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In This Issue
Indian Army’s Modernisation Woes
Page 4 Exclusive
The army’s ‘critical shortages’ and obsolescence of its current equipment include 155mm howitzers, light utility helicopters, attack helicopters, air defence assets, various categories of ammunition, anti-tank and AD missile systems, close quarter battle (CQB) carbines, assault rifles, machine guns, sniper rifles and anti-material rifles Ministry of Commerce ‘Facilitator’ of ‘Make in India’ Initiatives
photograph: SP Guide Pubns
Page 6 Army Air Defence – An Update The security environment in India’s neighbourhood is always on a dangerous threshold thus it is essential to continuously modernise AAD weaponry and manpower. Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd) Page 8 Defence Budget 2016-17 and the Status of Indian Army Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd) Page 10 Modernisation of Artillery Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd) Page 12 Indo-Israeli Defence Cooperation (Army) Praising Modi’s ‘Make in India’ initiative, Israel’s Defence Minister Moshe Ya’alon said that Israel wants to take advantage of it and added that the NDA Government has brought a new vigour to bilateral defence ties Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd) Page 14 Helicopters: Expanding Capabilities and Emerging Missions Military aviation today is looking at the nextgeneration of military helicopters and the strategy to modernise vertical-lift capability in the long term, with improved avionics, electronics, range, speed, propulsion, survivability and high altitude performance Lt General B.S. Pawar (Retd) Plus
Exercise Force 18 News in Brief
Akash AD Weapon System
Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd)
he past decade or so has severely degraded the war-fighting capabilities of the Indian Army. The army’s ‘critical shortages’ and obsolescence of its current equipment include 155mm howitzers, light utility helicopters, attack helicopters, air defence assets, various categories of ammunition, anti-tank and AD missile systems, close quarter battle (CQB) carbines, assault rifles, machine guns, sniper rifles, and anti-material rifles. The majority of its main battle tanks (MBTs) and infantry combat vehicle (ICV)
fleets are night-blind and its light utility helicopter (LUH) fleet, inducted into service from 1964, is obsolete. Engineering equipment, anti-tank guided missiles (ATGMs), armoured recovery vehicles and other specialist vehicles, are either outdated, in short supply, or simply non-existent. Adding to the existing shortages is the new raising of the Mountain Strike Corps for our Eastern theatre, which is expected to reduce the army’s reserve stocks called “War Wastage Reserves” in terms of equipment and munitions further. The notable features of arm wise modernisation required in the army and the steps taken, as known through open
sources, are given in the succeeding paragraphs with respect to armour, mechanised infantry, artillery, air defence artillery and infantry.
Armour Arjun Tank The army had equipped two regiments with Arjun tanks out of the 124 Arjun main battle tanks ordered by it earlier. As a result of the satisfactory feedback by the units and from the tank crews, an additional 124 Arjun Mark II tanks have been ordered subject to satisfactory development of the upgraded Mark II version
Applied for 1/2016 SP’s Land Forces
E D ITO R I A L
The onset of the New Year witnessed the attack on the Pathankot airbase of the Indian Air Force, which has an area of about 800 hectares and a 24-km-long perimeter wall. The general laxity in protecting this forward airbase was evident. So was the perceived lack of command, control and coordination among different security agencies during the conduct of the operation. It is distressing to note that despite 25 years of facing
proxy war launched by Pakistan on our western borders, our responses, organisational drills and procedures at national level and our combat equipment are still far from satisfactory. Seven weeks later another operation was carried by three well armed terrorists from Pakistan in Pampore on the outskirts of Srinagar. While the Para Commandos of the Army killed the three terrorists, they lost two officers and a commando jawan in the process. Both operations showed significant lack of use of modern technology, surveillance devices, modern weapon systems and night-fighting aids. We are losing well trained young officers and soldiers for want of better equipment and for this we must blame our senior military hierarchy who seem to have lost their will to stand up to their political leaders.
of the tank for equipping two more regiments. These tanks will have substantially upgraded capabilities of firepower, mobility and protection. The development of Arjun Mark II tank with a large number of improvements has commenced and technical trials incorporating the improvements have been carried out in Rajasthan. However due to unsuccessful trials especially concerning the main armament of the tank in which problems are being encountered in integrating the anti-tank guided missiles to fire through the main 120mm tank gun. Further delay is expected in series manufacture of the Arjun Mk II. Presently the army is hard put to maintain its current fleet of Arjun tanks because of lack of spares. The Arjun tank is indigenous in name only because a large number of its systems and parts amounting to about 60 per cent are still imported.
T-90s These have now been fully operationalised and integrated in the armoured regiments. As per media reports the army has till now inducted around 780 T-90 tanks out of a total 1,657 T-90S tanks it eventually wants. The defects in feeding the ballistic data of various lots of ammunition fired from the tanks has now been brought under control. On September 13, 2013, a major deal was cleared by the Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) for the manufacturing of 236 additional T-90 tanks for the Indian Army, worth over `6,000 crore ($940 million), will be executed by the Avadi Heavy Vehicles Factory that already has a licence from Russia to manufacture T-90 tanks from kits purchased from Russia. A contract, worth about `3,200 crore ($470 million), has been signed for the deliveries of the Invar missiles, fired through Russian-built T-90 tanks. According to media reports, India plans to purchase 25,000 Invar missiles for its T-90 tanks, including 10,000 to be procured directly from Russia and 15,000 more to be manufactured domestically under a Russian licence. Improvements in T-72 Tank The T-72 M1 modernisation programme under Project Rhino is inordinately delayed. This was intended to extend the service life of the MBT by 20 years; enhance their accuracy with new fire control system (FCS) whose trials have been completed. This will give night fighting capability through a thermal imager integrated with the tank’s FCS. This contract is in an advanced stage of being finalised. In the meanwhile 600 T-72 tanks of the Army have been fitted with thermal imaging stand-
SP’s Land Forces 1/2016
The latest talking point of military and strategic analysts is the defence budget 2016-17. The most intriguing part is the obviously deliberate omission of any mention of the defence budget in the Finance Minister’s 90 minutes presentation of the union budget in the Parliament. Whatever may be the reasons, what needs to be understood by all is that while old adversarial threats due to unresolved borders remain, new challenges like insurgencies and terrorism have emerged. If the armed forces have to prepare for the full spectrum of threat then the nation will have to set aside three to four per cent of GDP for defence services minus the defence pensions which do not contribute to capability development of the armed forces. We cannot expect a 40-division Army, a 42-squadron Air Force and 150-platform Navy,
alone sights (TISAS). Thus about 1,000 remaining T-72 tanks will be fitted with more modern integrated fire control systems (IFCS) which will be fitted on the new gun barrel, i.e. gun barrels of T-90M capable of firing conventional munitions and guided missiles. Therefore the problem that is likely to be encountered is the synchronisation of this gun with the integrated fire control system as these are from different vendors. Commanders Thermal Imaging night sight is being acquired through BEL Ltd. The T-72 tanks are additionally being equipped with new type of explosive reactive armour (ERA) panels which will provide protection against kinetic energy as well as tandem warhead, chemical energy projectiles, along with a laser warning system and new radio sets for better and more secure communications. A new power pack of 1,000 hp is also under consideration to further enhance mobility in view of the heavy ERA packages that are being strapped on. An auxiliary power pack for environmental control and integrated fire detection and suppression system are also being introduced. The modernisation of the T-72 is way behind schedule due to complicated procurement procedures exacerbated by delayed decision-making and inhouse disagreements. The T-90, the improved T-72 M1 tanks and Arjun tanks, will constitute India’s armour might in the future till the FRCV becomes a reality. Future Ready Combat Vehicle The army aims to develop a multi-purpose Future Ready Combat Vehicle (FRCV) to replace its ageing fleet of over 2,200 licencebuilt Russian T-72M/M1 MBTs by 2027. The proposed FRCV will supplement the army’s 657 imported T-90S MBTs and another 1,000 that will be locally built, as well as 242 indigenously developed Arjun MBTs, of which around 100 are presently under manufacture. Based on the Russian Armata Universal
The Arjun tank is indigenous in name only because a large number of its systems and parts amounting to about 60 per cent are still imported
to be maintained and modernised by an allocation less than two per cent of the GDP. Currently the Indian Army is organised and trained to fight conventional wars of the 20th century, which are unlikely to occur. They also have the capability and the will to fight insurgencies and proxy wars but with outdated technologies, methodologies and weapon systems which is taking a heavy toll of its soldiery. Thus we recommend: l India should immediately institute a Strategic Defence and Security Review, comprising experts from various fields, with a wide ranging mandate given to this body of experts. They should indicate the type of operations that the armed forces should be prepared to respond to on the borders, in out of area operations, and internally and
Combat Platform concept, the FRCV will form the base platform on which a family of combat vehicles will be developed. These will include ambulance, bridge-laying, mine clearing, self-propelled howitzers, air defence, artillery observation post and engineering reconnaissance vehicles.
Mechanised Infantry BMP2 Upgrade The mechanised infantry is currently equipped with the BMP-2 infantry combat vehicle (ICV) named Sarath manufactured by Ordnance Factory Medak under licence from Russia. Over 1,500 of these have been manufactured since 1987. A number of variants have been made. The vehicle’s chassis is also modified and developed into versions such as the Nag anti-tank missile carrier (NAMICA) and the Akash airdefence missile system. The Indian Army will upgrade around 1,000 of its BMP-2 / 2K infantry combat vehicle fleet in an effort to enhance their capability to address operational requirements. Upgrades include integration of latest generation fire control system, twin missile launchers and commander’s thermal imaging panoramic sights, anti-tank guided missiles, as well as automatic grenade launchers, upgrading its existing NBC system, fire detection and suppression system, and ERA panels to provide extra protection and a new power pack. The Russian UTD-20 engine 285 hp will be replaced by a 380 hp power pack to enable the platform to carry the additional weapon load and traverse rough terrain, gradients, and water. No vendor has yet been selected for the retrofit, but the Ministry of Defence (MoD) is believed to favour the Ordnance Factory at Medak in Telangana, that licence-builds the current ICVs. Future Infantry Combat Vehicle Programme On February 15, six local companies submitted their project reports for the army’s `1,00,000-crore Future Infantry Combat Vehicle (FICV) programme which was initiated in 2008-09 but abandoned three years later, and resurrected once again in 2014. The FICV project is a ‘test case’ for India’s indigenous weapon-designing capability. The bids are from five private sector companies that have technology tieups with overseas vendors and the OFB. They will design and build 2,610 tracked, amphibious and air-transportable 20-tonne FICVs to replace the army’s ageing fleet of Russian BMP-2/2K Sarath ICVs under the DPP’s ‘Make (Indian)’ category. The pri-
the type of overall capability that should be acquired by the armed forces. l India should evolve and enact a National Security Strategy which should broadly indicate our interests and responses within the country, in the regional as well as in the global context. This will give broad indications to the military for their planning purposes. This issue of SP’s Land Forces carries articles on defence modernisation, and separate articles on artillery and air defence modernisation among others.
Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd)
vate manufacturers bidding for the FICV project include: Mahendra Defence teamed with BAE Systems; L&T, which is partnering with Samsung Heavy Engineering; Pipavav Defence; Tata Motors in a consortium with Bharat Forge and General Dynamics of the United States; and Tata Power (SED), which has a joint venture with Titagarh Wagons. MoD has appointed a 10-member Integrated Project Management Team (IPMT), headed by a two-star army general who will evaluate the bids and shortlist two development agencies (DA) that will build one FICV prototype each within 24-36 months. The OFB gets an automatic nomination for the FICV project, which is being implemented under the ‘Make (Indian)’ category of the DPP 2008. The MoD will finance 80 per cent of the FICV prototypes, one of which will be selected following user trials around 2020-21. It is expected that the FICV will be powered by a 600 hp engine and armed with fire-and-forget anti-tank guided missiles (ATGMs) with a 4.5-km range, 40mm grenade launchers, a secondary armament with a 2-km range, and a 7.62mm coaxial machine gun. It will be operated by a threeman crew and capable of transporting seven infantrymen. NBC protection and communications on army’s network-centric grid will be a part of the project.
Artillery Artillery Fire power As part of its artillery modernisation plan, the army is looking at inducting several types of howitzers through in house manufacture by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)/Ordnance Factory Board (OFB), inter-governmental pacts and global tenders. The last major acquisition of towed gun-howitzers was that of 400 pieces of 39-calibre 155mm FH-77B howitzers with a range of 30-km from Bofors of Sweden in 1987. This gun proved its mettle in the Kargil conflict. After about 25 years of neglect during which the 100mm and 122mm field guns of Russian origin and the indigenously developed and manufactured 75/24 howitzer joined the long list of obsolete equipment, the artillery modernisation continues to stagnate. Details of the actions underway to modernise the artillery are given in a seperate article.
Air Defence Artillery The Corps of Army Air Defence holds a large variety of guns and missile systems. It has 40mm L/70, ZU-23-2 Twin gun, ZSU-23-4 Continued on page 5...
