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In This Issue
>> cover story
Page 4 Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement — An Overall Assessment
It has been specially drafted and designed for India due to the apprehensions expressed by the Indian Government. Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd) Page 5 Portable Attack Drones or Loitering Munitions
Kargil War and the Current State of Modernisation What made the conflict unforgettable and distinctive was the sheer guts and bravery shown by our young officers and soldiers in assaulting dominating heights occupied by the Pakistani troops in high altitude terrain where a normal person struggles to breathe the rarified atmosphere with low oxygen content at heights of around 5,000 metres (16,000 feet) above sea level PhotoGraph: Indian Army
Thousands of so-called loitering munitions have already been fielded in Afghanistan. Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd) Page 6 Sustaining Vintage Weapon Systems The compulsion of sustaining vintage weapon inventory is not only typical in our context but so is the case of most countries around the world that have been carrying on with their vintage inventory. Lt General V.K. Saxena (Retd) Page 7 Terrorism in India – The Current Scene Lt General P.C. Katoch (Retd) Page 9 Chief of the Army Staff Inaugurates the Army Design Bureau
Indian Army soldiers hoisting national flag after victory in the Kargil War
Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd)
Exercise Maitree 2016: Joint Indo-Thailand Military Exercise News in Brief
argil Sector is 168 km along the line of control (LoC) stretching from Kaobal Gali in the west to Chorbat La in the east. The sector is vast with the line of control running along the watershed at heights 4,000 to 5,000 metres high. The frontage and the nature of terrain was such that large gaps between defended
areas were inevitable. The deployment in the brigade sector included one infantry battalion at Dras; two infantry battalions and a BSF battalion covering Kargil, while Chorbat La was held by Ladakh Scouts. As indications of Pakistani intrusion started pouring in commencing from May 3, 1999, it became clear that armed intruders had occupied heights in the gaps between all defended areas in the sector. It also, gradually, became appar-
ent that India was facing an attempt by Pakistan to change the alignment of LoC in its favour by using its regular troops of Pakistan Army, something which became common knowledge as the conflict progressed but Pakistan as usual kept denying it. Seeing Pakistani moves, India moved a fresh division to the Kargil Sector. The entire story of the various battles is unique but that is not the subject of this article.
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E D I T O R I A L
>> cover story
Unprecedented neglect of the defence sector during past decade of UPA 1 and 2 tenures has been disastrous for military modernisation and capability building of the Indian armed forces. The army is the greatest sufferer in this regard because it needs replacement of nearly all its weapon systems starting with the assault rifles, carbines, reconnaissance and observation helicopters which are in an atrocious state, towed, mounted and self-propelled howitzers for the mountains, plains and desert terrain respectively, air defence weapons, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and their combat variant, and various categories of missiles, night-fighting capability for
our tanks and infantry weapons, and various category of ammunition to build up the stocks of war wastage reserves to fight a war of a given duration in the future. This is the state at a time when we are facing a possibly a two-front scenario with Pakistan in the west and China in the north and east. A comparative assessment would highlight the fact that we are today in the same poor state, compared to our potential adversaries as we were in 1962 when we suffered a humiliating defeat at the hands of the Chinese. After a decade of neglect under the two UPA regimes, military modernisation is gradually picking up pace under the NDA Government. The Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) has accorded AON (acceptance of necessity) approval to modernisation projects worth over `1,50,000 crore. In keeping with Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s policy of ‘Make in India’, most of the newly approved weapons systems will be procured with transfer of technology (ToT) and manufactured in India or, where feasible, completely indigenously designed, developed and manufactured.
Unfortunately our political leaders do not inform the public that from acceptance of necessity (AON) to the weapon system arriving on the ground may take many decades. A figure is deliberately not being affixed because it would defeat imagination. The light combat aircraft of IAF took 30 years to build by which time the world had moved to fourthand fifth-generation aircraft. Similarly the Arjun Tank Mk I took 30 years plus considering that the work started in 1972. Thus if the army has now taken the decision to introduce a 7.62mm calibre assault rifle, after the failure of the previous trials and if it is a ‘Make in India’ project with ToT, which also implies establishing a factory in India, a 10 to 12 years period is a safe bet. Let us have a look at the government to government agreement between India and Russia for the supply of 200 Kamov226T light helicopters under the ‘Make in India’ policy. Presently there is no clarity on as to how this project will move forward and both sides seem to be struggling to meet the challenging requirement of building 50 per cent of the
helicopters in India. The recent statement of the Russians about their working with the Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL) to iron out the various contentious issues and that the signing of the contract is likely by year end is a positive development, but its translation into reality seems a distant dream. There is no factory on the ground at Tumkuru where it is to be built. Given our government’s track record of such deals like the army’s BAEs, M777, 155mm howitzer programme (four years in the pipeline) and the air force’s MMRCA Rafale project (nine years in the pipeline), which have still to be finalised, the prospect of concluding a contract for the Ka226T helicopter project by end of the year does not inspire much confidence. Some other issues about the army modernisation have been given in the article on “Kargil War and the Current State of Modernisation.” In the meanwhile, we would not be doing justice to our soldiery if we do not make mention of some of the Seventh Central Pay Commission’s recommendations which have gravely hurt the sentiments of the serving as well
photograph: US Army
There were three stages to the Kargil War. First stage involved Pakistani regulars posing as mujahedeen infiltrating across the line of control in Indian territory and occupying strategic locations and heights enabling it to bring National Highway 1 (NH 1) within the range of its observed artillery fire. The second stage consisted of India discovering the infiltration and mobilising forces to respond to it. The third and final stage involved major battles by Indian and Pakistani forces resulting in India recapturing most of the territories (strategic locations) held by Pakistani forces and the subsequent withdrawal of Pakistani forces back across the line of control after international pressure.
Unexceptional Weaponry and Inadequate Ammunition It is the same conflict in which the then Army Chief, General V.P. Malik, had to comment: “We shall fight with whatever we have,” indicating the inadequacies in equipment and munitions. It once again brought to the fore that the Army was short of desired weaponry and ammunition. At that time the lesser known fact is that the army was woefully short of artillery and some other categories of ammunition and had the war expanded to other sectors and had it been fought for a longer duration it would
SP’s Land Forces 4/2016
Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd)
Today we lack everything from basic weaponry comprising assault rifles and carbines to artillery guns and night-fighting aids. Our reconnaissance and surveillance means are antiquated and the Army Aviation is in a dire state which compelled the wives of the pilots to approach the Defence Minister to replace the obsolete machines of the aviation corps which are killing our pilots.
Current Equipment Scenario An update on some of the equipment projects undertaken and which are in various stages of development/procurement is given in the succeeding paragraphs.
Unforgettable and Distinctive Battles What made the conflict unforgettable and distinctive was the sheer guts and bravery shown by our young officers and soldiers in assaulting dominating heights occupied by the Pakistani troops in high altitude terrain where a normal person struggles to breathe the rarified atmosphere with low oxygen content at heights of around 5,000 metres (16,000 feet) above sea level. For the Indian Army it was this spirit of the infantry soldier and its young officers, and their fortitude and raw courage, and the lethal firepower of our 155mm Bofors artillery howitzers which accomplished what may be termed as impossible missions in the most daunting terrain of the Kargil Sector where all the odds were against the attacker, in this case the Indian Army. It was the spirit of its soldiery which won the nation the honour and the army the glory, the victory and the adulation of its people.
as the retired soldiery. The three service chiefs — Army, Navy and the Air Force — have represented to the government via the office of Chairman Chiefs of Staff Committee, Air Chief Marshal Arup Raha. The armed forces have set forth four demands before the establishment. The fulfillment of these demands would eliminate the feeling of discrimination which is felt by cadres across the defence sector. According to the armed forces, the non-redressal of these demands by both Sixth and Seventh Pay Commissions have significantly ‘lowered their status’. Besides Kargil War and the Current State of Modernisation, this issue comprises articles on Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA), Portable attack drones or Loitering Munitions, Sustaining Vintage Weapon Systems, and Terrorism in India—The Current Scene.
M777 ultra-light howitzers
have presented the nation and the army with huge problems. Once again the political leadership had failed the armed forces. This fact did emerge but was successfully hidden under the carpet in the aftermath of victory.
The question which arises is that have we learnt any lessons from the past? Have our political leaders started taking more interest in modernisation of the armed forces? Is our current equipment status any better?
It is the same conflict in which the then Army Chief, General V.P. Malik, had to comment: “We shall fight with whatever we have,” indicating the inadequacies in equipment and munitions. At that time the lesser known fact is that the army was woefully short of artillery and some other categories of ammunition.
Pace of Modernisation after Kargil During the UPA I and II the situation had deteriorated considerably and it was widely acclaimed that the new NDA Government would rectify the situation. However, the current pace is too slow, and the hide bound and bureaucratic attitude of all stakeholders despite having a technology savvy Defence Minister is the main cause apart from lack of funds. The modernisation of the services is well behind the schedule. In this article we are focusing on the modernisation of the army only. The ‘Make in India’ rhetoric sounded good for electioneering but it has not changed the ground situation because we do not have the technology or the knowhow to make modern weaponry and our procedures are out of tune with reality. Hence our policies do not match the capabilities desired despite all the political rhetoric about national security. And this is at a time when our threats and challenges have become far greater than they were 17 years earlier during the Kargil conflict.
