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Our jets aren’t built tO airline standards. FOr which Our custOmers thank us daily. some manufacturers tout the merits of building business jets to airline standards. we build to an even higher standard: our own. consider the citation mustang. its airframe service life is rated at 37,500 cycles, exceeding that of competing airframes built to “airline standards.” in fact, it’s equivalent to 140 years of typical use. excessive? no. just one of the many ways we go beyond what’s required to do what’s expected of the world’s leading maker of business aircraft.
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Table of Contents
An SP Guide Publication
News Flies. We Gather Intelligence. Every Month. From India.
Issue 9 • 2010
24 Regional Aviation
Making the Right Move
32 Business Aviation Reducing Noise & Greenhouse Gas Emissions
34 Business Aviation ‘With each new aircraft, we work to decrease noise and lower emissions’
36 Business Aviation Towards Carbon-neutral Growth
– Take to the air via iPad
– Aerobatics in the Air
10 – On Combat Operations
– Project Firefly
15 OEM Mbda offers Stockpile Management Services to Users
Cover Story Go green, keep the sky clean It is only a question of time when some tangible steps would be taken to conform to internationally acceptable standards on aviation emissions
I nnovative, Comprehensive & Systematic Approach…
C4ISR the Buzzword
SEPTEMBER • 2010
Perspective on C4ISR Defence Acquisitions Regional Aviation US Aerospace Majors - IV First & TecKnow
RNI NUMBER: DELENG/2008/24199
AN SP GUIDE PUBLICATION
News Flies. We Gather Intelligence. Every Month. From India.
16 Industry US Aerospace Majors Part-IV
Selling Corporate Aircraft
Hall of fame
39 Louise Thaden Regular Departments
A Word from Editor
– Electric Airliners
– IAF-HAL Tussle
11 InFocus FMS vs Open Tender 12
Make it Easy
Business Aviation & PAGE 24
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With advanced aerodynamics and efficient engines, Hawker 400XP, offers a blend of range, speed, load-carrying capabilities along with fuel efficiency and low burn value
Cover Image: Business aviation industry is affected by renewed trepidation over environment issues. Cover Illustration: Anoop Kamath
LastWord Bureaucratic Jumble
Next Issue: Indian Air Force Special
Issue 9 • 2010 SP’S AVIATION 1
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A Word from Editor
There have been several initiatives by the business aviation community to contain pollution.The specific targets set for themselves—achieving carbon-neutral growth by 2020 and improving fuel efficiency by 2 per cent every year—are highly commendable.
lobal warming, as we all are aware, is staring in our face. While there have been several initiatives by various industry sectors to contain the effects of pollution, more needs to be done, irrespective of who is causing it. And the business aviation community has shown this stewardship, though business jets are contributing less than 2 per cent of the total aviation emissions. The specific targets— achieving carbon-neutral growth by 2020 and improving fuel efficiency by 2 per cent every year until 2020—they have set for themselves, are highly commendable. In this issue of SP’s Aviation, we are looking at the issue of business aviation and environment and also the concerted efforts made by the major OEMs and the industry as a whole. From the response of these players, we can surmise that substantial investments are being made in R&D and this augurs well for not just the business jet industry but for everyone else. The cover story by A.K. Sachdev has touched upon the relevant issues on the same. Moving away from business jets to regional aviation, we find that India will have around 500 airports, if all goes well. Certainly such infrastructural developments will require a comprehensive regional airline policy as the 2007 policy failed on several counts. We read reports that many entrepreneurs are getting into aviation business, including wanting to start regional airlines. Several state governments have experienced mixed success in roping in private players for many of the smaller airports. If there has to be connect between the airports and the airline operators, we need to get started on infrastructural works forthwith. The coverage by Joseph Noronha deliberates on these issues. On the military front, we have a case for rationalisation of the Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP). A report by KPMG consultants and CII has revealed that only 15 per cent of India’s defence equipment is state-of-the-art and at least half of the defence equipment is obsolete. And we are talking of “fire power”. If we need to equip our military with the best, it is believed that direct government to government or
foreign military sales (FMS) are safe routes. So in this issue, we have a healthy debate on FMS vs Open Tender. Continuing with military aviation, an article by Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia on C4ISR highlights how the Indian Air Force is in tune with such developments. From the OEM perspective, we have Raytheon giving insights into their key capabilities including homeland security solutions, while Wallop indicates the advantages of combustible ordnance and countermeasure products. We round off the issue with Last Word by Air Marshal (Retd) B.K. Pandey, on the “bureaucratic jumble” on the proposal for a second international airport for Mumbai at Navi Mumbai. It is over three years since the government gave approval for a Greenfield airport project and nothing much has happened. We are only hearing about the tussle between the Ministry of Civil Aviation and the Ministry of Environment and Forests. While it is our endeavour to provide exhaustive coverage on issues that matter in both military and civil aviation, we as usual look forward to your feedback.
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arring a few feeble notes of ones to medium size, light and very light By Group Captain (Retd) disagreement, the general aircraft (say very light jets and turboA.K. Sachdeva consensus is that recesprops). The total number of business airsion is over. Economies are craft being used all over the world could showing signs of return to be upward by 55,000, according to one good health, jobs are beestimate. Of these, roughly half that figcoming easier to come by, and the term ure would be jets, the rest being made “green shoots” is being used more and up of turbo-jets, turbo-props and pistonmore frequently to indicate signs of ecoengine aircraft. However, the average annomic recovery. An interesting development related to the nual utilisation of business aircraft is around 400-500 hours recovery is the shift from short-term threats (unemploy- in contrast to 3,000 hours for commercial aircraft. Consement, rising costs, shortfalls) to more abstract, long-term quently, the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions produced by and uncertain threats such as global warming and related business aircraft as a percentage of total aviation emissions environment issues. The civil aviation industry, like any oth- of CO2 is estimated to be only 1 per cent to 2 per cent. Thus er, is affected by both these phenomenon— post-recession it can be seen that although the business aviation aircraft signs of recovery and renewed trepidation over environ- numbers are large, their total contribution to the impact on ment issues. environment is proportionately small due to the small size Business aviation, as that component of civil aviation of the aircraft and their low utilisation rates. Worldwide, due that provides efficient, productive and secure business trav- to its peculiar posturing in the overall civil aviation indusel, need not be seen as a luxury for the affluent business try, business aviation represents a growth area with latest man or executive, but instead as a business communication policies by regulatory authorities, better aircraft designs, intool—an air transport option tailored to the specific needs creased shareholder scrutiny and a focussed perspective on of companies and individuals (in contrast to scheduled air- environmental awareness. line flights). Business aviation operations could be corporate In November 2009, a host of business aviation associa(non-commercial operations with professional aircrew op- tions from across the globe unveiled a plan to limit the busierating), private (non-commercial operation flown by owner ness aviation industry’s emissions footprint on a document of aircraft), fractional (non-commercial, shared ownership Business Aviation Statement on Climate Change. The docuoperations) or charter/air taxi type commercial, on-demand ment supported the ICAO Declaration on International Aviaoperations. The type of aircraft in use vary from large cabin tion and Climate Change and espoused the acceptance of an SP’S AVIATION
Issue 9 • 2010
ICAO proposal for aviation sectoral management of targets and monitoring of GHG emissions in a post-Kyoto Agreement. To this end, the business aviation community committed to the following specific targets: • Carbon-neutral growth by 2020. • An improvement in fuel efficiency of an average of 2 per cent per year until 2020. • A reduction in its total CO2 emissions by 50 per cent by 2050 relative to 2005. Business aircraft are usually flown on point-to-point flights for specific purposes and endeavour to fly efficient, direct routes between airports (more often small or secondary airports than metros). It could be argued that business aviation is more efficient from the environmental point of view than commercial aviation because the latter flies scheduled routes, which once scheduled, have to be flown irrespective of seat occupancy. In contrast, business aviation undertakes specific flights to convey a passenger or positions to pick him up. Modern navigation equipment, combined with the latest technologies in aircraft and engine design and operational best practice provide for ever improving fuel efficiency and reduced GHG emissions. Thus, the community, represented by regional/national business aviation associations, claims an excellent environmental record but states that it is resolved to do more. Business aviation manufacturing and operating communities have jointly developed an aggressive programme in support of ICAO targets and are committed to contributing to the overall aviation goals. Business
aviation aims to achieve these objectives through expected advances in three areas—technology, infrastructure, and operational improvements and alternative fuels. As far as technology is concerned, the focus is on improved efficiency—aircraft must be as light as possible and use as little fuel as possible in order to transport a payload as far as possible. Business aircraft manufacturers have to lead the way in the use of innovative technologies that allow for more efficient operations. Manufacturers are firmly committed to continue on this path. The collective promise of the business aircraft manufacturing industry is to build business aircraft by 2050 which will be 45 per cent more fuel efficient than the ones built in 2005. Simultaneously, there is a thrust towards improved collaboration with air traffic management (ATM) providers to accelerate implementation of air traffic infrastructure and procedures modernisation; the result would be, hopefully, considerably reduced CO2 emissions. Along with development and implementation of operational best practices to reduce fuel usage, it is hoped that these programmes will deliver 14 per cent of the overall Co2 reductions by 2050.
Regulation will have to be tightened up in respect of aviation emissions
Issue 9 • 2010
Aviat ion SED
With a robust regime being put into place in North America and Europe, it is only a question of time when the heat will be felt by India and some tangible steps would have to be taken to conform to internationally acceptable and enforceable standards and norms on aviation emissions
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On July 30, in a seminar during the AirVenture 2010 air show at Oshkosh, the future of air travel was also brought to the fore. The focus on e-aviation culminated in the World Symposium of Electric Aircraft and among the many interesting designs discussed was Boeing’s subsonic ultra green aircraft research (SUGAR) Volt concept—a hybrid engine design to run on jet fuel as well as electricity, which it is claimed, could reduce the fuel burn by more than 70 per cent. The concept could include hinges in the wing design so that they could be folded when on the ground. The airplane is designed to fly at Mach 0.79, carrying up to 154 passengers over 3,500 nautical miles.
he spotlight of environmental concerns invariably encompass the world of aviation, an industry perceived as a major contributor in aggravating the problems connected with carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions – namely, global warming. While the jury is still out on the validity of that allegation, in air transportation, perception has inexplicably scored over hard facts – not surprising given the sector’s high visibility which fans such illusory and preconceived notions. However, these misconceptions have also come as a boon in disguise fuelling the entire aviation industry’s desire for continuously taking on the challenges of reducing greenhouse gases with the utmost sincerity it deserves. Boeing’s SUGAR Volt concept is the outcome of one such attempt initiated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to develop environmental and performance concepts that will help guide the agency’s aeronautics research over the next 25 years. Known as N+3 to denote three generations beyond today’s commercial transport fleet, the research programme is aimed at identifying key technologies, such as advanced airframe configurations and propulsion systems that will enable greener airplanes to take flight around 2035. NASA selected six US teams that won contracts in 2008 to undertake conceptual studies for both subsonic and supersonic air travel. Four teams—led by Boeing, GE Aviation, Northrop Grumman and MIT, respectively—studied concepts for subsonic commercial aviation. The objective was to develop the concepts and evaluate the potential of quieter commercial airplanes that would burn 70 per cent less fuel and emit 75 per cent less NOX than today’s commercial airplanes. It was apparent that NASA’s aggressive criteria would require ‘radical’ change in the design of airframes and propulsion systems. The two outstanding teams—one led by MIT and the other by Boeing—appeared to have followed different routes to 6 SP’S AVIATION Issue 9 • 2010
achieve design objectives. The MIT team met NASA’s challenges by developing two designs—the 180-passenger D ‘double bubble’ series and the bigger 350-passenger H ‘hybrid wing body’ by introducing major reconfigurations in airframe design. The engines though conventional have been shifted to the rear of the fuselage which permits them to take slower moving air from the plan’s wake, also known as boundary layer ingestion (BLI), resulting in less fuel burn while producing the same amount of thrust, but the penalty is greater stress on engines. Boeing in its SUGAR Volt concept has gone in for twinengine aircraft design with near conventional fuselage design but notable for its trussed, elongated wings and more radically different electric battery gas turbine hybrid propulsion system—a system designed to reduce fuel burn by a massive 70 per cent and total energy use by 55 per cent. But how will this be achieved? It is quite evident that a pure turbojet engine cannot be used with this hybrid system. Instead, what Boeing appears to have chosen is the latest advanced turboprop/propfan technology which is being used for not only some of the new military transporters such as EADS A400M and Russian/Ukrainian An-70, but also for repowering the older aircraft such as the C-130 Hercules in their new model ‘J’ avatars and the re-engined carrier-borne US Navy’s Hawkeye E-2D airplanes. The big difference in the Boeing’s SUGAR Volt concept would be that it would use turbine engines and electric motors connected to the fans to more efficiently propel the electric airliner. This combination has the potential to shorten take off distances and greatly reduce noise, one of the NASA requirements. After take-off, on flights up to 900 miles, the SUGAR Volt could cruise almost exclusively on battery power. The vast reduction in fuel burn and ‘greening’ of the electrical power grid can greatly reduce emissions of life cycle CO2 & NOX – all in all, a ‘clear winner’ concept to be pursued further. SP —Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia www.spsaviation.net
Details of a disturbing spat between the IAF and HAL has appeared in a new public document. This possibly for the first time sheds light on the true quality of the relationship that the two share. A new report by India’s national audit watchdog, the Comptroller & Auditor General (CAG) has thrown fresh and damning light on how HAL dealt with a flight control phenomenon that has given its chopper division real nightmares over the last few years—cyclic saturation. The phenomenon caused two crashes of the Dhruv in the last three years. The report reveals that it was this “limitation of control saturation” that caused Chile to pull out of a near final contract in July 2007.
Photograph: Sp guide pubns
dvanced light helicopter Dhruv, the pride of the Indian aerospace major HAL and the nation, has in the wake of the report by the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India available in the public domain, hit the headlines once again. The report castigates HAL for inadequate response to the problem of design deficiency/limitation described as “control saturation” even after it was identified as the reason for a fatal accident in 2007. The report alludes HAL of “safeguarding its business interests even at the cost of a professional approach to address a problem that has serious flight safety and operational implications.” Is there also severe indictment for a plethora of inadequacies afflicting the Dhruv programme as listed in the report? These include technical issues such as inordinately high empty weight impinging on payload capability, premature engine withdrawals and problems related to tail rotor blade. The report highlights the lack of progress in a number of areas such as delay in the development of the “armed” version, inability to obtain international safety certifications impeding the company’s efforts to penetrate the international market, inadequate level of indigenisation even after a decade of the programme, and despite civil certification, its failure to successfully execute orders received for the civil version from the domestic market. Among the other deficiencies, the report has observed failure on the part of the company to complete the required technical documentation, slippage in delivery schedules and inordinately large number of modifications, reported to be 363, to the 74 machines delivered to the armed forces as the design is yet to be frozen. The report attributes the tardy pace in the progress of the project that is lagging behind by three years to high degree of tolerance in the delivery of machines laden with
concessions, exhibited by the captive customers, namely the armed forces. On the issue of control saturation, HAL is of the view that this is not a “design deficiency” but is “a phenomenon that can occur during extreme manoeuvres.” Although there are precautionary notes in the flight manual, but neither there is adequate clarity on the nature of the problem, nor due emphasis on the consequences of pilots inadvertently transgressing limits while performing extreme manoeuvres. It is somewhat surprising that the Indian Air Force had remained oblivious of the potential hazard when it has a well developed capability of test flying prototypes. HAL claims it is in the process of correcting the problem by incorporating a control saturation warning system. Undoubtedly, on account of the CAG report, there is bound to be a degree of consternation in the organisation. However, it is not unusual for programmes related to the development of new aircraft the world over to be afflicted with problems. In the case of the ALH Dhruv, the gravity of the post-CAG report situation has been aggravated by the media, which on the basis of unfounded rumours, appears to have perceived the departure on long leave of the head of the helicopter complex at HAL as “sacking”, a direct fallout of the catalogue of problems listed by the highest audit agency of the government. Admittedly, the problems with the ALH Dhruv programme are complex and cannot be attributed to a single individual. Complex problems require elaborate solutions. Precipitate action such as removal of the head of the department in a government controlled organisation as perceived by the media, is no solution. It is therefore neither warranted nor likely. The media may have just jumped the gun as is often the case. SP Air Marshal (Retd) B.K. Pandey Issue 9 • 2010 SP’S AVIATION 7
Take to the air via iPad Tecnam ground school and flight lesson courseware through interactive, mobile data platforms such as the Apple iPad
Photograph: Hilton Software
ecnam North America has unveiled its new Tecnam Flight Center (TFC) programme at AirVenture 2010. Through Tecnam Flight Centres, schools gain access to new and integrated flight training and navigation technology, ease of access to aircraft through purchase and leasing options and incentives to move aircraft from the flight line into the hands of students, according to company officials, who note that Tecnam Flight Centres are now being set up across the country. Light sport aircraft and the sport pilot licence have successfully enabled older pilots to remain active in aviation. But longer term, general aviation will depend on a younger, mobile, computer savvy generation of students learning to fly. Keeping this in view, Tecnam is trying to address this with not just next-generation glass cockpits in its training aircraft, but also by providing ground school and flight lesson courseware via interactive, mobile data platforms such as the Apple iPad. Tecnam Flight Centres, in collaboration with MS Aviation and Hilton Software, LLC has developed proprietary software that students and instructors use simultaneously to
maximise training effectiveness. According to company officials, immediate, online feedback is provided to instructors, enabling them to monitor the progress of students through the material and identify where course content may need to be modified and delivered to the students wirelessly. Flight schools can also monitor the effectiveness of instructors and gain a better, real-time understanding of which teaching methods are the most effective. When students are finished with their ground school course material for the day, the same iPad can then be taken to the TFC training aircraft, slotted into its centre panel and be used for navigational purposes, providing airport information, communications frequencies and position reporting on geo-referenced sectional charts. SP —SP’s Aviation News Desk
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Aerobatics in the Air Rockwell Collins and DARPA demonstrate UAV aerobatics on a fixed trajectory
ockwell Collins has demonstrated the first unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to fly aerobatics with position tracking, as part of its ongoing damage tolerance research contract with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The all-attitude control technology supplies UAVs with damage tolerance and the ability to fight through evasive manoeuvres and counter threats such as missiles. Dave Vos, Senior Director of Rockwell Collins Control Technologies and Unmanned Aircraft Systems said, “This technology will also enable UAVs to fly at low altitude in urban environments and even in confined places such as inside buildings and caves,” he added. 8 SP’S AVIATION Issue 9 • 2010
Vos further said that the technology is now set to be ported to an operational UAV. He indicated that while others have flown aerobatics of autonomous UAVs, the most recent DARPA test was the first UAV to fly aerobatics with position tracking with a fixed aerobatic trajectory in space. This demonstration is part of the third phase of a damage tolerance contract awarded to Rockwell Collins. SP —SP’s Aviation News Desk
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F-16IN SUPER VIPER T H E U LT I M AT E 4 T H G E N E R AT I O N F I G H T E R
Lockheed Martin’s F-16IN Super Viper is a unique new ﬁghter sharing a heritage with the world’s only ﬁfth generation ﬁghters. This ultimate fourth generation ﬁghter has been tailored exclusively to meet or exceed all of India’s Medium Multi Role Combat Aircraft (MMRCA) requirements. The F-16IN is the right choice for the Indian Air Force (IAF) and is ready for integration into India’s infrastructure and operations now. Evolutionary technologies make the F-16IN the most advanced fourth generation ﬁghter in the world today.