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>> make in india exclusive The Narendra Modi-led Government is going aggressive on several initiatives and top of them all is the ‘Make in India’ plan. All the ministries are working in that direction, more so the Ministry of Commerce and Industry which is key to the push that is required for not just self-reliance in several sectors but also to give it an export momentum. In response to questions from Jayant Baranwal, Editor-in-Chief of SP’s Land Forces, the ‘Make in India’/Invest India team at the respective offices, on behalf of the Minister of Commerce and Industry, Nirmala Sitharaman, has outlined the ‘Make in India’ plans in the aerospace and defence sectors, the sectors that are going to give a massive thrust to development. The team on behalf of the Minister has responded to SP’s specific questions. Excerpts:
Ministry of Commerce ‘Facilitator’ of ‘Make in India’ Initiatives SP’s Land Forces (SP’s): When you say ‘Make in India’ what exactly is the destination – (a) to get foreign OEMs to manufacture the military platforms in India for Indian market and (b) to get foreign OEMs to manufacture for the overseas markets? Ministry: The main objective of the ‘Make in India’ campaign is to transform India into a global design and manufacturing hub. The products manufactured in India can be used for domestic consumption and can be exported as well. SP’s: What all incentives the foreign OEMs are supposed to get under the campaign? Ministry: As per the extant Defence Procurement Procedure 2013, foreign direct investment (FDI) in joint ventures with Indian enterprises is considered as an eligible avenue for discharge of offset obligations in India. SP’s: In view of creating a solid Indiabased industrial complex, what all steps are being taken? Ministry: The government has taken the following initiatives in order to build an indigenous defence manufacturing base in India:
products? The detailed strategy can be
Liberalisation of FDI cap in defence
accessed from the link pasted (http:// ddpmod.gov.in/showfile.php?lid=174)
manufacturing. FDI up to 49 per cent is
Notified list of military stores requiring
allowed under the automatic route. FDI beyond 49 per cent is allowed under government route on a case to case basis, which is likely to result in access to modern and state-of-the-art technology in the country.
No Objection Certificate from Department of Defence Production? The
Issue of list of equipment requiring an
industrial licence and liberalising regulations. The detailed list can be accessed
from the link pasted (http://dipp.nic. in/English/acts_rules/Press_Notes/ pn3_2014.pdf) Finalisation of security manual for
Notified strategy for export of defence
licensed defence industry? The security
manual can be accessed from the link pasted (http://ddpmod.gov.in/showfile. php?lid=151) Increase in initial validity of industrial
licence? The initial validity of industrial licence has been extended to 15 years, which is further extendable up to 18 years for existing as well as future licences.
SP’s Land Forces 1/2016
detailed list can be accessed from the link pasted (http://dgft.gov.in/exim/2000/ NOT/NOT13/not11513.pdf) SP’s: Will the technologies be borrowed/ purchased from overseas? Ministry: Yes, the technologies will be transferred by the foreign companies. SP’s: Will the route of transfer of technology (ToT) be used to enable fast establishment of industries offering instant delivery possibilities? Ministry: No, transfer of technology will only enable the foreign companies to get more incentives. It will not enable faster establishment of such industries. SP’s: Research & development – it has been confined to DRDO (Defence Research and Development Organisation), in our
country so far. What all is being done to expand the number of players in India? Ministry: The government is considering providing incentives for undertaking R&D activities in India. As per the information available in public domain, the government is considering to fund private R&D for building a defence technology base in the country for which various norms will be stipulated in the Defence Procurement Procedure 2016. Moreover, the first budget of the current government had also provided for creating a `100-crore technology development fund to provide resources to public and private sector companies to support research and development (R&D) of defence systems. SP’s: Will the government be funding any programmes in case private sector companies are willing to work on development of certain military programmes? Ministry: Yes. The fund is being created to support companies to invest in R&D. SP’s: How about stronger accountability within DRDO ensuring that there is less wastage of public monies, while
the results do not really align with those dimensions? Ministry: The government is taking steps to improve the performance of DRDO to transform the organisation into a hub for defence manufacturing.
FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI) SP’s: As current level is 49 per cent (raised from 26 to 49), which kind of programmes may still attract beyond the limit of 49 per cent? Ministry: As per the FDI policy, now FDI beyond 49 per cent is allowed under approval route in cases which result in access to modern and state-of-the-art technology in the country. SP’s: What has been the total of FDI till now as a result of the referred raise? Ministry: As per the statistics published on DIPP (Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion) website, defence sector has managed to received FDI amounting to `0.48 crore between September 2014 to December 2015 (i.e the time since the FDI cap was increased from 26 to 49 per cent). SP
RELENTLESS JOURNEY OF EXCELLENCE SINCE 1964
>> modernisation Indian Army’s Modernisation......continued from page 2 Schilka, Tanguska, Kvadrat (medium-range missile system), OSA-AK (short-range missile system) and Igla shoulder-fired missile system in its inventory. The 40mm L/70 which is about four decades old, needs immediate replacement. Considering the high costs of new weapon systems, the Army is going in for weapon upgrades for L-70, ZU-23-2 Twin gun, and ZSU-23-4 Schilka. Meanwhile, the army is looking for successors to L-70 and the ZU-23-2. Successor to Schilka (ZSU-23-4) already exists in the form of Tangushka, but in limited numbers. A request for information has already been issued to find a replacement for Schilka. Actions to replace the obsolete missile systems for mechanised columns is also underway. A dedicated article on air defence artillery is included separately in this issue.
Infantry The F-INSAS project was mooted in 2005 and it aimed at deploying a fully networked, all-weather, and all-terrain infantry, with enhanced firepower and the mobility to operate in the digitalised battlefield. This involved a mix of imported and locally developed systems, to equip about 400 battalions of infantry and Rashtriya Rifles with a modular, multi-calibre suite of weapons and body armour. The entire capability desired includes target acquisition, communications, and portable surveillance equipment, including third-generation night-vision devices, as well as computers capable of transmitting and uploading voice, data and video clips on wrist
displays for soldiers and clipboards for commanders. Additionally, integrated ballistic helmets with head-up displays (HUDs), miniature radios, global positioning systems, and portable power packs complete the F-INSAS makeover. The point to note is that not even one part of the project has made any progress. Assault Rifles Army is on the lookout for assault rifles (AR) to replace the INSAS 5.56mm rifles with technologically superior weapons. The MoD issued the tender for 66,000, 5.56mm multi-calibre assault rifles out of a total requirement of about 2,00,000 assault rifles in November 2011 to 43 overseas vendors. Five vendors responded positively. However all five vendors comprising Italian manufacturer Beretta’s ARX160, the Czech Republic-based CZ’s 805 BREN, Israel Weapon Industries’ (IWI) ACE, and US-based Colt’s Combat Rifle were rejected by the army following field trials in the western Rajasthan desert and in high-altitude regions. The army has instead keeping the ‘Make in India’ concept in mind has decided to do away with its multi-calibre requirement and has opted instead for the indigenously designed Excalibur 5.56 x 45mm assault rifle. Around 200 Excalibur prototypes, made at the OFB’s Rifle Factory Ishapur (RFI) in eastern India, are scheduled to undergo user evaluation trials later this year in varied terrain. Once approved, the army plans to induct over 6,00,000 Excalibur rifles for around `26,000 crore (`3.6 billion). The Excalibur is an upgraded version of the DRDO-designed Indian Small Arms
System (INSAS) 5.56 x 45mm assault rifle, which the army rejected in 2010 for being ‘operationally inadequate.’ The gas-operated, fully automatic rifle has a foldable butt, a Picatinny rail for sights, sensors, and bipods, and its polycarbonate magazine is superior to that of the INSAS rifle, known to frequently crack in extreme hot and cold climates. The Excalibur’s barrel is 4mm shorter than the INSAS model and its hand guard is smaller. The DRDO is also designing a second version of the Excalibur, the AR-2 that fires 7.62 x 39mm rounds used by AK-47. The AR-2 will be offered as an alternative to the AK-47, Russian origin, rifle. Carbines For over five years the Indian Army has operated without a CQB carbine, a basic infantry weapon, essential to a force which claims to be among the best and most operationally committed in the world, ever ready to take on any challenge. The current situation is the verdict on the outcome of the 2010 tender for 44,618, CQB carbines (5.56mm), trials for which concluded in 2013, after which Beretta’s ARX160 and IWI’s Galil ACE models were shortlisted, is yet to be given. The selected weapon system will be licence-produced by the OFB to meet the requirement of three to four lakh CQB carbines for the army, paramilitary, and state police forces. The army has been without a carbine since 2010, after the OFB discontinued the licensed production of the Sterling 1A1 9mm sub-machine gun it had employed for decades.
Army Aviation Corps—Helicopters Presently the Army Aviation Corps (AAC) has in its inventory the light observation class (Cheetah and Chetak) mostly. These helicopters are obsolete and have been in service since the 1960s and require immediate replacement. As per the latest information in this field the AAC is likely to receive licence-built Russian Kamov Ka-226T ‘Hoodlum’ light multi-role helicopters from 2018 onwards. HAL is likely to form a joint venture with Russian Helicopters to licencebuild 200 Kamov Ka-226T ‘Hoodlum’ light multi-role helicopters. The public sector Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) is scheduled to produce the first of 140 twin-engine Ka-226Ts within two years for the AAC and the Indian Air Force (IAF) at a new facility in Tumakuru, 74 km north of Bengaluru. According to officials, HAL will gradually increase the platform’s indigenous content to a maximum 30 per cent. The first 60 Ka-226Ts will be imported directly to meet urgent operational requirements, under a $1-billion inter-governmental agreement (IGA) announced during Prime Minister Modi’s Moscow visit in December 2015. The Tumakuru complex is also expected to manufacture 187 HAL-designed singleengine light utility helicopters (LUHs) for the AAC and the IAF.
Conclusion The list of voids and obsolescence of army’s major weapon systems is alarming. This happens to a force when it is neglected by the government for a long period of time as it has happened in the case of the army. SP
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>> air defence
Army Air Defence – An Update The security environment in India’s neighbourhood is always on a dangerous threshold thus it is essential to continuously modernise AAD weaponry and manpower photograph: SP Guide Pubns
Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd)
Schilka Air Defence gun
rmy Air Defence (AAD) is an important component of modern warfare as air power and air threat is developing rapidly due to improved aeronautics, avionics and armament. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), cruise and ballistic missiles have added another dimension to the threat. UAVs are cost effective, easy to acquire and operate thus a counter to this threat has to be acquired. The security environment in India’s neighbourhood is always on a dangerous threshold thus it is essential to continuously modernise AAD weaponry and manpower.
Current scenario and future plans Gun Systems 40mm-L/70. 40mm-L/70 is the main stay of AAD and has been the warhorse of AAD since 1964. It was to be replaced by 2000 however there is no progress. The Defence Research and Development Organisation’s (DRDO) development effort also kept its replacement at a limb for about two decades. Not many gun systems are currently available but a possible choice was Skyshield of Rheinmetall AD but unfortunately the company was blacklisted by India but the present government is reviewing the situation and the process of acquisition may restart soon. This area is most critical as India cannot afford to replace all of them with missiles. The time frame for such a major acquisition will take about five years to fructify. After that notionally if 10 regiments have to be provided with the new guns then at the rather ambitious rate of one regiment per year, it will take 10 years to equip all the 10 regiments. That takes it to 2030 and if the gun remains current for even three decades, the time frame will be 2060. The air threat will change rapidly and these systems will become obsolete thus the need for urgency with more modern guns and ammunition. Upgrade of 40mm L70. The gun has been upgraded jointly by BEL and Ordnance Factory, Jabalpur; with electric power lay and electro-optical sighting system. The process of induction of this system is in progress. However at best this an interim solution as the basic gun remains of the early 1960s vintage and this combination cannot work in the night and fire control radar is still required. 23mm Twin gun. This is a fair weather gun system which is of more than three decades old however its rate of firing is very good (2,000 rounds per minute). It is suitable for mobile role and employment in the mountains. Upgrade of 23mm Twin gun. It has been upgraded by BEL and Punj Lloyd. Punj Lloyd had tied up with a Polish company and their system has been shortlisted for the Indian Army. The upgrade includes power lay and electro-optical sighting system which will enhance its capability manifold and also provide it with night firing capability. Schilka system. It is a highly mobile system for supporting armour formations and is in service since the early 1970s. Its successor was Tangushka, one regiment of which was procured, but there were many twists and turns for buying additional mounts. The result is that the armour formations are devoid of mobile AAD guns as the old Schilkas are obsolete and difficult to maintain.