The Indian Army has relaunched its quest for an imported assault rifle, after recently rejecting the locally designed option, in order to plug a vital operational gap. The army is once again preparing its global request for information (RFI) for 7.62x51mm assault rifles instead of its earlier proposal to induct the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)-designed Excalibur 5.56x45mm rifle. The Excalibur is an upgraded version of the DRDO’s Indian Army Small Arms System (INSAS) 5.56x45mm rifle that entered service with the Indian Army in the mid-1990s, but was rejected by it in 2010, for being ‘operationally inadequate’. The current stance is at variance with the Army Chief of Staff General Dalbir Singh’s earlier declaration that the army would acquire the Excalibur. The Army Commanders Conference in New Delhi in April 2016, however, overturned this choice and the army has unanimously opted to import the more powerful 7.62x51mm rifle for its infantry battalions and its100 odd counter-insurgency units (both Rashtriya Rifles and Assam Rifles). In September 2015, the Ministry of Defence (MoD) terminated its 2011 tender to import 66,000 multi-calibre assault rifles, as none of the four competing models qualified.
Carbines The MoD is in the process of finalising the outcome of the 2010 tender for 44,618, 5.56mm close quarter battle (CQB) carbines, trials for which concluded in 2013. Israel Weapon Industries (IWI) ACE carbine was shortlisted over the Italian rival
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>> cover story photographs: PIB, Kamov
upgrades for L-70, ZU-23-2 Twin gun, and ZSU-23-4 Schilka. Meanwhile, the army is looking for successors to L-70 and the ZU-23-2. Successor to Schilka (ZSU-23-4) already exists in the form of Tangushka, but in limited numbers. A request for information has already been issued to find a replacement for Schilka. In the missile systems, Kvadrat (mediumrange) and OSA-AK (short-range) are also at the end of their life-cycle. They were to be replaced by Akash and Trishul surfaceto-air (SAM) missiles. Trishul has been foreclosed and Akash is being inducted for semi-mobile roles. For air defence of mechanised units, it has been planned to acquire medium-range SAM (MR-SAM) and quick reaction SAM (QR-SAM) systems.
Beretta’s ARX-160 model, but over the past few months the contract has run into procedural problems and could well be scrapped and retendered, army sources said. The army, which has been operating without a carbine since 2010 after retiring the licence-built World War II Sterling submachine gun, has an urgent requirement for 1,60,800 CQB carbines.
Artillery Firepower As part of its Artillery Modernisation Plan, the army is looking at inducting several types of howitzers through in house manufacture by DRDO/Ordnance Factory Board (OFB), inter-governmental pacts and global tenders. The last major acquisition of towed gun-howitzers was that of 400 pieces of 39 calibre 155mm FH-77B howitzers with a range of 30 km from Bofors of Sweden in 1987. This gun proved its mettle in the Kargil conflict. After about 25 years of neglect attempts are now afoot to fulfil its long-postponed 1999 Field Artillery Rationalisation Plan (FARP), under which the army aims to import, locally develop, and licence-produce some 2,820-3,000 assorted 155mm howitzers to equip its artillery regiments for an estimated $8-9 billion. These include 1,580 towed gun systems (TGS), 814 mounted gun systems (MGS), 100 self-propelled howitzers (SPHs) – all of which are 155mm/52 calibre – and 145 BAE Systems M777 155mm/39 calibre ultra lightweight howitzers. Locally upgraded and retrofitted guns will make up additional numbers. While many projects, are afoot none has fructified. In December 2015 the MoD began price negotiations with Larsen & Toubro (L&T) for 100 modified South Korean SPHs, worth around $800 million. The K9 VajraT, an L&T version of Samsung Techwin’s K9 Thunder 155mm/52 calibre gun customised for India’s 2012 SPH tender, was shortlisted for acquisition in late September 2015 following trials the previous year. In these the K9 bested Russia’s MSTA-S selfpropelled gun, which had been modified to 155mm/52 calibre standard and mounted on a T-72 tank chassis. Similarly in the towed category of howitzers, France’s Nexter Systems, with its Trajan 155mm/52 calibre howitzer modified for the Indian tender of 2011-12, and Elbit of Israel’s ATHOS 2052 gun were required to undergo the supplementary trials from mid-2015 after completing desert and high-altitude firings in 2013-14. The army plans to acquire 400 guns under the Defence Procurement Procedure’s (DPP) ‘Buy and Make’ category and licence-build the remaining 1,180 towed howitzers. In May 2015 the MoD approved the import of 145, M777s, 155mm ultra light howitzer, along with Selex Laser Inertial Pointing Systems (LINAPS) via the US foreign military sales (FMS) programme. The M777 purchase is to equip the army’s 17 Mountain Strike Corps, which is presently being raised for deployment along the disputed border with China. This deal has been in the process since 2008. In the meanwhile, the OFB have also been tasked to produce a 45-calibre 155mm howitzer based on the transfer of technology (ToT) obtained from Bofors in the 1980s. The Defence Acquisition Councial (DAC) approved a proposal from the OFB to manufacture 144 pieces of 155mm/45calibre howitzers with the option to acquire another 400 provided the prototypes successfully meet the army’s GSQR (General Staff Qualitative Requirement) in user trials. So we can see that while many projects for enhancing our artillery firepower are afoot, nothing has materialised till date.
Armour Presently the army is hard put to maintain its current fleet of Arjun tanks because of lack of spares. The Arjun tank is indigenous in name only because a large number of its
Army Aviation – Helicopters Presently the Army Aviation Corps (AAC) has in its inventory the light observation class (Cheetah and Chetak) mostly. These helicopters are obsolete and have been in service since the 1960s and require immediate replacement. As per the latest information in this field the AAC is likely to receive licence-built Russian Kamov Ka226T ‘Hoodlum’ light multi-role helicopters from 2018 onwards. The Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) is likely to form a joint venture with Russian Helicopters to licence-build 200 Kamov Ka-226T ‘Hoodlum’ light multi-role helicopters. The public-sector HAL is scheduled to produce the first of 140 twin-engine Ka-226Ts within two years for the AAC and the Indian Air Force (IAF) at a new facility in Tumakuru, 74 km north of Bengaluru.
(Top) Tangushka self-propelled anti-aircraft weapon and (above) Kamov Ka-226T light multi-role helicopter
systems and parts amounting to about 60 per cent, are still imported. The development of Arjun Mark II tank with a large number of improvements has commenced and technical trials incorporating the improvements have been carried out in Rajasthan. However due to unsuccessful trials especially concerning the main armament of the tank in which problems are being encountered in integrating the antitank guided missiles to fire through the main 120mm tank gun, further delay is expected in series manufacture of the Arjun Mk II. As per media reports the army has till now inducted around 780, T-90 tanks out of a total 1,657 T-90S tanks it eventually wants. The defects in feeding the ballistic data of various lots of ammunition fired from the tanks has now been brought under control. The T-72 M1 modernisation programme under Project Rhino is inordinately delayed. This was intended to extend the service life of the MBT by 20 years; enhance their accuracy with new fire control system (FCS) whose trials have been completed. However, when all modifications will be completed is not known.
Future Infantry Combat Vehicle (FICV) Programme On February 15 six local companies submitted their project reports for the army’s `1,00,000 crore Future Infantry Combat Vehicle (FiCV) programme which was initiated in 2008-09 but abandoned three years later, and resurrected once again in 2014. The FiCV project is a ‘test case’ for India’s indigenous weapon-designing capability
The bids are from five private sector companies that have technology tie-ups with overseas vendors and the OFB. They will design and build 2,610 tracked, amphibious and air-transportable 20-tonne FICVs to replace the army’s ageing fleet of Russian BMP-2/2K Sarath ICVs under the DPP’s ‘Make (Indian)’ category. MoD has appointed a 10-member Integrated Project Management Team (IPMT), headed by a two-star army general who will evaluate the bids and shortlist two development agencies (DA) that will build one FICV prototype each within 24-36 months
Air Defence Considering the high costs of new weapon systems, the army is going in for weapon
The list of voids and obsolescence of army’s major weapon systems is alarming. This happens to a force when it is neglected by the government for a long period of time as it has happened in the case of the army.
The list of voids and obsolescence of army’s major weapon systems is alarming. This happens to a force when it is neglected by the government for a long period of time as it has happened in the case of the army. We have only covered four arms of the army. If every arm and service of the Indian Army is considered for filling up of voids and modernisation the list will indeed be endless. How are the army and the government planning to make up these shortages and voids if the funding remains at the current scale? If we carry out a realistic analysis of the budget requirements (maintenance and modernisation) for a 40 division army, a 42 squadron air force and 150 platform navy, the Services will require 3 to 4 per cent of the GDP as their budget minus the defence pensions. Will this ever be possible? The work culture of our DPSUs also needs to be looked into. In a scathing assessment, the latest CAG report given in the Economic Times on July 27, 2016, dealing with the Army Projects of 2007-12, the central auditor said defence public sector units have miserably failed in meeting the objective of self-reliance, with a majority of contracts entrusted to them facing delays, hampering the capability enhancement plans of the Indian Army .The report, which echoes the sentiments of the private sector that has been battling the government for more orders and is upset that a majority of contracts in the last two years have gone to PSUs. During 2007-12 period, 63 per cent of the contracts given were delayed for various reasons.“Besides impacting defence preparedness, the delay had financial implications towards loss of interest on payments made to defence public sector units. The objective of selfreliance in defence production had also not been achieved.” This report was tabled in Parliament on July 26, 2016. Thus let us look at ourselves with a view to carry out self-introspection regarding defence modernisation. Have we improved our equipment status since the Kargil conflict? The obvious answer is NO, and in fact we have, as per the existing inventory of equipment, deteriorated further. SP
4/2016 SP’s Land Forces
>> Foreign Relations
Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement — An Overall Assessment It has been specially drafted and designed for India due to the apprehensions expressed by the Indian Government photograph: US Department of State
Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd)
gaining access to US military bases in Djibouti and Diego Garcia and these are indeed significant gains.
ndia and the United States have signed an important logistics agreement that will enable forces of both the countries to use each other’s bases for repair and replenishment of supplies. US Defense Secretary Ashton Carter and Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar formally signed the Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA) on August 29, 2016.