On Combat Operations
Insitu fields enhanced Nighttime Imagery on its NightEagle
nsitu, a wholly owned independent subsidiary of Boeing, has announced that the NightEagle unmanned aircraft system (UAS) is now fully integrated into combat operations. It has successfully completed fielding of an upgraded mid-wave infrared (MWIR) imager payload. Insitu responded to an urgent, mission-critical request to field the advanced MWIR imager, which provides even greater nighttime vision for the warfighter. The new sensors were rapidly fielded through an in-theater upgrade kit implemented by Insitu deployed operations representatives who provide global operations and maintenance of Insitu UAS 24 hours a day, all days of the week throughout the year. The upgradation was implemented into the customer’s existing in-theatre NightEagle fleet and flew successfully
within a few days before the required date. The new configuration consists of upgrades to ground support equipment and new software. The implementation includes specialised in-field training. NightEagle’s MWIR payload assures continued intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance coverage when dust and rain blind other infrared sensors. With more continuous zoom and a wider range of articulation and field-of-regard, the second generation MWIR imager payload helps keep eyes on target. SP E-mail your comments to: firstname.lastname@example.org
… Sikorsky’s electric helicopter demonstrator flight is anticipated later this year
Photographs: Insitu & Sikorsky
ikorsky Innovations has unveiled Project Firefly, an allelectric helicopter technology demonstrator at the Experimental Aircraft Association (EAA) AirVenture exhibition. The firefly technology demonstration aircraft at EAA is part of the world symposium on electric aircraft. The demonstrator is one of the main attractions in the Aviation Learning Centre along with other state-of-the-art commerThe features of the Firefly include: • All-electric drive system • Safe and efficient high-density energy storage system • Automated monitoring and alert technologies • Next generation cockpit displays
10 SP’S AVIATION Issue 9 • 2010
cially available and prototype electric aircraft. Chris Van Buiten, Director of Sikorsky Innovations briefed about the demonstrator during the EAA. In building the demonstrator, the Innovations team replaced the legacy propulsion system of an S-300CTM helicopter with a high-efficiency, electric motor and digital controller from the US Hybrid, coupled with a lithium ion energy storage system from Gaia. Integrated sensors provide realtime aircraft health information to the pilot through a panel integrated interactive LCD monitor. Eagle Aviation Technologies, LLC, executed the custom airframe modifications and assembly of the demonstrator aircraft. According to the company, through the electrical conversion, propulsion efficiency of the aircraft has been increased roughly by 300 per cent from baseline. Electric propulsion also inherently simplifies the complexity of the propulsion system by reducing the quantity of moving parts and increasing reliability while reducing the direct operating costs. The demonstrator will feature a 190-HP electric motor, a motor controller, a battery system and cockpit controls. The first flight is anticipated later this year, upon completion of ground tests and safety of flight reviews in accordance with Sikorsky standard practice for all aircraft programmes. SP E-mail your comments to: email@example.com www.spsaviation.net
FMS vs Open Tender
How does the open tender route compare with the foreign military sales or government-to-government route for acquiring defence equipment?
Photograph: lockheed martin
t appears that India’s ambitious medium multi-role combat aircraft (MMRCA) programme has moved up to the next rung of the defence procurement ladder—the ‘technical oversight’ stage. It may be recalled that after completing the arduous task of flight evaluation of all contending aircraft by May end, the Indian Air Force (IAF) was feverishly trying to complete the staff evaluation phase as early as possible. But with as many as six global aerospace majors in the fray with their frontline fighters—F-18/A-IN Super Hornet and F-16IN Super Viper from the US companies, Boeing and Lockheed Martin respectively; the Eurofighter Typhoon and Dassult’s Rafale from Europe; Swedish Saab JS-39 Gripen and Mikoyan MiG-35 from the Russian Federation—for the prestigious `50,000 crore ($10 billion plus) MMRCA deal, the IAF must have had to sift through a mountain of data collected during the comprehensive flight trials. It would have been asking for the impossible for the IAF to complete the task in a month’s time, incidentally set by none other than the IAF itself. The fact that the IAF was able to accomplish the task of staff evaluation and probable short listing in a two-month timeframe, is nothing but laudable. But how will it help in accelerating the rest of the procedure to facilitate expeditious signing of the contract? In the next phase, the Technical Oversight Committee (TOC) is to provide what may be termed as expert oversight over the technical evaluation process. Headed by the Defence Secretary, the three-member team consisting of one Service Officer, one scientist from the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and one representative of a Defence Public Sector Undertaking (DPSU) not involved in the MMRCA acquisition will be tasked to see whether the trials, evaluations of results, compliance to QRs and selection of vendors were done according to prescribed procedures. The TOC is also mandated to provide oversight on the adopted trial methodology during trials vis-à-vis trial methodology given in the request for proposal (RFP) and the trial directive. It can easily be seen that there is plenty of room for individual dissension(s). However, the good news is that the TOC has to give its ruling within 30 days (non-extendable), based on a majority decision and put up the report to the Defence Secretary. Therefore, if all goes well—with the acceptance of the staff evaluation report by the Direc-
tor General (Acquisition) and the TOC report by the Defence Secretary—a stage would be reached to enable the process of commercial negotiations to commence. Dogged by further delays since the issuance of the RFP and victim of its own rules, on April 28, the Ministry of Defence was forced to act under the provisions of DPP in extending the commercial bids by another year, i.e. till April 2011. While it is likely that most of the vendors would stick to their original bids, but even if one of the successful shortlisted vendors decides to exercise the rebid option, the commencement of the next phase of opening of the commercial bids and price negotiations could get delayed by more than six months. If that happens, the prevailing ‘volatility factor’ in global economy could On the way: play havoc with the vendors’ calcuLOckheed Martin’s lations. The time vacuum could also C-130J procured possibly provide a recipe for some through FMS undesirable practices to creep in. The ‘commercial evaluation’ and ‘price negotiations’ are complex procedures that cannot be gone through in a hurry and if all the delays add up, there is a strong possibility that even 2011 may prove to be elusive as far as signing of the contract is concerned. Issuance of request for information (RFI) in 2001, signing of the contract in 2012 and first induction into service in 2015; the big question is can the IAF with already heavily depleted combat force levels tolerate such interminable delays in the much needed combat capability transfusion? The other big question relates to the abominably tedious and time consuming defence procurement procedure itself, especially as far as the ‘open tender’ route for acquiring the defence equipment for India’s armed forces is concerned. While the maintenance of highest standards of transparency, probity and public accountability, as articulated in the Ministry of Defence manual on Defence Procurement Procedure for capital acquisition of defence equipment are not only highly desirable but also must be strictly adhered to, why is it that the defence planners have almost sacrificed the main objective i.e. modernisation of the armed forces within reasonable timeframes? Couldn’t the two objectives go hand in hand? Then how does the open tender route compare with the foreign military sales (FMS) (US terminology) or government-to-government route for acquiring defence equipment. Turn to Forum for some thought provoking alternatives. SP —Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia Issue 9 • 2010 SP’S AVIATION 11
What is needed is
rationalisation of defence procurement procedure
to make it not only more comprehensive but also simple and user-friendly
Photograph: Abhishek / Sp guide pubns
o we need an international consultancy organisation to remind India’s Defence Ministry the pathetic state of it’s defence arsenal? Keeping in view the snail’s pace at which the armed forces’ capital acquisition and modernisation programmes are moving forward, it is not surprising. In a recent report, prepared jointly by the global consultancy firm KPMG and the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), it is revealed that at present only 15 per cent of India’s defence equipment is state-of-the-art and at least half of India’s defence equipment is totally obsolete needing urgent upgradation. The report is a sad commentary on the state of affairs and highlights crucial gaps in India’s defence preparedness, especially so, when the region is roiled by unprecedented militancy and military rivalries. During the Cold War, India largely remained aloof from any military equation with the western world. However, this was adequately compensated by the strategic partnership with the then Soviet Union. Moscow had a strategic vision that embraced India as a dependable partner in the larger matrix of East-West confrontation and therefore gave India the status of ‘most favoured nation’ in every defence related area. However, two factors very quickly and drastically changed this time-tested equation—the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s and, coinciding with the breakup of USSR, the near-bankrupt situation in the Indian economy. This had the obvious adverse effect on the Indian armed forces which could not keep pace with the equipment obsolescence and shortages due to paucity of resources. However, the new millennium has ushered in an era of economic growth with resultant positive effect on India’s defence budget. Responding to the emerging security paradigms coupled with substantial economic growth rates, India has now decided to shore up its armed forces with new and diversified capital acquisition and modernisation programmes. And even though India’s defence budget remains less than 3 per cent of its GDP (one of the lowest in the world in percentage terms), it has become one of the leading defence spenders globally. Also because of the underdeveloped indigenous defence industry, it is ranked amongst the top 12 SP’S AVIATION Issue 9 • 2010
enroute india: deal of C-17 Globemaster is likely to be signed via FMS
five importers of defence equipment in the world. In pursuit of the government’s twin objectives of timely procurement of defence equipment and bringing about total transparency to root out bribery and corruption in defence deals, the Ministry of Defence (MoD) came up with a unique Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) manual in 2006, which was revised in 2008. It is undergoing further refinement in 2010. But even though the government has been vocal about speeding up the procurement process laid down by the DPP by removing impediments and making the process transparent, the ground reality is vastly different as there is incorrigible mismatch between the planned and actual timeframes required to complete all stages of the procurement process. Inclusion of numerous players in decision-making at all stages of selection, testing and negotiations, ostensibly done for the sake of transparency, actually results in massive delay in time. This arrangement not only
Defence Procurement Procedure Flow Chart Depiction of the Acquisition Process Phase
Acceptance of Necessity (AON)
1 (Clock starts)
Preparation and Issue of RFP
Response to RFP by Vendors
Technical Evaluation by TEC
6 to 12
15 to 21
16 to 22
Technical Oversight by TOC
17 to 23
Commercial Negotiations by CNC
3 to 6 (multi-vendor)
20 to 29
6 to 11 (single/resultant single vendor)
23 to 34*
Preparation and Issue of ‘SQR’
*Note: Some minor variations notwithstanding in DPP 2008, the sum total of time flow charts in both cases practically remain the same.
Modernisation reduces objectivity of the process, but in addition creates space for red tape, making the entire exercise complex and unpredictable. It also gives room to the agents of the competing companies to lobby hard and create undue influence in the corridors of power. The mismatch between the stated and actual timeframes to accomplish different phases of the acquisition process would become clear if one compares the ongoing MMRCA programme with the laid down flow chart (see page 12). The flow chart indicates that even in the worst-case scenario, the total time from acceptance of necessity (AON) to signing of contract must not exceed 34 months—say three years. In case of the MMRCA, from AON and issuance of request for information (RFI) to just the request for proposal (RFP) stage, it took more than six years. It could be argued that in 2001—the year the RFI was first issued—the DPP had not come into existence. Therefore, activities prior to 2006 when the first edition of the DPP was promulgated should not be evaluated against the timeframe spelt out in the DPP. However, even after the issuance of RFP, it has taken more than three years to reach the stage of technical oversight. Keeping in view the pace at which the programme is moving, it could easily take another year to year-and-a-half for the MMRCA contract to be finally concluded. Meanwhile, notwithstanding the trickle provided by the Su-30 induction, the IAF must have crossed the threshold of despair as far as its depleting combat force levels are concerned. That the open tender competitive route for defence procurement in the DPP is skewed and has led to inordinate delay in the procurement of defence equipment is abundantly clear, especially to the affected parties. Interaction with foreign vendors and original equipment manufacturers during seminars reveals that while they are highly appreciative of the Indian government’s resolve to have a transparent and impartial procurement process, they are wary of procedural impediments, complex decision making process, bureaucratic mindsets and condescending attitude of the government. They are also mindful of the time schedules of different phases of the acquisition process. It is felt that while the government’s own way of working is highly laid back; adequate time is usually not available to vendors to submit their technical and commercial proposals in response to voluminous and complex RFPs. The government can waste years vacillating but cannot agree to the genuine demands of the vendors to properly attend to the highly deliberate, labourious and time-consuming task of preparing detailed proposals as required, especially for complex systems. This has also resulted in some vendors walking out of the competition, much to the chagrin and consternation of the Indian defence establishment. The recent withdrawal by Bell and Boeing from India’s tender for 197 light utility helicopters (LUHs) and the IAF’s tender for 22 combat helicopters, due to problems with India’s defence procurement procedure, are cases in point. The situation actually reached a stage where retendering had to be resorted to de novo, delaying the vital defence acquisition programmes, impinging seriously on India’s defence preparedness. Except the VVIP helicopter deal, all others progressed through the open tender route appear to have fallen by the wayside for one reason or another. The VVIP helicopter deal was also on the verge of getting derailed by the Finance Ministry, citing exorbitant per unit price as the reason for raising its objec14 SP’S AVIATION Issue 9 • 2010
Direct government-togovernment or FMS deals are much safer and have a better chance for timely execution than the deals conducted through open tender
tions. As the acquisition was essentially for VVIP travel, it was finally allowed to go through. But this deal is of no relevance to the combat effectiveness of the IAF. Compared with the open tender route, the government-to-government or the foreign military sale (FMS) route ,as it is known in the US, has fared much better in the procurement of defence equipment by India. Perhaps this is a legacy of the Cold War when most of the defence equipment was acquired from the erstwhile Soviet Union through straight forward government-to-government transactions, without going through the hassles of competitive bidding process, elaborate field trials or protracted price negotiations. This practice of direct government-to-government deal continues even now with the Russian Federation. On the other hand, the recent examples of such deals with the West which have been successful are the C-130J aircraft for the IAF, Jalashwa and associated equipment for the Navy and the weapon locating radars for the Army. Other major systems which have been/are being contracted through the FMS route comprise C-17 Globemaster III strategic airlifters for the IAF, P-8I Poseidon multi-role maritime patrol aircraft for the Navy and the light-weight 155mm artillery guns for the Army. All these multi-billion dollar deals are likely to go through without much fuss. The current trends indicate that the direct governmentto-government or FMS deals are much safer and have a better chance for timely execution than the deals conducted through open tender. Does it mean that India should totally abandon this route for defence acquisitions? Certainly not. There are clear advantages in following this route; such as competitive life cycle costs, offsets, transfer of technology, etc, which cannot be lost sight of if India wants to move up the path of self-sufficiency and attain the status of a global player in the regime of defence production. However, what is needed is rationalisation of defence procurement procedure to make it not only more comprehensive but also simple and user-friendly. Meanwhile, it is sincerely hoped that the open tender MMRCA deal, which has managed to survive in spite of many odds, will be concluded soon. Successful culmination of the MMRCA programme will be a signal to the global defence industry that India has arrived on the big ticket defence procurement, through open route. It would also ensure that the IAF is not denied this much needed infusion of combat capability—a shot in the arm it has been waiting for so long. SP —Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia www.spsaviation.net
Stockpile Management Services to Users
easures to enhance the security and manage- and implementing solutions which all combine towards the ment of legal stocks of small arms and to reduce mission success of the customer. ‘surplus’ weapons are clearly essential to combat illicit trafficking and prevent and reduce the Benefits of SMS proliferation of small arms. Many of the weap- • Establishing integrated, predictive maintenance approaches, which minimise unscheduled repairs, eliminate ons of concern are lost from official stockpiles through theft, unnecessary maintenance, and employ the most cost-efcorruption or neglect. Moreover, the existence of large quanfective maintenance health management approaches. tities of surplus small arms is a major factor in the excessive • Enhancing material availability by identifying the optimum availability and flows of these weapons. opportunity to perform required maintenance, thereby inA number of national and regional initiatives have been creasing the number of assets in operational status. taken to ensure or promote destruction or other responsible disposal of surplus small arms and to ensure the security of • Improving material reliability through the disciplined analysis of failure data to develop modifications that will ensure officially held weapons. MBDA, the world leader in missiles that equipment meets target performance standards within technology, has developed the Stockpile Management Servican operational context. es (SMS) to give its customers abil• Minimising mean downtime ity to know the exact status of their by providing real-time maintemunitions in terms of reliability and nance information and accurate remaining life. Unlike other missiles Stockpile Management Services consists technical data to technicians and manufacturers MBDA is not only the of an innovative process supported by logistics experts that will expedite seller but also provides lifelong mainadequate methodologies and IT tools to repair and support processes and tenance for its products. give life cost savings of up to 30 per cent, return equipment to operational Increasing pressure on defence effective SMS allows MBDA to confidently status (improved supply planning). budgets within the customer commupredict significant life extension regard• Reducing ownership costs by nity is seeing a reappraisal of the traing the customer’s missile stock. Imeliminating unnecessary mainditional ways of managing a weapon proved safety and optimised operational tenance activities and accurately system’s life cycle. Users more and availability are other key advantages propositioning required assets for an more are seeking ways of maximising vided by SMS. effective logistics footprint in supthe life of their missile inventory, increasing operational availability and, at the same time, achieving through life cost savings. MBDA’s SMS initiative has been developed as a highly effective solution to these growing requirements.
