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SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue


2008-2009 38th Year of Issue


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MINISTER OF DEFENCE INDIA

Message he SP's Military Yearbook, with its consistently brilliant performance, has set a benchmark by being a valuable resource material for the military as well as the armament, aerospace and related industries in India and world over. The Military Yearbook has grown from strength to strength since its inception in 1965. It is an excellent reference for all arms of defence and covers the most comprehensive list of issues ranging from concepts and perspectives to business initiatives and technologies in defence. It holds the unique distinction of being the only defence resource material, which also had contributions from many erstwhile chiefs of the three Services. Having already achieved many milestones in defence publishing, SP's is ready to win bigger laurels. With over four decades of reliable publishing, SP Guide Publications has drawn the attention of some of the key players in the defence and aerospace business. They have all turned to SP's Military Yearbook to highlight their products and services from policy makers in the Government to the Services as well as the Defence industry. Indeed, the efforts and contributions of the SP's Military Yearbook and its editorial team towards providing accurate, holistic and relevant military information has been recognized, appreciated and applauded by great statesmen and military leaders alike. On this note, I wish the publication all success and the very best in all future endeavours.

A.K. Antony

SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue

5


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2008-2009 38th Year of Issue 45 YEARS FINAL.indd 1

Editor-in-Chief

Jayant Baranwal


© SP Guide Publications, 2008 All Rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, photocopying, recording, electronic, or otherwise without prior written permission of the Publishers. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure accuracy of information in this publication, the Publishers cannot accept responsibility for any errors or omissions or their consequences.

Founded by Shri SUKHDEO PRASAD BARANWAL in 1965 Published by Jayant Baranwal SP GUIDE PUBLICATIONS PVT LTD New Delhi, India

Designed by SP Guide Publications Team

Illustrations by Abhimanyu Sinha

ISSN 0076-8782

Postal Address: P O Box 2525, New Delhi 110 005, India

Registered with RNI No. (P.) : F.2 (S/11) Press / 93 Processed by Unique Photo Offset Services, Mumbai Printed in India by

Corporate Office: A-133, Arjun Nagar, Opposite Defence Colony, New Delhi 110003, India. Tel: +91 (11) 24644693, 24644763, 24620130, 24658322 Fax: +91 (11) 24647093

Pragati Offset, Hyderabad

E Mail: info@spsmilitaryyearbook.com, guidepub@del2.vsnl.net.in Price: Inland Rs. 4850.00;

Website:

Foreign (Surface Mail): Stg.£375.00, US$665.00

www.spguidepublications.com, www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com


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SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

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38th Year of Issue


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SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue


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SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue


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SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue


Some of Our Readers’ Comments.... The Guide Publications of New Delhi have brought out the Military Yearbook. It is useful to have suitably compiled information in one volume. I commend the efforts of the Publishers.

Thank you very much for sending me a copy of the latest issue of SP’s Military Yearbook (2007-2008). I find the edition to be both educative and interesting.

Late Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Former Prime Minister of India

Lt General H S Lidder CISC, Headquarters Integrated Defence Staff Ministry of Defence, India

It (Military Yearbook) is a valuable book. Late Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Former President of India It was good of you to send me a complimentary copy of Military Yearbook (1970)..... I have gone through..... and found its general get up good and contents useful. Field Marshal S H F J Manekshaw Former Chief of the Army Staff, Indian Army Military Yearbook is indeed a very interesting and useful document and would be of considerable assistance to all the Services personnel whose profession is the science of war. Admiral O S Dawson, Former Chief of the Naval Staff, Indian Navy

(as on 11.03.08)

Please convey my compliment to the Editorial Staff for a compilation, extremely well done. Lt General M L Naidu Vice Chief of the Army Staff, Indian Army (as on 02.03.08)

I take this opportunity to thank you for sending us a copy of SP’s Military Year Book 2007-08, which makes interesting reading and is a great source of reference. Lt General A S Sekhon Director General Military Operations, Indian Army (as on 11.03.08

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Some of Our Readers’ Comments....(continued) Thank you very much for sending me a copy of SP’s Military Yearbook 2007-08. I wish to compliment you and the editorial team for your efforts in producing an interesting, informative and high quality book.

I have perused SP's Military Yearbook 2007-2008 with interest. The contents are informative while also containing useful analysis. It will find its rightful place in the Military Operations Library.

Lt General P R Gangadharan Military Secretary, Indian Army

Major General N C Marwah Additional Director General Military Operations (A), Indian Army

(as on 07.03.08)

Congratulations to you and your editorial team for a job well done. Air Marshal V R Iyer Air Officer-in-Charge Personnel, Indian Air Force (as on 11.03.08)

I am thankful to you for sending me a copy of the latest issue of SP’s Military Yearbook (2007-08), which you have been bringing out since 1965. The Yearbook seems to be very illustrative, interesting and informative. I wish this book a grand success.

(as on 10.03.08)

My compliments to your team for compiling an informative and well presented Yearbook. It is good reference material. Articles in the business section relating to procurement are specially interesting and useful. Some more articles in this context should be added in every issue.

T. Ramachandru Joint Secretary (Supplies), Ministry of Defence, India

Major General S Sunder Additional Director General Weapons and Equipment Indian Army

(as on 10.03.08)

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C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

Editorial

39 to 41

Map: Major Indian Armed Forces’ Headquarters

42

Weapons, Equipment & Vehicles

43 to 108

ONE Concepts & Perspectives

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

26-27

1

1. Challenges for Indian Army Lt General (Retd) Vijay Oberoi

3

2. Challenges for Indian Navy Admiral (Retd) Arun Prakash

7

3. Challenges for Indian Air Force Air Marshal (Retd) Vinod Patney

11

4. Global Strategic Milieu Ranjit Gupta

15

5. China's Rise: Impact on India Brigadier (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal

19

6. Military Viewpoint on Pakistan General (Retd) V.P. Malik

23

7. Homeland Security Amit Kumar Singh

27

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

B U S I N E S S

Turn to page 32...

T E C H N O L O G Y

Some of Our Readers’ Comments

SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue

29

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Colour Section

Contents


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Contents 8. India's Maritime Perils Admiral (Retd) Arun Prakash

33

9. War-games, Modelling, Simulation Brigadier (Retd) Vinod Anand

37

10. Obama's Policies on Asia K. Subrahmanyam

41

11. Media & National Security K. Subrahmanyam

45

12. Spotlight on Managing Disaster General (Retd) V.P. Malik

49

TWO Technology

55

1. New Age Precision Targeting Air Marshal (Retd) A.K. Trikha

57

2. The Future of Warfare Brigadier (Retd) Vinod Anand & Subodh Kumar

63

3. Technological Prowess Rear Admiral A.R. Radhakrishnan

67

4. More Firepower for Tanks Ikbal Singh

71

5. Future Weapons

75

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32

SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue


THREE Business

79

1. DPP 2008: Redefining The Rules Major General (Retd) Mrinal Suman

81

2. Defence Offset Policy Revisited Major General (Retd) Mrinal Suman

87

3. What’s New in DPP 2008 Brigadier (Retd) Anand Mehra

91

4. Headquarters IDS Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Verma

95

5. India’s Defence Budgets Lt General (Retd) V.K. Chopra

97

6. Modernising India’s Army Brigadier (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal

103

7. Modernising India’s Navy Commodore Rajeev Sawhney

107

8. Modernising India’s Air Force Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia

113

Global Contracts

FOUR Indian Defence

117

135

1. India's Homeland Security

137

2. Integrated Defence Staff Brigadier (Retd) Vinod Anand

147

3 India's Defence Budget Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor

155

4. The Indian Army

159

5. The Indian Navy

183

6. The Indian Air Force

211

7. The Indian Coast Guard

235

8. Who’s Who in Indian Defence

245

9. Defence Industry

263

10. Defence R&D

285

SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue

33


Contents FIVE Asian Who’s Who

293

Afghanistan Algeria Australia Bahrain Bangladesh

296 295 295 295 295

Malaysia Myanmar Nepal North Korea Oman

297 298 298 298 298

Cambodia China Egypt Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kuwait Kyrgyzstan