SP’s Land Forces 1/2016
Schilka upgrade. The Schilka upgrade has been carried out jointly by BEL with Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) for the fire control radar and Elta for the thermal imager and the laser range finder. The upgrade package includes a more powerful engine, digital computer, better electrooptical sighting system and a new fire control radar. The four barrel 23mm gun with a rate of fire of 3,400 rounds per minute has been retained and there is a provision for firing shoulder fired missiles. The induction has also started and the upgraded system will manage the air threat for the next decade or so. Meanwhile, a better system should be acquired. Super-Vulcan of IAI. The Super-Vulcan is an advanced tank-based, mobile air defence system in service in the Israeli Air Force. It has M113/Vulcan/Stinger launchers with an enhanced suit of TV and FLIR target auto-tracking capability. It has an effective range from 500 m to 6,000 m against helicopters and 8,000 m against aircraft. Missile Systems Quick Reaction SAM (QR SAM) system. The current system is OSA-AK which is a highly mobile system, acquired for the air defence of armour formations. This system is more than 20 years old and needs to be replaced. DRDO’s effort to develop Trishul system did not succeed and a RFP had been issued twice. Hopefully the current RFP will be taken to its logical conclusion. Following systems are available globally: Tor-M1 9M330 SHORAD system. The Tor-M1 SHORAD (SAM-15) designed by Almaz-Antey of Russia, is a classic mobile Russian system designed especially for air defence of armoured and other mobile formations. Tor is successor to OSA-AK SHORAD (SAM-8) system. It can engage targets from medium to very low-altitudes, against many types of aerial targets like helicopters, fighters, UAVs, guided/cruise missiles and precision guided weapon; in an intense jamming environment. The combat vehicle can operate autonomously and can also fire on
the move. The system can be brought into action in three minutes and typical reaction time, from target detection to missile launch, could range from 3.4 seconds for stationary positions to 10 seconds while on the move. Each fire unit can engage two separate targets. Tor-M1 can detect and track up to 48 targets at a maximum range of 25 km. It can engage two targets simultaneously at a range of 1 to 12 km and altitude of 10 to 6,000 m with a kill probability of 92-95 per cent. Surface launched advanced medium-range air-to-air missile (SLAMRAAM). SLAMRAAM is a key player in Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems’ state-of-the-art integrated air and missile defence systems which can counter current and future cruise missile threats, and a wide range of air breathing threats. SLAMRAAM is capable of defending manoeuvring land forces, high-value fixed assets and mass population centres. SLAMRAAM is the US Army’s domestic variant of the Norwegian advanced surface-to-air missile system (NASAMS). SLAMRAAM system uses the AMRAAM fire-and-forget missile, a surveillance radar, a fire distribution centre and AMRAAM launchers. The SLAMRAAM launcher mounts six AMRAAM missiles on a turreted high-mobility multi-purpose wheeled vehicle which provides 360° coverage. The US Army uses the Raytheon AN/ MPQ-64 Sentinel radar to carry out the surveillance and target search, acquisition, identification and tracking functions. The electronically scanned phased array radar uses range gate pulse doppler operation at X-band, has a scan rate of 30 rpm and range of 75 km. Hawk-AMRAAM air defence system. Raytheon and Kongsberg Defence have jointly developed the Hawk-AMRAAM air defence system, which combines the capabilities of Hawk and AMRAAM missiles by integrating the system with FDC. The system can include the Sentinel radar and the Hawk AN/MPQ-61 high power illuminator for target tracking and illumination, although it is possible to hook up with any
number of radars and missile systems to the FDC. It has been reported that Hawk has been upgraded and named Hawk 21 with the FDC developed by Kongsberg as part of NASAM system.
Medium Range SAM (MRSAM) System Kvadrat. Kvadrat is the current system which is more than 35 years old and has the technology of early 1960s thus an RFP has been issued but later on withdrawn due to poor response. As DRDO’s Akash has not been found suitable for mobile role, a few regiments of Akash has been contracted for semi-static role. Joint venture (JV) of DRDO and Israel Aerospace Industries. This JV is for the development of long/medium-range SAM. There are many name to the same system like Barak next-generation, longrange SAM (LRSAM) and MRSAM. The LRSAM is the naval version which has been successfully fired on December 30, 2015, from INS Kolkata. Land version is called MRSAM, is said to be a very advanced SAM that can track and shoot down incoming missiles and other flying objects with very high level of accuracy. While LRSAM is for Navy, the Air Force has already an order for MRSAM and the Army variant has been recently approved. The system includes a missile and multi-functional surveillance and Threat alert radar for detection, tracking and guidance of the missile. An Army version of the MRSAM for one regiment worth about `9,000 crore (about $1.4 billion) was agreed upon between Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar and his Israeli counterpart Moshe Ya’alon during his visit to India in February 2015. However, given the requirement this number is expected to go up. The missiles will be manufactured by the Bharat Dynamics Limited. Shoulder-fired SAM Systems. The current system is Igla which is also in service with the Indian Navy and the Air Force. A tri-service RFP was issued and comparative trials have been carried out but there has been no further development. SP
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Defence Budget 2016-17 and the Status of Indian Army Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd)
he defence budget allocation for the year 2015-16 was `2,46,727 crore where as the allocation for the year 2016-17 is `2,58,589.3 crore an increase of less than 5 per cent over the budget estimate figures of the previous year. These calculations are based on sum of defence expenditure (revenue), defence expenditure (capital) and the Ministry of Defence (MoD) expenditure (miscellaneous) which amounts to the above figure of `2,58,589.3 crore. Defence pensions have not been added in this figure as they do not contribute to the maintenance and development of combat capability of the three services. These have never been taken into account in the past. This time to perhaps impress the public and the opposition regarding the BJP Government’s sympathy for the defence sector they are wanting all to believe that more is being done than earlier whereas the fact is that this time the increase in defence budget is the least in the last about six decades since the 1962 war with China. This is also perhaps the first time in the history of independent India that the Finance Minister (FM) made no mention of the defence budget in his 90 minutes speech to the Parliament. The reasons can only be given by the Finance Minister himself, however the lack of security consciousness among the political class can be seen by the fact that not even one political leader from any party commented on this issue even outside the Parliament to the media. Coming from the Finance Minister of a party which claims to be the nationalistic party, the omission is even more astounding considering that the challenges and threats to the country are looming large on the horizon virtually from all directions. This allocation which is merely 1.47 per cent of the GDP and is even lower than last year’s (2015-16) when it was 1.75 per cent of the GDP. It should be seen in light of the existing hollowness in the capabilities and voids of all the three services which have accumulated over the past one decade and more of compulsive inaction by the UPA Government and now by the present government. The current allocation is bound to further derail the process of modernisation and create dismay and anguish among the serving soldiery. Table 1 below gives the comparative figures of defence allocations in three years starting from 2014-15 to the current financial year and shows the growth where applicable.
Comments It is clear from the above table that there is no growth of the defence budget and considering that during the past two years the rupee has depreciated by 39 per cent against the dollar and if we add this depreciation to the rise in prices of military equipment in the global market the adverse impact stands out clearly. The other drawback is the trend of increasing revenue expenditure as compared to the capital expenditure and the increasing adverse ratio between the two. With the raising of the Mountain Strike Corps and the consequent increase in manpower, the ratio is bound to lean even more heavily towards revenue expenditure.
SP’s Land Forces 1/2016
Share of Defence Services and others in Defence Budget 2016-17 Ordnance Factories 1%
Navy Air Force
Air Force 20%
DRDO Ordnanace Factories
The third aspect that gets highlighted is the lack of growth of the capital budget which is responsible for the modernisation of the three services. This aspect indicates that 2016-17 will also be a wasted year as far as modernisation is concerned. The services had returned `13,188 crore as unspent amount last year and the likely reasons for this phenomenon are given in the paragraph under the heading “Non-utilization of the Defence Budget”. Military analysts are of the opinion that India’s defence expenditure needed to
be 3 to 4 per cent of GDP 9 (minus defence pensions) to counter China and Pakistan’s increased defence spending and growing militarisation in the Asia-Pacific region.
Threats and Challenges The security threats and challenges facing India have increased enormously. While the old adversarial threats due to unresolved borders remain, new threats and challenges like terrorism and insurgencies have been added to the old inventory. Thus on the face of it India needs to prepare itself for the
Table 1: Comparative Statistics of Defence Budget: 2014-15, 2015-16 & 2016-17 Defence Budget (` in crore)
Growth of Revenue Expenditure (%)
Share of Revenue Expenditure in Defence Budget (%)
Share of Capital Expenditure in Defence Budget (%)
Share of Defence Budget in GDP (%)
Share of Defence Budget in Central Government Expenditure (%)
Growth of Defence Budget (%) Revenue Expenditure (` in crore)
Capital Expenditure (` in crore) Growth of Capital Expenditure (%)
Note: *: approximate figure. `1.0 crore = `10 million = $1,44,927.53 (as per the average exchange rate of `69 to a dollar). Defence pensions have not been included as they do not contribute to modernisation or development military capability.
Table 2: Capital Outlay, Army (Extract of Demand No. 23) 2015-16 (BE) Land Construction
Aircraft & Aero-engine
Heavy and Medium Vehicles
Other Equipment Procurement of Rolling Stock Total
Capital Outlay (Extract of Demand No. 20) 2015-16 (BE)
Note: All figures are in crores.
full spectrum of warfare ranging from low intensity conflict involving counter-insurgency and counter-terrorist operations to conventional conflicts under the nuclear shadow on two widely separated fronts on its western and eastern flanks. The dilemma is only regarding the extent of emphasis that should be laid to acquiring each type of capability. This requires political direction in the form of a national security strategy as otherwise the services tend to go by the worst case scenario.
Building Defence Capability Sustaining and building defence capabilty is a continuous and gradual process. Delays in implementing plans not only create a void in capability build up but if the delay in procurement of weapons and equipment extends to a few years, it upsets the funds earmarked for the purpose because of the inflationary trends of the global market. It requires both, adequate budget allocations and full, efficient and judicious utilisation of the allocated budget. This does not appear to have happened in the past and the trend appears to continue in the current year. The allocation on account of capital budget as per the budget estimates in 2015-16 was `94,588 crore while at the revised estimates stage the allocation is shown as `90,209 crore, thus showing the inability of the Defence Ministry to utilise the funds allotted. The services returned `13,188 crore as unspent amount last year. It also indicates the complicated procedures in place which prevent the services from timely utilisation of the allotted resources. This has been happening year after year and has created a critical adverse in our war-fighting capabilities. It is well known that the services even lack certain categories of ammunition to fight a war of a given duration and the war wastage reserves are well below the acceptable figures. Overall, lack of availability of some of the munitions also reflect on the effective training of crews of various weapons systems.
Current Status of Army’s Weapons and Equipment The army’s ‘critical shortages’ and obsolescence of its current equipment include 155mm howitzers, light utility helicopters, attack helicopters, air defence assets, various categories of ammunition, antitank and AD missile systems, close quarter battle (CQB) carbines, assault rifles, machine guns, sniper rifles and anti-material rifles. The situation has worsened in the last three years or so. Adding to the existing shortages is the new raising of the 17 Mountain Strike Corps for our Eastern theatre, which is expected to reduce the army’s reserve stocks called ‘War Wastage Reserves’ in terms of equipment and munitions further.
Capital Budget The capital budget, which is meant for procurement of equipment, when analysed for the years 2014-15 and 2015-16 seem to suggest that no significant changes in equipment status of the army will come about in the near future despite many projects having been sanctioned by the Defence Acquisition Council (DAC). A more detailed analysis of the various projects has been done in the article on ‘Indian Army’s Modernisation Woes’ in this issue of SP’s Land Forces. This
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>> budget Table 3: Defence Allocations (Capital and Revenue)
Table 4: Revenue Outlay, Army (Extract of Demand No. 22)
Revenue Expenditure (` in crore)
Capital Expenditure (` in crore)
Total (` in crore)
will give the readers an idea of the gigantic task that awaits the Indian Army as far as modernisation is concerned.
Components of Capital Budget The capital budget has two components. The first component is modernisation of the three services which has been given in the Demand No. 23 of the Demands for Grants in respect of the three services of the Ministry of Defence. And the second pertains to Demand No. 20, which is in respect of Ministry of Defence (Miscellaneous) which includes the Ministry itself, Border Roads, Coast Guard, Defence Estates, Ordnance Factories, Defence Research and Development Organisation, Rashtriya Rifles, Jammu and Kashmir Light Infantry (JAK LI), Military Farms, Ex Servicemen Contributory Health Scheme, NCC, etc. Modernisation budget caters for both, i.e. ‘Committed Liabilities’, the payments due in respect of contracts signed in the past; and the first stage payment due on signing of new contracts. The amount due as first stage payment is as per the conditions of the request for proposal (RFP) and may vary in each contract, but for rule of thumb calculation purposes, it may be assumed to be 10 per cent. In most cases more than 50 per cent of the allocated amount in respect of the capital budget will be consumed by committed liabilities. In case of some services this figure may be higher.
Non-Utilistation of the Defence Budget The reasons for non-utilisation of all the allocated capital funds are many. Some understanding can be gained from the 7th report of the Defence Committee of the Parliament. This report was presented in May 2015 and it brings out that during the year 2014-15, the Army could not utilise `7,874 crore in the capital head due to several reasons like cuts imposed by the Ministry of Finance, slippages in Committed Liabilities, non-fructification of 14 Schemes at the Competent Financial Authority (CFA) stage, and under-utilisation by the Director General Ordnance Factories (DGOF), etc. Therefore to reduce the allocation based on the justification of previous year’s RE figures or the reasoning that the services cannot utilise the funds allotted are excuses to deny funds by not clearing the projects. This has been happening year after year leading to the current critical shortages and lack of modernisation of the three services.
Capital Budget, Army The total capital budget allocated to the Defence Services is `78,587 crore out of which after taking out committed liabilities only `12,000 crore is likely to be available for new procurements/ developments. The capital budget of the Army can be seen at a glance from Table 2. Considering the shortages given in the paragraph on current equipment status of the army and the fact that a large percentage will go into paying for the committed liabilities, it will be clear that the allocated budget for the type of deficiencies that exist will not suffice and will compel the decision makers to limit the sanctions only to a few projects during the year which would imply an ever increasing backlog which will have its own ramifications in the future. Table 3 gives the figures of three years of
2015-16 (BE) Pay & Allowances of the Army
Pay and Allowances of Civilians
Other expenditure Less Revenue Receipts Total
Revenue Budget, Army
Revenue Outlay (Extract of Demand No. 20)
This year’s overall revenue budget has increased by `16,240 crore if the BE figures of the year 2015-16 are compared to the BE of year 2016-17. If the RE figures are taken then the increase in revenue expenditure is `10,360 crore. This increase perhaps takes into account the increase in pay and allowances due to the Seventh Pay Commission’s recommendations. During the time of Sixth Pay Commission the increase was catered for by allocating an additional `17,000 crore.