Data loggers, linked to the individual missile in question, provide core information on the product’s environment such as temperature, humidity, vibration, pressure and shock. This data is then analysed and then processed via life simulation modelling software. The final picture is of significant help to customers in logistics and operational decision making. The use of sensors (data logging) is also a method of enhancing the quality of life cycle management. By capturing critical data and obtaining greater accuracy in appraising different environmental conditions, maintenance policy can be based on objective facts rather than guesswork. Additionally, all data collected on the history of the munition will be helpful for future missile evaluation programmes. MBDA provides a full consultancy service, working with the customer, discussing and analysing issues, designing
port of war-fighting requirements. • Optimising customer resources involved in maintenance activities. A better planning of maintenance activities will allow personnel to be reassigned to core duties particularly if these are more operational in nature.
The SMS project was started by MBDA’s Customer Support & Services Directorate (CSS) in 2009 as a direct response to the evolving requirements of the international customer base. A business requirement definition carried out by CSS was subsequently supported by a study specifically carried out by Cranfield University in the UK. Following this, the necessary IT tools (software and hardware) required to implement the process were sourced and evaluated. Other specific studies covering reliability, remaining product life and supply chain logistics brought in expertise from throughout MBDA. MBDA will start delivering SMS linked to its PAAMS(E) naval air defence system in 2011. SP Issue 9 • 2010 SP’S AVIATION 15
Military Industry By Air Marshal (Retd) B.K. Pandey, Bengaluru
Established in 1922 as a refrigeration company, Raytheon soon moved into electronics. During World War II, Raytheon manufactured radar systems for early warning against aerial threats and ship-borne radars for detection of submarines. Known by its present name since 1959, Raytheon Company is now a global technology and innovation leader. With its headquarters at Waltham, Massachusetts, 75,000 employees worldwide, and sales of $25 billion (`1,15,000 crore), it is a major defence contractor providing state-of-the-art electronics, mission systems integration and other capabilities in the areas of sensing, C3I systems and in a broad range of mission support services. Until early 2007, the company also manufactured corporate and special-mission aircraft. Soon after the War, Raytheon developed the Lark missile, the first guided missile that could destroy target aircraft in flight. The company also developed the air-to-air Sparrow, ground-to-air Hawk missiles, the Patriot anti-missile system and the air-to-air Phoenix system. Defence Electronics
Photographs: wikipedia, Raytheon, Lockheed Martin & HONEYWELL
US based companies have led the way for several innovations and developments in aerospace. Browse through the third part of the article to know more about the initiatives of companies like Raytheon and Honeywell. 16 SP’S AVIATION Issue 9 • 2010
In an effort to establish leadership in the defence electronics business, Raytheon purchased six companies in the US engaged in this line of business and shed several non-defence business activities of its own. Currently, the Raytheon company has six business divisions—Integrated Defence Systems, Intelligence and Information Systems, Missile Systems, Network Centric Systems, Raytheon Technical Services, and Space and Airborne Systems. In recent years, Raytheon has identified key areas of business namely homeland security, missile defence, precision engagement, intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance systems and process improvement. Raytheon’s electronics and defence systems units produce air, sea and land launched missiles, airborne radar systems including active electronically scanned array radar, weapons sights and targeting systems, communication and battle-management systems and satellite components electro-optical sensors and other advanced electronics systems for airborne, naval and ground-based military applications. Its airborne radar systems have been fitted on aircraft such as the F-15, F/A-18, F-22, and the B2 Bomber. In the ground-based-radar segment, the company has made the large fixed-site radars such as Pave Paws, BMEWS and the Missile Defence Agency X-Band Radar and the upgraded early warning radar. Space
Raytheon is an acknowledged leader in space with well developed domain knowledge and expertise consolidated over four decades in the areas of intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance at the strategic, operational and tactical levels, secure communications, weather, water, climate and environment monitoring, ballistic missile defence and space-based navigation and early warning. www.spsaviation.net
Military Industry In collaboration with Boeing, Lockheed Martin and Northrop Grumman respectively, Raytheon is involved in the development of sensors for satellites such as space tracking and surveillance system for the ballistic missile defence and next-generation satellite communications system. It is also developing a ground based interceptor consisting of a booster missile and a Kinetic exo-atmospheric kill vehicle. Missile Systems
Raytheon is the world leader in design, development and production of guided missile systems. It has developed successful air-to-surface weapon systems such as the AGM-65 Maverick, AGM-88 HARM and AGM-154 joint standoff weapon. It has also developed weapon systems such as the AGM-129 advanced cruise missile and the BGM-109 Tomahawk. The airto-air missiles include the AIM-7 Sparrow, AIM-9 Sidewinder and the AIM-120 AMRAAM.
nents that can defeat ballistic missiles of short to intermediate range. THAAD’s combination of high-altitude, long-range capability and hit-to-kill lethality enables it to effectively negate the effects of weapons of mass destruction. V-22 Osprey: The US Navy has awarded Raytheon a fiveyear contract for support of the V-22 aircraft, which it has been doing for nearly three decades now. The tasks include V-22 avionics systems software, situational awareness software and avionics acquisition support for the customer. Anti-Aircraft Laser: Raytheon unveiled its anti-aircraft laser in August this year at the Farnborough Air show. The laser close-in weapon system can either be used on its own or alongside a gunnery system. The solid-state fibre laser produces a 50 kilowatt beam effective against unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), mortar, rockets and small surface ships. In a test this year, a UAV was shot down using the laser weapon developed by Raytheon.
GBU-53/B: The US Air Force has selected Raytheon’s GBU53/B for the Small Diameter Bomb (SDB) Increment II
Raytheon stars: air-to-air missile aim-9 sidewinder; gbu-53/b developed under SDB-ii programme; THAAD Radar delivers high power output & exceptional beam/waveform agility to support the long range functional requirements of the THAAD mission
programme. The SDB II is an air-launched, precisionstrike standoff weapon capable of hitting the moving and fixed targets in adverse weather conditions. It incorporates an improved seeker that features three modes of operation—millimetre-wave radar, un-cooled imaging infrared and semi-active laser. It will be a versatile weapon that can be integrated on all combat aircraft including the fifth generation F-35. The delivery is expected in 2013. THAAD Radar: Raytheon’s terminal high altitude area defence (THAAD) radar performed successfully in the integrated flight test in June this year conducted by the Missile Defence Agency and Lockheed Martin, the prime contractor. Also known as the AN/TPY-2, it is a phased array mobile X-band radar, capable of search, threat detection, classification, discrimination and precision tracking at extremely long ranges. The radar is the critical sensor for the THAAD weapon system whose fire control software has been jointly developed by Raytheon and Lockheed Martin. THAAD is a key element of the ballistic missile defence system with ground-based missile defence compo-
Based in Phoenix, Arizona, Honeywell Aerospace is a subsidiary of Honeywell International, a leading global provider of
integrated avionics, aero engines, systems and service solutions for aircraft manufacturers, airlines, business and general aviation, military, space and airport operations. A major supplier to the aerospace industry, the company’s products and services reflect cutting-edge technology and unrivalled systems integration expertise. Honeywell’s systems are employed on a variety of aerospace platforms including combat aircraft, helicopters, space vehicles, tanker aircraft, special mission aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles. For a century, Honeywell and its legacy companies have been at the forefront of the aviation industry and continue to make history even today. Innovations during World War II such as cabin pressurisation system developed by Garrett, Integrated C-1 Autopilot by Honeywell, and the Bomb Sight by Norden made high-altitude bombing more accurate. Sperry Instruments and Navigational Equipment, Bendix Electronics, carburettors, wheels, and brakes and Grimes lighting systems were also developed and employed on military aircraft. These innovations were later introduced with notable success on civilian aircraft. In the post-War period, Honeywell Aerospace developed the gas-turbine engine and the ring-laser gyroscope. The latter substantially improved the guidance and navigation systems on aircraft. Sperry, a legacy company of Honeywell Aerospace, brought computer technology to the Issue 9 • 2010 SP’S AVIATION 17
Military Industry cockpit with electronic flight instrument systems, flight management systems and other digital technology. Similarly, Bendix introduced the first commercial weather radar system. Honeywell continues to supply aerospace products including electronic guidance systems, cockpit instrumentation, lighting, and turbine engines. Indian Connection
water. It is easy to maintain and is more durable. Innovations
Today, Honeywell Aerospace continues to innovate in the areas of air safety with traffic alert and collision avoidance systems, enhanced ground proximity warning system developed by AlliedSignal and other systems that help pilots avoid hazardous weather. Honeywell Aerospace has created the state-ofthe-art integrated aircraft environment surveillance system for the Airbus A380. The advanced flight management, power distribution, pneumatic and landing systems developed for the A380 will enable operators of the giant airliner achieve higher levels of efficiency and performance. Honeywell is also a leading supplier of products and systems for Boeing commercial airplanes and its integrated avionics system for the Boeing 777. The company is also involved in the F-35 programme as part of Lockheed Martin team.
With over 11,000 employees, Honeywell Aerospace has several partnerships in India, including the licensed manufacture of its turboprop TPE331 engine by the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) for the Dornier 228 aircraft. In addition, Honeywell is transitioning the worldwide manufacture of the TPE 331-10 model engine to the HAL Engines Division in Bangalore. Manufacture and sourcing of enHoneywell wonders: gine parts has already begun with gasoline powered MAV orders placed on the HAL factory T-hawk weighs only 20 lb & speeds up to 130 for over 30 engine kits. Honeywell has also kmph; HTF7500E engine licensed the TPE331-12 turboprop engine is selected to power manufacturing to HAL for export. Honeyembraer’s legacy Space well has significant high-technology content series aircraft Honeywell has been involved in space on the majority of Indian indigenous protechnology since Neil Armstrong’s misgrammes including advanced light helicopsion to the moon. The US Space Shuttle is ter Dhruv, light combat aircraft Tejas, and inequipped with Honeywell’s multifunction termediate jet trainer. It has also developed key safety and mechanical systems for defence platforms like electronic display sub-system and the company is involved the maritime reconnaissance P-8I and the C-130J programme. with the new Orbital Space Plane, Orion and the programme Over the last five years, Honeywell’s Aerospace busi- for a permanent orbiting scientific laboratory in space. ness in India has been growing rapidly. To implement Honeywell’s strategy specific to the Indian aerospace and de- Aero Engines fence market, the company has appointed Pritam Bhavnani With more than 45 years of engine development expertise, as President of Honeywell Aerospace in India. He was the 65,000 fielded propulsion systems and more than 241 million Vice President of Customer and Product Support, Honeywell service hours, Honeywell engines have a history of proven performance. Honeywell Aerospace’s turbine engine business can Aerospace, Phoenix, Arizona. A major project in the offing in India is the F125IN en- be traced back primarily to two companies, Garret AiResearch gine under consideration for the Indian Air Force (IAF) Jag- founded in 1936 and Lycoming Engines turbine division of uar fleet. Significantly lighter and more powerful than the Textron. In the mid-1990s, these two companies became part current engine, it has an advanced dual full-authority digital of Honeywell Aerospace, constituting its aircraft engines diviengine control system, modular construction, integrated en- sion that has produced a number of successful turboprop and gine health monitoring system and best in class thrust-to- turbofan engines for small and medium general aviation busiweight ratio designed to give the IAF the best engine with ness aircraft and jet trainer aircraft Alenia Aermacchi M-346. Honeywell’s HTF7500E engine, selected to power Emthe lowest acquisition, operating and maintenance costs. Demonstrated successfully in Bangalore in 2007, it is pro- braer’s new Legacy series aircraft has passed its first Enjected to save the IAF more than `7,000 crore ($1.45 billion) gine-to-Test, an important milestone in the development of crore in life-cycle costs compared to other upgrade options the programme to assure the required engine maturity for being considered. The request for proposal is awaited. the aircraft flight test campaign. The Federal Aviation AdHoneywell demonstrated its T-Hawk micro air vehicle ministration has awarded a five-year contract to Honeywell to paramilitary forces in Chhattisgarh in April 2010. The T- for the development of technology for fuel burn reduction Hawk features a ducted-fan engine, which allows it to hover and test aviation biofuels for use in Honeywell Gas Turbine and stare, ideal for surveillance and detection and protects the Engines. For its research, Honeywell will use its TECH7000 T-Hawk from brush, making it optimal for jungle applica- turbofan engine, a turbofan technology demonstrator. SP (To be continued) tions, safer for operators and protected from dirt, sand and 18 SP’S AVIATION Issue 9 • 2010
Innovative, Comprehensive & Systematic approach… …to predict, deter, detect, identify and classify, respond and resolve and enable countries to address a wide range of current and emerging threats, and protect themselves across the entire homeland security spectrum Admiral (Retd) Walter F. Doran, President, Raytheon Asia for Raytheon International
aytheon is a technology and innovation leader specialising in defence, homeland security and other government markets throughout the world. With a history of innovation spanning 88 years, Raytheon provides state-of-the-art electronics, mission systems integration and other capabilities in the areas of sensing; effects; and command, control, communications and intelligence systems, as well as a broad range of mission support services.
Photograph: Abhishek / Sp guide pubns
Business development vis-à-vis Airborne ISR systems
Raytheon’s footprint is large. Raytheon makes the sensors and the application software that exploits the sensor data. Intelligence and information systems is involved with the ground stations, processing, archiving and dissemination of the intelligence products that come from our sensors. Our space systems business area is involved with sensors that are located in space and our missile systems business is involved in exploiting the data to locate a target. At the Space and Airborne Systems, Raytheon’s intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance systems business designs, develops, produces and supports a vast array of electro-optical/infrared sensors, active electronically scanned array/scanning radars and various integrated systems solutions to provide customers with actionable information for strike, persistent surveillance, and special mission applications. These best-in-class systems perform detection, identification, tracking, targeting, navigation, weather and situational awareness tasks from a variety of airborne platforms including maritime, littoral and overland patrol aircraft, unmanned aerial systems, and other tactical, attack and transport rotary and fixed wing aircraft. ISRS products are deployed by every branch of the Department of
Defence, the Department of Homeland Security, and several other government, commercial and international customers. At Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems, the company transforms data into knowledge. IIS is a leading provider of intelligence and information solutions, specialising in ground processing, unmanned ground systems, cyber security operations, homeland security and other markets to resolve the most complex problems for customers worldwide. “Our integration experience, expertise, and comprehensive understanding of customer missions enable IIS to deliver solutions to markets with unique missions. Our philosophy is simple— customer success is the foundation on which we operate. Our customers inspire us to deliver the next generation of intelligence and information solutions. With our solutions, customers are enabled to make timely and accurate decisions. Homeland Security
Raytheon utilises an innovative, comprehensive and systematic approach—predict, deter, detect, identify and classify, respond and resolve—to enable countries to address a wide range of current and emerging threats, and protect themselves across the entire homeland security spectrum. The company brings expertise in homeland security and defence technologies, advanced electronics and IT systems through more than 60 years of global experience in developing and implementing systems that counter threats and provide adaptable migration paths to deal with future threat environments. Raytheon offers a broad range of strategic and consulting services that help organisations deploy and utilise homeland security technologies and processes most effectively, maximise the return on their technology investments, and ensure peak performance and readiness from their personnel. Continued on page 40
Issue 9 • 2010 SP’S AVIATION 19
Buzzword The ability to collect, process and disseminate the flow of information leading to increased mission space awareness and subsequent dominance constitutes the essence of presentday air operations, firmly fixed in a classical extended command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance framework
Photograph: Sp guide pubns
Operation Enduring Freedom: Under a clear moonless night sky, flying over the mountainous Afghan terrain in a remote location, the droning Hercules AC-130 of the US Air Force quickly dropped from 2,000 ft to 80 ft above the valley floor— its under-fuselage camera having locked on the assigned target whose coordinates had been received from an unmanned Global Hawk, loitering above at stratospheric altitudes. The silence of the sleepy night was suddenly shattered with the gunship spewing out its lethal arsenal of 105mm high-explosive rounds, vapourising the fleeting Taliban target below. But could the Angel of Death—a sobriquet earned by the howitzer gunship because of the shape that its anti-missile flares take when they are fired—destroy its target in the very first pass under dark-night flight conditions and over a difficult terrain without a highly elaborate C4ISR system in place? The Hercules attack was an ideal example of C4ISR supported operation carried out in a perfect network-centric warfare environment.
ut what exactly is C4ISR; how has it evolved and what part does it play in today’s warfare, especially air operations?