296 296 296 296 296 296 296 297 297 297 297 297

Laos Lebanon Libya

297 297 297

Pakistan Philippines Qatar Saudi Arabia Singapore South Korea Sri Lanka Syria Taiwan Tajikistan Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam

298 298 298 299 299 299 299 299 300 300 300 300 300 300

Yemen

300

SIX Regional Balance

301

1. GDP & Military Expenditure

301

2. Central & South Asia

307

Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan Afghanistan

311 313 314 316 318 320

Bangladesh Bhutan India Nepal Pakistan

321 323 324 328 330

Sri Lanka

332

3. East Asia, Pacific Rim & Australia Australia Cambodia China

34

SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

334

338 340 342

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue

Indonesia Japan North Korea

346 348 351


Contents South Korea Laos Malaysia Myanmar Philippines

354 356 358 360 362

Singapore Taiwan Thailand

364 367 369

Vietnam

372

4. West Asia & North Africa Algeria Egypt Libya Bahrain Iran Iraq Israel Jordan

375 378 380 383 385 386 389 391 393

Kuwait Lebanon Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Syria United Arab Emirates Republic of Yemen

SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

395 397 399 401 402 405 407 409

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue

35


Contents 5. Asia-Pacific: Military Balance Sanjay Kumar

411

6. Equipment & Hardware Specifications

421

Army Equipment

421

Naval Equipment

444

Air Equipment

477

Diagrams/Graphs Defence Acquisition Structures

82

Categorisation of Developmental Proposals

83

Flow Chart: From RFP to Contract Administration

84

Flow Chart of Planning Stage

96

World Military Expenditure, 1988-2007

98

Paramilitary Forces under Ministry of Home Affairs

138

Organizational Command & Control of Central Police Forces

146

Organisation of Integrated Defence Staff

148

Service-Wise Share of the Defence Budget—A Comparison

155

Defence Budget Allocations

156

Breakup of the Defence Budget 2008-2009 (in Rs crore)

156

Diagrammatic Layout of the Army’s Chain of Command

161

Organisation of Indian Army Headquarters

162

Organisation of Indian Navy Headquarters

185

Organisation of Indian Air Force Headquarters

214

Organisation of Indian Coast Guard Headquarters

237

Indian Coast Guard SAR Organisation

242

Summary of the output of the defence industry, including ordnance factories and DPSUs, during the previous three years (upto 2007-2008)

263

Organisation Chart of the Department of Defence Production & Supplies (DDP&S)

264

Organisation Structure of OFB

265

Performance Summary of DPSUs (upto 2007-2008)

269

Values of stores assured by DGQA

283

DRDO: Ministry of Defence

286

Organisational Structure of Defence Research & Development Organisation

287

36

SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue


Abbreviations + Index

493

Advertisers' Index AGUSTAWESTLAND ...............................................................................................13 AIRBUS MILITARY................................................................................................28 CAE ....................................................................................................................16 DASSAULT AVIATION ..............................................................................BACK COVER DCNS ..................................................................................................................25 DEFENCE CONSEIL INTERNATIONAL........................................................................18 DRS TACTICAL SYSTEMS ..........................................................................BOOK MARK ELBIT .................................................................................................................31 ELETTRONICA ....................................................................................................182 ELOP ..................................................................................................................35 EMBRAER..............................................................................................................6 EUROCOPTER ..................................................................................................26-27 EUROFIGHTER ....................................................................................................23 EUROJET.............................................................................................................30 FFV ORDNANCE....................................................................................................10 FINCANTIERI .......................................................................................................38 FINMECCANICA ....................................................................................FRONT COVER GENERAL DYNAMICS ..............................................................................................9 HDW.....................................................................................................BOOK MARK

INDRA ................................................................................................................22 IRKUT.................................................................................................................14 ISRAEL AEROSPACE INDUSTRIES ...........................................................................15 LOCKHEED MARTIN ...............................................................................................4 MAHINDRA DEFENCE SYSTEMS ..............................................................................37 MBDA .................................................................................................................19 NAVANTIA ...........................................................................................................29 NORTHROP GRUMMAN ..........................................................................................2 PRATT & WHITNEY .............................................................................................210 RAFAEL...............................................................................................................21 RAYTHEON ............................................................................................................1 RENK ..................................................................................................................32 SAFRAN ..............................................................................................................17 SELEX COMMUNICATIONS......................................................................................33 SELEX GALILEO....................................................................................................12 TATA MOTORS.......................................................................................................20 TATA MOTORS.......................................................................................................24 TERMA................................................................................................................11 THALES....................................................................................INSIDE FRONT COVER

SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue

37


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2008-2009

Editorial

38th Year of Issue

G

uide Publications, now SP Guide Publications,

was founded by Shri Sukhdeo Prasad Baranwal in 1964 with a mission to offer publications that would disseminate knowledge and awareness. Keeping this fundamental in mind, Shri Baranwal launched Military Yearbook (subsequently renamed SP’s Military Yearbook in 1992) in 1965—garnering praise from a dignitary none other than the then Prime Minister of India, Lal Bahadur Shastri, whose enthusiastic support was soon replicated by the warmth and cooperation of the Indian armed forces. Consequently, this encyclopaedia on defence and security matters emerged as the company’s flagship product, rapidly expanding in scope, content and volume to reach beyond Indian shores and offer views and opinions on developments across Asia. SP’s Military Yearbook 2007-2008 being presented to Defence Minister A.K. Antony Over the next 45 years of its growth, uncompromising quality and unflagging desire to lead from the front propelled SP Guide Publications to introduce journals dedicated to the three arms of the Indian defence establishment (SP’s Land Forces, SP’s Naval Forces and SP’s Aviation) and also commercial aviation (SP’s Airbuz). Pursuing the vision of its founder, the current management is relentless in its efforts to assume the coveted role of industry leader with the full support and encouragement from readers, think tanks, contributors and the global defence industry. Greatly motivating are the words of appreciation and acknowledgement from India’s Defence Minister A.K. Antony enclosed in this volume (page 5). 45 YEARS FINAL.indd 1

What’s New in this Edition SP’s Military Yearbook 2008-2009 commences with a special chapter, “Events’ Reference—Asia-Pacific Region”, chronicling the events and developments that proved to be both catastrophic and cornerstones for the emerging security, economic, social and defence scenario. Yet another first in the 38th edition of this almanac is the chapter, “India’s Homeland Security”, in the Indian Defence section. Pertaining to the various organs of the nation’s security framework, from the Ministry of Home Affairs to the various divisions of the Central Police Forces, the chapter assumes significance in the light of the milieu of homeland security and national defence dictated by the vicious atmosphere plaguing India’s immediate neighbours and the dangerous resurgence of rebel groups within its borders.

SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue

39


Challenges of Our Times Relentless and single-minded in its efforts to destabilise India, Pakistan is today plagued by terrorism, insurgency and sectarian violence—a legacy of the support extended by the Pakistani State and the ISI to terrorists operating from its soil, and the shelter and encouragement given to Taliban and Al Qaeda by the tribes in the FATA and Waziristan regions. In February, the provincial government in northwest Pakistan agreed to impose Islamic law in the Swat Valley and surrounding areas in exchange for a ceasefire with Taliban fighters, raising the spectre of an increasingly menacing Taliban expanding its influence to India’s borders. Meanwhile, even though Sino-Indian relations have improved considerably in the last few years, Beijing continues to speak with two voices—one moderate and one menacing. A major plank of China’s present strategy vis-à-vis India is to deter and discourage Indian military cooperation with western powers and countries in East Asia and ASEAN. Yet, as China and India continue to grow, the two nations are all set to be the key drivers of the global economic, political and strategic landscape. On the other hand, Nepal’s new government with Maoists in the saddle is buffeting the storms of rising criticism even as Sri Lanka finds itself embroiled in a vicious confrontation with the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam who are on the verge of defeat. While a wary New Delhi continues to advocate peaceful resolution of the conflict convulsing Sri Lanka, China’s growing influence in Nepal and the latter’s warm reciprocation is increasingly becoming a matter of concern.

