Alaska. These vehicles will also undergo testing for cyber integration of command, control, communications and intelligence at the Electronics Proving Ground on Fort Huachuca, Arizona. The JLTV has numerous variants, including a general-purpose truck, a close-combat weapons or heavy guns carrier, and a two-door utility pickup vehicle. The army expects to shorten its original fielding schedule by five years after the JLTV programme enters its full production phase in 2019. The schedule reduction is expected to save $6 billion from previous estimates, according to the army’s combat service support programme executive officer Scott Davis.
US Army evaluates new warfighting capabilities The US Army has started testing new war fighting capabilities during the Army War fighting Assessment (AWA) 17.1 exercise. Autonomous weapons and unmanned aerial systems are being tested during the exercise, which will also include soldiers from the UK, Australia, Canada, Denmark and Italy. Participating troops will implement 41 concepts and capabilities that were designed to meet 20 ‘warfighting challenges’ put forward by the army. Feedback on the new capabilities will then be analysed by the US Army’s Brigade Modernization Command. Brigade Modernization Command commander Major General Terry McKenrick said: “We determine some findings and recommendations; we then brief that through a series of governance forms, and then it goes up to the department of the army, where senior leaders … can prioritise and make decisions.” The event is being conducted to examine how new concepts and capabilities are integrated into battlefield scenarios. The AWA 17.1 is the first AWA, and is being held this year instead of a Network Integration Evaluation (NIE) exercise. McKenrick said that the army will host one AWA and one NIE each year, in place of two NIEs a year. SP
APPOINtMENTs Lt General Bipin Rawat, who was General Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Southern Command, took over as the Vice Chief of Army Staff on September 1, 2016.
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Lt General D.R. Soni took over as the General Officer Commanding-in-Chief of the Army Training Command (ARTRAC) on September 17, 2016.
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