The Evolution of C4ISR
By Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia
In the history of organised armed conflict—even before the days of Hannibal, Alexander the Great or Chengiz Khan—vesting command and control (C2) of assigned forces with a designated commander for achievement of a specific mission has been a fundamental feature 20 SP’S AVIATION Issue 9 • 2010
of warfare. More and more components have been added in an evolutionary manner to this basic feature to assist the commander(s) in achieving the assigned missions/objectives. In executing ‘command and control’ functions in today’s environment, the commander relies on information or intelligence from a variety of sources. First, timeliness and quality of intelligence being crucial to the commander’s quality of decisions, the ‘I’ (intelligence) gets closely tied with the C2 functions. Next, communications being the conduit through which information or www.spsaviation.net
intelligence is exchanged, the co-efficient of their effectiveness gets directly linked to the C2I function, which expands the equation to C3I. The vast amount of data generated on a modern battlefield can neither be collated, analysed, synthesised (to generate actionable intelligence) nor can it be disseminated, without adequate data processing support being integrated in all component parts of the system. Computers have become ubiquitous enough for another C to merit an equal status in the C3I paradigm. The resulting C4I has therefore come to represent an integrated architecture in which the quality and effectiveness of a commander’s executive ‘command and control’ function gets directly linked with the comprehensiveness and quality of intelligence obtained and disseminated through a variety of communication channels, and how each aspect is supported and enhanced by automation provided by computers. The sum total of support element in the C4I build is thus to sift, sort, integrate and present all relevant information in an easily digestible format in real time so as to enable decision-makers at all levels to be completely ‘aware’ of the ‘situation’. But does it stop here? Armed forces from different countries have added letters to this basic acronym i.e., ‘C4I’ to create an alphabet ‘amalgam’ corresponding to their understanding of grouping of military functions which assist the command and control process. The British added a STAR to C4I, to indicate inclusion of surveillance, target acquisition and reconnaissance as significant components. The US military has evolved ‘C4ISR’ to bring surveillance and reconnaissance under the same canvas.
C4ISR in Air Operations
The ability to collect, process and disseminate the flow of information leading to increased mission space awareness and subsequent dominance constitutes the essence of present-day air operations, firmly fixed in a classical extended command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR) framework. As stated earlier, the latest buzzword is to also include ‘target acquisition’ to complete the sensor-shooter loop. Success of such operations is ensured through shared situational awareness, close collaboration, coordination of capabilities and the ability to react quickly to highly dynamic modern airborne threats. As technology continued to evolve in terms of better sensors and computing power, technologically advanced air forces the world over redefined the roles, functions and responsibilities of the then existing conventional AD organisation and its intervening command echelons to encompass all air operations and not remain confined to AD functions alone. It was but a natural evolution. For effective AD, air space management is a precondition and for that a total knowledge of spatial orientation of all friendly air vehicles (fighters, transport aircraft, surveillance platforms, armed helicopters, UAVs and so on) in the given air space mandatory. With such data being available, conduct of all air operations such as mission planning of own aircraft, storage and dissemination of target data, issue of air tasking orders to bases, control of support elements (tankers, UAVs, AWACS), tactical routing to avoid space and time conflict, search and rescue operations and so on from a single conIssue 9 • 2010 SP’S AVIATION 21
Military Technology trol centre made logical sense. The AD Control Centres thus evolved into Air Operations Control Centres, while the intermediate node, normally called the AD Direction Centre (ADDC) in the earlier structure, was either replaced by a Control and Reporting Centre (CRC) or eliminated altogether, depending upon the geographical factors and traffic density. C4ISR in the Indian Air Force
The Indian Air Force (IAF), though ready with an ambitious modernisation plan is still struggling to make up the deficiencies in its AD network before moving onto the next level of fully networked and C4ISR supported all encompassing air operations. As it stands today, existence of vast gaps in the radar coverage of Indian air space even at medium level is a well-known fact. At low level, the IAF has been making do with a handful of indigenous Indra 1 and 2, Russian ST68s, and some P-18 low level surveillance radars detached from the SAM units. In times of tension, they move forward from their home locations to watch a narrow band of territory along the international border. Even in this narrow, linear belt, gaps remain—both due to paucity of numbers as well as difficulty of deployment in the very challenging environment. Networking is minimal and relies solely on voice communication. The quality of communications is even less flattering. Legacy HF and cumbersome mobile troposcatter VHF systems constitute the backbone for surface-to-surface communications. However, the IAF is desperately trying to improve the situation with rapid enhancement in its capabilities through new acquisitions and modernisation programmes. Aerostat radars: The IAF seemed to have taken a quantum leap by selecting the aerostat radars to solve the mind-boggling problem of low-level radar surveillance of the country’s vast western land border to guard against a perennially belligerent neighbour. The IAF had earlier acquired two Israeli aerostats which were deployed in the sensitive Kutch region of Gujarat and in the Punjab sector. The IAF’s decision to go in for four additional systems is in tune with its earlier projected requirements and with judicious deployment it would help in covering the entire western border from Jammu & Kashmir in the north to the Gujarat sub-peninsula in the south- southwest. Indian Navy’s decision to acquire six similar systems would further enhance IAF’s radar surveillance capabilities in other areas of interest as well, provided these are properly integrated in a seamless manner into the IAF’s AD network. AWACS: In May last year, the IAF received its first airborne warning and control system (AWACS) aircraft from Israel. Built with Phalcon radar on an IL-76 platform, it is said to be one of the world’s most advanced systems. The phased array radar (which does away with the need for a mechanically rotating antenna), can detect low flying aircraft, cruise missiles and UAVs hundreds of kilometres away by day and night and under all weather conditions. In addition to the radar, the aircraft also carries a phased array IFF and a host of electronic and communications, support and intelligence equipment. So pleased has been the IAF with its performance that within a year of its induction, a repeat order has been made for two additional systems. However, it is evident that the IAF would need to continue to build on the currently planned acquisitions to achieve the required capabilities in this area. In this context, a judicious mix of the Phalcon-mounted AWACS and the indig22 SP’S AVIATION Issue 9 • 2010
enous system mounted on a much cheaper Embraer EMB-145 platform would perhaps provide an optimum solution. Additional hardware: The IAF is also acquiring a wide variety of radars and surface-to-air weapons to equip itself with a more respectable capability of AD at all altitudes. These include 30 Rohini medium level radars being acquired indigenously from Bharat Electronics Ltd (BEL), 19 new low level transportable radar (LLTRs) and Spyder surface-to-air missile from Israel. India has also signed a JV to produce MR-SAM in India with Israel which has emerged as India’s principal supplier of high-tech weaponry. IACCS: The IAF also plans to put in place five integrated air command and control systems (IACCS) through indigenous route which when fully developed are expected to put all sensor platforms (both airborne as well as surface facilities) and weapon systems on a common grid, interlinking its five operational commands in a fully networked architecture. The crux of a system like the IACCS lies in creating a stable operational situational picture (OSP) from the inputs of varying quality and reliability received from a host of sensors. The technique, called multi-sensor tracking (MST), requires a multi-disciplinary design support of scientists and statisticians, backed by experts in real-time systems. The OSP has to be available at all control nodes upward of the ADDC right up to the National Command Post, albeit with more data getting included at each higher rung. The MST module has also to be supported by a host of online and offline application software modules for faster decision making, air space management, optimisation of radar sites, mission planning, conflict resolution, weapon allocation, control and simulation. The system architecture also needs to have flexibility to accept sensor data from airborne platforms like the AWACS, fighter aircraft equipped with high performance long range radars (NO-11 on Su-30MKI, for example or the AESA radars of the MMRCA when acquired), aerostats and UAVs with synthetic aperture radar payload. In addition, it should incorporate hardware and software interfaces for uploading/downloading of data and video on data links of different standards. Finally, although not part of the IACCS, to make the system operational, a strong multi-spectral communication backbone is also required. At the heart of the air force’s communication network is the Air Force Network (AFNET)—a dedicated IAF fibre-optics network that offers up to 500 MBPS encrypted, unjammable bandwidth. This bandwidth should be more than adequate for IAF’s current and foreseeable requirements of network activity vis-à-vis air operations, including AD, UAV imagery, high-definition video streaming, and so on, besides administration and logistics. A military satellite is expected to be launched next year, inter alia, to streamline the massive data flow. Conclusion
The recently inducted AWACS will spearhead the IAF’s network-centric operations around which the other NCW elements will coalesce. Although some IAF elements have operated under the AWACS environment in some of the recently conducted joint international air exercises, however, the IAF will have to devise its own AWACS strategies—an exercise in which the IAF is already deeply engaged. Creating and maturing operational capabilities with the AWACS in the true sense of network-centric warfare will be the ultimate challenge for the IAF’s leadership. SP www.spsaviation.net
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Civil Regional Aviation
Right Move Embraer 190: A Suitable choice for regional service
Photographs: embraer, amit & Abhishek / Sp guide pubns
A comprehensive regional airline policy needs to be formulated that truly encourages entrepreneurs to float small regional airlines and take air connectivity to the remote parts of the country
decade from now, if all goes prop type of aircraft in Phase I. The airBy Joseph Noronha, Goa well, India will have around port, completely refurbished at a cost of `60 crore ($12.5 million), was inaugu500 airports. Among them rated on June 15. And yet, none of the will be the refurbished airseven scheduled domestic airlines apports, reclaimed airports, pripeared keen to begin services to Mysore, vate airports and perhaps 40 privately citing poor traffic prospects. Greenfield airports. Currently, this enormous country of 1.2 billion people has to manage with just 127 Kingfisher Airlines seems agreeable but its launch date airports, barely 82 of them active. However, moves are afoot could be delayed to around October-November this year. to ensure that every district will have an airport (or at least Meanwhile, Phase II development of the airport, intended an operational airstrip). Air travellers from even the remotest to enable aircraft of the A-321 jet class to operate, have got reaches will need to go only a short distance to access one. bogged down for reasons of (what else?) land acquisition. Make no mistake, even if half of the planned airports actually If charming Mysore, which is Karnataka’s second largest open for commercial operations by 2020, it has the potential city, is not mouth-watering enough for the airlines, how can to dramatically transform the aviation scene. But with not a much smaller cities like Hassan and Shimoga ever hope to single regional airline in operation today (see Off the Beaten enjoy regular air services? Track, SP’s Aviation, June 2010), would sufficient flights be Far and Forgotten forthcoming to make these airports commercially viable? Mysore’s experience is illustrative. The Airports Author- Delhi’s gleaming Terminal 3 has set a new benchmark for ity of India (AAI) took up the development of Mysore’s old airport infrastructure. But it has also given rise to a feelMandakalli Airport to permit operations of ATR-72 turbo- ing that with so much stress being laid on more lucrative 24 SP’S AVIATION Issue 9 • 2010
Civil Regional Aviation airports in the metros, airports in Tier-II and Tier-III cities are being neglected. The Indian government may be somewhat reluctant to allocate sizeable funds to remote airports because air passenger growth there cannot keep pace with the large cities. State governments have also experienced mixed success in roping in private players for many of the smaller airports. For years, it has been recognised that the Northeast region is in dire need of air connectivity. For years, the North-east Council has been trying to promote the establishment of a dedicated regional airline. But besides some inadequate non-scheduled services the efforts are yet to bear fruit. Experts agree that there’s practically unlimited scope for air services to expand in India. At present, scheduled carriers have around 260 narrow-body aircraft of 150-200 seat capacity like the Airbus A320 and the Boeing B737. These are difficult to fill except on the main routes. Providing airconnectivity to smaller cities needs regional aircraft of capacity less than 100, of which the airlines have a combined total of perhaps 60 planes. Embraer estimates that around 250 low-to-medium-density routes remain unused. Another 133 routes have less than one flight a day since the major airlines do not consider such routes profitable. These routes can be viable only for small regional airlines with rightsized aircraft enjoying suitable concessions and incentives. Regionally Rewarding
Just two decades ago, when regional jets began to appear with increasing frequency, especially in the US and Canada, they were mainly small aircraft with 50 seats or less. In fact, regional airlines pioneered low-cost travel long before the term ‘no-frills’ became fashionable. They served to economically convey little streams of passengers from small, remote airports to the nearest hub. At the hub, the streams would become a river ready to be channelled into large airliners belonging to the major carriers and transported over great distances to other major hubs. Regional jets are growing in size nowadays, with capacities of around 70 to 110 passengers. And the trend seems to be towards even larger aircraft of up to 150 seats, thus blurring the distinction between regional jets and narrow-body airliners. The reason is clear. With oil prices rising, though still well below the $147 (`7,000) per barrel peak of July 2008, in India, fuel forms around 40 per cent or more of an airline’s operating cost. Some analysts are of the view that oil prices will rise sharply yet again over the next couple of decades. Regional jets are at some disadvantage since their perseat fuel burn (and hence operating cost) works out higher than for the bigger narrow-body airliners.