Combating & Quelling Dissent Internally, India has been infested by various separatist, insurgent and extremist movements in different parts of the country. Foremost among the concerns is the growing influence of the Naxal movement, insurgent activities in the Northeast, separatist movement in Jammu and Kashmir, growth of religious extremism, cyber-based crimes, and proliferation of small arms, narcotics trade and fake currency. The need of the hour is to uphold the law of the land as well as provide security to life, property and a secure environment for development and economic growth. Dismay and alarm at the chaos within and beyond the borders have fuelled a frantic search for impregnable safeguards to consolidate India’s homeland security, and bolster and better equip the country’s armed forces. Efforts are concentrated on: Encouraging momentum in the decision making process to implement crucial upgrade and modernisation programmes for the country’s army, navy, air force and coast guard; Establishing effective integrated approach between the three services and the security agencies; Embracing emerging technologies by engineering technology transfer for indigenous development of weapons and equipment; and Extending support and encouragement to India’s private sector to enable realistic self-reliance.

Minds Behind the Matter As in the previous volumes, SP’s Military Yearbook 2008-2009 incorporates a range of incisive articles penned by some of the most erudite and acknowledged experts of the industry and military establishment. I would like to acknowledge a deep sense of gratitude for the cooperation and assistance rendered by the Ministry of Defence; Ministry of Home Affairs; Government of India; Headquarters of the Indian Army, the Indian Navy, the Indian Air Force and the Indian Coast Guard; Directorate of Public Relations (Defence); Defence Public Sector Undertakings; Ordnance Factory Board; Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO). I would also extend our sincere thanks to the Military Attaches of various Embassies/High Commissions in New Delhi. I would also like to acknowledge, with my sincere thanks, the untiring cooperation of our contributors for the relevant inputs in terms of photographs, diagrams, maps, etc.

40

SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue


Acknowledgements Several distinguished columnists and industry experts on the editorial board worked in unison to make the SP’s Military Yearbook 2008-2009 a quality product. It is my pleasure to name the team of advisers and contributors: Senior Advisers/Editors Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia Air Marshal (Retd) B.K. Pandey Rear Admiral (Retd) S.K. Ramsay Assistant Editor Arundhati Das Editorial Contributors General (Retd) V.P. Malik

Admiral (Retd) Arun Prakash Lt General (Retd) Vijay Oberoi Lt General (Retd) Vinayak Patankar Lt General (Retd) V.K. Chopra Lt General (Retd) Devinder Kumar Air Marshal (Retd) Vinod Patney Air Marshal (Retd) A.K. Trikha Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Verma Major General (Retd) Mrinal Suman Rear Admiral (Retd) Raja Menon Rear Admiral A.R. Radhakrishnan Brigadier (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal

Brigadier (Retd) S.K. Chatterji Brigadier (Retd) Vinod Anand Brigadier (Retd) Anand Mehra Commodore Rajeev Sawhney Air Commodore (Retd) Jasjit Singh K. Subramanyam Ambassador Ranjit Gupta Sanjay Kumar Subodh Kumar Amit Kumar Singh Ikbal Singh

Sources for Facts & Figures: CIA Fact Book, Military Balance, Jane’s Weapon Systems, Jane’s All the World’s Aircraft, Jane’s Fighting Ships, Combat Fleets of the World, Soviet Military Power, US Military Strength Worldwide, NATO’s 16 Nations, Voennyi Vestnik, Aerospace Daily, War Pac Notes, Armies, Armour, Armed Forced Journal, Handbook of US & Soviet Weapons, Soviet Top Guns, Asian Defence Journal, Aviation Week and Space Technology, Defence & Foreign News, Asian Survey, Defence News, Airforce, Flight International, Tanks of the World, Aircraft of the World, World Fact Book, Sea Power, Soviet Military Review, International Defense Review, Jane’s Soviet Intelligence Review, US News & World Report, International Herald Tribune, Proceedings, New York Times, Financial Observer, Scala, New Yorker, Omini, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Time, Newsweek, Pravda, World Defence Almanac, Military Technology, besides several others. Clarifications: Most countries are reluctant to part with information relating to the size and strength of their armed forces and equipment specifications. Sincere efforts have been made to garner information from the most authentic sources for the SP’s Military Yearbook 2008-2009. Despite this, it is quite possible variations may crop up in some cases. Articles in this volume contain the personal opinions of the contributors and do not reflect the views of the publishers or the Indian government, including the Ministry of Defence. Suggestions for improvements will be appreciated and carried out to the extent possible and practically viable.

Jayant Baranwal

Editor-in-Chief

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Allahabad

Pune

Vishakhapatnam

Kochi

Major Indian Armed Forces’ Headquarters 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

42

Udhampur (HQ Northern Command), Army Shimla (HQ Army Training Command) Chandimandir (HQ Western Command), Army New Delhi (Integrated HQ of MoD (Army)) New Delhi (Integrated HQ of MoD (Navy)) New Delhi (Integrated HQ of MoD (Air Force)) New Delhi (HQ Western Air Command) Lucknow (HQ Central Command), Army Shillong (HQ Eastern Air Command) Allahabad (HQ Central Air Command) Gandhinagar (HQ South-Western Air Command) Kolkata (HQ Eastern Command), Army

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13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

Nagpur (HQ Maintenance Command), IAF Mumbai (HQ Western Naval Command) Pune (HQ Southern Command), Army Vishakhapatnam (HQ Eastern Naval Command) Bangalore (HQ Training Command), IAF Kochi (HQ Southern Naval Command) Thiruvananthapuram (HQ Southern Air Command) New Delhi (HQ Strategic Forces Command) Port Blair (HQ Andaman & Nicobar Command) New Delhi (HQ Integrated Defence Staff) Jaipur (HQ South-Western Command), Army


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T E C H N O L O G Y

F E A T U R E

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W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

Weapons, Equipments & Vehicles CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

C O L O U R

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S P E C I A L C O N T E N T S


W E A P O N S , E Q U I P M E NTS & V E H I C L E S

Contents

Š SP Guide Publications, 2008 All Rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, photocopying, recording, electronic, or otherwise without prior written permission of the Publishers. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure accuracy of information in this publication, the Publishers cannot accept responsibility for any errors or omissions or their consequences.

Concept Jayant Baranwal SP Guide Publications Pvt Ltd New Delhi, India

Credits Publishers extend special thanks to the companies who have provided the contents and respective photographs for this feature. Also gladly acknowledge their extensive support and co-operation in formulating this feature with maximum possible up-to-date and lively contents. Printed in India by Pragati Offset

SP GUIDE PUBLICATIONS PVT LTD Postal Address: Post Box No. 2525 New Delhi 110005, India Contact Address: Corporate Office A-133, Arjun Nagar, Opposite Defence Colony, New Delhi 110003, India. Phones : +91-11-24644693, 24644763, 24620130, 24658322 Fax : +91-11-24647093, +91-11-23622942 E Mail : info@spsmilitaryyearbook.com, guidepub@del2.vsnl.net.in Website : www.spguidepublications.com, www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

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AgustaWestland

45

Airbus Military

47

CAE

51

Dassault Aviation

53

DCNS

55

DRS Tactical Systems

57

Elbit

59

Elettronica

62

Embraer

64

Eurocopter

67

Eurofighter

69

Eurojet

70

FFV Ordnance

72

Fincantieri

74

General Dynamics

76

Indra

77

Irkut

79

Israel Aerospace Industries

81

Kronshtadt Ret

83

Lockheed Martin Corp

85

Navantia

87

Northrop Grumman

88

Pratt & Whitney

91

Rafael

92

Rheinmetall Defence

94

Safran

96

Selex Communications

99

Selex Galileo

101

Tata Motors

104

Terma

105

Thales

107


W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

C O N T E N T S 5 Grand light twin (Top)