What Is in it for the US?
What is LEMOA This agreement tends to get confused with Logistic Support Agreement (LSA) but it is not the same as the LSA which has been signed by nearly 100 countries some of who are seen as close military allies of the US. The LSA failed to pass muster with the two previous UPA regimes and even the Modi Government on taking over was sensitive to its content. As the Indian Government insisted on various changes to address concerns of unfettered access and US military bases on Indian soil, the text was amended and the agreement was renamed LEMOA. It has been specially drafted and designed for India due to the apprehensions expressed by the Indian Government. It has taken more than 12 years for LEMOA to become a reality. LEMOA will enable both the nations to access supplies, spare parts and services from each other’s land facilities, airbases and ports, which can then be reimbursed. However, the signing of the LEMOA does not give automatic access to the use of military bases. In April this year, when Carter visited New Delhi, the two sides announced an in-principle agreement on inking the pact. Hectic negotiations between the two sides had taken place before that visit, with US officials submitting drafts of three foundational agreements. However, India chose to proceed only on the logistics agreement (LEMOA), deferring the Communications and Information Security Memorandum of Agreement (CISMOA) and a Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement for Geospatial Information and Services Cooperation (BECA).
What Has Pushed India into Signing this Agreement? Since the Cold War ended and the erstwhile Soviet Union broke up the Indian foreign policy has undergone a complete makeover. Though India’s nuclear tests of 1998 brought it sharp rebuke from the United States and many other nations, things started improving after a visit from the then President Bill Clinton in 2000. The US-India civilian nuclear deal of 2008, for which Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh staked his political future, further changed things. The United States also helped India get a waiver from the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), even though India has not signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) or the Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT).
SP’s Land Forces 4/2016
US Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter with Indian Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar at the Pentagon on August 29, 2016
India and the United States are increasingly concerned about Beijing’s growing aggressiveness in the South China Sea and beyond. India’s annoyance with China for preventing India’s attempts to designate the Pakistan-based terror outfit Jaish-e-Mohammed’s chief Maulana Masood Azhar as a terrorist at the UN is not hidden. Moreover China’s military including nuclear assistance to Pakistan has emboldened Pakistan in being more belligerent towards India as far as the proxy war in Jammu & Kashmir is concerned. At the same time, China has been going all out to woo countries in India’s neighbourhood like Nepal, Sri Lanka and Maldives. Beijing’s island building activities in the South China Sea and its deployment of missile batteries on Woody Island in the South
By signing the LEMOA, New Delhi comes closer, strategically, to the US which will have a number of spin-offs in terms of technology transfer and modern weaponry that India is looking for apart gaining access to US military facilities and closer military cooperation
China Sea have set it on a collision course with the United States and its allies in the region, like Japan and the Philippines. In 2015, President Barack Obama became the first US President to visit India twice during his presidency when he was the chief guest at India’s Republic Day celebrations on January 26. During his visit, the two sides released a joint statement where they affirmed “the importance of safeguarding maritime security and ensuring freedom of navigation and over flight throughout the region, especially in the South China Sea.” This in itself is very significant since New Delhi had studiously avoided getting entangled in the South China Sea imbroglio. In the recent years, India has become one of the biggest purchasers of US military hardware, a sea change from the times when the country used to source the majority of its defence needs from Russia. India now aspires to play a greater role in international affairs. India desires to be a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC). In addition, India, under Prime Minister Narendra Modi, has rapidly moved away from its traditional stance of non-alignment to one of multialignment. By signing the LEMOA, New Delhi comes closer strategically to the US which will have a number of spin-offs in terms of technology transfer and modern weaponry that India is looking for apart gaining access to US military facilities and closer military cooperation. LEMOA will enable increase in India’s outreach to areas that were not typically within its reach. With one aircraft carrier in operations, India’s capacity to undertake far sea operations has been fairly limited. Signing LEMOA opens up opportunities such as
The US has already made strategic plans for rebalancing its forces between the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. This strategy is one part of the much larger ‘pivot’ to Asia intended by President Obama to meet a rising China. The US Navy plans to deploy 60 per cent of its surface ships in the IndoPacific region. Instead of having to build new facilities, as in Afghanistan and Iraq, the US has the benefit of simple arrangements for the substantial Indian facilities. Maritime collaboration between India and the United States has been increasing. The commander of US Pacific Command, Admiral Harry B. Harris, went on record to say that that Beijing was building “a great wall of sand” in the South China Sea. At the Raisina Dialogue in India in March this year, Harris floated the idea of cooperation between India, Japan and Australia in the maritime realm. This is similar to the earlier ‘Quadrilateral Initiative,’ which was rolled back in the light of protests from Beijing. In the meanwhile India’s ties with US allies in the region, like Japan and Australia, have also improved substantially since then. ISIS recently carried out a terror bombing in Bangladesh. There is always a danger of ISIS making a substantial ground effort in this region, not on the scale of their ‘caliphate’ in Syria and Iraq, but perhaps similar to their effort in Egyptian Sinai and Libya? Having LEMOA makes it much simpler for American naval and air forces to refuel, resupply, and so forth. The US does not have actual bases in India. But LEMOA is a simple way to use India’s bases without stationing any troops on the ground Defense Secretary Carter, in the joint news conference on August 29, 2016, after signing the agreement, said the agreement would make joint operations between their militaries logistically easier and more efficient. “What it does is make possible and make easier operating together when we choose to. It doesn’t by itself — those agreements — those are the things that the two governments would have to agree on a case by case basis. But when they do agree, this is an agreement that makes it all go so much more smoothly and efficiently,” he said. He further stated: “It is fully mutual. In other words, we grant one another completely equal access and ease under this agreement. It’s not a basing agreement of any kind, but it does make the logistics of joint operations so much easier and so much more efficient.” It does not give the US automatic access to Indian military bases or to logistical support, but simply smoothens existing practices. The advantage is that though the US does currently use Indian military bases and logistics — for example, during joint military exercises — this is managed on a case by case basis, which is simply more cumbersome. LEMOA makes the process more regularised. SP
RELENTLESS JOURNEY OF EXCELLENCE SINCE 1964
photograph: Lockheed Martin
Portable Attack Drones or Loitering Munitions
Lockheed Martin’s Terminator UAV
Thousands of so-called loitering munitions have already been fielded in Afghanistan. This realm of activity is no longer dominated by the US. While very few nations have the technology or the resources to build sophisticated combat aircraft, but literally anybody can make a small drone. Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd)
e are familiar with the term unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or unmanned aerial platforms or simply drones. Today the drone is one of the most important assets of any military force not only for surveillance but also as an offensive weapon for attacking targets which are out of reach of ground forces. With precision technologies what are called loitering munitions are becoming the favourite weapons of the armies all over the world. Whether you label them as hand-held cruise missiles, pocket artillery or miniature air force, loitering munitions will be – and in some instances already are—part of the arsenal of the modern warfighter. This is a logical addition to the way unmanned systems are becoming so essential in contemporary warfare. There is also widespread employment of these drones in the police and anti-terror forces of some countries. This article gives a bird’seye view of the trends, in this respect, in the armed forces of the world. Thousands of so-called loitering munitions have already been fielded in Afghanistan. This realm of activity is no longer dominated by the US. While very few nations have the technology or the resources to build sophisticated combat aircraft, but literally anybody can make a small drone. Some are already in production in various parts of the world. In the US, the Lethal Miniature Aerial Munition System has been initiated and is progressing slowly. Some of the miniature drones in use are given below with their known characteristics which make them suitable as loitering munitions.
Switchblade The tube-launched miniature tactical armed drone Switchblade went into operation with the US Army in September 2012. The AeroVironment Switchblade Kamizaze drone can be carried in a soldier’s backpack and fired from a mortar-like launch tube. The Switchblade weighs less than five pounds and its electric propulsion is near-silent. It is tube-launched, with flickout wings, and can fly for more than ten minutes, sending back colour video and
infra-red imagery so the operator can locate and identify a target. Once spotted, it can lock on and dive in at over 145 kmph with a warhead powerful enough to take out a pickup truck or a group of individuals with pinpoint precision from 9 km away. Being able to find and hit targets miles away from behind cover with high accuracy could alter ground combat. A squad with this capability could decimate opponents at long range without ever being seen. Switchblade can also be launched from an aircraft or even a submarine for covert strike. Over 4,000 Switchblades have been deployed in Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan and Switchblade has been appreciated for its accuracy, being able to hit snipers from behind cover, as well as picking out single insurgents in a crowd of onlookers/passersby.
minator Lethal Miniature Aerial Munition System (LMAMS) programme. It was on show in model form at the Association of the United States Army conference in
Washington DC, saying that it is still under competitive evaluation with the army. The Continued on page 8...