However, in India, when remote airfields open for the first time, strict capacity management will play a crucial role in achieving high operational efficiency and providing economically viable air services. Airlines may find it difficult to fill 150-200 seat planes, at least to begin with. Smaller aircraft are also appropriate for Category II and Category III routes—which the major airlines are required to operate to meet their social sector obligations. A potentially huge Indian market exists for regional jets with a capacity of up to 120 seats that are economical to operate. Embraer’s EJets line and Bombardier’s CRJ series are eminently suitable choices in the quest for high load factors. And Bombardier’s eagerly awaited next-generation C Series CS100/300 would raise the bar for fuel-efficient regional jets. Turbocharged
Turboprops and regional aviation also seem to be made for each other. Half a century ago, turboprops were a frequent sight, but the craze to go all-jet sounded their death knell. The operational savings these fuel-efficient machines offered was ignored as speed became the order of the day. In the mid-1980s, however, advanced turboprops were introduced and these proved highly successful. Since then, there has been no looking back. Most of the credit must go to Bombardier of Canada and ATR, the Italian-French manufacturer. The much admired Bombardier Q series and ATR 42/72 took turboprops all over the world. Both have seen continuing improvements as well, ensuring their stubborn survival in the face of fierce regional jet competition. Compared to jets, turboprops typically burn just twothirds of the fuel needed to fly one passenger. In fact, for distances between 500 km and 800 km, turboprops are faster and more economical than pure jets. They do not need to climb as high as jets, reach cruise parameters earlier and descend faster. Turboprop engine technology has progressed enough to make Inaugurated on June 15: Mysore Airport was these aircraft operate at completely refurbished at a cost of `60 crore ($12.5 million)
The regional airline policy introduced by the Ministry of Civil Aviation in August 2007 has proved a dismal failure
Issue 9 • 2010 SP’S AVIATION 25
Civil Regional Aviation
State governments have experienced mixed success in roping in private players for many of the smaller airports
ATR 42: In service with Air India for REgional operations
near jet speeds, at considerably lower fuel burn and with less pollution. Most likely, the future will bring even better performance and comfort. Amidst many uncertainties, it is fairly certain that costs— especially of fuel—will continue to rise. So, the next turboprop engine manufacturers are aiming to offer double-digit improvements in fuel burn. Their focus is on ever-lighter materials to extract more power from lighter engines burning exotic biofuel blends. Green activists are inclined to take a more benign view of turboprops since they have a smaller ecological footprint than pure jets. Could this presage a new turboprop age, at least for regional aircraft? The future seems bright for 60-90 seat aircraft—currently the ‘sweet spot’ for turboprops. But the next-generation turboprop is expected to be in the 80-100 seat class. Bombardier is actively considering a stretched Q400, for now known as the Q400X, which may seat up to 90 passengers. And ATR plans an all-new 90-seat turboprop. The company is “very keen” to get started and is looking forward to the launch in 2011 and entry into service in 2016. Other entrants are also girding up to challenge the big two. South Korea proposes to build a 90-seat turboprop and the Israelis seem interested in developing a small airliner, probably a turboprop. India is seriously considering developing a high-speed turboprop in the 90-110 seat category with National Aerospace Laboratories expected to lead the development project. The Regional Transport Aircraft (RTA), as it is currently known, is somewhat optimistically expected to roll out for certification in six to seven years. It should cater to regional routes between 600 km and 800 km. The new aircraft is projected to have 25 per cent lower acquisition and operating costs than today’s aircraft, 30 per cent lower fuel burn and 50 per cent lower maintenance costs—just what regional airlines require. And with good short-field performance, it will be especially useful at many reclaimed airports where land is likely to be a significant constraint in making longer runways. 26 SP’S AVIATION Issue 9 • 2010
Time for a Push
Fully operational airports without regular air services have always been a sad feature of the global aviation scene. And if the Indian government does not make some well-coordinated moves, many of the country’s 500 eagerly awaited airports are fated to be underutilised or even abandoned as economically unviable. But where are the regional carriers capable of providing scheduled commercial flights? Three years on, the regional airline policy introduced by the Ministry of Civil Aviation in August 2007, has proved a dismal failure. And regional aviation will continue to be in the doldrums unless incentives and concessions are better targeted. Only regional carriers as defined by the regional airline policy should attract the separately announced concessions on fuel, landing and parking charges, now available to any carrier operating smaller aircraft. This is a measure the AAI, which is creating airport infrastructure at considerable cost, would whole-heartedly support. It rightly contends that only genuine regional carriers that enhance air connectivity to remote areas should be benefitted by rebates applicable to small aircraft. There’s no time like now to promote the launch of regional airlines. After having survived a severe slowdown, India’s beleaguered airline industry has been enjoying healthy passenger loads and sustainable air fares for almost a year. Amid hopes of a sustained recovery in the air travel industry, flights are being added and fleet expansion plans given a fillip. This fits the pattern of the entire Asia-Pacific region which, in the first half of 2010, has overtaken Europe and North America to become the world’s leading aviation market. But three things are necessary to take the benefits of aviation to India’s masses that, incidentally, don’t live only in the metros and major cities. The first is many more and much better airports. Few can fault the government for lacking determination on this count; it is certainly heading in the right direction, albeit at an erratic pace. Second, suitable aircraft of the right capacity are crucial. India’s airlines are placing aircraft orders by the score, but practically none of them are for the smaller capacity aircraft that regional aviation needs. While Bombardier, Embraer and ATR offer to meet every requirement, the indigenous RTA could provide a vital boost, and deserves all the support it can get. Lastly, in a move that is long overdue, a comprehensive regional airline policy needs to be formulated that truly encourages entrepreneurs to float small regional airlines and take air connectivity to the remote parts of the country. When will India’s first successful regional airline emerge? SP www.spsaviation.net
c o v e r
s t o r y
Civil Business BusinessAviation Aviation Civil
Keep the Sky
Photographs: Gulfstream & DASSAULT aviation
arring a few feeble notes The total number of business aircraft beBy Group Captain (Retd) of disagreement, the gening used all over the world could be upA.K. Sachdev, Bengaluru eral consensus is that recesward of 55,000, according to one estimate. sion is over. Economies are Of these roughly half that figure would be showing signs of returning jets, the rest being made up of turbo-jets, to good health, jobs are beturbo-props and piston-engine aircraft. coming easier to come by, and the term However, the average annual utilisation of “green shoots” is being used more and business aircraft is around 400-500 hours more frequently to indicate signs of ecoin contrast to 3,000 hours for commercial nomic recovery. An interesting development related to the aircraft, consequently, the CO2 emissions produced by busirecovery is the shift from short-term threats (unemployment, ness aircraft as a percentage of total aviation emissions of CO2 rising costs, shortfalls) to more abstract, long-term and uncer- is estimated to be only 1 per cent to 2 per cent. Thus it can be tain threats such as global warming and related environment seen that although the business aviation aircraft numbers are issues. The civil aviation industry, like any other, is affected large, their total contribution to the impact on environment is by both these phenomenon— post-recession signs of recovery proportionately small due to the small size of the aircraft and their low utilisation rates. Worldwide, due to its peculiar posand renewed trepidation over environment issues. Business aviation, as that component of civil aviation that turing in the overall civil aviation industry, business aviation provides efficient, productive and secure business travel, need represents a growth area with latest policies by regulatory aunot be seen as a luxury for the affluent business man or ex- thorities, better aircraft designs, increased shareholder scruecutive, but instead as a business communication tool—an air tiny and a focussed perspective on environmental awareness. In November 2009, a host of business aviation associatransport option tailored to the specific needs of companies and individuals (in contrast to scheduled airline flights). Busi- tions from across the globe unveiled a plan to limit the business aviation operations could be corporate (non-commercial ness aviation industry’s emissions footprint on a document operations, with professional aircrew operating), private (non- entitled Business Aviation Statement on Climate Change. The commercial operation flown by owner of aircraft), fractional document supported the International Civil Aviation Organisa(non-commercial, shared ownership operations) or charter/ tion (ICAO) Declaration on International Aviation and Climate air taxi type commercial, on-demand operations. The type of Change and espoused the acceptance of an ICAO proposal for aircraft in use vary from large cabin ones to medium size, light aviation sectoral management of targets and monitoring of and very light aircraft (say very light jets and turbo-props). greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in a post-Kyoto Agreement. 28 SP’S AVIATION Issue 9 • 2010
Civil Business Aviation
With a robust regime being put into place in North America and Europe, it is only a question of time when the heat will be felt by India and some tangible steps would have to be taken to conform to internationally acceptable and enforceable standards and norms on aviation emissions
To this end, the business aviation community committed to the following specific targets: • Carbon-neutral growth by 2020. • An improvement in fuel efficiency of an average of 2 per cent per year until 2020. • A reduction in its total CO2 emissions by 50 per cent by 2050 relative to 2005. Business aircraft are usually flown on point to point flights for specific purposes and endeavour to fly efficient, direct routes between airports (more often small or secondary airports than metro ones). It could be argued that business aviation is more efficient from the environmental point of view than commercial aviation because the latter flies scheduled routes, which once scheduled, have to be flown irrespective of seat occupancy. In contrast, business aviation undertakes specific flights to convey a passenger or positions to pick him up. Modern navigation equipment, combined with the latest technologies in aircraft and engine design and operational best practice provide for ever improving fuel efficiency and reduced GHG emissions. Thus, the community, represented by regional/national business aviation associations, claims an excellent environmental record, but states that it is resolved to do more. Business aviation manufacturing and operating communities have jointly developed an aggressive programme in support of ICAO targets and are committed to contributing to the overall aviation goals. Business aviation aims to achieve these objectives through expected advances in four areas—technology, infrastructure and operational improvements, alternative fuels and market-
based measures. As far as technology is concerned, the focus is on improved efficiency—aircraft must be as light as possible and use as little fuel as possible in order to transport a payload as far as possible. Business aircraft manufacturers have to lead the way in the use of innovative technologies that allow for more efficient operations. Manufacturers are firmly committed to continue on this path. The collective promise of the business aircraft which manufacturing industry is to build a business aircraft by 2050 will be 45 per cent more fuel-efficient than the ones built in 2005. The issue of aircraft noise has been addressed by ICAO since the 1960s for the aviation industry as a whole; the first of noise-related standards and recommended practices (SARP) were trundled out in 1971. The international business community, represented by International Business Aviation Council (IBAC), is assertive that globally all business aircraft meet the SARPs. Indeed, it feels that business aircraft have exploited emerging technologies more than aviation as a whole in noise reduction. This is applicable to noise reduction methods applicable to engine and airframe noise. Engine emissions have been addressed very labouriously by ICAO and
Regulation will have to be tightened up in respect of aviation emissions
Issue 9 • 2010 SP’S AVIATION 29
Civil Business Aviation it is impossible to imagine an aircraft—business aviation or otherwise—to be non-compliant with the SARPs related to CO2, soot or carbon (C), NOx, CO, and particulates. Four of the major engine manufacturers—Pratt & Whitney, GE, Honeywell and Rolls-Royce, continue to conduct research into the next generation of improvements for aircraft engines. However, environmental concerns are also addressed indirectly through airframe improvements to achieve a competitive advantage over other manufacturers and to provide customers with aircraft that had more range, improved efficiency, and greater capability. This applies to both airliners and to business aircraft. The objective is to design aircraft for greater fuel efficiency by reducing the weight of the aircraft and/or to reduce its drag with improved aerodynamics. New materials, in particular composites, are enabling aircraft manufacturers to make aircraft that are substantially lighter yet retain the strength of the earlier, heavier materials. These lighter materials help to reduce fuel consumption significantly, which in turn reduces emissions. Improved maintenance procedures can provide significant improvements in efficiency and therefore will decrease the environmental impact. Aircraft engines have very sophisticated electronic devices that measure fuel flow. If the computer detects higher than allowed fuel consumption, the problem is identified and rectified as soon as practicable. This is primarily for safety reasons but this practice also contributes to environmental efficiency. Combinations of engine and airframe improvements will deliver the most significant reductions in environmental impact. Simultaneously, there is a thrust towards improved collaboration with air traffic management (ATM) providers to accelerate implementation of air traffic infrastructure and procedures modernisation; the result would be, hopefully, considerably reduced CO2 emissions. Modern air traffic management practices such as performance-based navigation (PBN) and reduced vertical separation minima (RVSM) have already made significant improvements in fuel efficiency, but there is still the potential for further reductions in fuel burn with the introduction of next generation air traffic management system
Carbon dioxide emissions for private jets Every time an aircraft flies, fuel is submitted into the air in the form of carbon dioxide. As Piaggio Aero P. 180 Avanti II claims the lowest fuel burn in the industry its carbon emissions are in turn also the lowest in the business aviation. It means more green in your pocket and more green for the planet. aircraft
gallons per hour
Piaggio Aero P.180 Avanti II
Source: Helium Report/www.piaggioaero.com
30 SP’S AVIATION Issue 9 • 2010
lbs co2 per hour
(NextGen) in the US and Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) within Europe. Along with development and implementation of operational best practices to reduce fuel usage, it is hoped that these programmes will deliver 14 per cent of the overall CO2 reductions by 2050. Alternative fuels are another area where business aviation industry is contributing towards the drive for research, development and deployment of commercially viable, sustainable alternative aviation fuels. Research in Europe and North America is expected to develop, certify and commercially implement such fuels within the next few years. Based on the developments so far, including test flights, business aviation is expected to achieve a CO2 life cycle reduction of 40 per cent in absolute terms from biofuels by 2050. However, the end result would be dependent on the continued flow of funding necessary for meaningful research and development, especially so in North America. Market-based measures are another attractive option to reduce the impact of aviation on the environment; they could take the form of emissions trading, voluntary measures and levies. Emissions trading schemes (ETS) under Kyoto Protocol are recognised to be a potential means of achieving emissions reductions at the lowest possible cost. ETS provide operators with the flexibility to reduce their own emissions or to purchase equivalent reductions from others, if doing so would be less expensive. IBAC agrees that this can be an effective method of reducing the impact of aviation on the environment provided that the administrative costs are reasonable and would prefer that the money collected be reinvested in R&D to improve aviation technology. The European Business Aviation Association is currently working with Eurocontrol to develop a better tool for business aviation operators to meet the European ETS requirements. An increasing number of operators are voluntarily offsetting their emissions. Execujet Aviation Group has aligned with the Swiss-based Myclimate non-profit organisation, to allow its charter customers to offset the CO2 generated when they fly. NetJets Europe, the largest business aircraft operator in the region, has developed a programme designed to make it 100 per cent carbon neutral by 2012 and provide its fractional owners an opportunity to offset emissions for their flights. For this, they have partnered with EcoSecurities. Original equipment manufacturers such as Bombardier and Embraer offer their business aviation customers the option of participating in carbon offset schemes. In a Resolution adopted on December 9, 1996, the ICAO Council strongly recommended that any environmental levies on air transport, which member states may want to introduce, should be in the form of charges rather than taxes and that the funds collected should be applied in the first instance to mitigating the environmental impact of aircraft engine emissions by repairing specific damages. North America has a lion’s share of business aviation—in terms of aircraft numbers, as well as volume of traffic. Europe, however, has taken the lead in the area of environmental issues related to aviation. The European Union (EU) has a consensus around the ETS, which would also apply to members of National Business Aviation Association (NBAA), the body representing US business aviation interests, and others with flights to, from, or within EU states by 2012. Under the plan, each operator would be assigned to one of the states for the programme’s administration. NBAA has created an www.spsaviation.net
Civil Business Aviation EU-ETS web resource to explain what the programme means for NBAA Members flying to the EU, answer common questions about the plan and outline what NBAA is doing to advocate for the industry. Earlier this year, the scheme (EU-ETS) has been expanded to include countries like Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein. Operators conducting flights to or from aeronautical facilities in these countries or EU countries and territories already included in the EU-ETS are required to monitor and report their aviation emissions for those flights as part of their compliance with the EU-ETS. In India, the Director General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) has set itself the following objectives in the overall civil aviation context—to develop measures that help in reduction of fuel consumption and to provide necessary guidance to adopt these fuel reduction measures; to develop measures to improve fuel efficiency and to provide necessary guidance in adopting these measures; to guide and provide necessary guidance to the stakeholders in adopting voluntary measures in reducing carbon footprints; to assess the local air quality around all domestic and international airports in the country in order to develop emissions inventory from aviation sector; to develop a baseline data for CO2 emission around airports with year 2005 as base year in order to compare the results after implementing various emissions mitigation techniques; to develop noise mitigating techniques in order to reduce noise due to aircraft movements in the vicinity of airport; to develop noise contours around the airport to define zones with prescribed noise limits and to develop a threshold noise levels in the airport vicinity along with the Ministry of Environment and Forest/CPCB where the noise limits would be expected to be higher than normal categories. Towards the achievement of these laudable objectives, an environment unit was established on June 5, 2009 with the stated aim of “striving to help the stakeholders in reducing the carbon footprints of the organisations through various feasible and economical measures.” However, it works sporadically and does not have much to show by way of achievement. At the high level meeting on International Aviation and Climate Change held at Montréal in October 2009, India presented an information paper. The paper makes no mention of any plans, strategies or measures that relate specifically to business aviation. The differential in the approaches (towards business aviation and environment) of US/EU on the one hand and India on the other, is stark and evident. However, this depressing fact needs to be viewed against the backdrop of no specific targets having been set by India even for aviation emissions as a whole. With a robust regime being put into place in North America and Europe, it is only a question of time when the heat will be felt by India and some tangible steps would have to be taken to conform to internationally acceptable and enforceable standards and norms on aviation emissions. The prospects of an environmental policy related to aviation are hazy (the two concerned ministries have already shown discord over environment issues, e.g. those related to the proposed airport at Navi Mumbai). Increasingly, however, regulation will have to be tightened up in respect of aviation emissions. Concerned decision-makers would be well advised to keep evolving emission standards and features in mind while making purchase decisions on business aircraft intended for operations in India into the next decade. SP
DASSAULT FALCON 2000LX
what dassault is doing
assault is carefully preparing for the coming of alternate fuels. Dassault’s objective is to ensure compatibility of their product with synthetic fuels that will become available as credible alternatives to Jet A1. Activities that Dassault are currently involved in are: At the Societal Level Dassault is participating in national and European ethic committees in order to ensure a good understanding of business aviation context and requirements by all the stakeholders (final users, oil producers, food producers, public and military offices, etc). The objective is to make sure that the global policies for sustainable growth and energy security include a technically and economically sensible roadmap for business/commercial aviation. At the Aircraft Level Engine manufacturers are proactive on the use of alternative fuels for aviation. Dassault is working closely with them. And, in addition, the company is working at the aircraft level, in order to check the fuel system as a whole. Dassault is involved in various national or European programmes to bring the airframer perspective in the development of alternative fuel for aviation. A fouryear European programme called Alpha-Bird was launched, involving 27 partners, including Institut Français du Pétrole (French Institute for Oil), European engine manufacturers (Snecma, Rolls-Royce and oil companies (Shell, Sasol). The objective is to evaluate the best options for biofuels for aviation and the compatibility of fuel systems with promising alternative fuels. Dassault is also involved in the French national programmes called CAER (Carburants Alternatifs pour l’AERonautique). Dassault’ roadmap includes extensive tests on a rig to operate a fuel system with actual alternative fuels by 2012.
Falcon, the Green Factor Today, some alternatives to fossil fuel exist, but in little quantities. And they are not “green fuels” yet. First “drop-in” biofuels are expected to be approved by 2012. Dassault’s vision of sustainable aviation is not limited to the single issue of being prepared for the coming of alternative fuels. Dassault’s prime strategy still remains the optimisation of the aircraft and therefore “fuel efficiency”. Falcons are 20 to 60 per cent more fuel efficient than comparable aircraft. Meaning 20 to 60 per cent greener. And the company is steadily working to improve their standards. Dassault is investigating all aspects of new technologies to develop environmentally friendly aircraft, such as energy management, fuel cells, flight management, structural design, aerodynamics efficiency and more. • Source: Dassault Aviation and Dassault Falcon Jet Corp
Issue 9 • 2010 SP’S AVIATION 31
Civil Business Aviation
Reducing Noise &
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Embraer has researched and studied new technologies for reducing internal and external noise levels, for greater comfort of passengers, and to lessen the impact on airports and surroundings
or the aeronautics industry, sector and seeks to mitigate the effects of environmental issues are aviation on the environment. directly connected to prodEmbraer participates in the developuct performance. Due to ment of public policies related to future peculiarities inherent to air product regulations in conjunction with transportation, airplanes governments and representatives of soconsume a considerable amount of fuel, ciety in general. so operational efficiency is fundamenCompany technicians participate in tal to reducing the impact on the envithe Environmental Protection Commitronment, especially in the emission of tee of the International Civil Aviation Orgreenhouse gases. ganisation (ICAO). The committee works The pursuit of better performance is to improve aviation’s performance in connected to our efforts to provide more terms of noise, greenhouse gas emiscomprehensive contributions to the envisions and air quality. ronment, by making all aeronautical acEMBRAER’S FIRST ETHANOL POWERED tivities more sustainable. Regarding the AIRCRAFT improvement of our aircraft, we put conIn 2005, Embraer became the first mantinuous effort into their aerodynamics, in By Jose Eduardo Costas ufacturer to develop and certify a 100 order to reduce drag during flight and as per cent biofuel powered aircraft. a result improve fuel consumption. This achievement was the result The pursuit of better aircraft perforof a partnership with the Department mance is present in several company of Aerospace Science and Technology actions, beginning with the engineer(Departamento de Ciência e Tecnologia ing specialisation programme, which Aeroespacial – DCTA), which allowed has graduated more than 950 engineers since 2001, who are conscious of preventive actions that Embraer to manufacture the Ipanema crop duster with a 320 HP ethanol-powered engine. should be taken relative to environmental issues. Although the Ipanema crop duster has been in producEmbraer has monitored the development of the new generations of engines in partnership with the manufacturers of tion since 1970 and was one of the first aircraft to be depropulsion systems, and we are alert to new technological signed and produced by Embraer, in 2005, its 1,000th modchanges that should be implemented in the next few years. el become even more historic because it was also the first The company has researched and studied new technologies one to be equipped with an ethanol-powered engine which for reducing internal and external noise levels, for greater uses the same fuel as automobiles (hydrated ethanol). Besides producing less pollution, this fuel extends the comfort of passengers, and to lessen the impact on airports useful life of the engine and reduces the aircraft’s operatand surroundings. We have invested in the use of lighter materials in order ing cost. Since 2005, Embraer has been offering ethanol converto reduce the structural weight of the aircraft, and we have incorporated more electrical systems that are less depen- sion kits for the airplanes powered by aviation gasoline (AvGas). Currently, around 25 per cent of the Brazilian fleet dant on the power produced by the engines. The interface of our activities with weather issues is uses ethanol. In 2005 as well, the Ipanema received the Aeronautics especially important for Embraer and the entire aeronautics industry. We are part of the Air Transport Action Group Industry Award in the General Aviation category, presented (ATAG), which gathers the main players in the air transport by the renowned British magazine Flight International. That 32 SP’S AVIATION Issue 9 • 2010
Civil Business Aviation same year, another important international publication, the Scientific American, considered it to be one of the 50 most important inventions of the year. In Brazil, the Ipanema was granted the Melhores da Terra (Best on Earth) Award by the Gerdau Group. The Ipanema has since established itself as the first airplane in the world to be produced in series with an ethanolpowered engine. JOINT RENEWABLE JET FUEL EVALUATION PROJECT
In December 2009, Embraer, together with General Electric and Amyris signed a memorandum of understanding to evaluate the technical and sustainability aspects of Amyris’ No CompromiseTM renewable jet fuel. The programme aims to develop a fuel, produced by Amyris from sugarcane, via a modern fermentation process. The initiative is to culminate in a demo flight, by early 2012, of an Embraer E-Jet using GE engines and belonging to Azul Linhas Aéreas. This collaboration combines industry leadership in airframe and engine manufacturing, a new and committed airline, and next-generation jet fuel development and production. The goal is to accelerate the introduction of a renewable jet fuel that could significantly lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and provide a long-term sustainable alternative to petroleum-derived jet fuel. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSCIOUSNESS IN PRACTICE
Units In 1998, Embraer initiated its selective collection programme, involving all the sectors in the Company. Since then, several improvements have been carried out and include qualification of the collectors, and training of employees. The collection programme involves the collection and subsequent recycling of newspapers, magazines, cardboard, plastic cups, PVC pipes, glass in general, debris from factory sweeping, metallic parts, aluminium cans, cloths and rags contaminated with inflammable materials, and even batteries (including cell phone ones) and fluorescent lamps. The company has placed colour-coded containers in its facilities in Brazil, for the collection of every kind of residue generated; these containers can be made of fibres and are recyclable. This initiative endures till today. Additionally, Embraer has put in place an Industrial Residue Management system at its units in Brazil. The generation of solid residues has been the topic of various arguments and debate in many companies. The requirements for a solution to this problem call for investments, not only to create areas suitably assigned to receive, sort and store these residues, but also for their correct disposal. Embraer’s facilities in Brazil have areas suitable for the receipt and final destination of residue such as solvents, lubricating oils, batteries, paint remnants and biological slush, whether by incineration, recovery, recycling or another method of disposal—always in full compliance with CETESB (São Paulo State Environmental Sanitation Technology Company) specifications. The collection of residues such as paper, cardboard and plastic is carried out separately from the others, because some of them undergo recycling.