AW139 medium twin (Bottom) for their performance and mission capabilities. The AW109LUH is a true multi-role helicopter equipped to perform a wide range of operations, including armed escort duties. The AW109 Power can be used for executive transport, emergency medical services and law enforcement roles. AW119 Ke: The AW119 Ke is an 8-place single turbine helicopter developed to provide high productivity and performance at a competitive price. The spacious cabin can be rapidly

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T E C H N O L O G Y B U S I N E S S I N D I A N D E F E N C E

Rotorcraft systems available range from the innovative 2.8-tonne single-engine AW119 Ke to the 16-tonne, three-engine, multi-role AW101, now the benchmark in its class. Other examples include the best-selling light twin AW109 Power and Grand light twin helicopters, the AW129 combat helicopter, the multi-role Super Lynx 300 and AW139 helicopters as well as new products including the 7.5 ton AW149 helicopter and the BA609 tilt rotor. AgustaWestland has the widest range of helicopters of any manufacturer to meet military, commercial and government agency missions. AW109: The AW109LUH (Light Utility Helicopter) military helicopter and the AW109 Power are the best selling helicopters in the light twin helicopter market and are renowned

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Helicopters for all missions

reconfigured for a variety of missions such as air ambulance and passenger transport, emergency rescue and law enforcement duties. The powerful engine gives the AW119 Ke outstanding performance and flight qualities, even in high temperatures and at high altitudes. The AW119 Ke can carry up to seven passengers, offering an exceptionally comfortable and spacious cabin, larger than any other existing single-engine helicopter. Grand: The Grand since its introduction to the market in 2005 has become the best selling helicopter in the VIP/corporate light twin market. With a spacious six-seat cabin and high cruise speed, as well as all the latest safety features of a truly modern helicopter, the Grand is setting new standards. The Grand can also be equipped for air ambulance, offshore transport and law enforcement applications. AW129: The AW129 was the first combat helicopter to be wholly designed and produced in Europe. The latest variant of the AW129 carries a range of weapons including a 20 mm gun, rockets, anti-armour and air-to-air missiles, as well as an extensive avionics and sensor suite. The AW129 is ideally suited for the anti-armour, armed escort and scout roles due to its impressive agility, performance and weapon payload.

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A

gustaWestland, a Finmeccanica company, can satisfy the rotorcraft requirements of both military and commecial customers with a modern product range that encompasses all the principal weight categories. AgustaWestland not only provides the platform, but a fully integrated mission system tailored to customers’ requirements and a complete through-life support package.

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

AGUSTAWESTLAND


W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

C O N T E N T S A330 MRTT (Multi Role Tanker Transport)

6 A330 MRTT

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I N D I A N D E F E N C E

Airbus Military of EADS is responsible for producing the A330 MRTT (Multi Role Tanker Transport). The A330 MRTT is based on the successful A330-200, a medium-to-long range, twin

aisle, twin engine, and commercial aircraft of the Airbus family. Its design combines the proven fly-by-wire control system and advanced avionics with the most up-to-date manufacturing techniques. In its category the A330-200 offers the best value for money, at a competitive price, in terms of state-ofthe art aircraft technology available today.

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with a long experience in both organisations (Airbus and MTAD).

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O

n April 15, 2009, the Military Transport Aircraft Division of EADS has been integrated into Airbus under the name of Airbus Military. AM will be responsible for all the military programmes within Airbus: A400M, light and medium weight military transport a/c (C-295, CN-235), and military derivatives based on Airbus platforms like the A330 MRTT. The Head of Airbus Military is Domingo Ureña

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

AIRBUS MILITARY


Airbus Military

www.spguidepublications.com

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

5 C-295 Chilean Navy

The large basic fuel capacity of the standard A330-200 means that no Additional Centre Tanks (ACTs) are needed to give the A330 MRTT air-to-air refuelling performance that far exceeds its nearest competitors. It also means that there is no restriction on the passenger and freight capabilities of the basic aircraft, providing maximum mission flexibility. The A330 MRTT is offered with a choice of air-to-air refuelling options: a new advanced Aerial Refuelling Boom System (ARBS), hose and drogue wing pods, and a hose and drogue centre Fuselage Refuelling Unit (FRU). The aircraft can be provided with any combination of these options enabling both probe and receptacle equipped receivers to be refuelled on the same mission. The aircraft can also be provided with a customized suite of military avionics

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in addition to the civil avionics, as well as a Defensive Aid Sub System. The advantages of the A330 MRTT have been confirmed, as Airbus Military has won the last five international competitions for multi role tanker transports. The first to sign a contract was the Commonwealth of Australia, who confirmed the purchase of five (5) A330 MRTTs on December 20, 2004. The RAAF A330 MRTTs (local designation KC-30A) will include the state of the art advanced Aerial Refuelling Boom System (ARBS) developed by Airbus Military. The new fly-by-wire boom is controlled remotely from a console in the cockpit, where an operator uses an advanced technology 2 and 3 dimensional viewing system. This gives safer operation and a reduced workload for the boom operator, and enables the tanker crew to be located together.

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The UK government has finalised financial and contractual closure for a Private Finance Initiative to contract the services of 14 A330 MRTTs (A330 FSTA). This was agreed March 27 2008. Those aircraft will be equipped with under-wing pods and some of them with a hose and drogue centre Fuselage Refuelling Unit. In December 2007, the Saudi Ministry of Defence (MODA) decided on the acquisition of the A330 MRTT as the new air-to-air refuelling aircraft for its Royal Saudi Air Force, as a result of the competition process started in early 2006. This order is for three (3) aircraft, equipped with under-wing pods and the Airbus Military ARBS. In January 2008 the government of the United Arab Emirates signed a contract with EADS to supply an undisclosed number of A330 MRTTs. The configuration of these aircraft is similar to those of Australia and Saudi Arabia, ie with wing pods and the ARBS.

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C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

CAE

T E C H N O L O G Y

World-class simulation and training solutions for India

help train and prepare India's defence forces for mission readiness. company assembles, repairs and upgrades flight simulators, tank and gunnery trainers and naval tactical trainers, as well as developing software required for simulations. Recent programs led by this division of CAE include developing a Cheetah helicopter simulator for the Indian Army, a MiG21 simulator for the Indian Air Force and naval command team trainers for the Indian Navy.

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During its 10-year stint on the Indian market, Macmet established close relationships with the Indian defence forces and the government. Now, CAE’s goal is to deliver world-class simulation and training solutions to Indian defence forces enabling them to be well-trained and mission-ready. It will be able to bring the latest world-class simulation technologies to India’s armed forces. Additionally, CAE will be able to leverage the capabilities of the former Macmet to introduce new products and solutions to the global market.

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Prior to its acquisition, the Bangalore-based Macmet was already a leading simulation company in India, serving the military market with simulation solutions for more than 10 years. The

5 CAE's high-fidelity simulation systems will

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Military markets benefit from greater choice

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F

or more than 60 years, CAE has been the world-leader in simulation and modeling technologies and has sold more simulators than any other company. CAE now operates 27 civil aviation and military training facilities around the world, including one in Bangalore, India, and provides cutting-edge solutions to the armed forces of 50 nations. CAE has been providing its world-class simulation-based training solutions in India for more than 35 years to carriers including Air India, Indian Airlines, Jet Airways, Kingfisher Airlines, SpiceJet, InidiGo Airlines and Air Sahara. The CAE Bangalore training centre is one of many important CAE investments in India. CAE is committed to growing its presence in India to maintain and expand existing relationships, and offer best in class simulation-based solutions to both civil and military markets. Another key investment CAE made was the acquisition in 2007 of Macmet Technologies, India’s leading military simulation company.


C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

DASSAULT

T E C H N O L O G Y

Rafale: Fully Interoperable

D

B U S I N E S S

uring their deployment in USA, French Navy Rafales seamlessly integrated with US and foreign forces involved in Joint Task Force EXercise (JTFEX) 2008-4. They participated in demanding combat training missions, simulating attacks of ground targets with precision weapons, and performing mock air-toair engagements at long and close ranges.