Battlehawk Textron Inc. is putting forward its Battlehawk for LMAMS requirements. Battlehawk is a direct fire aerial precision guided munition system for use by small tactical units to engage non-line-of-sight targets. Among its key advantages is the system’s ability to take on an enemy from an advantageous position without exposing the operator to detection or small arms fire. Battlehawk is tube launched from a carrying case that fits easily into a soldier’s rucksack. The total system weighs 10 lbs, including the launcher, munition and fire control unit. Battlehawk features include: l 30-minute endurance to enable loitering. l EO/IR streaming video for target acquisition and tracking. l 40mm fragmenting grenade warhead for target engagement. l Flexible carbon fiber wing. l Low acoustic and visual signature. l 5 km reach and 2 m accuracy. l Single-user operation with simple, three-step set up. l Android-based fire control unit. l Abort/wave off capability with selfdestruct.
Terminator Lockheed Martin has displayed an evolved version of its ‘Terminator’ loitering unmanned air vehicle, which it is offering for the US Army’s long-running ter-
4/2016 SP’s Land Forces
>> Air Defence
Sustaining Vintage Weapon Systems The compulsion of sustaining vintage weapon inventory is not only typical in our context but so is the case of most countries around the world that have been carrying on with their vintage inventory photographs: Anoop Kamath, Wikimedia
Lt General V.K. Saxena (Retd)
n the context of our Ground Based Air Defence Weapon Systems (GBADWS) it is quite fashionable to quote the high figures of percentage obsolescence (97 per cent or thereabout) and generally decry their very old vintage, thus coming to a quick conclusion that these are/ will be incapable of countering the contemporary, as well as, the futuristic air threat. Faced with the above common, the air defence warriors find themselves in an unenviable position. On one side, is indeed the reality of the years of vintage and obsolescence of their combat means, while on the other, is a grim realisation that any new induction must wait long years (7 to 10) before it actually gets operationalised. What does this demand? It demands that the existing (legacy) inventory has to be kept operationally relevant; come what may.
A Worldwide Phenomenon Incidentally, the compulsion of sustaining vintage weapon inventory is not only typical of us (though our percentages of obsolescence are much higher), countries around the world have been carrying on with their vintage inventory. A snapshot: l The Russian inventory of GBADWS still carries the weapons. ZSU-37, ZU-23-2, ZSU-57-2 besides others. Out of these, while ZSU-37, a 1943 vintage self-propelled (SP) gun got discontinued in 1962 upon the induction of Schilka weapon system, ZU-23, a 1960 vintage light gun is still in service, having seen widespread use in Libyan Civil War in 2011 and the current Syrian Civil War. Same is also true for ZSU 57-2 the SP anti-aircraft (AA) weapon of 1955 vintage. l Chinese ZPU-1/2/4 2 AA Gun of 1949 vintage is still in service in China and in over 50 countries of the world having seen action from Korean War to the Syrian Civil War. l The Pakistan Army Air Defence still operates the 1962 vintage Schilka Weapon System (ZSU23-4) and the 34-year-old Artemis Gun System of Greek origin. Compulsions to sustenance of obsolete and vintage inventory is thus a worldwide phenomenon. In fact, no calibre, the world over, has ever been thrown away completely. Sweden, Italy and Singapore boast of their 40mm machines, Rheinmettal is up and about with its 35mm, Germany, Greece and Italy perfect their 30mms, the Russian block with Poland, Finland and Belgium are going strong with 23mm and the French, US, Israel and Korea with 20mm.
Challenges Galore What challenges the legacy weapons throw up? l The production lines of the main frame weapon get long closed down by the OEM; hence nothing fresh fetches up. l Invariably, in yesteryears, the weapons which were bought as whole consignments, (generally on a government-togovernment agreement) hardly ever came with dedicated simulators. With
SP’s Land Forces 4/2016
(Top) Upgraded Schilka weapon system and (above) ZSU-57-2 Soviet self-propelled anti-aircraft gun
decades of operations and training on war equipment itself, every single piece of old weapons goes far beyond its designed operational hours/service life. l With the finite spares that come with the original consignment or the quantity that keeps coming till such time the production lines are alive can hardly suffice to keep the equipment going for decades of extended life. Effects: s After initial years of sufficiency, the paucity starts showing its ugly phase
With legacy missiles, there are huge problems of reference standards that need to be applied after so many years of storage
(around the mid-life overhaul) and keeps becoming worse year-on-year, not only diluting the quality of overhaul but also making difficult, the day-to-day sustenance. s Since in yesteryears most legacy weapons came without the life-timebuy (LTB) of spares clause. These measures got applied as the situation becomes more critical and equipment sustenance started posing existentional threat. s And finally when only a trickle arrives that too in a sporadic mode from the LTB route, fait accompli measures start to get applied. What are these? l Cannibalisation from a part of inventory to keep alive the balance. l Foregoing the overhaul option and only resorting to ‘optimisation,’ i.e minimum maintenance to keep the equipment from becoming EOA. l The SAMs pose a totally different set of problems that is, of shelf-life. What to do when the OEM specified shelf-life expires. Obviously, shelf life extension.
How many? One, two, three, after which the issue starts becoming critical, as the perishable parts simply start to age, the electronics components start loosing their reliability and not much can be said on the continued efficacy and lethality of the warhead lying in passive compact mode for nearly a few decades. Also, with legacy missiles, there are huge problems of reference standards that need to be applied after so many years of storage. Do the original tables apply? Are the tolerances and margins of the original to be kept unchanged or these be modified. If the latter, how much leeway exists, and more importantly, what is the logic? Not simple by any chance. These are the type of challenges that stare the air defence warrior in the eye. Let us examine what can be done. As regards the towed mainframe gun systems, very ‘enabling upgrades’ are possible. What do these promise? l Removal the vintage target laying systems and replacing it with an electrooptical fire control system (E-OFCS). This amounts to a ‘complete revamp’ of the erstwhile mechanical sights for target laying with the following: s A CCD Camera (normally with 16/18X, 1/4 CCD device, 1.6-230 FOV and focus range from1 to infinity). s Thermal Camera (Typical 8-10mm band, 20-250 FOV, range in excess of 2 km, cooled). s An eye-safe LRF (1-1.2mm band, FOV 2-2.5 MRAD, with ranges in the region of 18-20 km). s A built-in fire control computing device that works out the gun laying data in bearing and elevation as the target is kept laid at the sight reticules. l In order to increase the response of the gun to the fast manoeuvring air threat, the erstwhile mechanical or hydraulic drives of the gun are replaced with high response electric drives taking the gun movement response in bearing and elevation from 8-100 per second to 60-1,000 per second with acceleration in excess of 1,300 per second. This removes the erstwhile sluggishness and makes the gun sharply cut to the manoeuvring threat. l An on board silent generator that powers the gun reducing dependence on bulky and noisy power supply source. l Since the vintage ordnance cannot be retro-modified to receive the type of the cutting-edge ammunition of today, that has built in features of receiving roundto-round intelligence of instant muzzle velocity and resultant time-of-flight besides a palletised sub-munition filling with intelligent proximity-fusing for maximising the lethality and accuracy at the target end, optimisation of the existing ammunition is the way forward. In that, the conventional single charge pre-fragmented HE/HE-T and APC rounds are replaced with rounds carrying preformed fragmented cubes (PFFC) of tungsten material coupled with proxContinued on page 8...
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>> Internal Security
Terrorism in India – The Current Scene India has unfortunately become the sponge that protects us all. India’s very proximity to Pakistan, which has developed into the epicenter of global terrorism during the last 30 years, has resulted in New Delhi absorbing most of the blows unleashed by those terrorist groups that treat it as a common enemy along with Israel, the United States, and the West more generally. — Ashley Tellis illustration: Vimlesh Kumar Yadav
Lt General P.C. Katoch (Retd)
observance of black day, and the machinations of LeT-JuD’s Hafiz Saeed and HuM’s Salahuddin with Pakistani military backing are evidence enough. Unless we adopt a well coordinated approach (not just soft-pulp), including proactive actions to get hold of Pakistani fault lines, Pakistan will continue to radicalise J&K Muslims increasingly and fan the fires further.
t the US Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs in January 2009, Ashley Tellis of Carnegie Endowment, strategic affairs expert and an influential policy adviser, testified post26/11 Mumbai terrorist attacks of November 2008 began his testimony thus, “India has unfortunately become the sponge that protects us all. India’s very proximity to Pakistan, which has developed into the epicenter of global terrorism during the last 30 years, has resulted in New Delhi absorbing most of the blows unleashed by those terrorist groups that treat it as a common enemy along with Israel, the United States, and the West more generally.” Tellis advised that Barack Obama Administration should keep Pakistan’s feet to the fire and ensure that Islamabad makes good on its promises to take on terrorist groups. Tellis also termed India’s response to the Mumbai attack as inadequate and suggested India sets up a national counter-terrorism centre (NCTC) with US help. Unfortunately, neither the Obama Administration nor New Delhi took Ashley Tellis’s advice seriously. The former obviously thought that it is good for the US and the West if India remains the “sponge”. Even in the recent US Congressional hearing slamming Pakistan’s dual game, the focus is Afghanistan, not India despite loads of evidence. India’s politicians are too busy politicking from one state election to another while the bureaucracy that holds India’s jugular is least concerned about the vital need for setting up the NCTC. Hence, Pakistani military-ISI, being the nerve centre of a conglomerate of interlinked terrorist organisations and enjoying total Chinese support has a field day in targeting India.