Products Due to its clean sheet design and Embraer’s world-class engineering, the Phenom 300 offers many environmental advantages not previously found in other aircraft in its class. The Phenom 300 is able to fly the same distance, carrying the same number of passengers and at the same speeds as existing light jets (for example the Learjet 40, Hawker 400, and CJ4), but producing 10 per cent to 25 per cent less CO2 emissions. This is made possible due to a series of decisions that took place during the design and development of the aircraft. A few examples of such solutions include the smart use of composite materials, replacement of traditional pilot systems by a smart probe and the use of brake-bywire technology. Also, a new generation engine digitally controlled by two dedicated computers optimises fuel consumption guaranteeing lower emissions. A refined aerodynamic design applied to the fuselage assures low drag and contributes to improved emissions. Lastly, the Phenom 300 surpasses ICAO Stage 4 Acoustics requirements. The Legacy 600 too—in both its original and new generation models (with enhanced avionics)—provides some peace of mind as it produces an average of 28 per cent less CO2 than competitors’ older aircraft and 21 per cent less than current generation jets. Community Embraer takes part in committees and advisory boards as a Federation of Industries of the State of São Paulo (FIESP) representative in Brazil. These agencies are made up of a collegiate, of an advisory and deliberative nature, on environmental issues: • CEIVAP—Comitê Estadual Vale Paraíba do Sul (Vale Paraíba do Sul State Committee). • CBHP—Comitê Bacia Hidrográfica do Paraíba do Sul (Paraíba do Sul Drainage Basin Committee). • COMAM—Conselho Municipal de Meio Ambiente (Environmental City Council). • Environment management practices. Because of its constant concern with the environment, Embraer sets up and documents procedures and plans for monitoring and measuring, from time to time, the main aspects of the company’s operations and activities that may have a significant impact on the environment, in addition to other procedures and plans to improve the quality of life at work and lessen the environmental impact. Towards this end, Embraer recognises the importance of ISO14001 environmental certification and actively works to maintain it in all Embraer national units and obtain it for the international ones, by significantly investing in the development of its environmental, occupational health, safety and quality integrated management system, internally called SIG-MASSQ. Embraer units in Brazil are certified by the ISO 14001 norm and it was the first aeronautical company in the world to accomplish that goal. SP — Mr Costas is Vice President, Sales & Marketing-Asia Pacific, Embraer Executive Jets Issue 9 • 2010 SP’S AVIATION 33
Civil Business Aviation
With each new aircraft, we work to decrease noise and lower emissions Increasingly, aircraft manufacturers have to factor in environmental features while making a sales pitch for their aircraft as the aviation community is becoming demanding with regard to fuel burn, emissions, noise, etc. Gulfstream, a major business jet manufacturer, has been a good steward of the environment and it has committed itself to carbon neutral growth by 2020. Jason Akovenko, Regional Vice President, Asia-Pacific, Gulfstream, spoke to SP’s Aviation about what the company has outlined with regard to environment and its business in India.
SP’s Aviation (SP’s): Do Indian operators ask for aircraft which is environmental-friendly—less noise, less burn of fuel, etc, or are they just looking at the price factor? Jason Akovenko: With each new aircraft Gulfstream provides, it works to improve fuel efficiency, decrease noise and lower emissions. Operators do not have to choose between an environmentally friendly aircraft and a cost-effective one. In fact, those two factors go hand in hand. SP’s: Unlike Europe or the developed parts of the world, India is less conscious of the environmental impacts of business aviation. Do you have operator manuals to improve efficiency, reduce environmental impact? Do you have to educate the Indian buyer more than anywhere else? Akovenko: In the early 1980s, Gulfstream developed a unique quiet flying procedure for its customers and promoted that procedure until it became a standard practice for most pilots. Another document called “The Noise Information Manual” provides specific noise-abatement procedures for a select group of noise-sensitive airports. This document has recently been revised and continues to be a good source of information for our customers. In 2008, Gulfstream promoted environmentally conscious flying through a type of best practice guide called “Performance Procedures for Fuel and CO2 Conservation”. This document provides practical steps for the pilot to use in order to reduce fuel burn and 34 SP’S AVIATION Issue 9 • 2010
hence CO2. It covers all aspects of flight (taxi, climb, cruise, descent and landing). It also provides tips for planning a flight that would reduce fuel burn, such as fuel loading as well as simple ways to reduce unnecessary payload. This information can also be found on Waypoints, Gulfstream’s flight operations website. We work with all of our operators, regardless of their location, to ensure they can operate their aircraft efficiently, which not only helps the environment but saves them money as well. SP’s: What are the developments at Gulfstream with regard to environment, noise abatement, etc? Akovenko: Gulfstream has a long history of being a good steward of the environment. Aero/Propulsion/Systems: Gulfstream takes an integrated design approach to optimise airplane performance and efficiency. Gulfstream continues to explore the use of lighter weight materials, including composite materials in future products and is utilising high-powered computing to optimise the aerodynamic shape by evaluating literally thousands of designs against performance and efficiency criteria. We also continue to work closely with propulsion system suppliers to achieve step improvements in fuel efficiency, noise and emissions that are expected in the next generation engines. Our systems’ integration and simulation capawww.spsaviation.net
Civil Business Aviation bility allows us to right-size the airplane systems to reduce weight and minimise power extraction requirements from the engines. Gulfstream also leverages the capability inherent in a flyby-wire (FBW) control system by reconfiguring the airplane to a low-drag configuration based on flight condition, and to reduce critical design loads, thereby reducing structural weight. Avionic Systems: Gulfstream has invested significantly in the development of new avionics and functionality to improve safety and operational capability while also providing improved efficiency. Gulfstream’s Enhanced Flight Vision System is an example. This revolutionary product utilises infrared technologies to allow pilots see through fog and at night. When used during approach and landing, it reduces the probability of go-arounds or diversions to other airports thus saving fuel. Gulfstream has also recently received FAA approval for required navigation performance special aircraft and aircrew authorisation required (RNP SAAAR). This feature allows precision vertical and lateral navigation guidance to within 0.1 nautical miles and allows improved use of preferred airspace routes which results in lowered fuel usage. Gulfstream’s PlaneView Flight Deck is capable of sending and receiving real-time data, including weather, such as winds aloft and thunderstorm data. Using a sophisticated onboard flight management system (FMS), the flight crew can make strategic decisions to fly at altitudes that optimise fuel burn for the planned route. Planeview also utilises four large liquid crystal displays laid out in landscape format. They are capable of displaying multiple formats including navigation maps overlaid with weather radar data. Gulfstream recently certified its synthetic vision system, synthetic vision-primary flight display, which uses an on-board terrain database to display 3-D image of the surrounding terrain. This improves safety by increasing the pilot’s situational awareness relative to surrounding terrain, significant obstacles and runway location. The safety benefits of Gulfstream’s SV-PFD were recognised by industry when it was awarded the HoneywellBendix Trophy for Aviation Safety in 2008. For the future, Gulfstream is actively involved in industry developments and plans to develop new systems in line with FAA’s NextGen, Europe’s SESAR, India’s GAGAN, etc. As an example, continuous descent trajectory is the ability to begin the descent to an airport hundreds of miles away at idle power without the standard level-offs of today. Using advanced on-board navigation systems and displays, the aircraft can reach the airport with significantly less fuel burned. Airframe Noise Research: Gulfstream in cooperation with NASA has taken the lead in researching the main contributors of airframe noise. Over the past three years, significant investment and progress were made with applications for future development programmes. The momentum of this initiative has grown into the development of a research consortium that includes government, industry and academic agencies. At this point, Gulfstream is recognised as an industry leader in airframe noise research with benchmark problems, computational aeroacoustics and noise prediction software development. Gulfstream also supports IBAC’s Business Aviation Statement on Climate Change: • Carbon neutral growth by 2020 • An improvement in fuel efficiency averaging 2 per cent per year from today until 2020
• A reduction in total CO2 emissions of 50 per cent by 2050 relative to 2005 SP’s: There is so much talk about alternative fuels in aviation. Will it become a reality in the next five years? Akovenko: Gulfstream is evaluating alternative fuels. If our researchers conclude that they’re safe and effective, we may incorporate them into our operating manual. SP’s: Gulfstream has had long association with India and India’s business aviation sector is opening up fast. What are the drivers in India for business aviation? Akovenko: When we look at the market in India, we see considerable upward potential. The country has been enjoying robust economic growth, which has contributed to wealth creation. This has spurred strong demand for private jets. Additionally, a number of trends support the growth of private aviation in India, including: • A dynamic business culture • Increasing global business linkages, including Indian acquisitions abroad • Recognition in government and industry that aviation helps foster economic growth SP’s: How many Gulfstream aircraft are there in India at present and what is the target, considering reports that by 2015, India will require 1400 private aircraft? Do you have any plans to develop the market? How do you position Gulfstream in this competitive market? Akovenko: Today, India has a private jet fleet of nearly 130 aircraft, versus 11,000 in the United States. That provides considerable room for growth. There are 17 Gulfstream aircraft in the Indian fleet, all of them in the mid- to largecabin segments, making them among the most capable private aircraft in India. Companies and individuals will need to fly farther as business expands among continents, providing an incentive to trade up to larger Gulfstream models or acquire Gulfstream aircraft for the first time. Over a quarter century, Gulfstream has earned a reputation as the preferred provider of private jets to many of the country’s business leaders. The Indian aviation industry is strong and vibrant and we are excited about the future. Gulfstream continues to expand its commitment in the country by significantly increasing marketing and product support activities to serve our customers. SP
Gulfstream is evaluating alternative fuels. If our researchers conclude that they’re safe and effective, we may incorporate them into our operating manual.