Full Scale Deployment

5 The RAFALEs were assisted during JTFEX

by the deck crew of the French Navy carrier, CHARLES DE GAULLE

ties for deployment onboard USS Theodore Roosevelt. Aéronavale contingent was composed of six Rafales, two Hawkeyes and officers, NCOs and sailors from Flottilles 4F and 12F, Charles de Gaulle’s carrier deck crew and French Carrier Air Group mission planning cell ”.

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Photographs by Henri-Pierre Grolleau

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With Charles de Gaulle in refit, French Navy decided to deploy Rafales to USA to maintain skills in carrier operations. Traditionally, French and US Navies have always closely cooperated, and French and US decision makers were keen to bolster this cooperation even further. Cross deck operations had been carried out before on numerous

occasions, but not on large scale, and both navies were willing to test their interoperability and validate common operating procedures. “The purpose of the deployment was to demonstrate our ability to integrate with US Forces, explained Captain Zimmermann, French Carrier Air Group Commander. In mid-2007, and again in May 2008, Rafales trapped onboard USS Enterprise and USS Harry Truman, further demonstrating interoperability. In February 2008, we were given the green light by US authori-

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Keeping skills sharp

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

As part of its continuation training programme, French Navy sent six Rafale omnirole fighters to USA to participate in JTFEX 2008-4, a major training effort involving more than 30 warships and 15,000 military personnel from four countries.


C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

6 LHD Mistral

Successful technological challenges DCNS surface combatants and submarines are designed to be used and operated under close political control, in unison with allied Navies inside national or international joint forces in a wide range of missions. For example, SCORPENE submarines are designed to be operated in ‘blue’ or ‘brown’ waters and the Mistral family LHDs are designed to accommodate and support a large range of landing craft, helicopters and UAVs, they are NATO certified for joint embarked HQ.

Scorpene, an international benchmark in SSK BUY YOUR COPY TO design READ IN COMPLETE

The SCORPENE design concept, a technological challenge in its own right, was developed

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an array of engineering and operational services, including technical assistance and training, lessons learnt and through-life support. In addition to fostering mutual trust between customer and contractor, the Group’s pragmatic approach to technology transfers ensures that client navies meet their operational needs while their governments create lasting economic value.

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Drawing on its considerable experience and confident that it has the expertise and resources to manage major technology transfer programmes, whether for heavily armed frigates or high-performance submarines, DCNS is wide open to partnerships, cooperation and technology transfer programmes. More than just warships, DCNS offers

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CNS has consistently demonstrated that it can help client navies to expand their operational capabilities. The Group has developed a technology transfer methodology based on the progressive transfer of skills and know-how in conjunction with the phased expansion of local industrial capabilities.

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More than just warships "A proven expertise in technology transfers"

T E C H N O L O G Y

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

DCNS


C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

4 RVS-330 Rugged Vehicle System

3 DRS Tactical

Systems Facility

4 Scorpion Rugged Laptop

5 MRT

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Military Rugged Tablet

Rugged Tablet

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newest ships, including littoral combat ships, destroyers, cruisers, amphibious landing craft and aircraft carriers; On the ground, DRS products and systems can be found supporting the U.S. Army’s and Marine Corps’ mine-resistant, ambush-protected (MRAP) vehicles, Armored Knight Vehicles, Abrams tanks, Bradley Fighting Vehicles, and High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicles (HMMWV, or “Humvee”); and

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the agility, technology and customer focus to respond quickly in a very changing market. DRS has been recognized in recent years as one of the fastest growing and best managed defense technology companies in the world. The company’s products and systems are deployed on some of the most technologically advanced platforms in the world. At sea, DRS products and services support the U.S. Navy’s

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D

RS Technologies is headquartered in Parsippany, New Jersey. It is a leading designer, manufacturer and supplier of products, systems and services to all branches of the U.S. military, aerospace and defense contractors, intelligence and homeland defense agencies, international military forces and industrial markets. Since 1968, DRS has succeeded by having

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A Finmeccanica Company

T E C H N O L O G Y

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

DRS TECHNOLOGIES


C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

ELBIT

T E C H N O L O G Y

Systems Ltd Elbit Systems Offers a Broad Range of Solutions and Systems for a Variety of Applications and Platforms

5 JedeyeTM Helmet Mounted Display

tion expertise applied to a comprehensive line of air, ground and naval training and simulation solutions. These solutions range from mission preparation and execution, to post-mission debriefing and analysis. Unique to Elbit Systems is the work force behind its solutions, a team of active military pilots,

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gies. Elbit Systems is unique in its ability to provide complete solutions that go beyond systems and products to long-term maintenance, technical support, full integration, installation, product training, often partnering with local industries. An acknowledged leader in Training and Simulation, Elbit Systems builds on over three decades of programs to offer acrossthe-board systems engineering and integra-

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B U S I N E S S

E

lbit Systems Ltd. is a world leading defense electronics company with over three decades of systems expertise applied to air, ground and naval platforms. The company focuses on Western and Eastern platform modernization and weapon system upgrades. A broad, innovative product line, together with excellent management and system integration expertise has positioned Elbit Systems as prime contractor in numerous large-scale projects. After three generations of helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) designed for fixed and rotary wing aircraft, there is little doubt that Elbit Systems is a worldwide industry leader. The HMD business has been one of the Company’s key growth engines. Today Elbit Systems and its subsidiary Vision Systems International (VSI) jointly owned with Kaiser Electronics (a Rockwell Collins Company) have more production and operational experience than any other company in the field. In fact, there are currently over 5,500 Elbit Systems HMDs deployed on four continents in over 30 countries. The Company has secured a specialized niche in Eastern and Western platform modernizations providing total solutions, based on in-house core competencies and technolo-


ELETTRONICA The Italian Electronic Warfare Company

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E

LETTRONICA, founded in 1951, is Europe’s leading manufacturer of Electronic Defence equipment. It is also, for the second year, the fourth in the world, according to the top magazine of the EW community, the Journal of Electronic Defence (JED). The company designs, pro¬duces and fields a range of products that covers all aspects of Electronic Warfare: naval, land and air environments; ESM, ECM, ELINT, RWR, SOJ class of equipments; pas¬sive and active functions. The Company “mission” is concentrated on EW, with no other diversion. Each and every aspect of defense electronics state-of-the-art is addressed, from passive monitoring of enemy, neutral and even friendly electro magnetic emissions – both in asymmetric and symmetric combat conditions, in peace, tension and war¬time - to self, mutual and stand-off protection of own combat and support platforms, to the analysis of complex battlefield scenarios, in real-time and non real-time, for tactical (the former) and intelligence (the latter) purposes. The paramount assumption of Elettronica’s professional thinking is that the mastership of the modern battlefield becomes the sole asset of the first fighter who achieves control of the electronic battlefield, as soon as he manages to do so. As our president and CEO, Mr Enzo

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5 Elettronica in the '70's

Benigni, has stated: “...due to the fact that EW must always anticipate and defeat the technological competition of its threats, newest and traditional requirements represent the driving force towards a continuous and complete inno¬vation, which is always the “raison d’être” of EW. In our field, excellence is an absolute must, not a ‘nice to have’ to be traded off with other performances and budgets. If you are

38th Year of Issue

Nr.One you survive and win. Otherwise you are a loser, in battle and in business”. With this mandatory thrust to excellence fixed in its DNA, Elettronica product line covers all kinds of electronic warfare products , from single stand-alone equipment to complete integrated systems, all for naval, airborne and ground applications. These equipments are among the most advanced worldwide, capital¬izing on the adoption of the most up-to-date technology in this area, i.e., solid-state trans¬mitters and

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EMBRAER

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E

mbraer has become one of the largest aircraft manufacturers in the world by focusing on specific market segments with high growth potential in commercial, defense, and executive aviation. We develop and adapt successful integrated systems and aircraft platforms and introducing new technology whenever it creates value by lowering acquisition price, reducing direct operating costs, or delivering higher reliability, comfort, and safety. As a result, our aircraft provide excellent performance with day-in and day-out reliability, while being economical to acquire and cost-effective to operate and maintain. Equally important, we provide a superior product package, with comprehensive aircraft and after-sales support for parts, services, and technical assistance.