Jammu and Kashmir—Killing of Burhan Wani Given the current situation in J&K, that is where one should start looking while reviewing developments in terrorist activities in the country. The killing of Burhan Wani was just a trigger but the phenomenon of mobs consistently attacking police stations and indulging in violence and stonethrowing hardly transformed overnight. Former Chief Minister Omar Abdullah says that the present state government has compounded the mistakes done by his government without elaborating what mistakes his government made. But it is obvious that both governments continued to ignore the politico-socio-economic aspects of soft-peddled terrorists and terrorist acts for politico-economic benefits, lacked requisite administration, leaving everything to security forces. This encouraged Pakistani military-ISI to increase the radicalisation of the Muslim population of J&K, rallying even those who only had genuine grievances only against the lack of administration. The manner in which the Sufi culture of J&K has been qui-
Radicalisation of Educational Institutions
etly killed and replaced by radical Wahabism is clear by the Arab type headgear that is common sight now, distributed freely along with Pakistani and ISIS flags – same headgear worn by Hafiz Saeed. While Pakistan exploited the social media and even religious leaders to ignite anti-India sentiment, the state government did nothing to curb this wave. On the contrary, even the rehabilitation of surrendered militants remains unaddressed. There have never been attempts to connect with the population particularly the youth by the state administration, leaving it to Hurriyat separatist who always preach sedition, adding fuel to fire. The J&K state government has been ignoring the periodic unfurling of Pakistani and ISIS flags in J&K and the vitriolic from loudspeakers of mosques during Friday prayers. All this clearly facilitates LeT’s Islamic jihad which is linked to global jihad. Some 634 jailed stone-pelters were granted amnesty just in time to join the protests. Pakistani infiltration attempts, encounters with terrorists are periodic while police posts are being attacked regularly. Despite the help rendered by the military during the disastrous floods of 2014, ISI and terrorist organisations have successfully been able to fan anti-India sentiments in the Muslim population. There is no effort on our part to bring home to the youth they are being ‘used’ by forces inimical to their welfare, and that of their kith and kin. They are not even being made aware of the subsidies and state benefits they enjoy compared to rest of India, and comparative development and living conditions between J&K and the Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK), latter being far worse. To top this, the Mehbooba Government appears intent on making some policemen scapegoats for ‘excesses’ despite the casualties the police forces have suffered. But then similarly weren’t personnel of Rashtriya
Rifles made scapegoats just before the J&K elections for making political brownies? Our soft response encouraged stonepelters in J&K to become even more aggressive. So the situation in J&K has deteriorated and our paid media supports the separatist upsurge, exhorting that even armed terrorist not be killed despite police stations being burned, weapons looted and attempt made to attack an airbase. Constant media coverage helps the terrorists spread the discontent further. Sure democracies have constraints but Israel, also democracy, jails stone-pelters, terminating their state benefits. Pakistan is a sham democracy, but they blackout occurrences in Balochistan, GilgitBaltistan and NWFP fully. We don’t have to copy how China, Pakistan and Sri Lanka deal with insurgency but certainly we could draw lessons. Pakistan is fully determined to keep raising the pressure in J&K, the statements within Pakistan including of Nawaz Sharif, the assembly resolution,
The J&K state government has been ignoring the periodic unfurling of Pakistani and ISIS flags in J&K and the vitriolic from loudspeakers of mosques during Friday prayers. All this clearly facilitates LeT’s Islamic jihad which is linked to global jihad
The second major development in India has been the success of the ISI to fan anti-India and seditious sentiments in our educational institutions, particularly the Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU)-supported by a section of our media that obviously is on payroll of forces inimical to India, including funds being funneled through so-called NGOs. The separatist call was started by the JNU, Jadahvpur and Hyderabad universities picked up the same line – all supported by J&K separatists on Pakistan’s behest. Home Minister Rajnath Singh went on record to say, “What happened at JNU has been fully supported by Lashkar chief Hafiz Saeed. I appeal to all political parties that whenever such situations arise where anti-India slogans are raised, the entire nation must speak in one voice.” Unfortunately, our slow and malleable legal system has permitted what may be termed as competitive radicalism.
Radicalisation at Large It was ironic that post the restaurant massacre on July 2, 2016, that Bangladesh had to ask India to probe Zakir Naik and it is only now that his preachings are being probed, as also the dubious funding of his Peace TV, which it emerges has been broadcasting for years without licence to do so. Had the terror attack in Dhaka not occurred, this individual would have continued his activities unabated. But then there are so many other radicals like Zakir Naik that preach hatred and social unrest. At the same time occurrence of this nature are quickly politicised and so we witness some politicians, a jaundiced cross-section, so-called activists of freedom of expression and the paid media jumping in to support Zakir Naik. This unfortunately has become the patent characteristic in India where national security is consigned to the dustbin.
ISIS and AQIS Asim Umar, AQIS chief, recently gave a call to undertake ‘lone wolf ’ attacks to target senior IPS and IAS officers, saying Indian Muslims must follow the example of youths in Europe and strike against Indian police and senior officials. According to him, senior government officials should be held responsible for communal violence, adding that the state and its departments were equally responsible for the incidents against Muslims in India and senior officials must be targeted to cause financial loss to the government and start Continued on page 8...
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>> unmanned / Air Defence / Internal Security Portable Attack Drones...continued from page 5 newly displayed design has been significantly enhanced since the high-explosivearmed Terminator was revealed in 2014 as a twin-engined concept. “Terminator now collapses into a compact configuration readily capable of tube launch,” says a spokesman. “The missile preserves the general size, shape and aerodynamics of its original high performing and proven airframe design, but now gives the soldier a more man-portable and convenient deployment method.”
Hero-30 Israeli company uVision makes the Hero range of loitering strike drones, and the smallest, the Hero-30, fits the requirements for LMAMS. UVision President and CEO Yair Dubester has stated that the company will be competing for LMAMS with the help of an established US missile firm. The Hero range have already been sold to an Israeli military customer. The company has also offered licenses to manufacture the Hero to other companies. Israel has long led the US in drones. Hero-30 is man-pack portable and is the smallest system in the UVision family of smart loitering systems. Deployable within minutes, Hero-30 is capable of speeds of up to 100 knots and is ideal for anti-personnel missions. Some of its characteristics are: l Weight (kg): 3 l Warhead (kg):
0.5 5, 10, 40 km l Endurance (min): 30 l Engine: Electrical l Launch method: Canister l Range (LOS):
Micro Combat Unmanned Aircraft System Warmate (Micro C-UAS Warmate) is designed in order to support the following combat operations depending on the payload in use: l Surveillance, detection, recognition and identification of the objects of interest (EO/IR payload GS9). l Detection and strike against the enemy personnel (EO-fragmentation charge warhead). l Detection and strike against the enemy’s light armoured vehicles (EO-linear cumulative charge warhead). The selection of the mission profile is being performed by choosing the proper payload/warhead just before the system operation. The payloads are interchangeable by sharing common interfaces. Micro C-UAS Warmate can be operated as an autonomous and independent system, being transported by the army or special forces troops. The system has also the capability of being installed onboard the military vehicles, such us the terrain vehicle or armored personnel carrier. The subsystem as the Ground Control Station or Ground Data Terminal can be seamlessly integrated with the vehicle’s onboard installation making it a part of the system. The Warmate is larger than the size specified for LMAMS at nine pounds, but it has a 30-minute endurance and a maximum speed of 145 km per hour. There are two different warheads, an anti-personnel fragmentation charge and a shaped-charge warhead. The first version is claimed to have a lethal radius of 10 metres, while the second can penetrate 100mm of steel armour. Unlike other infantry weapons, a drone can easily attack the top, rear or sides of a vehicle.
Iranian Drones Lieutenant Commander of the Iranian Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC) Brigadier General Hossein Salami announced on September 15, 2015, that newly developed Iranian drone technology has the capability to fly 3,000 kilometres for reconnaissance and combat missions. “The IRGC has a drone that has a flying range of 3,000 km round-trip and is capable of conducting reconnaissance and combat missions,” Salami said in an interview with the state-run TV. He also said that they have a unique ballistic missile that no one else has, except for perhaps Russia and the US. He said that intercepting this missile is almost impossible. The report quoted Salami as saying that “any US airbase whose airplanes can reach the Iranian airspace as well as their aircraft carriers can be targeted by Iran’s unique high precision striking ballistic missiles and drones.”
Suicide Kamikaze Drones In April a US Army report said Iran is building a fleet of so-called “suicide Kamikaze drones,” and providing know-how on assembling these new weapons to its terrorist allies Hamas in the Gaza Strip and Hezbollah in Lebanon. The report, which was cited by The Washington Times and published by the US Army’s Foreign Military Studies Office at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, stated that “no aspect of Iran’s overt military program has seen as much development over the past decade as Iranian unmanned aerial vehicles”. Both Hamas and Hezbollah have deployed
drones that have penetrated Israeli airspace. Thus far, they have not caused damage. “In a mid-February speech, regular army General Abdolrahim Moussavi outlined the [Iranian] army’s growing use of drones, with emphasis on suicide or Kamikaze drones,” according to the US Army report. “While it is easy to dismiss the idea of a suicide drone as more symbolic than real in an age of cruise missiles and precise Predators, utilising suicide drones is an asymmetric strategy which both allows Iran to compete on an uneven playing field and poses a risk by allowing operators to pick and choose targets of opportunity over a drone’s multihour flight duration,” the report noted.