Issue 9 • 2010 SP’S AVIATION 35
Civil Business Aviation
Carbon-neutral Growth Bombardier is not just defining luxury in business jets but also working on aircraft development to make the jets more environmental friendly
espite the fact that civil aviation generates less than 2 per cent of the world’s carbon dioxide emissions, airline manufacturers have focused attention towards a global vision for carbon-neutral growth. Bombardier, a world leader in aircraft manufacturing is in the forefront of such development—it is not just defining luxury in business jets but also working on aircraft development to make the jets more environmental friendly. Guy C. Hachey, President and Chief Operating Officer, Bombardier Aerospace, said, “We are duty-bound to build on the aviation industry’s significant progress till date—a 70 per cent improvement in aircraft fuel efficiency over the past 40 years. In years to come, our new and more fuel-efficient CSeries and Learjet 85 aircraft will help our customers meet more stringent targets. In terms of economic measures to mitigate the impact of emissions, we are leading the way with our Carbon Offset Programme for business aircraft and Flexjet customers. Optimising aviation’s infrastructure and uncovering more efficient ways of operating aircraft are also among our priorities.” Giving a further perspective on that, Nilesh Pattanayak, Managing Director, South Asia, said, “We’ve implemented the design for environment engineering in new prod-
36 SP’S AVIATION Issue 9 • 2010
By R. Chandrakanth
uct development. We also integrated the use of composites technology with our new Learjet 85 business jet, made of composite materials, which is scheduled for entry into service in 2013. These initiatives aim at reducing the impact of our products on the environment.” “The Learjet 85 is really a perfect example of Guy C. Hachey integrating these initiatives in product design. For example, the jet is powered by two Pratt & Whitney Canada PW307B engines, each boasting 6,100 pounds of take-off thrust at sea level 86°F (30°C) and low noise levels. It also features an advanced low NOx emission combuster with reduced environmental impact. The composite structure of the aircraft also reduces maintenance requirements on the aircraft,” he added. Indian market
On being asked about the market for business jets in India, Pattanayak mentioned that this year the company was forecasting 325 deliveries for India between 2010 and 2019, but that’s for all business aircraft manufacturers. “We currently have over 20 Bombardier business jets based in India, and we’re committed to expanding our customer support network, in order to better support our customers based in the region. As the Indian market is growing fast, the expected deliveries in the next few years will require an expanded network for the region,” said Pattanayak. SP www.spsaviation.net
Business Aviation OEM
We have every reason to be optimistic for the future and with a little help from Adam Smith’s ‘invisible hand’, the markets and market confidence will return strongly as the world economy moves forward
am sure many of the manufacturers new airplane deliveries, with generally a By Trevor Esling of business aircraft were pleased to 6-8 quarter lag from the former to the see 2009 recede into the distance latter. Corporate profits are indeed up in as 2010 arrived. It was a very difsome cases now, but confidence is not, ficult year, characterised by the so buying high-value capital goods like fallout from the October 2008 Lehman an airplane, in the current climate, is not Brothers insolvency that sent the world economy into a deep high on a CEO’s list of things to do. That reluctance to buy is recession. 2010 has been a year when many economies in particularly marked when shareholders are apt to consider the West have finally begun making their way out of recession this type of spending ‘corporate excess’ rather than as we in and started to record positive growth. World Bank projections the industry would strongly argue, corporate good sense to for the growth in world gross domestic product (GDP) are deploy your best assets (your people) in a time-efficient and reasonably robust. So, does 2010 provide a better climate for safe manner all around the world as business opportunities the sale of corporate aircraft? Well, its both yes and no. present themselves. Cessna exemplified that approach with True, the economies of the East—China and India in par- the Rise campaign in the US, which was designed to offset ticular—are growing strongly (as indeed is Brazil). However, the negative publicity the current US Administration at one in our markets these areas (with the exception of Brazil) re- point supported, in the ‘anti-business jet’ line it was taking main relatively small consumers of our products. World trade with the US financial industry. has made a progressive comeback, and with that has the need So we see a market characterised by a smaller number of to travel. Airlines, therefore, are enjoying increased demand, new or used transactions than before the recession, aggressive although yields remain low. The market more generally is price competition, and over-supply of used aircraft exerting a characterised by difficult pricing, whether it be corporate air- downward pressure on pricing. The aircraft charter business craft for charter or bulk shipping rates for commodities. Gen- has begun to return to form, but pricing is the key to keeping eral business confidence is an elusive concept. It is difficult your aircraft flying. All in all, we still find ourselves in difficult to secure and easily lost. So while 2010 started off hopefully, trading conditions in 2010, but it is a significant improvement issues like the European sovereign debt crisis, exemplified by over 2009. This time next year and further into 2012, we will the travails of Greece, Ireland, Spain and Portugal, continue see a gradual but substantial improvement and most industo drain confidence from the markets. One only has to look at try commentators expect to see growth resume in that timethe world stock markets to see that. Market volatility, while frame. In the meantime, it will prove to be an interesting sellit may be good for stockbrokers, is not ing environment for corporate aircraft. a recipe for solidifying and then growWe believe in the long-term viability of ing general confidence in the prospects our industry with the opening up of new of the world economy. While more submarkets and the increasing penetration dued now than previously, fear remains of new aircraft sales in existing markets. a greater concern than making money. We are bullish for the future, while also For example, the US private sector is sitrecognising that the short-term will be ting on significant cash reserves but will marked by tougher trading conditions. not spend them, and in fact a significant I think we have every reason to be opproportion of those funds are located timistic for the future and with a little offshore out of the reach of the US taxhelp from Adam Smith’s ‘invisible hand’, man (and therefore not being invested the markets and market confidence will to stimulate the US consumption and return strongly as the world economy employment). moves forward. SP — Mr Esling is For many years, one of the few good Vice President, International Sales, correlations of aircraft demand was Cessna Aircraft Company corporate profitability graphed against
The markets and market confidence will return strongly as the world economy moves forward
Issue 9 • 2010 SP’S AVIATION 37
Wallop designs, manufactures and supplies a wide range of airborne passive countermeasure chaff (RF) and Infra Red (IR) decoys for use in a wide variety of dispensing systems
allop Defence Systems Ltd, Craydown Lane, Hampshire, England is a division of the Esterline Defense Group with corporate headquarters in the USA. The parent company, Esterline Technical Corporation, is a multi-national operation and has a turnover in excess of $1.5 billion (`7,000 crore) employing more than 8,000 personnel. Wallop designs and manufactures a range of airborne devices, defence pyrotechnics and naval countermeasure products for use by armed forces and in search and rescue. Wallop designs, manufactures and supplies a wide range of airborne passive countermeasure chaff (RF) and Infra Red (IR) decoys for use in a wide variety of dispensing systems from both fixed and rotary-wing aircraft. The decoys are tailored to platform, meeting the customer’s individual operating requirements. These decoys are used to defeat both heat-seeking (IR) and radar-guided (RF) missiles. Wallop has over 50 years of experience in designing/manufacturing a wide range of IR flares. We can offer traditional magnesium teflon viton (MTV) flares for use against first generation missiles and advanced dual band spectral flares designed to defeat more advanced missiles. Wallop’s chaff and flares are suitable for use on both Russian and Western fixed and rotary-wing aircraft including MiG-29, Su-30, Mi-17, Mi-8, AH-64 Apache, CH-47 Chinook, Sea King, Lynx, Super Puma, Panther, Cougar, EH-101, C-130, C-17, CN-295M, C-160, Jaguar, Hawk Mk 132, Tornado, Harrier GR-9, Harrier AV-8B, F-16, F/A-18 and Typhoon. Chaff and flare dispensing systems supported include ALE-40, ALE-47, ALE-29/39, ALE-29A, Thales Vicon 78 CDMS Series, SAAB (BOZ and PHIMAT series) M130, ASO-2V, BVP-30-26M and BVP-50-30 (50mm) APP-50. Cartridges are available in several formats; square, rectangular and cylindrical. All sizes and origin of dispensers can be accommodated. The flares are usually supplied with electric squibs (ignitors) pre-fitted which can be supplied separately as required. Advanced chaff cartridges are available. The RR-180 cartridge effectively doubles the shots per magazine of ALE-47 and similar dispensers by firing two separate chaff payloads from each chaff cartridge. The standard aluminised glass filaments (chaff) measure 23/25 microns. However, Wallop is able to supply chaff filaments of nominally 17 microns diameter significantly increasing the RCS of the chaff cloud. 38 SP’S AVIATION Issue 9 • 2010
Wallop comprehensively supports UK and NATO chaff and flare trials aimed at enhancing platform protection. Wallop has supplied a range of chaff and flare cartridges to the Indian Air Force and to the Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd, Bangalore in support of product qualification. The company supports activities at various Indian ordnance factories (Pune, Jabalpur) in the development of both airborne and naval decoys. In addition to manufacturing airborne countermeasures, Wallop designs and manufactures decoys for a wide range of both naval platforms including the KAVACH naval decoy launcher in service with the Indian Navy. Wallop also supplies chaff payloads to RWM GmbH Germany for use in their naval decoy system known as MASS. This comprises trainable decoy launcher dispensing chaff and IR decoys. Wallop’s naval 102mm Super Barricade decoy countermeasure system is in active service with the Indian Navy and many countries worldwide. Wallop’s ammunition for use with this system includes seduction, confusion and distraction spin-stabilised chaff rockets configured to meet customer’s operational requirements. Other products manufactured include the float, smoke and flame sea marker. This buoyant device is designed to be released from helicopters and fixed wing aircraft to indicate a position in the sea for both day and night marking. The lambent orange flame and white smoke has a typical burning time in excess of five minutes. A recent product developed by Wallop and now entering service is the 16mm mini-signal. This personal survival handoperated device provides eight individual, high intensity flares up to a height in excess of 90 metres. The mini-signal may be used as a signalling mode as well as in a search and rescue role. Wallop manufactures a range of tracking flares for airto-air and ground-to-air testing and training. These highreliability flares are for use in conjunction with tail-tracked guided missiles. In addition, target flares are offered for target enhancement from visible to IR spectra. Wallop Defence Systems will be exhibiting at INDESEC, Pragati Maidan, New Delhi, from September 6-8, 2010. David Connors, Sales & Marketing Director and David Radford, Business Development Manager, will be present. You can write to them at firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com respectively. For further details visit www.wallopdefence.com. SP www.spsaviation.net
Hall of Fame
an a woman pilot enter an aviation race against men and hope to win? The answer would have been an emphatic “No” in the early days of flight. But in 1936, Louise Thaden, one of America’s foremost female aviators of the 1930s, changed all that. Iris Louise McPhetridge was born in Bentonville, Arkansas, USA, on November 12, 1905. She had an adventurous childhood—hunting and fishing. Her father fostered her mechanical skills by teaching her to repair the family car. At the age of 14, she signed up for a biplane trip with a local barnstormer—an early hint of an abiding passion for flight. Later, her job with the Travel Air Manufacturing Corporation offered free pilot’s lessons as a bonus and she seized the opportunity. She earned her pilot’s certificate in May 1928. The same year, she married Herbert von Thaden, an aeronautical engineer and designer of all-metal aircraft, and added Thaden to her name. This was an era of frenzied aviation record setting—with some marks being overtaken in months or even weeks. Louise set the world’s first official women’s altitude record of 20,260 feet on December 7, 1928. On April 29, 1929, she set the women’s endurance record of 22 hours, 3 minutes, 12 seconds. A month later, she set a new speed mark of 156 mph, thus becoming the only woman to hold all three records simultaneously. But women’s records were just women’s records. Female pilots were not welcome to compete against men. So for some years, a separate race called the National Women’s Air Derby was organised. In August 1929, the first such women-only cross-continent race started from Santa Monica, California and ended in Cleveland, Ohio. Thaden entered the 2,800-mile test of endurance, flying ability and courage. Tragedy struck early when race contestant Marvel Crosson died after she bailed out from her stricken aircraft and her parachute did not open. One newspaper headline read, “Women have conclusively proven that they cannot fly.” Louise was undeterred. She once wrote, “If your time has
come, it is a glorious way to pass over. The smell of burning oil, the feel of strength and the power beneath your hands, so quick has been the transition between life and death, there still must linger in your mind’s eye the everlasting beauty and joy of flight.” The other pilots decided that the best tribute to Marvel would be to persist. After eight exhausting days, Louise won the
LOUISE THADEN (1905 - 1979) On April 29, 1929, she set the women’s endurance record of 22 hours, 3 minutes, 12 seconds.A month later, she set a new speed mark of 156 mph, thus becoming the only woman to hold all three records simultaneously.
race, beating such celebrated fliers as Amelia Earhart and Blanche Noyes. Is there any limit to human endurance? In 1932, Louise Thaden and Frances Marsalis set out to prove there wasn’t. They flew a Curtiss Thrush biplane over New York for 196 hours. The aircraft was refuelled 78 times during flight. Food and water were lowered from another aircraft by means of a rope. The women made a series of live
radio broadcasts from the biplane and the event secured national interest. In 1936, women pilots were finally permitted to compete in the prestigious Bendix Trophy Race, till then it was an all-male affair. Apart from the main trophy, race officials offered a special $2,500 award for the first aviatrix to finish the race—a sort of consolation prize. Louise Thaden and co-pilot Blanche Noyes decided to enter. They flew a Beech C17R, of which the back seat had been removed and an extra 56 gallon gas tank had been installed. Only one fuel stop was planned. Almost immediately after take off, their radio quit, forcing them to navigate by dead reckoning. Bad weather beset them across the entire continent. Encountering extremely high headwinds and turbulence through the final stretch, they practically gave up hope of reaching before the 6 p.m. deadline. Further, they crossed the finish line from the wrong direction in front of thousands of cheering fans. However, they finished the race first, in a record time of 14 hours and 55 minutes. As winners, they received not only the first prize but also the women’s consolation prize. For this feat, Louise was awarded the prestigious Harmon Trophy as the most outstanding US aviatrix for 1936. Louise Thaden was always a keen sponsor of women in aviation. In 1930, together with Amelia Earhart, she established an international organisation for women pilots called The NinetyNines, which is prominent in aviation circles to this day. Louise served as its treasurer and vice-president. She died following a heart attack on November 9, 1979. She once said, “To a psychoanalyst, a woman pilot, particularly a married one with children, must prove an interesting as well as an inexhaustible subject. Torn between two loves, emotionally confused, the desire to fly an incurable disease eating out your life in the slow torture of frustration—she cannot be a simple, natural personality.” This was her life in a nutshell. SP —Group Captain (Retd) Joseph Noronha, Goa Issue 9 • 2010 SP’S AVIATION 39
IAF for disaster relief in Ladakh
Air Marshal NAK Browne Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Western Air Command visited Leh airbase to oversee the relief and air bridge operations. His visit included review of infrastructure of Leh airbase as well as meeting the station personnel, who he commended for their outstanding work during the first few hours of flood where they restored full-fledged operations from Leh airbase in record time of seven and a half hours. As a result, a total of 16 flights (both IAF and civil) were undertaken on August 7 and 22 flights (both IAF and civil) on August 8. He also brought a consignment of medical aid for the civil administration personnel as a donation from the IAF. In addition, one MI-17 helicopter has been carrying out relief operations from Thoise in Sultan Chushku in Nubra Valley since August 6 and two more Chetak Helicopters have been provided to civil administration for aerial reconnaissance of affected areas.
The Indian Air Force (IAF) efforts towards rescue and relief operations for the recent flash flood in Ladakh were further boosted when
Super Hornet technology advancement feature US aviation major Boeing has stated that if India selects Super Hornets for 126 multi-role combat aircraft deal, it will be allowed to add advanced capabilities in the fighters as per future requirements. “India would be able to participate as an International Super Hornet Roadmap customer, if desired, and could enhance future Indian
Asia-Pacific Procurement of helicopters Defence Minister A.K. Antony in a written reply in the Lok Sabha stated that a contract for the procurement of 12 AW101 helicopters was signed between the Ministry of Defence and AgustaWestland Limited, United Kingdom on February 8, 2010. The cost of the project is `3,546.17 crore (about $770 million). Out of these 12 helicopters, eight helicopters will be configured for VVIP transportation and four helicopters will be the nonVVIP version. The helicopters are being procured to replace the ageing Mi-8 helicopters which are nearing completion of their technical life. A global request for proposal was issued and a multi-vendor procurement procedure followed as per Defence Procurement Procedure 2006.
Super Hornets... This (roadmap) will give the IAF flexibility over the years if they want to integrate or insert new technologies,” Boeing Defence, Space and Security India head Vivek Lall said in New Delhi. Boeing’s F/A-18 E/F fighter aircraft is one of the six contenders in the race for supplying 126 multi-role combat aircraft to the IAF for the deal. The company has recently announced a US Navy-funded and Boeing-developed International Super Hornet roadmap for the next 40 years which plans for maturing technologies and inserting them in the aircraft. Pakistan Air Force trains at Nellis It took six days and four stops for six Pakistan Air Force pilots to fly six F-16Bs over 7,700 miles from Mushaf Air Base in northern Pakistan to Las Vegas to fly and train in Red Flag 10-4 and Green Flag 10-9 exercises at Nellis US Air Force Base. Approximately, 100 maintenance, support and aircrew personnel arrived in mid-July and completed the intense two-week Red Flag exercise, which concentrates on large force combat employment. The PAF flew 57 air interdiction sorties in 12 days. The Red Flag 10-4 had personnel from 16 different countries including units from Pakistan, Singapore and Saudi Arabia. Also participating was a NATO unit from Germany and the US Navy, Marines and Air Force units. The Pakistan
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Sophisticated modeling and simulation capabilities enable a customer to test multiple threat and response scenarios simultaneously. Global training solutions ensure optimum personnel readiness and preparation for any type of threat or attack Defence and civil projects in India
Raytheon has had a presence in India for more than 50 years, and is active on several fronts in support of the nation’s priorities in defence, homeland security, communications and airspace management. Raytheon brings multiple capabilities to India’s medium multirole combat aircraft (MMRCA) programme. In addition to numerous combat systems, the company is offering its combat-proven 40 SP’S AVIATION Issue 9 • 2010
active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar system which has achieved significant milestones including the 200th delivery of the APG-79 F/A-18 AESA radar system and over 1,50,000 AESA flight hours. Raytheon is supporting India’s ISR capabilities by delivering high performing sensor technology solutions including the RTN APY-10 maritime surveillance radar for the Indian P8-I aircraft. Raytheon and Elcome Marine Services of Mumbai have completed inspection and maintenance on two Phalanx Close-in Weapon Systems for the Indian Navy, and Raytheon is modernising management of Indian air traffic through the GAGAN programme and automation and surveillance systems for India’s major civilian airports. SP
QuickRoundUp Aerojet • Aerojet has announced that it has successfully tested an advanced solid ramjet fuel in an engine ground test. The fuel is being developed to provide long-range, high-speed capability for the US military and potentially for the future USAF/Navy joint dual role air dominance missile. Air India • Flagship carrier Air India said that it wants compensation from Boeing for delays in the delivery of Dreamliner planes, with media reports saying the airline is demanding one billion dollars. Boeing officials were unavailable for comment, but country head at Boeing Dinesh Keskar said earlier in the month that state-run Air India was eligible for compensation for delays in receiving the next-generation plane. Airbus Military • A-400 M (Grizzlies) reached 500 flying hours, comprising almost 150 flights with the three prototypes since the first flight took place on December 11, 2009. The aircraft also participated in air displays for the first time in public view in the recently conducted Farnborough Air Show. Boeing • The Spirit of St. Louis was one of the most advanced and aerodynamically streamlined designs of its era which was designed by Donald Hall of the aircraft manufacturer Ryan Airlines located in San Diego, California. Since then, California became one of the premier centers of aerospace design, development and production. This may be coming to an end if the production of the only remaining aircraft of significant size i.e. C-17 ceases as the Secretary of Defense has warned that he would recommend to President Barack Obama to veto a defence bill that included funds for additional C-17s. If that happens, then only foreign sales can keep the production line alive. Eurocopter • The first flight of the UH-72A Lakota light utility helicopter (LUH) equipped with the security and support battalion (S&S Battalion) Mission Equipment Package (MEP) took place at the company’s US Eurocopter facilwww.spsaviation.net
Appointments Northrop Grumman Northrop Grumman Corporation has named Christopher T. Jones as Sector Vice President and General Manager of its Technical Services sector’s Integrated Logistics and Modernisation Division (ILMD). Jones will have overall responsibility for the division, which is organised around four business units focused on contractor logistics support, systems maintenance and modernisation, global materials and surveillance operations, and international programmes. Harris Corporation Harris Corporation has named John Heller President of its IT services business. In his role as president of IT Services, Heller will lead all aspects of the business, including partnering with cross-divisional operational leadership, key staff members, and customers to shape growth strategies and advance innovation in the global delivery of mission-enabling IT transformation, managed solutions and information assurance. Harris Corporation has named Ted Hengst Corporate Vice President and Chief Information Officer (CIO), reporting to Howard L. Lance, chairman, president and CEO. In his role as CIO, Hengst will have responsibility for setting the strategic direction, architecture and governance of Harris’ global IT enterprise. Gulfstream Gulfstream has promoted its long-time aviation veteran Tarek Ragheb to be the Regional Vice President, International Sales. Reporting to Larry Flynn, Gulfstream’s Vice President Marketing and Sales, Ragheb, in addition, will continue to oversee the Gulfstream’s Europe, Africa and the Middle East (EMEA) division and the team of sales professionals he has put in place in the past 16 years. Boeing
Boeing has named Laura J. Peterson Vice President for state and local government operations in the Northwest region. In her new assignment, she will lead the team responsible for Boeing’s political and government activities in the region, which includes Washington and Oregon.
Air Force didn’t leave after Red Flag but stayed on for an additional three weeks in order to participate in Green Flag 10-9. Green Flag is an exercise that focuses on close air support of ground troops. BAE secures £500 million order to support HAL
BAE Systems has secured a new order, worth over £500
million (`3,636 crore) with the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), to supply products and services to enable a further 57 Hawk Advanced Jet Trainer (AJT) aircraft to be built under licence in India for the Indian Air Force (40 aircraft) and Indian Navy (17 aircraft). The final terms and conditions for the contract were signed by Guy Griffiths, Group Managing Director International, BAE Systems, in the presence of British Prime Minister, David Cameron on his historic visit to India and BAE Systems’ Chairman Dick Olver. The aircraft will be manufactured under licence at HAL’s facilities in Benga-
luru and BAE Systems will provide specialist engineering services, the raw materials and equipment necessary for airframe production and the support package for the Indian Air Force and Indian Navy end-users. Israel’s Iron Dome passes final tests In July, the Israeli Ministry of Defense’s Administration for the Development of Weapons and Technological Infrastructure (ADWTI), Israeli Air Force’s anti-aircraft forces and Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd which developed the Iron Dome, held a final comprehensive series of fully operational interception tests in coordination with other systems already used by the IAF and its anti-aircraft force. During the course of these tests, the defense system discovered a high number of various threats, monitored them, evaluated their trajectories, rearranged the interceptors’ trajectories and launched the interceptors which all hit their targets. All of the systems worked properly in coordination with the other IAF systems and all the threats were destroyed as planned. The Iron Dome system was designed to protect the State of Israel from shortrange missiles and rockets.