Defense and Government Market Products ISR Systems EMB 145 AEW&C: In the EMB 145 AEW&C (Airborne Early Warning and Control), Embraer provides a flexible, reliable and affordable aircraft for ISR (Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance) missions, with a perfect blend of effectiveness and economics. The primary

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5 Legacy 600

mission of the EMB 145 AEW&C – equipped with a powerful air surveillance radar and command and control system, besides a complete set of mission support systems, such as electronic measures, communication systems with data link and self-protection devices – is to detect, track and identify targets in its patrol area and transmit this information to friendly forces, in order to provide them with an accurate and comprehensive operational picture. In addition to this airborne early warning and control mission, the EMB 145 AEW&C is

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also able to perform airspace management, fighter allocation and intercept control, signals intelligence and surveillance of borders, seas and Exclusive Economic Zones. Ten EMB 145 AEW&C aircraft have already been delivered to three air forces worldwide. Five handed to the Brazilian Air Force, which operates the aircraft under the Amazon Surveillance System (SIVAM). Another aircraft is in service in Mexico with the National Defense Department (SEDENA), and the Hellenic Air Force (Greece) has ordered four jets to be operated within the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) environment.

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C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

EUROCOPTER

The clear objective behind the emphasis on the importance of indigenization of the Indian defence industry is to achieve selfreliance and reduce dependence on imports. This is also why greater emphasis is now being laid on transfer of technology and increased participation of the private sector. Given this scenario, only a company willing and able to offer cooperation programmes based on long term commitment and equal partnership can be successful in India. We have supported the Indian Aerospace industry for over 4 decades and will continue

How do you view the defence offset clauses in India? Fulfilling 50% offset obligations is definitely a challenge but we understand the needs of the Indian market and shall work to fulfill the offset obligations with the best possible solutions We do not take the technology transfer and associated timelines to be a hindrance,

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to partner with India in every possible way. With the Indian aerospace industry now in entering a phase of expansion, it offers immense opportunities for all stakeholders. By participating in the key RFPs with the best of our products, we are offering India th ebest ofour products and technology. We hope to continue to help India in developing a strengthened aerospace industry.

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The Indian MoD has, of late, laid great emphasis on indigenization of the defence industry? Given this, how does Eurocopter plan to consolidate its position?

5 Bruno

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

E

urocopter has had a long and fruitful association with India for over four decades. India was, infact, the first nation with which Eurocopter signed a licence agreement including technology transfer. Eurocopter’s has had a partnership with India’s leading local industrial company Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) since 1962 through two co-operation agreements. The relationship started with enabling HAL to manufacture more than 600 helicopters of the Alouette 3 and Lama type and strengthened further with Eurocopter outsourcing exhaustive Ecureuil work packages to HAL for the global market. In 1984, HAL associated Eurocopter in the development of the Advanced Light Helicopter, a twin-engined, 5-tonne transport helicopter. Today, HAL is part of Eurocopter global supply chain by producing Ecureuil/ Fennec airframes, joining the ranks of very few select tier I suppliers.. Through partners like HAL, Pawan Hans Helicopters Limited and Global Vectra Helicorp, our partnerships in India have extended across both public and private enterprises. These partnerships span both civil and military domains, covering the

entire spectrum of helicopter activities, from manufacturing to operations, maintenance and product support Through the EC-India co-operation, Eurocopter has helped create locally a highly skilled technical workforce. Also, recognizing the increasing need for having qualified helicopter pilots, we are actively supporting the Indian government in setting up state-ofthe-art helicopter pilot’s training facilities.

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

How has your association with India been so far?

T E C H N O L O G Y

A long association with India


C O N T E N T S which qualifies the Eurofighter Typhoon as the major operationally capable candidate. In terms of weapons payload, this means that the aircraft is always capable of carrying six air-to-air missiles plus additional air-to-surface weapons like the Paveway II or GBU-10/-16, or external fuel tanks on seven further hardpoints. Thanks to these unique air-to-air and air-to-ground capabilities, the Eurofighter Typhoon has proven itself as an awesome operational weapon system which combines advanced technology with world-class performance. The Eurofighter Typhoon provides highest levels of robust effectiveness for all scenarios and a broad range of mission flexibility. In addition, its air-to-air refuelling capability extends mission duration and range. Therefore, the Eurofighter Typhoon is indeed outstanding in its agility, adaptability and capability to meet the challenges of fastchanging operational scenarios. ■

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6 Eurofighter - Firing Missile

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In between, Eurofighter Typhoon is on Quick Reaction Alert (QRA) duties in several nations operating the aircraft. In late 2005, Italy integrated the aircraft into its air defences thus securing its airspace through Eurofighter flight operations, starting with the 2006 Winter Olympics. The United Kingdom started to deploy Eurofighter Typhoon permanently in this role in July 2007. Germany and Austria are also using the aircraft to secure their airspace. Spain is currently preparing to deploy its Eurofighters on air policing assignments. Most impressive key feature of the Eurofighter Typhoon is its multi- and swingrole capability, which provides military commanders with enormous flexibility. This means that the aircraft can fly either air-toair missions or air-to-ground missions or both missions at the same time - a key feature

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ith more than 160 aircraft deliveries to Germany, the United Kingdom, Spain, Italy and Austria, the Eurofighter Typhoon is an in-service combat aircraft that is respected throughout the world. This cutting-edge, twin-engined aircraft enjoys an excellent reputation with positive feedback from all air forces and delivers impressive multi-role capabilities for different operational needs. Since the aircraft’s entry into service in the spring of 2004, its order book has increased to more than 700 aircraft from seven nations, including Austria and Saudi Arabia as first export customers. Furthermore, countries such as Greece, Turkey, Switzerland, Japan, Bulgaria and Romania have also shown strong interest. India has been invited to join the Eurofighter programme as a new partner in April 2008. This invitation was highlighted by Bernhard Gerwert, CEO of Military Air Systems, an integrated activity of EADS Defence & Security. Gerwert said: “We invite India to become a member of the successful Eurofighter family. India is our partner of choice and we are interested in long-lasting political, industrial and military relations which will be based on a win-win partnership. Four nations, four air forces and the four leading European aerospace companies EADS, EADS Casa, BAE Systems and Alenia Finmeccanica fully support the Eurofighter campaign in India. On behalf of the Eurofighter consortium and the industrial partners, EADS delivered the bid proposal for the Medium Multi Role Combat Aircraft (MMRCA) competition in April 2008 and submitted its attractive offset offer in August 2008.

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Eurofighter Typhoon – Partner of Choice

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

EUROFIGHTER


EUROJET Turbo GmbH

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UROJET Turbo GmbH is the leading military aerospace engine consortium in Europe responsible for the management of development, production, maintenance, support and export of the new generation EJ200 engine. The shareholding industries of EUROJET are Avio (Italy), ITP (Spain), MTU Aero Engines and RollsRoyce (UK). The company’s headquarters are located in Hallbergmoos, Germany (near Munich airport). EUROJET Turbo GmbH is responsible for the EJ200 engine system and is the central point of contact for all EJ200 project activities. The EJ200 engine is designed under the lead of EUROJET Turbo GmbH and manufactured by four aerospace companies from four nations. EUROJET Turbo GmbH and Eurofighter Jagdflugzeug GmbH (the latter is responsible for managing the development and production of the complete Eurofighter Typhoon weapon system) are each contractual partners with NETMA (NATO Eurofighter and Tornado Management Agency). NETMA is a single interface for all four-nation Customers in the programme. The EJ200 programme, together with Eurofighter, represents some 100,000 direct

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and indirect jobs across Europe, and 400 companies are involved. It is Europe’s largest industrial programme representing a direct commitment by partner nations and companies for investment in sustainable technology and

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the industrial potential of European aerospace industry.