Pay and Allowances and miscellaneous expenses of auxiliary forces
defence allocations, both revenue and capital in the case of the MoD.
JAK LI Rashtriya Rifles Total Total revenue expenditure of Ministry of Defence
ness towards the military at a time when more serious challenges are looming large over the horizon shows the attitude of the present government to national security. All three services had surrendered `13,188 crore or 16 per cent of the capital outlay for FY 2015-16 for failing to conclude contracts, cancelling tenders due to over ambitious qualitative requirements or being unable to complete field trials on schedule. In this the army’s performance
was the worst as they were unable to disburse some 55 per cent of its modernisation outlay to meet enduring shortages of multiple platforms and systems. Military analysts and former MoD financial advisors for acquisitions have warned that the ability of the three services to disburse their allocations in a timely manner needs overhauling as otherwise, India’s military modernisation will remain a mirage. SP
The requirements of the services are vast and wide ranging and the defence budgets in the past as well as the current allocations do not meet the requirements of the services. At the present rate the services will never be able to make up their deficiencies and modernise hence the time has come to take some hard decisions. The options available are only two, i.e. either we become a lean force with greater reliance on technology or we accept the present/ anticipated manpower intensive force structure and give greater allocations to defence. The latter option is unlikely due to the socio-economic conditions prevailing in the country and the government’s cumpulsions in a democracy like ours. Hence the answer lies in conducting a strategic and defence and security review to go into the optimum force levels required based on clear and pragmatic strategic guidelines from the political leadership. The current increases in force levels, in the absence of a clear strategy are unviable. For the first time in independent India’s history, the defence outlay for FY 2016-17 found no mention in Finance Minister Arun Jaitley’s budget speech. Official Armor made with Dyneema® technologies is raising the personal protection sources said this was due as much as to the benchmark. Dyneema® makes armor lighter and more comfortable to wear restructuring of budwithout compromising ballistic performance. getary allocations that made it more complex Let’s develop the next generation of armor together. and difficult to compare with previous defence outlays and for 28 – 31 MAR 2016 NAQUERI QUITOL IN QUEPEM Arun Jaitley to explain, TALUKA OF SOUTH GOA, INDIA as to its paltry spendHALL 4, BOOTH NUMBER: 4.1.7 ing increase. This lapse (in not referring to the Visit us at www.dyneema.com defence budget) also reveals the low priority that BJP Government accords to defence matters. The lack of serious-
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1/2016 SP’s Land Forces
Modernisation of Artillery photographs: Us Army, SP Guide PUbns
145 Ultra light howitzers (M777)
Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd)
s part of its Artillery Modernisation Plan, the Indian Army is looking at inducting several types of howitzers through in-house manufacture by DRDO/Ordnance Factory Board, intergovernmental pacts and global tenders. The last major acquisition of towed gun-howitzers was that of 400 pieces of 39-calibre /155mm FH-77B howitzers with a range of 30-km from Bofors of Sweden in 1987. This gun proved its mettle in the Kargil conflict. After about 25 years of neglect the artillery modernisation continues to stagnate. Attempts are being made to resurrect and fulfil its long-postponed 1999 Field Artillery Rationalisation Plan (FARP), under which the army aims to import, locally develop, and licence-produce around 3,000, 155mm howitzers of various categories to equip 220-odd artillery regiments for an estimated `56,000 to `63,000 crore ($8-9 billion). These include 1,580 towed gun systems (TGS), 814 mounted gun systems (MGS), 100 self-propelled howitzers (SPHs) — all of which are 155mm/52calibre — and 145 BAE Systems M777 155mm/39-calibre lightweight howitzers. Locally upgraded and retrofitted guns will make up additional numbers.
Trials of 155mm towed howitzers of Nexter and Elbit Systems Trials involving two competing 155mm/52-calibre towed guns for the Ministry of Defence (MoD) 2011/12 tender for 1,580 such platforms concluded in November 2015. The two guns are currently undergoing General Staff evaluation by the army before one is shortlisted and price negotiations begin. Trials for two systems namely the Nexter’s 155mm ‘Trajan’ 155mm/52-calibre howitzer, and Israels ATHOS 2052 gun built by Elbit were required to undergo the supplementary tri-
Technical Data of M777 155 mm Howitzer Range • Maximum Unassisted: 24.7 km • Maximum Assisted: + 30 km Rate of Fire • Intense: 5 rounds per minute • Sustained: 2 rounds per minute Into/Out of Action • Emplacement: < 3 minutes • Displacement: < 2 minutes Pointing limits • Elevation: + 1275mm • Depression: - 43mm • Traverse (on carriage): 400mm left and right (6400mm through quick switch) Ammunition • All current developmental US and NATO standard 155mm projectiles and charges including Modular Artillery Charge System. Mobility • Maximum Road Speed: 88 kmph/ 55 mph • Cross Country: 24 kmph/15 mph Towing Vehicles: MTVR, FMTV, M-800, M-900, 5 tonne Trucks, any 2.5 tonne Truck, HMWV in Local Area Fixed Wing: C130, C141,C 17, C 5, Roll on, Roll off / LVAD Rotary Wing: CH 53E, CH 47 D, MV 22. SP
SP’s Land Forces 1/2016
(Top) M777 Howitzer (Above) Dhanush 155mm 45-calibre gun
als from mid-2015 after completing desert and high-altitude firings in 2013-14. The army plans to acquire 400 guns under the Defence Procurment Procedure’s (DPP) ‘Buy and Make (Foreign)’ category and licence-build the remaining 1,180 howitzers. Nexter is a French Government company formerly called GIAT has a tie-up with Larsen &Tubro (L& T) and Elbit from Israel has tied up with the Kalyani Group/ Bharat Forge in Pune, but who will be the designated manufacturer of the shortlisted howitzer is presently not known.
Self-propelled howitzers (SPH) K9 Vajra-T: In December 2015 the MoD began price negotiations with L&T for 100 modified South Korean SPHs, worth around `5,600 crore ($800 million). The K9 VajraT, an L&T version of Samsung Techwin’s K9 Thunder 155mm/52-calibre gun customised for India’s 2012 SPH tender, was shortlisted for acquisition in late September 2015 following trials the previous year. In these the K9 bested Russia’s MSTA-S selfpropelled gun, which had been modified to 155mm/52-calibre standard and mounted on a T-72 tank chassis. According to industry sources the K9, which is being procured under the DPP 2012 ‘Buy (Global)’ category, will be built at L&T’s Talegaon facility near Pune. This classification permits domestic companies to enter into tie-ups with OEMs to offer cooperatively developed equipment and platforms to the Indian military. The K9 is expected to contain some 13 major indigenous subsystems, including its fire control, ammunition han-
dling, and nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) system and muzzle velocity radar, to help it bypass the 30 per cent offset obligation. Military sources say the SPH deal is likely to be signed during the upcoming financial year, beginning April 1, and includes a follow-on option for an additional 50 K9 guns. Catapult the interim solution: In the interim the army is expected to induct 40 indigenously developed Catapult Mk II SPHs, which mount a 130mm gun on the chassis of the locally designed Arjun MBT. These will replace an equal number of Catapult Mk Is, designed in the early 1980s by mating the M-46 weapons onto the lengthened chassis of an OFB-built Vijayanta (Vickers Mk 1) MBT.
The Defence Acquisition Council approved a proposal from the OFB to manufacture 144 pieces of 155mm/45-calibre howitzers with the option to acquire another 400 provided the prototypes successfully meet the army’s GSQR in user trials.
In May 2015 the MoD approved the import of 145 M777s along with Selex Laser Inertial Pointing Systems (LINAPS) via the US foreign military sales (FMS) programme. On February 17, 2016, the United States submitted its letter of acceptance (LoA) sanctioning India’s purchase of 145 M777s. Other than the upwardly revised tender price of around `4,900 crore ($700 million), the LoA included delivery schedules, guarantees, and after-sales technical, material, and spares support, BAE Systems is also believed to have submitted to the MoD its list of offset agreements with local companies, valued at 30 per cent of the overall contract value and estimated at around `1,400 crore ($210 million). The LoA also imposed a 180-day deadline on the MoD within which to confirm the deal for the M777s and LINAPS units. The M777 purchase to equip the army’s 17 Mountain Strike Corps, which is presently being raised for deployment along the disputed border with China, has an indigenous perspective. In November 2014 BAE Systems announced the transfer of its M777 assembly, integration & test (AIT) facilities from Hattiesburg, Mississippi, to India, and has selected Mahindra Defence as its local partner to operationalise the programme, ahead of signing the deal. However, some key elements of the M777 will continue to be sourced from the BAE Systems facility at Barrow-in-Furness in the United Kingdom. Military sources say the M777 numbers could increase to 350-400 units. The M777 matches the firepower of current generation 155mm towed systems at less than half the weight. The howitzer is equipped with a 39-calibre barrel. The muzzle velocity (at charge 8 super) is 827m/s. The maximum firing range is 24.7 km with unassisted rounds and 30 km with rocketassisted rounds. Excalibur munitions: The M777A2 can fire the Raytheon/Bofors XM982 Excalibur GPS/inertial navigation-guided extended-range 155mm projectiles using the modular artillery charge systems (MACS). Excalibur has a maximum range of 40 to 57 km and accuracy of 10 m. The M777 is able to deliver up to five rounds a minute under intense firing conditions and is able to provide a sustained rate of fire of two rounds a minute.
Indigenous efforts to manufacture 155mm howitzer (Dhanush) OFB have been tasked to produce a 45-calibre 155mm howitzer based on the transfer of technology (ToT) obtained from Bofors in the 1980s. The Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) approved a proposal from the OFB to manufacture 144 pieces of 155mm/45calibre howitzers with the option to acquire another 400 provided the prototypes successfully meet the army’s GSQR in user trials. Meanwhile, the DRDO has embarked on its own venture to design and develop a 155mm howitzer in partnership with a private sector company.
The acquisition of 814 truck-mounted guns This has been approved by the DAC in November 2014 will be undertaken under the ‘Buy and Make (Indian)’ category with ToT. While the first 100 guns will be imported, the remaining 714 will be produced in India. Tata Power SED with its 155mm truck mounted gun system and L&T-Ashok Leyland-Nexter with their 155mm gun are among the private companies in India that are likely to submit proposals for the project, as reported by the media. The total project cost is estimated to be `15,750 crore. SP
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>> military cooperation
Indo-Israeli Land Defence Cooperation Praising Modi’s ‘Make in India’ initiative, Israel’s Defence Minister Moshe Ya’alon said that Israel wants to take advantage of it and added that the NDA Government has brought a new vigour to bilateral defence ties photographs: Wikipedia, IAI
Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd)
or about four decades India had no direct relations with Israel but due to changes in the international geostrategic scenario, India decided to establish full diplomatic relations with Israel in 1992. Since its birth, Israel was motivated to develop its armament industry because of security threats surrounding it, embargoes, national pride and its endeavour to be independent in defence weapons and technology. It has also got great support from the United States in this field. As a result, Israel has acquired a great degree of self-sufficiency in a vast range of platforms, lethal weapons and sensors. Their unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are world-class. During various conflicts like Kargil, India has been looking towards Israel for defence technology and weapons. Fighting terrorism is another area where India has been seeking their cooperation. They were the first ones to provide Green Pine radars for missile defence. Salient aspects of defence cooperation for land forces is highlighted below. Small arms for lnfantry and Special Forces. India has acquired Tavor-21 5.56mm assault rifles and Galil sniper rifles. It is reported that acquisition of Desert Eagle/Jericho handguns, Micro-Uzi machine pistols and Negev 5.56mm light machine guns for special forces is also on the cards. F-INSAS (future infantry soldier as a system) project. Israel’s expertise in networking systems, sensors and defence electronics is well known. Thus collaboration with Israel in this field will help in developing F-INSAS rapidly. UAVs. India has already imported Israel Aerospace Industries’ (IAI) Heron and Searcher for the Indian Army as well as the Navy and the Air Force. Heron is medium altitude (about 30,000 ft), long-endurance UAV and thus is being used in the mountainous region. Searcher has a ceiling of about 15,000 ft and is being employed in the plains (Searcher Mk1) and Searcher Mk2 is being used in the desert terrain. IAI’s BirdEye 650D is an advanced, affordable, long-endurance mini-UAS and provides real-time stabilised day/night imagery data
Army version of the MRSAM for one regiment worth about `9,000 crore (about $1.4 billion) was agreed upon between Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar and his Israeli counterpart Moshe Ya’alon during his visit to India in February 2015 12
SP’s Land Forces 1/2016
The naval version has been successfully fired on December 30, 2015, from INS Kolkata. Land version called medium-range SAM (MRSAM), is said to be a very advanced SAM that can track and shoot down incoming missiles and other flying objects with a very high level of accuracy. While LRSAM is for Navy, the Air Force has already an order for MRSAM and the army variant has been recently approved. The system includes a missile and multi-functional surveillance and threat alert radar for detection, tracking and guidance of the missile. An Army version of the MRSAM for one regiment worth about `9,000 crore (about $1.4 billion) was agreed upon between Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar and his Israeli counterpart Moshe Ya’alon during his visit to India in February 2015. However, given the requirement this number is expected to go up. The missiles will be manufactured by the Bharat Dynamics Limited.