Homemade Drones One of the most alarming developments is the homemade drones packed with explosives. Two such flying improvised explosive devices (IEDs), were apparently brought down by Kurdish YPG fighters who claim they were sent by ISIS. The drones appear to be based on the Skywalker X9 airframe, a hobby drone with a nine-foot wingspan and which ISIS has used previously for reconnaissance missions. This highlights the fact that in 2016, almost anyone can make an attack drone. Previously, you had to be a hobbyist to build and fly a radio-controlled aircraft, and it took time and skill. Crashes were part of the learning process. Now companies like DJI market camera-carrying quadcopter drones that can be flown right out of the box by beginners, complete with stabilisation and automated GPS waypoints. Around a million quadrotor drones were sold last year. SP
Sustaining Vintage Weapon... continued from page 6 imity fusing. Experience has it that PFFC firing is about 60-70 per cent more accurate that the erstwhile ammunition. l Also, old vintage guns have limitations up to which, the rate of fire can be ramped up. With modification in the buffer design and reducing the length of moving part trail sequence, it has been possible to touch 300-330 RPM jacked from 240 RPM. In self-propelled guns, in addition to all the above, the vintage analogue radars can be replaced by state-of-the-art digital phase array radars. These systems are not only more compact but also far more accurate in target tracking. Replacement of erstwhile fuel guzzlers gas turbine engines (GTEs) with fuel-efficient digital Power Packs is another smart measure that enhances the power and mobility of these old war horses. Another challenge faced by legacy systems is night blindness. This void is slowly getting diluted as Thermal imager/FLIR /
IIR base night sights are getting into place making legacy systems, night capable. The near absence of spare supply of legacy equipment is a major issue. Since the LTB also results is a trickle supply, indigenisation of spares to the extent possible by any means including reverse engineering is the way to go. Such an effort is the hope of the users. The challenge is indeed colossal. SAMs, beyond designated/extended shelf lives are a reality to be faced. This challenge can be addressed along several routes: l Much shorter extensions (yearly) based on detailed intrusive test of lots with large sample sizes. l Refurbishment of perished rubber parts where available. l Re-ploughing spares by cannibalising some of the beyond-repair lots to keep live inventory sustained. l Trying to develop reference standards through actual field tests of ‘as is’ lots. It is based on years of the above experi-
ence, that in RFP today where missiles are to be developed/procured along with the mainframe weapon, much smaller quantities are being initially asked for and balance, spread for a much longer period.
Some Takeaways Finally a few experience points: l Simulators along with the main equipment are a must. Operational hours will become more and more expensive as the years roll. l LTB provision has to be a part of initial negotiations not a crises-afterthought. The desire to keep it out initially to keep costs low, ultimately results in paying many times over. l Time frame for the OEM to keep spare lines open for an envisaged time schedule (plus stretch factor) must get mentioned /negotiated at the time of PNC/ CNC. It is only at this time the OEM is ‘manageable’, not later.
l Indigenisation effort must start much
earlier in the day if not ab-initio. Inventing the wheel when movement is required is not right. l What where MToT is being negotiated: s Like all ToTs, it is a mind game. It does not only happen on file but by total hand-holding till complete indigenisation is achieved (co-development/co-production/buy back are key words) s The maintainer must be taken beyond BTP and BTS to the ‘know why’ in specific areas. s The invariable tendency of the OEM to keep that last bit up the sleeve for a perpetual dependence has to be fought through. Thus goes the dynamic of challenges as we endeavour to keep alive an old vintage and obsolete inventory besides living the promise of modernisation in the years to come. SP
Terrorism in India... continued from page 7 riots in the country. Considering the developments in J&K, it would be stupid to not take this seriously especially given that Asim Umar is ISI protégé and Pakistan’s aim is to destabilize India and retard our economic progress. In June this year the National Investigation Agency (NIA) busted an ISIS module in Hyderabad detaining 11 persons including five accused in terrorist activities, seizing weapons, ammunition, urea, acids, hydrogen peroxide, other unidentified chemicals, electronic gadgets, other incriminating material and `15 lakh. Searches are being conducted in Bengaluru also from where NIA had arrested ISIS suspects earlier this year. Our youth getting under ISIS influence,
SP’s Land Forces 4/2016
in whatever numbers are of concern, even as the NIA has busted few modules, there is talk of ISIS presence in West Bengal as per NIA, the ISIS affiliated Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen, Bangladesh took advantage of the overly secular approach while setting up its modules in West Bengal. Today the outfit which allies with the ISIS has become a headache not just in Bangladesh, but in West Bengal as well, and the current news of some youth from Kerala having joined the ISIS travelling via Iran. The notorious case of Mehdi Masroor Biswas recruiting for the ISIS under Twitter handle @shamiwitness is well known but according to an NIA official there may be some 100 persons involved in such activity.
China Factor China not only has been supporting Pakistan’s terrorist activities in India, we can hardly ignore Chinese intelligence establishing the United Liberation Front of West, South, East Asia (ULFWSEA) bringing nine major North East militant groups including NSCN (K) and ULFA under common umbrella in Myanmar during May 2015. Threat from ULFWSEA should be viewed in its formation simultaneous to the announcement of India’s ‘Act East Policy’, in conjunction China’s claim to entire Arunachal Pradesh and the groups sitting astride the strategic IndiaMyanmar-Thailand Highway. Our media
is hollering to lift AFSPA from Manipur little realising how China will exploit the UNLFWSEA to wreak havoc in our North East, China having made her animosity towards India amply clear.
Conclusion Unless we take a concerted relook at the terror threats facing us and ensure high level coordination and synergy between political, military, intelligence agencies and other departments, we are likely to face more violence. The need for establishing credible deterrence to proxy wars being waged on us by our adversaries is vital. SP
RELENTLESS JOURNEY OF EXCELLENCE SINCE 1964
>> report / exercise
Chief of the Army Staff Inaugurates the Army Design Bureau Photograph: PIB
eneral Dalbir Singh, the Chief of the Army Staff (COAS), along with Lt General M.M.S. Rai, Vice Chief of Army Staff, and Lt General Subrata Saha, Deputy Chief of Army Staff (P&S), formally announced the establishment of the Army Design Bureau during an Army Seminar on Make Projects organised in partnership with the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) in New Delhi on August 31, 2016. Secretary Defence Production A.K. Gupta was the guest of honour at the event, which was attended by a large number of dignitaries and senior representatives of Indian industry, academia and leading research agencies. The COAS also launched the ‘Make in India Army Website’ which was hosted live during the inaugural session of the seminar. In his opening address R.S. Bhatia, Chairman of CII Land Systems Sub-committee, applauded the Army’s initiatives to reach out to industry for ‘Make Projects’. He emphasised that the Ministry of Defence (MoD) can make successful use of ‘Make Projects’ in import substitution as with increasing levels of import substitution, India will be closer to its goal of self-reliance. General Dalbir Singh also highlighted the need for government to handhold the industry, especially MSMEs, and assist them to actively participate in the defence procurement programmes. A.K. Gupta spoke about the initiatives taken by MoD during the last two years to facilitate larger participation of the Indian defence industry in meeting the requirements of the Indian armed forces. He also expressed satisfaction that the Army Design Bureau has finally been set up to be a repository of all technological information of Army’s warfighting assets and also act as a catalyst and facilitator for participation of industry, academia, R&D organisations to fulfill the “dream of self-reliance”. Addressing the gathering, General Dalbir Singh emphasised the need for the Army Design Bureau as this will enable faster trials, quicker induction of equipment as well as fast-track the procurement process and the modernisa-
Chief of the Army Staff General Dalbir Singh formally announcing the establishment of the Army Design Bureau
tion of the Indian Army. Referring to the Ordnance Factory Board (OFB), COAS said that the requirements of the Indian Army are large and only one agency cannot meet all the requirements. Industry involvement is a must as the ultimate security of a nation is self-reliance. He congratulated all in making the Army Design Bureau a reality. Earlier, during the annual press brief on the occasion of Army Day 2016, the COAS had announced that the Indian Army was soon going to have its own Design Bureau. Rapid changes in technology and consequent changes in warfighting techniques, requires the user, i.e. the Army, to be constantly involved at every stage from conceptualisation, design, development, trials, and production to sustenance. To facilitate the same, the Army Design Bureau shall be the interface of the Army with the Defence Research and Devel-
opment Organisation (DRDO), academia, defence public sector undertakings (DPSUs), OFBs and private industry paving the way for high quality research and development of defence products. In the run-up to the establishment of Army Design Bureau, the Indian Army undertook a series of Armyindustry-academia interactions since January this year. Lt General Subrata Saha and his team of senior officers carried out extensive interactions with a view to promoting awareness on Army’s modernisation needs, discovering capabilities of the industry and encouraging long-term research in the academia at various regional industrial hubs across the country. Twenty such interactive sessions have been carried out till date. Industry captains of major defence industries, MSMEs, start-ups have participated in these sessions. In addition, the team has carried out interactions with a number of leading institutes like the Indian Institute of Technology at Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Gandhinagar and PSG Institute of Technology and Applied Research at Coimbatore. These events provided an exclusive opportunity to industry and academia representatives to understand the requirements and interact with the Indian Army to seek clarifications directly from the user. The Indian Army will soon be publishing a comprehensive compendium giving out specific problem definitions which shall help the R&D fraternity in developing indigenous solutions for the Army’s modernisation needs. In order to streamline the procurement process further, the Army has also initiated a number of other steps to include structural changes in the procurement organisations and issue of compendium of revised SOPs in line with the Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) 2016. Following the formal announcement of establishment of the Army Design Bureau and launch of the website, a detailed deliberation on the Army’s ‘Make Projects’ was carried out in the second session of the seminar. The Army has identified 10 projects under ‘Make’ category for manufacturing by domestic defence industry. Indian Army is considering more projects to be taken up in ‘Make’ category, for which the preliminary process is already on. SP
Exercise Maitree 2016: Joint Indo-Thailand Military Exercise
he Indo-Thailand Military Exercise Maitree, which commenced on July 15, 2016, under the aegis of the Royal Thailand Army concluded on July 29, 2016, at Krabi, Thailand. Some 90 soldiers of the Indian Army and Royal Thailand Army had participated in the two-week-long exercise. The exercise included combined training, familiarisation with weapons and equipment used by both the countries, analysing groupings, drills and tactics while operating in counter-terrorism environment and modalities for conduct of area domination operations in urban environment apart from operations like cordon and search, raids and seek and destroy Missions. The combined training was an excellent opportunity to understand and learn from each other’s experiences. During the exercise both the armies were able to evolve common tactical procedures and drills to enhance interoperability. SP
(Top) Exercise Maitree country contingents during the opening ceremony in Thailand; (right) Soldiers of the Indian Army and Royal Thailand Army during the exercise.