Workshare Like the aircraft itself, the EJ200 engine is

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FFV ORDNANCE T

o meet the increased demands of our customers, FFV Ordnance conducts continuous improvements to its weapons systems. These improvements are of course implemented within all areas such as to fulfil new environmental and safety requirements, add new capabilities to the systems, increase the performance level of the systems, and reduce training costs.

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RCL Carl-Gustaf The 84 mm RCL Carl-Gustaf is a priority product; meaning that it is always on the leading edge, tactically as well as technically. This means that the RCL Carl-Gustaf M3 is currently available with modernised and new ammunition, which can in turn be divided into different ranges of application. In its role of anti-armour ammunition, there is presently rocket-assisted HEAT 551 ammunition and HEAT 751 tandem shells. In its support weapon role, all ammunition has been upgraded. The HE 441D round is an upgraded version of the earlier HE 441B; the Smoke 469C round is an upgraded version of the Smoke 469B round; and the Illum 545C round now has an electronic time fuze. The HEDP 502 round is a multi-target

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5 An AT4CS fired from indoor

round with good effect both in light armoured vehicles as well as in buildings. Within the field of anti-structure ammunition, development is currently on-going on a rocket-assisted multitarget round intended to deliver effect behind thick brick and concrete walls.

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Ammunition is now being studied for the RCL Carl-Gustaf that makes it possible to safely fire from inside a building. A good weapon system also requires good soldiers to obtain best effect. Even if the RCL Carl-Gustaf is a robust system and simple to use, it also requires that the gunner and assistant gunner have reached the best level of proficiency in operating the system. Platoon lead-

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FINCANTIERI Cantieri Navali Italiani S.p.A.

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ne of the world’s most important and diversified shipbuilding concerns, Fincantieri is the world leader in the building of cruise ships, a reference operator for large ferries and furthermore claims a significant presence in the naval field. With over 7,000 ships built over 200 years of history, the Company is the heir of the great Italian shipbuilding tradition. The Head office and Corporate offices are located in Trieste. Design Centres are located in Trieste and Genoa. The industrial production is carried out at nine shipyards, divided into six business areas: cruise ships, merchant ships, naval vessels, mega yachts, ship repairs and conversion and marine systems. Thanks to the synergies among the various operational units, Fincantieri’s structure allows for the advantages deriving from productive flexibility. The company integration is also possible thanks to its subsidiaries: ■ Isotta Fraschini Motori ■ Fincantieri Marine Systems North America ■ CETENA – Centro per gli Studi di Tecnica Navale ■ Fincantieri Marine Group (FMG)

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FINCANTIERI ACTIVITIES IN THE NAVAL FIELD

5Andrea Doria In Italy Fincantieri has almost 9,200 employees, plus at least as many other workers working for supplying companies which every day take part in the company’s realisations and which, together with the Company, create a system. The group’s production value is around 2.932 Million Euro (Ref. Balance Sheet 2008), over 60% in export, with a net profit amounting to 45 Million Euros. The order portfolio amounts to the record figure of 10,8 Billion Euros, confirming Fincantieri’s position at international level.

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In the naval field Fincantieri is proud of its comprehensive know-how. It designs and realises any kind of conventional military ship (aircraft carriers, frigates, corvettes, patrol ships, auxiliary ships, and submarines) according to the highest technological standards. The company proposes both well proven projects already used by the Italian Navy and new-conception projects. A specific structure is in charge of this production. Projects are developed at the office in Genoa which – thanks to a technical staff of about 500 units - represents one of the largest European realities involved in the planning of high-complexity military ships and special ships (oceanographic ships, multipurpose tugboats, and offshore supporting units). Ships are built at the two shipyards in Muggiano and Riva Trigoso, carrying out a synergetic activity within an integrated and flexible productive system. At national level it is the reference partner of the Italian Navy and the Coast Guard in the construction and logistic support of the combating surface fleet, the major auxiliary units, and submarines.

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GENERAL DYNAMICS A strong partner for India’s national-security needs

G

5 GD IS&T - Tactical Communications (Left)

GD Combat Systems - Stryker (Right) 6 GD Marine Systems - Guided Missile Destroyer

(Left) GD Aerospace - Aircraft Services (Right)

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eneral Dynamics is a global market leader in business aviation; land and expeditionary combat vehicles and systems, armaments and munitions; shipbuilding and marine systems; and mission-critical information systems and technologies. The company employs approximately 95,000 people and has a worldwide presence. Headquartered in Falls Church, Virginia, USA, the company reported 2008 turnover of approximately $29 billion. General Dynamics has four business segments: Aerospace, Combat Systems, Marine Systems, and Information Systems and Technology. ■

Aerospace The Aerospace group designs, manufactures and outfits a comprehensive family of midsize and large-cabin Gulfstream businessjet aircraft, and provides maintenance, refurbishment, outfitting and aircraft services for a variety of business-jet, widebody and narrow-body aircraft customers globally. The group comprises Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, General Dynamics Aviation Services and Jet Aviation. The group’s Gulfstream product portfolio includes eight aircraft across a spectrum of price and performance options. The varying ranges, speeds and cabin dimensions are well-suited to the transportation needs of an increasingly diverse global customer base, including the special mission needs of governments in Europe and Asia. Combat Systems General Dynamics’ Combat Systems group is a global leader in producing, supporting and sustaining land and expeditionary combat systems for the U.S. military and its allies. The group supplies, supports and enhances tracked and wheeled combat vehicles and develops new combat systems for the future. Combat Systems’ product lines include a full spectrum of wheeled armoured combat vehicles, tracked main battle tanks and infantry fighting vehicles, guns and ammunition-handling systems, ammunition and ordnance, reactive armour and other protection systems, mobile bridge systems,

chemical and biohazard detection products and complex composite components for aerospace systems. Marine Systems The Marine Systems group designs, builds and supports submarines and a variety of surface ships for the U.S. Navy and commercial customers. These sophisticated platforms and capabilities include Virginia-class attack submarines; surface combatants, including DDG-51 Arleigh Burke-class and DDG-1000 Zumwalt-class destroyers and Littoral Combat Ships (LCS); T-AKE combat-logistics ships; and commercial product carriers. Information Systems & Technology The Information Systems and Technology group offers a breadth and depth of technology and service capabilities that support a wide range of government and commercial needs, including systems integration expertise; hardware and software products; and engineering, management and support services. The group’s principal markets are tactical and strategic mission systems, information technology and mission services, and intelligence mission systems solutions. Across the breadth of its offerings, General Dynamics is committed to fulfilling the mission-critical requirements of its customers: the U.S. and allied national security, defense and intelligence communities and select commercial organizations.

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C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S T E C H N O L O G Y

gies and systems are fully developed and owned by Indra.

Radars Indra’s offering in radars covers all the necessities in the different fields of radar application. The LANZA 3D is a family of D Band, 3D

BUY YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE 5 Ongoing Installation of LANZA 3D Radar

on Naval Platform 3 ARIES radar for Border and Coastal Surveillance

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Indra develops and provides Radar and Communication Band EW systems, for Air, Ground and Naval platforms. Both passive and active systems are provided. These systems are cutting-edge technology due to the wide band digital receivers and DRFM (Digital Radio Frequency Memory) they use to improve the Probability of Interception (POI) over Low Probability of Interception radars (LPI) and implement sophisticate deception techniques for Electronic Attack. These techniques represent the future in Electronic Warfare.