(Top) Tavor used by Special Forces of the Indian Army (Above) Heron UAV
for urban operation and over-the-hill intelligence. Skylark™ I-LEX-Mini-UAS is the latest evolution of the battle-proven, highperformance system from Elbit, which operates at battalion level. This would be ideal for the Indian Army at battalion level as DRDO is still struggling with indigenous development. Schilka upgrade. BEL has collaborated with IAI to upgrade the Schilka air defence system which is now being delivered to the units in a phased manner.
Missiles Laser homing attack missile. Laser homing attack missile (LAHAT) is an advanced missile developed and manufactured by the MBT Division of IAI which is a lightweight missile suitable for precision attack missions. The gun or canister launched missile can be fired from a range of platforms
such as armoured vehicles, tanks and helicopters. The missile is effectively used in urban areas requiring a low collateral damage solution. It can hit both stationary and moving targets. It is reported that it will be used by India’s light armed helicopter project of HAL. Spike. India has opted for Rafael’s Spike which is a third-generation, fire-and-forget, man-portable, anti-tank missile (Rafael of Israel) to equip Indian Army’s infantry and mechanised battalions. India’s Kalyani Group and Rafael are forming a manufacturing joint venture (JV) to produce Spike anti-tank guided missiles in India and Bharat Dynamics Limited will be the system integrator. Long/medium-range SAM. The JV between DRDO and IAI is for the development of long range/medium-range SAM for the Indian Army, Navy and the Air Force.
130mm towed gun. This gun was being made into 155-calibre by India’s Ordnance Factory Board with collaboration with Soltam of Israel. Later on Soltam was blacklisted by the Ministry of Defence but it is believed that the new Defence Procurement Procedure being released before Defexpo 2016 will rationalise the norms for blacklisting so that India’s defence modernisation is not adversely effected. Long-range 155mm/52-calibre gun. To make up the large voids in all types of artillery guns, Kalyani Strategic Systems Limited (KSSL) has tied up with Elbit of Israel to jointly produce artillery guns in India. It is claimed that Bharat-52 is a long-range 155mm/52-calibre gun is the first indigenous solution of its kind, designed and developed in India. Bharat-52 is a futuristic towed gun, providing a highly manoeuvrable field artillery solution. Israel’s Defence Minister Moshe Ya’alon visited India during February 2015 when he stated that Israel was ready to share cutting-edge defence technologies with India and both countries will go for codevelopment of a number of key weapon systems soon. He added that Israel was ready to set up manufacturing facilities in India. Praising Modi’s ‘Make in India’ initiative, he said Israel wants to take advantage of it and added that the NDA Government has brought a new vigour to bilateral defence ties. “Modi’s concept of ‘Make in India’ is encouraging. We are flexible to make everything convenient to India,” he said. This statement of Moshe Ya’alon is very encouraging and will boost the cooperation between India and Israel to greater heights specially with the planned visit of Prime Minister Modi to Israel shortly. Israeli defence company contractor Elta has become the first firm that will make mandatory investments in India under the new offset clause that has been made standard for all contracts worth `300 crore or more (as per the old policy). Bagging a deal worth `833 crore for medium power radars for the IAF, Elta invested 30 per cent of the amount, about `250 crore, back into Indian industry in December 2006. SP
RELENTLESS JOURNEY OF EXCELLENCE SINCE 1964
>> marketing feature
Tor- 2 System in Modular Design: Meeting Customers’ Request
he idea to develop a shortrange surface-to-air missile system (SRSAMS) with its combat and technical facilities made in modular design arose during negotiations and presentations held with the representatives of eventual customers at the international armament exhibitions. The customers expressed the wishes to lighten the CV hull, expand the transportation capabilities and make the system integratable with the customer’s chassis or be deployable as stand along. In January 2012, one of the foreign customers issued a RFP on procurement of two regiments of SRSAM system. There was no option, but SRSAM Tor-M2KM. In 2013 by the Customer request the motor chassis of the foreign manufacture were purchased to integrate ICM 9A331MK-1 and MW 9B887MKM. The same year a pilot sample of the SRSAM system Tor-M2KM was demonstrated at the International air show MAKS-2013. In October 2013, the SRSAM system TorM2KM successfully passed running and field trials at Kapustin Yar having showed good results against air target simulator Saman. In a year the SRSAM system Tor-M2KM passed other trials conducted as a stage of RPF issued by the foreign customer. The system showed its performance against all the claimed characteristics and met the RFP requirements. The SRSAM system successfully engaged the target at altitude of 500 meters in pursuit 3 km away. One of the distinctive features of SRSAM system Tor-M2KM is that all the special-purpose equipment, computer system, radar and optical means, missiles, operator’s compartment, independent and backup power supply system with fuel load, life
support, ventilation and air conditioning systems are arranged in one hull that can be integrated with any platform. The hull is not connected with the platforms through mechanical drives, neither hydraulic nor electric systems. It is equipped with its own power supply source, a gas-turbine engine, which provides electric power generation of required parameters and power. Reaction time from acquisition of the first blip to missile launch at halt comes to 5-10 seconds depending on the targets flight course. As supplementary power supply source an electrostatic transducer was implemented for the first time ever. It transforms electric power of 380 V with frequency 50 Hz supplied from any external source to electric power with operating parameters: voltage 220 V and frequency 400 Hz. The SRSAMS Tor-M2KM is equipped with modern navigation system. It determines location of the system with high accuracy and provides measurement of angle parameters of the ICM (roll and difference) in different planes. Now it’s not necessary for crew to have geodesic skills, which were required when using the previous generation equipment. Integration of ICM with a motor chassis or any other platform is performed by means of three special quick-disconnect brackets, that allow to remount quickly the ICM from one platform to another. Load carrying capacity of platform should be no less than 20 tonnes. For technical facilities like transporter-loader, maintenance workshop, group SPTA set, battery command post it’s enough to have a load-carrying capacity of 5-8 tonnes. Remounting of the module from one platform to another is performed by 25-tonne crane, and takes no more than 10 minutes.
Being mounted on various platforms, the SRSAM system Tor-M2KM is capable of providing protection of ground units, Air Force units, Navy and strategic military and government facilities against air strikes. The SRSAM system Tor-M2KM provides high reliability and efficiency against active maneuvering air targets, gliding and guided aerial bombs, cruise and antiradar missiles, unmanned aerial vehicles, aircraft and helicopters. The system is equipped with modern computing facilities and radars, that allow to detect and process up to 48 targets (144 target marks every three revolutions of TAR antenna), display data on 10 most dangerous targets and ensure simultaneous engagement of four targets. The combat operation process of the SRSAM system Tor-M2KM is fully automated, an operator just chooses a target to engaged from a list offered by a vehicle, and presses the LAUNCH button. SAM is guided towards a target automatically, and its warhead explodes in the missile-target meeting point. Munition of the missile provides the highest penetration capability of the fragments and almost has no any ricochet effect. Minor errors in the meeting point, adaptation of the radio fuse to the air-born target type in combination with specialpurpose SAM payload ensure high killing probability for all types of air targets. The SAM module provides transportation, storage and launch of four surfaceto-air missiles. There are two surface-to-air missile modules in each ICM. Transporter-loader can be installed on any motor chassis similar to ICM chassis. Maintenance and repair facilities, group SPTA set and simulator of the system are placed in unified containers that can be
integrated with any motor chassis, semitrailers and trailers intended for transportation of 20-feet maritime containers. The ICM is an autonomous missile launcher capable of meeting AD requirements both independently and as part of various AD units. It can also be integrated into AD systems of Russian and foreign production. SP
Almaz-Antey” Corp.” 121471, Moscow, Vereyskaia st., 41 Tel.: (495) 276-29-65, Fax: (495) 276-29-69 E-mail: email@example.com Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant Kupol, JSC Russia, Udmurt Republic, Izhevsk, Pesochnaya st., 3 Tel.: (3412) 903211, Fax: (3412) 726819 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
1/2016 SP’s Land Forces
Helicopters: Expanding Capabilities and Emerging Missions Military aviation today is looking at the next-generation of military helicopters and the strategy to modernise vertical-lift capability in the long term, with improved avionics, electronics, range, speed, propulsion, survivability and high altitude performance photographs: US Army, IAF
Lt General B.S. Pawar (Retd)
he Vietnam war, also referred to as the helicopters war, formed the test bed for validating the concepts of air mobility and assault and the advent of the military helicopter in the true sense. Helicopters today are integral part of land, sea and air operations of modern armies and are being increasingly employed in subconventional operations (counter-insurgency and counter-terrorist operations) across the world. This trend is likely to continue in the future, with helicopters acquiring special features as in the case of Black Hawks used in ‘Operation Neptune Spear’. Military aviation today is looking at the next-generation of military helicopters and the strategy to modernise vertical-lift capability long term, with improved avionics, electronics, range, speed, propulsion, survivability and high altitude performance. The philosophy is to improve on the present limitations by examining emerging technologies within the realm of the possible, with speeds in excess of 170 knots, combat range of 800 km, hover with full combatload under high/hot conditions and with a degree of autonomous flight capability. There is a need to harness technological innovation by looking beyond current force technology and identifying possible nextgeneration solutions in areas such as propulsion, airframe materials, rotor systems, engine technology, survivability equipment and mission systems, among others.
Future Developments & Expanding Capabilities The advances in helicopter designs have not been as impressive as for fighter aircraft. While jet fighters are in their fifthgeneration, the helicopters are still strutting around with the same old designs and airframes, with mostly upgrades to its credit – It has been without a new helicopter design since the induction in the 1980s of the Apache attack helicopter built by Boeing. The Apache AH-64E (Block III), the latest version also called ‘The Guardian’ is a vivid example, where even though 26 new technologies have been incorporated, relating mainly to more powerful engines, composite rotor blades, upgraded transmission system and capability to control UAVs, the main design and configuration remains the same. However, today the global helicopter industry is undergoing a significant transformation as are customer demands and the capabilities offered by cutting-edge technologies. Significant advances in technology such as computation structural dynamics modelling, expanded use of additive manufacturing, fly-by-wire controls, advanced condition based maintenance (CBM), health and usage monitoring systems (HUMS) and
SP’s Land Forces 1/2016
(Top) AH-64E Apache (Above) Mi-17
advanced turbine engine programmes, promise a big leap in rotorcraft capabilities. Governments worldwide are initiating new defence procurements, while simultaneously developing and expanding indigenous production and development capabilities
The global helicopter industry is undergoing a significant transformation as are customer demands and the capabilities offered by cutting-edge technologies
for both military and civil applications – India has also taken the lead in this area by its recent exposition of its ‘Make in India’ policy in the defence sector and inviting the private sector to be part and parcel of the growing defence aerospace industry. The US remains the world’s largest purchaser and developer of military helicopters, with major aviation giants like Sikorsky, Boeing and Bell taking the lead in the design, development and manufacture of state-of-art military and civil helicopters. The US military has embarked on the most transformative science and technology initiative in decades – the joint multi-role (JMR) technology demonstration effort, where the industry plans to prove the revolutionary capabilities of high speed approaches for a family of future military products. In Russia the Moscow-based Russian Helicopters has been a lead player in the global heli-
copter industry, with its major thrust being towards design and development of military helicopters. Europe has in the last two decades also emerged as a major contender in the helicopter market, both in the civil and military domain — Airbus Helicopter formerly ‘Eurocopter’ and Anglo-Italian AgustaWestland are the two major companies whose products have flooded the civil as well as military market around the globe. The new generation helicopter platforms are expected to feature the latest advances in aeronautics giving military helicopters improved flight performance especially in relation to speed. This offers the new generation machines unprecedented capabilities— increased autonomy, reduced acoustic signatures (enhanced stealth), more accurate navigation systems, enhanced data acquisition and protection systems, more effective weapons and munitions and improved reliability and maintainability at lower operating costs. Helicopters will have to become truly modular, making it possible to change part of the system without affecting overall integrity. The concept of modularity is likely to increase, especially with the emergence of the concept of multi-role machines. World over today the armed forces are seriously looking at the multi-role concept, due to the changing nature of conflicts and financial constraints. This concept basically revolves around the use of utility helicopters both in the lift/logistics and armed role. The size of such helicopters would be between cargo and light observation and their armament would generally be restricted to guns and rockets. Some of these may also have the capability to be fitted with air-to-air and air-to-ground missiles. The ALH is a classic example of a multi-role helicopter with its utility and armed version (Rudra) available to the Indian military. The US military is already moving in this direction and their JMR fleet vision envisages narrowing down the more than 20 helicopter types spread across the services to only three basic models, plus a new ‘ultra’ category extending vertical take-off and landing aircraft into the domain of medium-sized fixed-wing transports. The vision lays down that no helicopter in all three basic categories— light, medium and heavy—will be slower than today’s fastest conventional helicopter and should be powerful enough to carry their predecessors as external payload. With regards to data acquisition, day/ night observation and detection capabilities will increase and become more diversified specially in respect to information sharing and cooperation with other aircraft and UAVs. This aspect has already been incorporated in the Block III Apache model. Target engagement capabilities with regard to weapon range and precision is likely to Continued on page 16...