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>> News in Brief RM dedicates DCN to the Nation
The Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar dedicated the Defence Communication Network (DCN) to the nation recently. Addressing the event, Parrikar complimented the three Services on putting in place a communication system to facilitate jointmanship. The Minister also stressed on the need to keep the network secure. The DCN is a strategic, exclusive, secure and state-of-the-art communication network. Implementation of DCN is a proof of strength of the Indian industry and has reaffirmed the emphasis of the government on ‘Make in India’, programme. The DCN is a major step towards ensuring network-centricity across the three Services, Integrated Defence Staff and Strategic Forces Command. The network provides converged voice, data and video services to the three Services based on secured system with adequate redundancy. The event was attended by the Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee and Chief of the Air Staff Air Chief Marshal Arup Raha, Chief of the Army Staff General Dalbir Singh, Chief of the Naval Staff Admiral Sunil Lanba and senior officers from the three Services and the Ministry of Defence.
Lockheed Martin CEO Underscores Commitment to India Lockheed Martin’s commitment to the Indian Government’s strategic ‘Make in India’ policy, the national ‘Skills Initiative’ and to working with industrial partners in India to expand its business footprint was a feature of discussions involving the corporation’s Chairman, President and CEO Marillyn Hewson during a visit to New Delhi. Meeting with political leaders, senior government officials and leading Indian industrialists, Hewson highlighted Lockheed Martin’s sponsorship of the India Innovation Growth Programme (IIGP) as an example of effective partnership in action. Backed by Lockheed Martin since 2007, IIGP is a partnership involving industry and academia in both India and the United States. It has underpinned Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s ‘Start Up India’ call by supporting more than 400 innovators and start-up companies since launch. Speaking at a dinner to celebrate the success of the IIGP as it enters its 10th year,
>> Show Calendar 6–8 September Land Forces 2016 Adelaide Convention Centre, Australia www.landforces.com.au
3–5 October AUSA Walter E. Washington Convention Center, Washington, DC, USA http://ausameetings. org/2016annualmeeting 25–26 October Armoured Vehicles Asia Hotel Grand Ambassador, Seoul, Republic of Korea www.armouredvehiclesasiaevent. com/?utm_medium=portal&mac=IDGA_ Events_Title_Listing 2–5 November 2016 Indo Defence JIExpo Kemayoran, Jakarta, Indonesia www.indodefence.com
SP’s Land Forces 4/2016
Hewson said: “We’re very proud to be a part of a programme to harness innovation and promote growth. It’s a natural endeavour for a global technology company like Lockheed Martin and an important way that we are able to contribute to the economic success of a nation where we’ve done business for many decades.” “As we continue to build on the momentum and traction gained in India over the past 25 years, Lockheed Martin has proven expertise leveraging our innovative technologies to help engineer success with our customers and partners,” said Hewson. “I look forward to growing our 25-year story in India and to establishing greater and more meaningful partnerships that will help grow the Indian economy and community.”
Javelin Joint Venture signs Letter of Intent with India’s Tata Power
US Army develops new engine for Black Hawk and Apache helicopters The US Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center’s Aviation Development Directorate (ADD) is developing a new military helicopter engine that would provide 50 per cent more power at the same weight as the current fielded engine. The advanced affordable turbine engine (AATE) demonstrator programme aims to develop a turboshaft engine with reduced fuel consumption and improved shaft horsepower. This engine configuration can be fitted into the Black Hawk and Apache installation envelopes, as well as current and Future Vertical Lift rotorcraft. It is said to improve range and payload capability and increase hot and high operational capability for Apache and Black Hawk platforms. Two cost share arrangements for the engines have been awarded to General Electric and Advanced Turbine Engine Company, a joint venture of Honeywell and Pratt & Whitney. The AATE programme culminated in 2014 with the completion of full engine system demonstrations, which included performance, durability and sand tests.
Indian Army takes delivery of new Dhanush artillery guns
The Indian Army has reportedly taken delivery of three indigenously developed 155mm Dhanush artillery guns from Gun Carriage Factory (GCF). Developed by the Ordnance Factory Board (OFB), the new artillery gun is a towed howitzer with a strike range of 38 km.The guns have been developed following the submission of design documents under the Phase I of transfer of technology (ToT) during the Bofors gun deal, the Press Trust of India reported, citing a GCF official. The army had ordered six howitzers following a series of successful trials, in which the gun successfully fired nearly 2,000 rounds in different climatic conditions. GCF Joint General Manager and PRO Sanjay Shrivastava were quoted by the PTI as saying: “Three 155mm howitzers (Dhanush) have been handed over to the army recently for user’s trial. Another consignment of three guns is being readied and these howitzers too will be delivered to the army shortly.” The army is seeking 114 Dhanush guns in total from GCF, in an effort to increase its firepower. Also called Desi Bofors, the Dhanush gun features electronic gun-laying and sighting systems and has an enhanced 11-km range, when compared to the 27-km range of the imported Bofors.
Saudi Arabia requests $1.15bn sale of battle tanks and vehicles from US The US Defense Security Cooperation Agency
he Javelin™ Joint Venture team, a partnership between Raytheon Company (NYSE: RTN) and Lockheed Martin (NYSE: LMT), signed a letter of intent (LOI) with Tata Power Company Limited operating through its Strategic Engineering Division (SED), to explore co-development and production of the Javelin anti-armour missile system. “This agreement brings together three world leaders in aerospace and defence technology to extend Javelin to new customers, new applications and new platforms,” said John Halvey, Javelin Joint Venture President at Raytheon Missile Systems. “With this deal, we are also reinforcing our continued support of the ‘Make in India’ initiative.” As part of the LOI, the Javelin Joint Venture (JJV) and Tata Power SED will create a strategy to co-develop and produce the Javelin missile system and integrate platform mounts to meet Indian requirements. This includes ground combat vehicle, dismounted infantry and rotorcraft applications. “The combat-proven Javelin contin-
(DSCA) has notified Congress of $1.15 billion potential sale of M1A2S Abrams main battle tanks (MBT) and M88Al/A2 heavy equipment recovery combat utility lift evacuation system (HERCULES) armoured recovery vehicles (ARV) to Saudi Arabia. Under the sale, Saudi Arabia requested 153 M1Al/ A2 tanks for conversion to 133 M1A2S Saudi Abrams configured MBTs, as well as 20 battle damage replacements, 20 M88A l/A2 Hercules ARVs and 169 AN/VAS-5 driver vision enhancer-Abrams (DVE-A). The sale will also cover 153 M2 .50-calibre machine guns, 266 7.62mm M240 machine guns, 153 M250 smoke grenade launchers, 133 AN/PVS-7B night vision devices, 4,256 rounds of M865 training ammunition, and 2,394 rounds of M831Al training ammunition. In addition, Saudi Arabia has sought overhaul and refurbishment services, spare and repair parts, communications equipment, personnel training and testing e quipment. The procurement of the equipment will improve the Royal Saudi Land Force’s (RSLF) interoperability with US forces. Saudi Arabia will use its enhanced capability to meet current and future threats, as well as provide greater security for its critical infrastructure. General Dynamics Land Systems will serve as the prime contractor for the sale, which will enhance Saudi Arabia’s ability to support its soldiers in the field and defend the Kingdom’s borders.
ues to fulfill a critical precision-strike role with our domestic and international partners,” said Rich Benton, Javelin Joint Venture Vice President and Javelin Program Director at Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control. “We look forward to working with Tata Power SED to maximise the versatility and lethality of Javelin on these new platforms.” In addition to meeting the Government of India’s ‘Make in India’ objectives, the LOI establishes a framework for future technological cooperation between the Javelin Joint Venture and Tata Power SED. “Since the early 1980s, Tata Power SED has established its R&D and ‘Make in India’ credentials, as part of Dr. Kalam’s Integrated Guided Missile Development Program,” said Rahul Chaudhry, Chief Executive Officer at Tata Power SED. “Now, our partnership with the JJV will bring the world’s best technology to our soldiers enabling battlefield supremacy. Indian industry will benefit immensely from the depth and range of this planned technology transfer and co-development.” SP
India’s DRDO tests armament system for advanced towed artillery gun The Indian Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has evaluated an armament system for an advanced towed artillery gun system (ATAGS) at Balasore, in the state of Odisha.A test-firing was carried out during recent technical trials conducted at Proof & Experimental Establishment (PXE).The ATAGS project forms part of the Indian Army’s artillery modernisation programme.The armament system provides accuracy up to a range of 40 km, and is equipped with a barrel, breech and recoil mechanisms, and a muzzle brake. The 155mm, 52-calibre ATAGS is configured with electric drive to ensure maintenance-free and reliable operation over a longer period of time, DRDO said in a statement. It will offer high mobility, quick deployability, an auxiliary power mode, advanced communication, and automatic command and control systems. The towed artillery gun also provides night-firing capabilities in direct fire mode. DRDO aims to have the first fully integrated system ready for user trials by early 2017. The gun is being developed with participation of Bharat Forge, Tata Power Strategic Engineering Division and Mahindra Defence Naval System to meet the Indian Army requirements, under the ‘Make in India’ initiative. ATAGS’s design and development will be carried out by DRDO’s Armament Research & Development Estab-
RELENTLESS JOURNEY OF EXCELLENCE SINCE 1964
>> News in Brief lishment (ARDE) in Pune along with other DRDO laboratories in the country.