Europe Su-34 frontline bombers
QuickRoundUp ity in Columbus. The S&S Battalion MEP will greatly expand the Lakota’s use for reconnaissance, command and control and air movement operations in support of the US homeland defence and security missions with the US Army National Guard. Eurofighter • Over the past four years, the Eurofighter Typhoon consortium has supported the International Aerospace Summer School and in its fifth year, the programme has become bigger and better than ever, focussing on international university students studying aerospace engineering. Elite young students and undergraduates from six nations, i.e. India, Switzerland, Turkey, Spain, Germany and the UK, gathered in England for a week of aerospace lectures, lessons and analysis followed by visits to the aerospace sites of Eurofighter Partner Company BAE Systems and British EJ200 engine manufacturer Rolls Royce. Finnish Air Force • The Finnish Defence Forces are preparing to spend more than a billion euros in upgrading its fleet of F-18 Hornet jet fighters. The US-built planes are at about the halfway point of their effective life-spans. The upgrade is set to extend their usefulness so that new fighters would not be needed before 2025. Nevertheless, the Finnish Air Forces is looking at other possible jet fighters in the market like the F-35 although the super-modern jet is also super expensive. Indian Air Force
The Russian Air Force’s in-service Su-34s designed by the Sukhoi Company have proved their superior operational capabilities and flight performance in the East-2010 military exercises held in July. In performance of the operational mission a non-stop flight was carried out from the European part of Russia to the Far East with in-flight refuelling and subsequent attack as per the
• Defence Minister A.K. Antony in a written reply in the Rajya Sabha stated that there is a proposal to upgrade the Su-30 MKI aircraft of the Indian Air Force (IAF) by the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited with the support of the Russian Original Equipment Manufacturer. The current estimated cost is `10,920 crore (about $2.3 billion) and the aircraft are likely to be upgraded in a phased manner from year 2012 onwards. Defence Minister A.K. Antony in a written reply in the Lok Sabha intimated that the Defence Acquisition Council has accepted a proposal for the procurement of 42 Sukhoi-30 MKI aircraft from HAL. The proposal is being further progressed through the Cabinet Committee on Security. The estimated cost of the project is
Issue 9 • 2010 SP’S AVIATION 41
Show Calendar 6–8 September INDESEC Expo 2010 Pragati Maidan, New Delhi, India www.indesec-expo.com 13–16 September Airport & Aviation Security India 2010 The LaLiT Bharat Hotels Ltd, New Delhi, India www.airportsecindia.com/ Event.aspx?id=300184 14–16 September inter airport China 2010 China International Exhibition Centre, Beijing, China www.interairportchina.com 15–17 September JET EXPO 2010 Crocus Expo International Exhibition Center, Moscow www.jetexpo.ru 22–23 September 2010 Annual International Flight Crew Training Conference No. 4 Hamilton Place, London, UK www.aerosociety.com/ conference 23–24 September Light Jets Europe 2010 London Oxford Airport, UK www.miuevents.com/vlj-e-10 28–29 September IATA Aviation Health Conference 2010 Sheraton Skyline Hotel, Heathrow, London, UK www.iata.org/events/ aviation-health/Pages/ index.aspx 28–30 September MRO MILITARY EUROPE 2010 ExCeL Center, London, UK www.aviationnow.com/events/ current/meu/index.htm 28–30 September World Low Cost Airlines Sofitel, Heathrow, London, UK www.terrapinn.com/2010/ wlac/index.stm 13–14 October Aero Engine EXPO 2010 Hamburg, Germany www.aeroengineexpo.com
task assigned. It is planned to increase the operational capability of the aircraft by adding new aerial munitions. The Su-34 frontline bomber will form the core of Russia’s frontline air strike capability and is a worthy successor to the Su-24M allweather, day-and night-time frontline bomber. The Su-34 can effectively attack landbased, sea- and airborne targets by day and night in all weather conditions using the entire suite of its airborne munitions, including highprecision types. In terms of operational capabilities this is a fourth generation+ aircraft. PAK FA to execute a complete programme of flight trials
mitments for 255 aircraft, valued at around $28 billion (`1,31,100 crore). The commitments so far include firm orders for 133 aircraft worth more than $13 billion (`60,800 crore), plus memorandum of understanding (MoU) agreements for a further 122 aircraft totalling around $15 billion (`70,200 crore). The firm orders have come from GECAS for 60 A320s worth around $4.9 billion; from Air Lease Corporation for 51 A320 Family aircraft worth $4.4 billion; from Aeroflot for 11 A330-300s worth $2.3 billion; from Garuda Indonesia for six A330200s worth $1.2 billion; and from Germania for five A319s worth $372 million.
The Sukhoi Company has completed the preliminary on-land and in-flight activities which involved all three engineering prototypes of the Frontline Aviation Advanced Airborne Complex (PAK FA) –the fifth-generation aircraft. These prototypes were used for test-bed strength tests, on-land optimisation of fuel systems and other work towards flight trials. The flying prototype has made 16 flights. Compared to the previous generation fighters, the PAK FA features a number of unique capabilities, including the functions of a strike aircraft and fighter. The fifth-generation aircraft is fitted with essentially new avionics integrating the function of an electronic pilot and with advanced phased antenna array radar. This considerably reduces the pilot fatigue, enabling the pilot to concentrate on performance of a tactical mission.
Civil Aviation Europe Airbus wins commitments worth $28 billion Airbus has announced com-
42 SP’S AVIATION Issue 9 • 2010
Pratt & Whitney’s fifth gen propulsion systems Pratt & Whitney’s fifth generation family of propulsion systems have achieved numerous milestones in 2010, continuing to set the standard for military jet engine safety, reliability and performance. Pratt & Whitney is the only engine manufacturer producing and delivering fifth generation propulsion capability to the customer, including the F135 engine powering the F-35 Lightning II and the F119 engine, powering the F-22 Raptor, which was showcased at this year’s Farnborough Air Show. The F119 has surpassed 3,00,000 hours, providing a proven, reliable, mature core for the F135. In addition, the F135 continues its steady progress towards completion of development and test with successful short-take off and vertical landing operations.
Europe Strategic international partnerships For an industry long absent from the international arena, Russian aircraft manufacturers generated a surprising amount of interest at Farnborough this year. Although Western companies like Airbus and
QuickRoundUp `20,107.40 crore (about $4.4billion)
and the aircraft is planned to be delivered during 2014-18. NASA
• Alliant Techsystems and NASA will test the second fully developed Ares five-segment solid rocket motor, known as Development Motor-2 (DM2). The five-segment rocket motor is an upgraded version of the Shuttle’s 4-segment booster and has also been identified as a key element of NASA’s future heavy lift launch vehicle. A total of 53 design objectives will be measured through more than 760 instruments. Northrop Grumman • Northrop Grumman Systems has been awarded a contract with an estimated value of $77.7 million for the procurement of 121 AN/AAQ-24(V) 25 Guardian laser transmitter assemblies for installation on CH-53D, CH-53E, and CH-46E helicopters, including associated technical data. The Guardian laser transmitter assembly is a next-generation directable laser-based countermeasures system for protecting helicopters and some fixed-wing aircraft from manportable air defence systems. Raytheon • Raytheon Company’s Missile Systems’ has been awarded a $450.8 million contract to provide engineering and manufacturing development phase of the Small Diameter Bomb Increment (SDB II) programme. SDB II is a joint US Air Force and Navy programme. The SDB II will initially be integrated on the F-15E, F-35B and F-35C aircraft. Royal Air Force • F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter is set to become the future of air combat according to the RAF test pilot putting the groundbreaking aircraft through its paces. As the UK public got its first glimpse of the RAF’s stunning Harrier replacement at Farnborough, Squadron Leader Steve Long said, “It is like an iPhone on speed. It is a quantum leap in terms of technology and aerodynamics.” Royal Australian Air Force • The Royal Australian Air Force, part of the NATO forces in Afghanistan, will www.spsaviation.net
Boeing dominate the narrowbody and wide-body category, Embraer and Bombardier the regional jet category, and Bombardier and ATR the turbo-prop category, things are slowly shifting. With the right strategic partnerships with western manufacturers, Russian aircraft are more likely to succeed on the international arena. Currently, the only Russian manufacturers offering potential for greater foreign market interest are Sukhoi and Irkut. Sukhoi, a new player in the commercial aircraft market, at present leads the way in Russian aircraft sales, with more than 100 orders and potential orders for the SuperJet product. Similarly, Irkut is looking towards entering the market with the MC21, an aircraft comparable to the Airbus A320 and Boeing 737 families. Half year analysis from UK Aerospace Industry The UK’s AeroSpace, Defence and Security trade organisation has published a short report updating figures on the performance of the aerospace sector post the Farnborough International Air Show. The figures update the 2010 A|D|S aerospace survey published in mind-July and reflect the encouraging order figures announced at Farnborough. The main findings are—aerospace is bouncing back after a tough period following the global recession, the UK industry remained resilient and revenues rose by 5.4 per cent in 2009, strong performance at the 2010 Farnborough International Air Show, largest single order at Farnborough from General Electric’s leasing company for 60 aircraft from the Airbus A320 family, growth in both civil and defence sectors significant in emerging economies such as the Middle East, India, Brazil and China as also reflected in the 2010 A|D|S aerospace survey. Eurofighter and Euroradar to develop AESA Radar Eurofighter GmbH and Euroradar, together with their industrial partners, have begun full-scale development of latest generation active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar.
The target in-service date for the new radar is 2015 to meet the requirements of Eurofighter Partner Nations and export customers.The decision means that Eurofighter will further develop the capability of the Typhoon aircraft to enhance its radar performance, building on preliminary development and flight testing undertaken since 2007. Although the current mechanically scanned (M-Scan) captor radar is considered to be best in class, AESA technology will see the Typhoon’s radar capabilities developed even further.
Space Americas First AEHF mission
New docking system technology Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corporation, Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company and NASA conducted a successful technology demonstration of an inventive navigation system that will make docking operations safer and easier for spacecraft flying to the International Space Station (ISS). The demonstration that took place at the Ball facility in Boulder, Colorado, showcased the dynamic nature of the sensors by simulating manned and unmanned docking operations. This docking navigation system prototype was developed collaboratively by NASA, Ball and Lockheed Martin and will be tested by astronauts aboard STS-134 in an unprecedented on-orbit manoeuvre during the space shuttle mission to the ISS in February 2011 as part of the sensor test for orion relative navigation risk mitigation (STORRM) development test objective (DTO).
A United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V rocket successfully launched the advanced extremely high frequency-1 (AEHF-1) satellite for the US Air Force from the Space Launch Complex-41. The AEHF constellation of four satellites will provide 10 times greater capacity and channel data rates six times higher than that of the existing Milstar II communications satellites. AEHF-1 will be joined by the next two AEHF satellites to be launched during the next two years by ULA. This launch marks the fifth mission overall and third Atlas V mission for ULA in 2010. AEHF-1 represents the latest ‘one-at-a-time’ mission success which has been accomplished 43 times since ULA was formed on December 1, 2006.
Earth Observation Hub at the ISIC Astrium, Europe’s leading space company, has been selected by the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) to develop an Earth Observation (EO) Hub at the new International Space Innovation Centre (ISIC) in Harwell, Oxfordshire. The contract will see Astrium lead an industrial consortium, which will be responsible for the design and integration of an EO Hub. This will include a spacecraft operations centre, with the ability to coordinate multiple satellites, and a UK specific capability for payload data processing. The development of the hub will provide UK with its own ground capability, a critical first step in establishing an overall sovereign EO capability, and a key recommendation of the ‘space innovation growth strategy’. The strategy was developed as a joint government, industry and academia initiative that set out a 20-year vision for the future growth of the UK space industry. •
QuickRoundUp continue to utilise Israel Aerospace Industries’ Heron unmanned aerial vehicles as part of Australia’s Project Nankeen, in cooperation with the Canadian Defence Forces. Thales • Thales has announced that it has been selected by Eurocopter to produce a second N3 Dauphin flight simulator for its Dauphin helicopter. This simulator will be operational from 2012 at Eurocopter’s South East Asia facility. The N3 Dauphin flight simulator has been designed to meet the training needs of Eurocopter and its civil and military customers in Southeast Asia. Turkish Aerospace • Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI), a major international F-35 Lightning II supplier to Northrop Grumman Corporation, has delivered a prototype of its first major structural element for the jet’s centre fuselage, which Northrop Grumman produces for F-35 industry team leader Lockheed Martin. Known as a destructive test article, the prototype all-composite air inlet duct reflects the growing maturity of TAI’s composite fibre-placed manufacturing processes. US DoD • The US Defense Department is considered to be the largest single user of petroleum products in the world. To help meet a DoD goal to reduce energy consumption across the agency, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency is working on Vulcan, a programme to design, build and demonstrate a full-scale constant volume combustion (CVC) power generation turbine engine. CVC technologies have the potential to significantly decrease the fuel consumption of gas turbine engines. US Navy • The US Navy’s new submarine hunting aircraft programme has received approval to begin low rate production after a comprehensive review and subsequent approval by the US Defense Acquisition Board. This approval brings the Poseidon one step closer to initial operating capability for the fleet in 2013. The P-8A will replace the P-3C.
Issue 9 • 2010 SP’S AVIATION 43
he proposal for a second international airport for Mumbai designed to handle 50 million passengers annually, when finally completed, was accorded in-principle approval by the Union Cabinet in May 2007. The first phase with a capacity to handle 10 million passengers annually was to be ready by 2012 and the plan was to progressively increase annual passenger handling capacity to 40 million by 2030. Estimates are that by 2030, the total passenger traffic out of the two airports in Mumbai would reach 90 million annually. More than three years have gone by since approval by the government; but the Greenfield airport project remains grounded owing to divergence in the perceptions and priorities of the two Union Ministries involved, i.e., the Ministry of Civil Aviation (MoCA) headed by Praful Patel and the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) under Jairam Ramesh. The Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (CSIA) at Sahar currently under upgradation, is expected to reach saturation point of 40 million by 2012. There is no scope for further capacity enhancement as there is just no land available. The projections are that driven by a resurgent economy, the volume of passenger traffic will continue to grow continuously. The traffic at the CSIA is beginning to get unmanageable and Mumbai, the commercial capital of India, has already conceded leadership to Delhi in respect of civil air traffic. A second international airport has indeed become an imperative need for Mumbai. To be located 35 km from Santacruz on NH 4B near Panvel in Navi Mumbai, the site selected for the new airport has been languishing in controversy from the very beginning. The site identified lies in an ecologically sensitive coastal area notified by the government as coastal regulation zone (CRZ) I and CRZ III. In response to a petition by the Bombay Environmental Action Group (BEAG), in October 2005, the Bombay High Court had imposed a total ban on the destruction of mangroves and construction activities within 50 metres of this unique gift of nature. As the related government notifications to regulate construction activities in the CRZs were in place, appropriate amendments to the notification based on fresh orders from the Court was necessary before final environmental clearance given by the MoEF for the new airport. Incidentally, the CRZ notifications have been amended 19 times already to cater for various requirements including
the establishment of the Palm Beach Road golf course in Navi Mumbai. Obtaining the necessary court order therefore did not prove to be a difficult task and the final amendment of the CRZ notification allowing removal of the mangrove forest for the airport project was issued on May 15, 2009. The legal dimensions apart, there are a number of issues that continue to agitate environmentalists, social activists and non-government organisations. A large part of the area where the airport is to be located in marshland which would have to be reclaimed and even though the ground level is planned to be raised through extensive filling, the new airport would continue to be vulnerable to high tide and waves that some times are 10 metres high. Moreover, removal of the huge mangroves forests spread over 400 acres would render the area vulnerable to coastal erosion. Also, a few hillocks would need to be flattened; two rivers diverted which could have an adverse effect on drainage of rain water and the human problem of relocating 5,000 families. It seems lessons from past mistakes have not been learnt. Diversion of the Mithi River while expanding CSIA led to severe flooding of the airport in 2005 following heavy rains forcing a complete shutdown of the facility for 48 hours. With the legal impediments out of the way, the site was inspected by the Environment Appraisal Committee (EAC) of the MoEF in December last year. Thereafter, report on the public hearings related to the new airport was received from the Maharashtra Pollution Control Board on June 7, 2010. MoEF is now awaiting the recommendations of the EAC based on the final report from City Industrial Development Corporation, the nodal agency for developing the airport and Maharashtra Coastal Zone Management Authority on the Environment Impact Assessment study carried out by IIT Mumbai. The Navi Mumbai airport project is clearly bogged down in a complex bureaucratic labyrinth and has been further complicated by the inflexible positions of the MoCA and the MoEF. As the distraught state government has sought intervention by the Prime Minister, hopes of the project being a reality have been rekindled. But the travails of the Navi Mumbai airport, fails to inspire confidence in the future of the infrastructure segment of the Indian aviation industry. There is undoubtedly a need for total systemic correction. SP — Air Marshal (Retd) B.K. Pandey
illustration: Anoop Kamath
The travails of the Navi Mumbai airport witnessed so far, fails to inspire confidence in the future of the infrastructure segment of the Indian aviation industry. There is undoubtedly a need for total systemic correction.
44 SP’S AVIATION Issue 9 • 2010
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