246mm (W) x 388mm (H)
>> helicopters Helicopters...continued from page 14
photograph: Russian Helicopters
remain the focus of future development. With subconventional operations gaining ascendency around the world, helicopter survivability will assume greater significance. Advances in stealth, such as reductions in radar and acoustic signatures offer major results in this area, as does the development of early detection/jamming countermeasure capabilities. Some of the above technologies are already being incorporated in the development of Eurocopters X2 and X3, and Sikorsky’s X2 coaxial compound helicopter as technology demonstrators. The main emphasis is on speed, stealth, reliability and survivability. Many of these designs go well beyond the tried and tested rotor and propeller system that has defined generations of helicopter technology since their introduction into the military use in the 1940. The coaxial rotor design by cutting out the requirement of a tail rotor, provides a whole heap of benefits to include more power (enhancing the payload capability), greater speeds, stability and noise reduction. In fact in its demonstrative flight, Sikorsky’s X2 achieved a speed of 460 kmph a major leap from the current standard helicopter speeds – the X2 has a rear tail fin rotor which provides the speed boost rather than anti-torque thrust. Its military version the Sikorsky ‘S-97 Raider’ is stated to be the future light tactical scout helicopter of the US military. Eurocopters X3 technology demonstrator is another odd ball chopper that can’t seem to figure out whether it wants to be a helicopter or a plane. But this aircraft is already turning heads by having achieved speeds that are 50 per cent faster than the conventional helicopters and lower vibration levels. The X3 has two propellers on the side of the craft thereby removing the need for a tail rotor and is being projected by Airbus Helicopters for the military’s use in search and rescue, special forces operations and troop transport. Finally, the development of innovative concepts, along the lines of V-22 Osprey (tilt rotor technology), could generate fresh momentum in the utility/logistics domain. The V-22 has operated extensively in Afghanistan and was instrumental in the rescue of a downed US pilot in Libya in 2013. AgustaWestland has also come up with a similar rotorcraft, the AW-609 — a significant player in the emerging tilt rotor market. AgustaWestland sees the craft as a troop transporter similar to the Bell-Boeing V-22 Osprey. Such an aircraft would be ideal for deployment in our North-eastern region where the infrastructure is woefully inadequate. The latest in the tilt rotor field is ‘Bell’s V-280 Valor’ third-generation tilt rotor demonstrator. Bell’s Valor programme is a quantum technology jump on its earlier V-22 Osprey aircraft and attacks affordability with technology – the Valor is expected to fly in 2017. Another area of future development is helicopter UAVs. Two avenues are already being explored and implemented in different countries—UAV-helicopter cooperation and development of rotary-wing UAVs. Lockheed Martin’s K-MAX helicopter UAV was deployed in Afghanistan for logistic resupply and has proved to be quite a hit. It has been able to fly in adverse weather conditions when manned helicopters could not fly. Northrop Grumman’s Fire Scout, is another helicopter UAV which is already in service with the US Navy capable of operating from ship decks. The latest in the unmanned field is the unmanned version of Sikorsky’s UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter modified for both manned and unmanned flights. The Indian military is also seriouslyexamining the unmanned options.
The Indian Scenario The operational diversities of the Indian armed forces coupled with extremity and
SP’s Land Forces 1/2016
warfare. (ASW). The Mi-25/Mi-35 attack helicopters held are vintage and require replacement on priority. Even the Sea King ASW helicopters held with the Navy need upgrade/ replacement with a state-of-theart modern ASW helicopter. In the recent trials conducted for acquisition of attack helicopters the American Apache Longbow has been selected over the Russian Mi-28 (Havoc). The induction of 22 Apaches Block III (latest upgraded version) is likely to commence this year. The army has also put in its requirement for 39 Apaches Block III for its three Strike Corps – in-principle approval for the same has already been given by the MoD. The Navy had also conducted extensive trials for replacement of its multi-role Sea King fleet with the European NH-90 and American Sikorsky 70B in fray—in the recent Defence Acquisition Council meeting the selection of Sikorsky 70B was approved but as usual there has been no further progress. Kamov Ka-226T
variety of terrain (from sea level to high altitude) underline the need for state-ofthe-art, modern technology helicopters capable of operating both by day and night in a complex battlefield environment of future. As per reports the armed forces are looking to induct as many as 1,000 helicopters in the coming decade ranging from attack and high altitude reconnaissance to medium and heavy-lift variants. Presently the Indian military holds in its kitty approximately 600 helicopters of all types and class including specialised ones, but majority of these have far exceeded their lifespan and are either obsolete or nearing obsolescence. The Chetak/Cheetah held with the Army, Navy and Air Force are vintage and awaiting replacement. The latest attempt to replace these ageing and obsolescent helicopters has met a similar fate to that of the earlier procurement project of 2004 cancelled in 2008. The trials for the current project were completed in 2013 — in fray were the Airbus AS 550 C3 Fennec and the Russian Kamov Ka-226T (both state-of-the-art helicopters with latest avionics and glass cockpit). The decision to cancel this critical project was taken by the MoD in August last year after allegations of corruption and technical deviations in the selection process. With the ‘Make in India’ policy in place, a fresh RFI was issued in October last year with the aim of identifying probable Indian vendors including Indian companies forming joint ventures (JVs) with foreign companies. Indian majors like Tatas, Reliance, Mahindra, etc, were in the fray, looking at JVs with foreign majors like American Bell and Sikorsky, Russian (Kamov) and European Airbus Helicopters. However in a surprise move in December last year the government announced that 200 Ka-226 heli-
The X3 has two propellers on the side of the craft thereby removing the need for a tail rotor and is being projected by Airbus Helicopters for the military’s use in search and rescue, special forces operations and troop transport
copters would be acquired from Russia in a government-to-government agreement under the aegis of ‘Make in India’ programme. The same was finalised during the Prime Ministers visit to Russia in January this year with HAL being made the nodal agency for working out detailed modalities with the Russian company Rosonboronexport under the ‘Make in India’ initiative. There has been no progress since. Navy is also looking to replace its current fleet of Chetak/modified Chetak-MATCH (midair torpedo carrying helicopter) with a twin engine, 4.5-tonne helicopter capable of operating from warship decks, as well as being armed with rockets/guns and lightweight torpedoes. RFI for this was issued last year with no further progress. In the light utility category, the ALH has already entered service with all three services and Coast Guard. The ALH has also been test evaluated for high altitude operations with the fitment of a more powerful engine ‘Shakti’ being produced jointly by HAL and French firm Turbomeca. This is a major achievement and will give a boost to helicopter operations in high altitude areas especially Siachen. The induction of the armed version of the ALH (Rudra) has already commenced with a unit currently under raising for the army – however a major drawback in the Rudra presently is the lack of a suitable anti-tank guided missile in its weapon arsenal. In the medium-lift category the Air Force holds the Mi-8 and the Mi-17 Russian helicopters. While the Mi-8 fleet is in the process of being replaced by Mi-17s, the majority of the existing Mi-17 fleet has been upgraded/refurbished in respect of avionics and night capability. Currently 80 Mi-17V5 helicopters are being acquired from Russia and another 59 have been cleared for acquisition — these helicopters are upgraded versions, with glass cockpit, night capability and enhanced armament package. In the heavy-lift category there is nothing worthwhile held with the Indian military, barring a few Russian Mi-26 helicopters whose high altitude capability is poor. Based on the army’s requirement of a suitable helicopter capable of lifting under slung the ultra-light howitzer being acquired from the United States for deployment in mountains, the process for acquisition was set into motion. Trials for the same have been completed with the American Chinook CH-47 scoring over the Russian Mi-26- Fifteen numbers have been cleared for induction with the likelihood of another six in the future. The weakest link in the Indian military inventory is the holding of specialised helicopters like the attack and anti-submarine
Indigenous Development In India the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), a public sector undertaking, continues to dominate the military aircraft industry. However, with the opening up of the defence manufacturing sector to the private industry and thrust on indigenous production capability with a ‘Make in India’ policy in place, this equation is likely to change. Presently the most significant development in the HAL helicopter development venture is the light combat helicopter (LCH), stated to be a state-of-the-art attack helicopterwith capability to operate in the mountains. The LCH uses the technology of the existing ALH and its configurations, except that the fuselage is suitably modified and streamlined for tandem seating required for a modern-day attack helicopter. An indigenous attack helicopter is a step in the right direction as it has been tailored to suit the terrain and climatic conditions of our area of operations – its ability to operate in the mountains is a major achievement. A number of development flights have taken place since its maiden flight on March 29, 2010, and it is expected to be ready for trial evaluation by end of this year. Both Air Force and Army are the potential customers for induction of the same. The HAL is also looking at the development and manufacture of a three-tonne class light utility helicopter (LUH), which presently has reached the ground run stage – this development is to cater to the light observation and reconnaissance class of helicopters for the military. While HAL claims to field it by 2017, the current progress on its development belies these claims. The present involvement of the private industry is limited to the two JVs by Tata Advanced Systems Limited, one with Sikorsky for making S-92 helicopter cabins and the other with AgustaWestland for the manufacture of the AW119 Ke light helicopter (civil version). Separate facilities have been established in Hyderabad and production commenced in both cases. However many more significant private players have now entered the field with agreements with foreign OEMs – this is likely to have a major impact on the helicopter industry in India and will put HAL on notice. The involvement of private industry in helicopter development needs to be encouraged by the government in order to stop the monopoly of HAL and ensure greater competition in the market. The industry also needs to keep in mind the developing future helicopter technology and incorporate the same in its projects. There is an urgent need to develop a collaborative approach towards developing helicopter manufacturing base in the country for using the strengths of both the public and private sector towards fulfilling national aspirations. SP
RELENTLESS JOURNEY OF EXCELLENCE SINCE 1964
IAI Will Present a Wide Range of Strategic Systems at Defexpo India 2016 IAI marks 25 years of solid partnership with India’s defense forces and industry
srael Aerospace Industries (IAI) will present a wide range of strategic systems, including special mission aircraft such as AEW&C (ELM-2090) and exclusive economic zone (EEZ) maritime defense solutions including the Heron MALE unmanned aerial system (UAS) at DEFEXPO India 2016, in Goa, India. IAI will feature air and missile defense and loitering weapon systems such as the MRSAM/LRSAM Barak 8 air & missile defense system and the Green Dragon – a tactical, lowcost loitering weapon designed to provide small ground and special operations units with significant situational awareness and firepower in a compact envelope. Radar and communications systems will include the Drone Guard (ELI-4030)- for drone detection, identification and flight disruption; the Green Rock (ELM 2138) – a mobile autonomous tactical counter rocket, artillery & mortar system; and CIMS (Counter IED and Mine Suite) – an integrated suite of sensors, for protection of tactical maneuvering vehicles. IAI has a 25+ year history of demonstrated strategic cooperation with India’s defense forces and industry. The company collaborates with many Indian companies (both public and private) and works closely with all branches of the Indian Armed Forces to support the governments’ ‘Make in India’ policy.