India test-fires Barak-8 surfaceto-air ballistic missile
India has reportedly test-fired the Barak-8 surface-to-air ballistic missile from a test range at Chandipur, off the coast of Odisha state. The test firing was originally scheduled for 29 June, but was postponed due to undeclared reasons, reported the Press Trust of India (PTI). During the trial on June 30, the medium-range missile was successfully launched from the Integrated Test Range (ITR).The missile was to intercept a target supported by an unmanned air vehicle over the Bay of Bengal, according to a Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) official cited by PTI. DRDO’s Research Centre Imarat and Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) jointly developed the Barak-8 missile, and conducted testfiring alongside Indian defence personnel. The 4 m-long missile has a range of 70km, a weight of 275 kg, and a payload capacity of 60 kg. Combined with a multi-functional surveillance and threat alert radar (MF STAR), the missile is capable of identifying and disarming aerial threats. Nearly 3,652 residents living within a 2.5 km radius of the launch pad were moved to nearby shelter centres to ensure safety. Fishermen along the Bay of Bengal were asked not to
fish in the sea during the test launch. Bharat Dynamics has established a new facility to produce 100 long-range and mediumrange surface-to-air missiles annually.
Raytheon wins $523m contract to upgrade Patriot fire units for Kuwait
Raytheon has secured a $523 million contract from the US Army to modernise the State of Kuwait’s Patriot air and missile defence systems. Patriot is a long-range, high altitude, all-weather solution that counters threats from tactical ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, drones and advanced aircraft. In a statement, Raytheon said that the contract covers Configuration 3+ upgrades to Patriot, which are expected to provide Kuwaiti air defence systems with improved friend or foe identification and radar capabilities. The company will modernise six Patriot fire units for Kuwait under the contract. Raytheon Integrated Air and Missile Defense Vice President Ralph Acaba said: “Kuwait and other members of the 13-nation strong Patriot Partnership continue to invest in the system and trust Patriot to defend their citizens and militaries.” Scheduled for completion in March 2022, the work under the contract will be performed in the US, Norway, Italy, Greece, the UK and Canada. To date, Patriot has been tested more than 2,500 times by the US Army under real-world conditions. The system was recently upgraded with GaN-
India-Kazakhstan Joint Exercise ‘Prabal Dostyk–16’
based AESA radar technology to increase detection range and power and enable 360° coverage, as well as common command and control functionality to allow seamless operation with other systems.
CMI Defence to Partner US Army for Future Medium-Calibre System At the end of 2015, CMI Defence was selected by US Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) to be its partner within the framework of the development of an unmanned medium calibre turret. The project officially began at the beginning of 2016 with CMI Defence’s selection. Delivery of the turret to ARDEC is scheduled for mid-2017.CMI Defence already possesses a remarkable lead in the medium calibre weapons systems domain. The new turret will integrate the 30mm XM813 gun with a linkless ammunition handling system. It is planned that it will also receive a new precision fire control system with new user interfaces, allowing for a quicker, more accurate, and effective engagements of targets by its users.CMI Defence President Jean-Luc Maurange said: “Being selected by the American Army to develop its future medium calibre system is a first rate demonstration of recognition for CMI Defence. Participating in this development is of substantial importance to us. It enables us to be ideally positioned within the framework of the future American modernisation programme for the Stryker fleet of systems.”
University for Defence Purposes The Government of India has accorded ‘inprinciple’ approval for setting up of Indian National Defence University (INDU) in the district of Gurgaon in Haryana. The salient features of INDU are as under: l INDU will be set up as a fully autonomous institution to be constituted by an Act of Parliament to develop and propagate higher education in the field of Defence Studies, Defence Management, Defence Science & Technology and promote policy oriented research on all aspects relating to National Security and Strategy. l The participants in INDU shall be from armed forces, paramilitary forces, civil police organisations, intelligence organisations, bureaucracy (civil, foreign and allied services), diplomats, academicians, universities students, doctoral and post-doctoral researchers and participants from friendly foreign countries. The project will be implemented in three phases spread over a period of ten years at an estimated cost of `2,072 crore. INDU will be established after promulgation of INDU Act by the Parliament. This information was given by Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar in a written reply to George Baker in Lok Sabha today. SP
s a part of India’s continued efforts to strengthen Indo-Kazakhstan relations, troops of Indian & Kazakhstan Army are presently engaging in a joint exercise ‘Prabal Dostyk – 16. The Indian Army is being represented by a platoon strength. The Kazakhstan Army contingent comprise of platoon from Special Operating Force’s Unit. A pioneering endeavour with the Kazakhstan Army, the exercise is being conducted in Karaganda region of Kazakhstan and will conclude on September 17, 2016. The primary aim of the 14-day exercise will be to enhance interoperability while undertaking counter terrorism &
counter-insurgency operations in rural and semi-urban environment under the umbrella of United Nations. The exercise will be conducted in two stages: first stage will be to familiarise with each others tactics, drills, weapons & equipment, whereas in the second stage troops of both the armies will graduate to jointly execute a helicopter borne operation in a simulated environment. Combat battle drills and physical fitness will be the focal point of the exercise. ‘Prabal Dostyk’ meaning ‘Robust Friendship’ will be a significant step towards fostering military as well as diplomatic ties between both countries. SP
Lt General Bipin Rawat took over as Vice Chief of Army Staff of the Indian Army on September 1, 2016. He was the General Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Southern Command, at Pune prior to his current appointment. Lt General P.M. Hariz on September 1, 2016 assumed office of the General Officer Commanding-in-Chief of the Indian Army’s Southern Command at the Command headquarters in Pune. He was the General Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Army Training Command, at Pune prior to his current appointment.
Publisher and Editor-in-Chief Jayant Baranwal Editor Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd) Senior Editorial Contributor Lt General P.C. Katoch (Retd) Senior Technical Group Editor Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd) Air Marshal B.K. Pandey (Retd) Assistant Group Editor R. Chandrakanth Contributors India General V.P. Malik (Retd), Lt General Vijay Oberoi (Retd), Lt General R.S. Nagra (Retd), Lt General S.R.R. Aiyengar (Retd), Major General Ashok Mehta (Retd), Major General G.K. Nischol (Retd), Brigadier Gurmeet Kanwal (Retd), Brigadier S. Mishra (Retd), Rohit Sharma Chairman & Managing Director Jayant Baranwal Executive Vice President (Planning & Business Development) Rohit Goel Administration Bharti Sharma Asst-Admin, HR & Infra Pooja Tehlani Creative Director Anoop Kamath Design Vimlesh Kumar Yadav, Sonu Singh Bisht Research Assistant: Graphics Survi Massey Sales & Marketing Director Sales & Marketing: Neetu Dhulia General Manager Sales: Rajeev Chugh SP’s Website Sr. Web Developer: Shailendra P. Ashish Web Developer: Ugrashen Vishwakarma Published bimonthly by Jayant Baranwal on behalf of SP Guide Publications Pvt Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, photocopying, recording, electronic, or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publishers. Printed in India by Kala Jyothi Process Pvt Ltd © SP Guide Publications, 2016 Subscription/ Circulation Annual Inland: `600 • Overseas: US$180 Email: email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Letters to Editor email@example.com For Advertising Details, Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com SP GUIDE PUBLICATIONS PVT LTD Corporate Office A 133 Arjun Nagar, Opp Defence Colony, New Delhi 110003, India Tel: +91(11) 24644693, 24644763, 24620130 Fax: +91 (11) 24647093 Regd Office Fax: +91 (11) 23622942 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Representative Offices Bengaluru, INDIA Air Marshal B.K. Pandey (Retd) 204, Jal Vayu Vihar, Kalyan Nagar, Bengaluru 560043, India. Tel: +91 (80) 23682204 MOSCOW, RUSSIA LAGUK Co., Ltd, Yuri Laskin Krasnokholmskaya, Nab., 11/15, app. 132, Moscow 115172, Russia. Tel: +7 (495) 911 2762, Fax: +7 (495) 912 1260 www.spguidepublications.com www.spslandforces.com RNI Number: DELENG/2008/25818
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