Joseph Weiss, IAI President and CEO; (right) IAI BARAK 8 missile
“India’s main goal has always been to acquire cuttingedge technologies, and has become a prominent market for Israeli defense companies”, said Joseph Weiss, IAI’s CEO and President. “India has unique operational needs and IAI is committed to devoting our best minds and technologies to achieve the challenges set by the customer and continue our long-term strategic cooperation with India for a brighter and safer future.” IAI has been involved in many development programs for India’s Navy and Air Force, in cooperation with the Indian Defense Research & Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian defense industries, such as the joint development of long-range surface-to-air missiles with Bharat Electron-
ics Limited India (BEL). These projects include joint production of subsystems, such as a recent teaming agreement with Alpha Design to produce IAI’s mini-UAVs in India. This teaming agreement will better position IAI’s mini-UAVs to potential customers in India, including security agencies, coastguards, defense organizations and border security forces. Ongoing projects with India include the Barak 8, co-developed with India as part of the LRSAM naval air defense; MRSAM land-based air defense systems; various types of radars; and large numbers of Heron UAS. IAI Ltd. is Israel’s largest aerospace and defense company and a globally recognized technology and innovation leader, specializing in developing and manufacturing advanced, state-of-the-art systems for air, space, sea, land, cyber and homeland security. Since 1953, the company has provided advanced technology solutions to government and commercial customers worldwide including: satellites, missiles, weapon systems and munitions, unmanned and robotic systems, radars, C4ISR and more. IAI also designs and manufactures business jets and aerostructures, performs overhaul and maintenance on commercial aircraft and converts passenger aircraft to refueling and cargo configurations. SP www.iai.co.il
>> marketing feature
Pantsir-S1 Modular Design Air-Defence Missile-Gun System Adapted for Various Combat Employment
Gun armament fire (Top) Gun armament fire against a ground target (Above) Engaged target
he analysis of the latest local conflicts shows that high-precision air assault weapons along with unmanned aerial vehicles are of primary importance among air threats. The large number and high density of air threats in an air strike require the air-defence assets to provide not only high combat performance but a large ready-tofire ammunition load and capability of its quick replenishment. Nowadays and in the near future Pantsir-S1 Air-Defence Missile-Gun System (ADMGS) fully satisfies all requirements for fighting modern air threats thanks to the specific features of its design: – combined missile and gun armament that allows to create an entire engagement zone of up to 20 km in range and up to 15 km in altitude; – jam-proof multimode and multispectral radar-optical control system operating in decimetric, millimetric and infrared wavebands; – automatic operation; – capability to fire on the move and from short stops; – short reaction time of 4–6 sec due to automatic tracking of up to 20 targets by a search radar and high-precision target designation (0.3° in azimuth, 0.5° in elevation, 60 m – in range) pro-
SP’s Land Forces 1/2016
viding for quick fine search and target lock-on by multifunction tracking radar and optronic system; – self-contained combat operation and coordination of actions within a battery; – simultaneous firing against four targets within a sector of ± 45 ° in azimuth and elevation. Pantsir-S1 underwent a large scale of live tests and proved its high performance in various conditions of combat use. Figures 1–4 show results of firing the missile and gun armament against ground and aerial targets on the move and from stationary position. Development of the Pantsir-S1 ADMG system adapted for a wide range of Customers required solving a number of scientific and technical challenges. Among them are: – layout and structural challenges to ensure modular design of the system; – development of the new multifunction radar for target and missile tracking; – communicational integration of the Pantsir-S1 into Customer’s Armed Forces; – development and integration of IFF system customized for the particular Customer; – development of automated day/night all-weather control system common in
Gun armament fire (Top) Gun armament fire against a aerial target (Above) Engaged target
terms of instrumentation and featuring customized settings and combat operation algorithms according to the Customer’s requirements; – development of common ammunition load, unified sub-systems, SPTA and training systems. Great R&D experience of the company provided for successful coping with all challenges and allowed designing and developing of an air-defence missile-gun system that meets the highest tactical and technical requirements and doesn’t have counterparts within the spectrum of SHORAD systems. The air defence system equipped with Pantsir-S1 features significantly outperforms SHORAD systems of other countries. A novel approach in designing the Pantsir-S1 system as a modular structure provides for its installation onto various chassis including tracked one as well as for creation of stationary and sea-based variants of the system (for protecting sea oil platform, vital administrative, military-tactical and other objects), for installation of the system onto railway platforms, ensuring its integration into Customer’s existing maintenance, training and logistics systems with minimum cost. The said approach also provides for development of the system variants taking into account particular geotopographical conditions in which the system is to be
used by the Customer. Moreover, the modular design of the system ensures its capability to be upgraded in future in terms of increasing its combat efficiency with minimum cost that undoubtedly raises its commercial interest for the Customer. Outfitting Pantsir-S1 system with the multifunction tracking radar ensuring tracking of three targets and transmission of control commands to four SAMs provided for efficient counteraction against a wide range of air threats: fixed and rotarywing aircraft at stand-off ranges, smallsize guided missiles and bombs as well as remotely piloted UAVs. Thanks to development of a single multimode and multispectral radar-optical control system operating in dm, mm, and IR wavebands, featuring a multifunction tracking radar as one of its components, high jamming immunity of the system was achieved and, as a consequence, drastic increase of combat efficiency was obtained. Current practice of using air-defence missile-gun systems sets forth very strict requirements on their absolute informational integration into Customer’s existing AD system. The said requirements are determined by the following factors: – mandatory availability of the same
RELENTLESS JOURNEY OF EXCELLENCE SINCE 1964
>> marketing feature
Missile armament fire; (left) Missile fire against an aerial target and (right) Engaged target
Missile armament fire; (left) Missile fire against a ground target and (right) Engaged target
(left) Pantsir-S1 ADMGS variants and (right) Pantsir-S1 ADMGS variant
target environment at all levels and all components of a common air-defence system; – complicated geotopographical conditions dictate the necessity of flexible target distribution both between combat vehicles (CVs) within a battery and within a common air-defence system; – continuous growth of high-precision weapons and UAVs among air threats imposes a specific requirements to the use of anti-aircraft systems consisting in capability of combat vehicle operation without radar emission getting the required data from neighboring CVs and remote search radars. Availability of mapping computer with digital maps ensures efficient automatic planning of combat actions taking into account particular geotopographical conditions of the Customer. The task of protecting the transmitted data from jamming was successfully solved. When a command post is used as a part of the system an increase in data transmission range (up to 20 km) is obtained and interfacing with all types of Customer’s existing command posts is provided without major modifications. Adherence to modular concept was applied not only to design of the system but to its software as well. That was the way to
solve the issues of integration into IFF system existing with each of the Customers. The issue of upgrading the IFF system in case the Customer’s decision to change it was also worked out. The use of the self-contained day/night all-weather control system significantly increases engagement zone in all conditions, reduces psychophysical load on the crew, minimizes human factor in tough and strained combat environment. The following specific problems were solved for the particular Customers: – search radar operation without false tracks in conditions of complicated terrain pattern; – targets detection over water and even desert surface; – determination of optimum frequencyspatial separation to provide electromagnetic compatibility, within the existing AD system as well, taking into consideration particular topographical pattern of the Customer; – integration into Customer’s existing IFF system; – minimizing of time required for shaping of search and track zones by a topographic map (with limited resolution in azimuth) thanks to the use of built-in mapping computer and digital maps of the particular Customer;
– integration into Customer’s existing airdefence system and creation of a potential for AD system development basing on the combat actions control principle implemented in Pantsir-S1 ADMGS; – implementation of various ways of SAMs destruction ensuring safety of their use according to Customer’s requirements: a) air-blast initiated by a command on climb trajectory; b) air-blast initiated by a command on dive trajectory; c) dive trajectory without air-blast, destruction by ground impact. Modular structure, unification of units and assemblies design ensure successful integration into Customer’s existing chassis maintenance system, supply of maximum unified individual, common, and basestored SPTA kits, arrangement of service centers and crews training system. Constant combat readiness of the Pantsir-S1 system is ensured by built-in test equipment in each combat and maintenance assets. The system can be installed onto lightly armoured vehicles and can be used as lethal air- transportable AD asset. It can also be mounted on wheeled and tracked chassis in Air Force Air Defence Units and on Navy ships.
Nowadays and in the near future Pantsir-S1 ADMGS fully satisfies all requirements for successful fighting modern air threats. Appropriateness of the implemented technical solutions and high performance specifications of the Pantsir system were proved by acceptance trials and State Tests, more than 500 SAM launches were performed, serial production is established. For several years already Pantsir combat vehicles march down the Red Square as a participants of the Victory Day Parade, a battery of Pantsir-S1 CVs many times took part in a Parade on occasion of Republic of the Republic of Belarus Independence Day in the city of Minsk. The Pantsir system was shown at a number of international defence exhibitions (IDEX, MAKS and others). In the near future and in the long-term outlook the Pantsir-S1 ADMGS will remain a reliable asset capable to ensure protection of airspace from all types of air threats. SP
Advertorial is based on the article by A.A. Zubarev, A.A. Nikiforov, N.A. Grigorieva.
1/2016 SP’s Land Forces
RELENTLESS JOURNEY OF EXCELLENCE SINCE 1964
>> marketing feature
Combat Module for Armored Vehicles Upgrade
he light-weight category combat vehicles are able to determine the combat potential of a country’s Armed Forces due to their application versatility. Infantry fighting vehicles (BMP-1, BMP-2, BMP-3) and airborne assault vehicles (BMD-3, BMD-4) are the most common hardware of land forces and airborne troops. Currently a huge fleet of such combat vehicles is in service with the Russian Army and abroad. These vehicles have been produced for several decades and presently their weapon systems do not meet modern requirements. However, their life cycle is quite long and reaches 30-40 years. Many countries keep on upgrading the main fleet of their combat vehicles. In Russia, a BMP-2 mechanical module was selected as a basis for designing a uniform combat module weighing below 3 tons for upgrading Russian combat vehicles. Russian infantry fighting vehicle BMP-2, being the main combat vehicle of multiple countries’ land forces, was adopted for service in 1980 and used to exceed most of its foreign counterparts in terms of combat capabilities. Nowadays BMP-2 still basically meets the modern requirements. The analysis of current state and development tendencies of weapons and fire control systems shows that BMP-2 weapon system is falling behind the modern level a number of parameters: guided weapon fire is possible from stationary position only because of wire command link availability; Konkurs ATGM has low penetration capability and is not effective against modern tanks; Konkurs ATGM has low firing rate due to manual reloading of the launcher; at night the system may fire only automatic cannon or PKT machine-gun at range not exceeding 800 m; the fire control system is not automated and does not allow for accurate firing, limiting the effective range of 30 mm cannon to 1100–1400 m. when firing on the move the system does not provide for required accuracy of line of sight stabilization due to BPK-2-42 sight rigidly bound to the weapon; 30 mm projectiles flat trajectory firing is not efficient against prone or entrenched manpower; fire at aerial targets carried out using center rings of 1PZ-3 sight, actually delivers only a psychological effect. The firepower of a combat vehicle is determined by its weapon system, thus, the increase of combat efficiency may be achieved by weapon system modernization. BMP-2 has a high weapon system upgrade potential. The challenge of increasing the firepower of existing BMPs providing their superiority over other modern vehicles has been successfully met by KBP Instrument Design Bureau. The upgrade was implemented on a serially produced BMP-2 turret with 2A42 automatic cannon (not changing the mechanical module and turret internal layout). The design concept implies the following: mount of two Kornet-E ATGM launchers on the turret sides, each launcher equipped with independent electromechanical vertical drive and carrying two ready for fire missiles; replacement of standard BPK-2-42 sight with combined gunner’s sight equipped with independent LOS stabilization system and incorporating optical, IR and laser range-finding channels, as well as missile guidance channel; installation of onboard digital computer with sensors system; TV-IR target auto-tracker; 30 mm grenade launcher with independent electromechanical vertical laying drive and 300rds feed magazine; commander’s panoramic sight with independent LOS stabilization system and incorporating optical and laser range-finding channels; high-precision digital weapon stabilizer. The weight of add-on equipment installed does not exceed 500 kg, including around 260 kg of extra ammunition: 30 mm grenades and ATGM. Due to introduction of day/night FCS the system pro-
(Top to bottom) BMP-1 upgraded with new CM; BMP-2 upgraded with new CM; BMP-3 upgraded with new CM; BTR-90 upgraded with new CM.
vides accurate firing with all types of weapons, including guided, at moving and stationary targets, round-the-clock engagement of all types of targets from stationary position, on the move and afloat at the range up to 4000 m with automatic cannon, up to 2100 m with automatic grenade launcher, up to 5500 m with 9M133-1 ATGM. Besides, 9M133M-2 ATGM with tandem shaped-charge warhead and 9M133FM ATGM with HE warhead and 9M133FM-3 ATGM with HE warhead and proximity fuse recently
designed by KBP allow firing at range up to 8 km. Kornet-E ATGM penetration capability, increased up to 1100-1300 mm, allows reliable engagement of modern advanced tanks fitted with add-on ERA. Besides, HEF warhead of the missile is able to destroy concrete fortifications and strongpoints. The improvements implemented in Kornet ATGM ensure: destruction of modern and advanced tanks taking into account their armor protection growth tendency; engagement of any armored vehicle at stand-off range; engagement of low altitude assault and reconnaissance aircrafts including drones. Besides, installation on two stabilized launchers of BMP-2 ICV of four ready-to-launch guided missiles significantly increase fire rate when firing ATGMs. It rules out the necessity to reload the guided missile launcher in combat, which increases the survival potential of the crew and of the entire combat vehicle. Implementation of TV-IR-auto target tracker increases the accuracy of target tracking 3-6 fold in comparison with manual tracking. Automatic target tracker adds the FCS a qualitatively new feature, putting to life the “fire-and-forget” principle when firing a guided missile. At the same time the missile cost is significantly lower than that of a missile with a seeker which fulfills the function of the auto-tracker. The possibility of Kornet ATGM launch in an elevated mode almost excludes the possibility of detecting the missile. Laser guidance mode of the ATGM with orientation of the missile within the laser beam provides for high jamming-immunity against all types of active jamming, since the jammer cannot be behind the ICV and send the same encoded messages; To overcome active protection and guaranteed engagement of crucial targets salvo launch of 2 ATGMs riding on one laser beam is provided. Significant increase of automated gun and grenade launcher firing accuracy with all types of ammunition is provided due to the development of original firing algorithm. Effective firing range of 30-mm projectile is increased from 1100-1400 m up to 1800-2000 m. The principle of ICV versatility is fulfilled by adding air defense capacities without additional expenditures. Effective engagement of personnel at ranges up to 2100 is achieved due to the employment of low ballistics armaments (AG-30M automatic grenade launcher) with new GPD-30 rounds. Range of activities of CV commander is increased due to installation of night vision panoramic sight with technical view, implemented on ICVs for the first time. The commander has all-around field of view in horizon and in vertical plane the field of view is increased up to 60 degrees, maximal angular velocity of the bore sighting line increases from 6 to 20 deg./sec. This allows to increase the range of targets detected by the CV by 2.5 times, increase TD accuracy for the gunner by 10 times and to fully backup his tasks as well as to carry out engagement of aerial targets in automatic mode. BMP-2 upgrade meets the requirements towards future infantry combat vehicle for the nearest 20–30 years, and upgraded BMP-3 ICV can be successfully used till year 2030–2040. The carried out upgrade features a systematic approach and leads not simply to enhancement of separate technical specifications of the system, but has enabled to create a vehicle with qualitatively new features, which can successfully compete with foreign counterparts on the weapon market. A modular design principle has been implemented in the combat compartment. Thus Customer may choose required set of equipment for installation, either full or partial. B05Ya01 combat module can be also installed on BMP-1 (after the chassis is upgraded to up to the level of BMP-2), BMP-3, BMD-3 airborne combat vehicle, BTR-90 APC and has passed the trials on their chassis. KBP mastered serial production of upgraded BMP-2 combat compartment. SP The advertorial is based on the article of N.I. Khokhlov, L.M. Shvets, I.A. Matveev, O.A. Borovykh.
1/2016 SP’s Land Forces
Exercise FORCE 18
xercise FORCE 18, largest ‘Multinational Field Training Exercise (FTX),’ was conducted by the Indian Army from March 2-8, 2016, at Pune. The theme of the exercise was Humanitarian Mine Action (HMA) and Peacekeeping Operations (PKO). The maiden multinational exercise ever conducted by ground forces on Indian soil saw participation of 18 ASEAN Plus nations which include India, along with Australia, China, Japan, New Zealand, Russia, South Korea and the US who form part of the ASEAN Plus whereas 10 countries are from South East Asia – Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore,
Thailand and Vietnam — all members of the ASEAN. The foreign participants of ASEAN Plus countries enthusiastically took part in the training activities on HMA conducted at the College of Military Engineering (CME) in Pune and PKO at Aundh Military Garrison displaying true jointmanship and team spirit. The essence of the exercise was to learn and share the best practices with the other armies of the world and display our commitment for peace and stability in the region. “This exercise is an outcome of our effort because the ASEAN Defence Ministers Meeting, ADMM Plus, had planned for two separate exercises for HMA and UN PKO in 2016. During ADSOM Plus (ASEAN Defence Senior
Officers’ Meeting) held in Malaysia in March 2015, we offered to bring the two exercises together and conduct the joint FTX this year,” a senior army official said. As a testimony to the team spirit and achieving of global jointmanship, a unique feature was embedded in the execution of Exercise Force 18, that is, to train the foreign trainers of the ASEAN Plus countries for one week before the commencement of actual exercise. In this regard, over 25 foreign trainers arrived in Pune on February 23, 2016. These trainers who had experience in the field of HMA and PKO were trained by the Indian Army from February 24 till March 1, 2016. The training of train-
ers facilitated bringing all foreign trainers on an optimum threshold level, conversion of training material into native language to understand the conduct of actual FTX. The trainers would thus perform a dynamic role to cater for the challenges caused by language barriers and formulate common operating procedures for various activities to be conducted during the main FTX. On February 26, 2016, soon after their arrival, the foreign trainers were welcomed and briefed by Brigadier Alok Chandra, Commander of Shivneri Infantry Brigade. The trainers were later oriented to all the training and administrative infrastructure created for the mega exercise. SP
photographs: Indian Army
(Clockwise from Top Left) Chief instructor of peacekeeping operations from the Indian Army briefing foreign troops on lane patrolling; A lady officer from the United States along with Indian participant practising lane patrolling during the training; Participants of Laos and South Korea during the training on peacekeeping operations; Troops of the United States, Malaysia and India practising lane patrolling during the training on peacekeeping operation; Display of combat deployment by special forces during the closing ceremony of Exercise Force 18; Foreign participants practising bound to bound fire and move during the training on peacekeeping operation.
SP’s Land Forces 1/2016
RELENTLESS JOURNEY OF EXCELLENCE SINCE 1964
>> News in Brief India test-fires Agni-I ballistic missile The Indian Army’s Strategic Forces Command (SFC) has successfully test-fired the indigenously developed Agni-I ballistic missile from the Integrated Test Range (ITR) at Wheeler Island, off the coast of Odisha, in the second week of March 2016. Launched from a mobile system, the missile followed the prescribed trajectory and reached the target point covering a distance of 700 km in 9 minutes and 36 seconds. According to defence sources, the missile was tracked by radar and telemetry observation stations, electro-optic instruments, and two naval ships stationed near the target point. The launch was conducted as part of routine user trials for army personnel, with assistance from the scientists and officers of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). The launch was undertaken as a part of periodic training activity by SFC to further consolidate operational readiness. Developed by DRDO under the integrated guided missile development programme (IGMDP), the Agni-I is a 15 metre-long, medium-to-intercontinental range ballistic missile (IRBM) capable of carrying conventional and nuclear payloads at a speed of 2.5 km/sec. The single-stage, road and rail-mobile missile features a specialised navigation system, a payload capacity of up to one tonne, and a range of 700 km. The Agni-1 underwent its first test flight in January 2002, and has already been inducted into the Indian Army.
Tata Motors, Bharat Forge and GDLS partner for India’s FICV programme A consortium led by Tata Motors is planning to bid for the Ministry of Defence’s (MoD) futuristic infantry combat vehicles (FICVs) contract. The consortium, which is comprised of Bharat Forge and General Dynamics Land Systems (GDLS), will compete for the Indian Army’s FICV contract worth $10 billion. Tata Motors Commercial Vehicles Executive Director Ravi Pisharody, said: “We at Tata Motors are proud to have joined hands with Bharat Forge and General Dynamics Land Systems for a complete FICV solution for the Indian armed forces.” The FICV is conceived as a compact, tracked and amphibious, air-portable, highmobility armoured vehicle. It is expected to fire anti-tank guided missiles to ranges beyond 4 km, as well as carry three crew members and eight infantry. The FICV will replace the Indian Army’s fleet of legacy 2610 Russian-built BMP series armed vehicles. The order to build 70 per cent of the vehicle will be awarded only to Indian firms, with options for technology tie-ups with foreign companies.
>> Show Calendar 28–31 March Defexpo India 2016 Naqueri Quitol, Quepem Taluka, South Goa, India https://defexpoindia.in 18–21 April DSA 2016 PWTC, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia www.dsaexhibition.com 17–19 May ITEC 2016 (Defence, Training & Simulation Expo) ExCel, London, UK www.itec.co.uk 13–17 June Eurosatory 2016 Paris Nord Villepinte Exhibition Centre, Paris, France www.eurosatory.com
US DoD approves decision to open Military Combat positions for Women
The US Department of Defense (DoD) has approved the landmark decision to open all US military combat positions for women. Pentagon Press Secretary Peter Cook, said: “The Defense Secretary Ash Carter formally approved the final implementation plans prepared by the military services and US Special Operations Command to integrate women into all combat roles.” The Defence Secretary said that the department’s performance standards are now based on ‘real-world operational requirements and the experiences gained in Iraq and Afghanistan’. The implementation group’s review of the services were governed by seven guiding principles, including transparent standards, population size, physical demands and physiological differences, conduct and culture, talent management, operating abroad and assessment and adjustment. The integration does not guarantee the promotion of women at any set rate or period. The will continue to operate the military based on a merit system. The decision will open up nearly 2,20,000 positions for women in infantry, reconnaissance, and special operations units. It overrules the US Marine Corps’ request to keep positions such as infantry, machine gunner, fire support, and reconnaissance open to men only.
Oshkosh to resume work on US Army’s JLTV contract worth $6.75 Billion
The US Court of Federal Claims has instructed Oshkosh to resume work on its recent $6.75 billion contract to manufacture joint light tactical vehicles (JLTV) for the US Army. The court denied Lockheed Martin’s request for a preliminary injunction against Oshkosh while hearing its formal protest. Oshkosh Corporation President and CEO Wilson R. Jones said: “This decision is another indication that the US Army conducted a thorough, methodical procurement process, and we are confident that the original JLTV contract award to Oshkosh will be upheld.” In August, Oshkosh was selected over Lockheed and AM General to deliver approximately 17,000 armoured trucks and sustainment services under an eight-year contract. The US Army told the company to stop work after Lockheed Martin lodged a formal protest with the US Government Accountability Office (GAO), citing concerns regarding the evaluation of its proposal, as well as the source selection process. The JLTV programme aims to replace the US Army and Marine Corps’ high-mobility multi-purpose wheeled vehicles (HMMWVs), which have been in active service for more than 25 years. Vehicle deliveries were supposed to start approximately 10 months after the contract award.
British Army Royal Gurkha Rifles to deploy in Kabul, Afghanistan The British Army’s 2nd Battalion The Royal Gurkha Rifles (2 RGR) will deploy to Kabul,
Afghanistan, to protect NATO military and civilian advisers working in government ministries. Deployed as part of the UK’s support to the Afghan Government, the light infantrymen will also safeguard UK advisers based at the Afghan National Army Officers’ Academy. Around 400 Gurkhas, based at Sir John Moore Barracks in Shorncliffe, will deploy to Kabul in April. Split into two roulements, the eight-month deployment will train Afghan forces so they can secure their own country. The Gurkhas are currently practising scenarios they could face in Kabul, such as recovering a broken-down vehicle, at Foxhounds in Norfolk. B Company second in command captain Bikulman Rai said: “Our role in Kabul will be to provide force protection to the NATO advisers helping the development of the Afghan Army and Government. We will be protecting the mentors when they go out to support training or attend meetings. In 2014, 2 RGR deployed on three tours of Helmand Province before the end of NATO combat operations.
Publisher and Editor-in-Chief Jayant Baranwal Editor Lt General V.K. Kapoor (Retd) Senior Editorial Contributor Lt General P.C. Katoch (Retd) Senior Technical Group Editor Lt General Naresh Chand (Retd) Air Marshal B.K. Pandey (Retd) Assistant Group Editor R. Chandrakanth Contributors India General V.P. Malik (Retd), Lt General Vijay Oberoi (Retd), Lt General R.S. Nagra (Retd), Lt General S.R.R. Aiyengar (Retd), Major General Ashok Mehta (Retd), Major General G.K. Nischol (Retd), Brigadier Gurmeet Kanwal (Retd), Brigadier S. Mishra (Retd), Rohit Sharma Chairman & Managing Director Jayant Baranwal Executive Vice President (Planning & Business Development) Rohit Goel
3M partners with Schuberth to develop next-generation helmet technology
Administration Bharti Sharma
3M Deutschland and helmet manufacturer Schuberth are to develop improved ballistic head protection systems for military and law enforcement applications. The firms signed an agreement to create custom head protection solutions for European clients. Schuberth CEO Jan-Christian Becker said that the deal marks an important step in boosting its position in the ballistic head protection systems market segment. Schuberth will also serve as a distributor of 3M ballistic helmets, which will be manufactured by 3M subsidiary Ceradyne. 3M Advanced Ceramics Platform Defense Business Manager Cheryl Ingstad said: “Schuberth is a leader in military head protection and accessories, with a deep understanding of customer requirements. The firms agreed to develop and market a new generation of products, which will protect military and law enforcement personnel from various threats.” 3M Deutschland government customers head David Cerny said: “Our police and military customers will benefit from this cooperation, as reliable technologies of both companies are immediately available. Our goal is to offer lighter weight, effective protection in the face of growing threats.” Ceradyne produces lightweight body armour and ballistic helmets, and is a major supplier for the US Armed Forces. SP
Creative Director Anoop Kamath
Lt General Subrata Saha, UYSM, YSM, VSM**, DCOAS (P&S) took over wef November 1, 2015. Lt General B.S. Negi, UYSM, YSM, SM, VSM**, GOC-in-C Central Command took over wef January 1, 2016.
Lt General Bipin Rawat, UYSM, AVSM, YSM, SM, VSM, GOC-in-C Southern Command took over wef January 1, 2016.
Lt General Sarath Chand, UYSM, AVSM, VSM, GOC-in-C South Western Command took over wef February 1, 2016.
Design Vimlesh Kumar Yadav, Sonu Singh Bisht Research Assistant: Graphics Survi Massey Sales & Marketing Director Sales & Marketing: Neetu Dhulia General Manager Sales: Rajeev Chugh SP’s Website Sr. Web Developer: Shailendra P. Ashish Web Developer: Ugrashen Vishwakarma Published bimonthly by Jayant Baranwal on behalf of SP Guide Publications Pvt Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, photocopying, recording, electronic, or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publishers. Printed in India by Kala Jyothi Process Pvt Ltd © SP Guide Publications, 2016 Subscription/ Circulation Annual Inland: `600 • Overseas: US$180 Email: email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Letters to Editor email@example.com For Advertising Details, Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com SP GUIDE PUBLICATIONS PVT LTD Corporate Office A 133 Arjun Nagar, Opp Defence Colony, New Delhi 110003, India Tel: +91(11) 24644693, 24644763, 24620130 Fax: +91 (11) 24647093 Regd Office Fax: +91 (11) 23622942 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Representative Offices Bengaluru, INDIA Air Marshal B.K. Pandey (Retd) 204, Jal Vayu Vihar, Kalyan Nagar, Bengaluru 560043, India. Tel: +91 (80) 23682204 MOSCOW, RUSSIA LAGUK Co., Ltd, Yuri Laskin Krasnokholmskaya, Nab., 11/15, app. 132, Moscow 115172, Russia. Tel: +7 (495) 911 2762, Fax: +7 (495) 912 1260 www.spguidepublications.com www.spslandforces.com RNI Number: DELENG/2008/25818
Lt General N.P.S. Hira, AVSM, DCOAS (IS&T) took over wef March 14, 2016.
1/2016 SP’s Land Forces
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SP's Land Forces February - March 2016, Indian Army’s Modernisation Woes, Exclusive: Ministry of Commerce ‘Facilitator’ of ‘Make in India’ I...