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Electronic Warfare

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ndra Sistemas is the Spanish Defence company. After more than twenty-five years of history, Indra has become a multinational defence & security company with headquarters in Madrid, Spain, and operations all around the world, including India. The Company recently opened an office in Delhi. Indra utilizes its own technological base to establish a leadership position in the global market for sophisticated electronic systems in the aerospace and defence fields. 28,000 highly qualified engineers and development staff in over 30 international locations comprise the Company’s key asset. Annual turnover exceeds Euro 2 Billion, a third of which is from international sales. Indra’s defence & security solutions have been already delivered to countries such as India, Germany, France, Finland, Portugal, USA, New Zealand and Brazil, among others. Indra is an active member of international consortia such as the Eurofighter Agency (EFA). The Company’s defence & security offering includes an array of systems covering radars, electronic warfare, electronic intelligence, identification, self-protection, communications, command and control, surveillance, simulation, automatic test systems, space. Indra’s defence technolo-

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

INDRA


W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

C O N T E N T S The most successful program The Su-30MKI program has become a symbol of Indo-Russian cooperation in aviation

5 Oleg F. Demchenko, Irkut Corporation

President and a common pride of the two countries’ aviation industries. The success of the program is the result of joint efforts of the Indian Air Force and the leading Russian and Indian companies. Su-30MKI was created on the basis of the Sukhoi Design Bureau Su-27 and Su-30

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fighters which boast the world’s best flight performance. High technical level of the basic aircraft, new integrated avionics suite development as well as the smart weaponry application allowed creating the 4+ generation multi-role fighter. The India’s aerospace industry leaders such as Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd, Bharat Electronics Ltd, DARE have also contributed to the aircraft onboard avionics suite. Su-30MKI combat efficiency level is competitive with the best world analogues. This has been proved in particular by the international exercises results with IAF participation. At present the fighters are manufactured at two assembly lines – at the Irkutsk Aviation Plant and at HAL’s manufacturing facility at Nasik under license. The outstanding capabilities of the Su-30MKI secured keen interest of the prospective customers. On its basis the fighter aircraft for the Air Forces of Malaysia and Algeria were developed. The supply of combat aircraft derived from the Su-30MKI opened up new export opportunities for the Indian companies involved in the program. In association with the Indian companies,

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rkut Research and Production Corporation is a leading enterprise of Russia’s defense industry. The Corporation was formed on the basis of the Irkutsk Aviation Plant which will celebrate its 75th anniversary in 2009. Lately Irkut has been steadily producing several dozen modern jet aircraft per year. In recent years the Corporation has been providing up to 15% of Russia’s military exports. By early 2009 the Irkut Corporation’s order book exceeded US$ 4.5 billion. Oleg Demchenko, Irkut President and VicePresident of the United Aircraft Corporation emphasizes: “We look ahead with confidence since Irkut-made aircraft enjoy a steady demand with many customers. Moreover, we successfully introduce new products, both military and civilian, to the market”. The company’s key products today are Su30MKI-type multi-role fighters. At the same time Irkut is actively developing new projects that will secure the Corporation’s leadership on the market in the first half of the twenty-first century.

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

India’s solid partner

T E C H N O L O G Y

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

IRKUT


C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S T E C H N O L O G Y

Electronic Systems, Avionics Suites, Advanced Radars, Tactical Weaponry & Law Enforcement Systems, Training and Simulation Systems, Network Centric and Situation Awareness Systems.

Financial Figures ■ IAI’s 2007 sales totaled $3.3 billion; $2.7

billion (82%) of these sales are for export. ■ IAI’s backlog as of December 2007 reached $7.7 billion, of which 83% is for export. ■ IAI’s 2007 net profit totaled $126 million.

Core Areas of Activity Space: From its own launchers and satellites to ground services, IAI offers customers affordable solutions and partnerships with industry leaders in space exploration. IAI develops and produces satellites for various purposes such

as Low Earth Orbit (LEO) observation satellites (Ofeq, Eros), Synthetic Aperture Radar (TECSAR) and communication satellites such as the Amos series (GEO). Theater Defense: IAI’s Arrow Weapon System against Tactical Ballistic Missiles (ATBMs) leads the market. This multi-layer system, representing outstanding visionary and technological achievements such as the “Green Pine” missile detection and fire and control radar, as well as other interoperable solutions, is the cornerstone of Israel’s defence system. Commercial Aircraft: IAI’s design, engi-

5HERON UAS with various sensors & payloads

neering and manufacturing capabilities are demonstrated in a highly cost-effective, intercontinental range, super-midsize business jets. IAI also develops and produces, for major international OEM’s, primary aerostructure assemblies, as well as landing gear, servo-control and actuator systems. MRO & Civil Aircraft Conversion: IAI is an expert one-stop-shop for commercial aircraft conversion, maintenance, repair and overhaul with the engineering, equipment and facili-

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Line of Business:

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srael Aerospace Industries Ltd. (IAI) is a globally recognized leader in the defence, aerospace and commercial markets.

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I

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

ISRAEL AEROSPACE INDUSTRIES


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C O N T E N T S to the combat application tasks, including group actions. Training computer and multipurpose classes are designed for the initial and advanced training, maintaining of the proficiency level of the engineering and flight personnel, ship control specialists. The simulator software provides an

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5 Laguna full mission ship handling simulator

adequate imitation of the helicopter (aircraft) motion, operation of flight control and navigational equipment, helicopter (aircraft) onboard systems in standard operating conditions with a charge of weather and with faults and malfunctions entered from the instructor work station. The instructor workstation enables control of all the simulator operation stages: exercise creating and editing, input of failures, monitoring of mission fulfilment process, briefing and debriefing, recording (documenting) of the flight and results of the crew performance on the simulator. Full mission ship handling simulator “Laguna” is an example of modern naval simulators. The simulator system facilitates ship crew training related to handling of weapon and technical devices, their tactical use, as well as for the overall training of the ship‘s crew in solving of the ship’s various problems, tasks and tactical movement. A full mission solution allows an entire missile boat crew to practice to perfection of cohesiveness and coordination during an operation. A sample of the Full Mission Combat Ship Simulator “Laguna” for training of guided missile boat crews of “Molniya” class projects1241 RE & 12418 was commissioned

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.E.T. Kronshtadt” Co. Ltd. is one of the Russian military-industrial complex leaders, specializing in development and manufacturing of aviation and naval simulators, navigation systems and sets, high-tech equipment and software, multi-mission unmanned aerial systems. Full mission simulators for helicopter and aircraft crew training (Mi-8, Mi-17, Mi-24, Mi-35, Mi-26, Mi-28, Ka-27, Ka-28, Ka-31, Ka-32, Ka-52K, Ka-60, Su-27, Su-33), full mission ship handling simulators (project 11356 frigate, project 956EM destroyer, project 1155 large antisubmarine ship, project 1135 corvette, project 1143 heavy air-craft cruiser, project 1241 RE and others) are produced or still developed on the basis of up-to-date technologies. The company’s future plans are connected with implementing a number of projects, in Russia and abroad, involving the development and delivery of high-tech products for Navies, military and military transport aviation. Full mission simulators for helicopter and aircraft crew training can be used at all the stages of the flight personnel training. The simulators allow the entire range of tasks to be accomplished: from the initial training

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

R.E.T. KRONSHTADT


C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S T E C H N O L O G Y

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

LOCKHEED MARTIN

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ockheed Martin is a global security company and premier systems integrator principally engaged in the research, design, development, manufacture, integration and sustainment of advanced technology systems, products and services. With growth markets in Defense, Homeland Security, and Systems/Government Information Technology, Lockheed Martin delivers innovative technologies that help customers address complex challenges of strategic and national importance. Headquartered in Bethesda, Maryland, Lockheed Martin employs 146,000 people worldwide. Distinguished by whole-system thinking and action, a passion for invention and disciplined performance, Lockheed Martin strives to earn a reputation as the partner of choice, supplier of choice and employer of choice in the global marketplace. Lockheed Martin is led by Robert J. Stevens, Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer. The Corporation reported 2008 sales of $42.7 billion. Governments worldwide are involved in 4 F-16 with meeting vital strategic Sniper pod goals to defend the peace,


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C O N T E N T S mous capacity for undertaking new projects. Navantia has strategically situated production centres in the Ferrol Estuary, Cartagena and the Bay of Cádiz, specialized in New Constructions, as well as Shiprepairs in the 3 areas, shipyards fully equipped with slipways and docks with sufficient capacity to meet the Navy’s strategic requirements

for Australia ■ 3 Frigates F-310 (of a series of 5) for Norway ■ 1 Submarine Scorpene (of a series of 2) for Malaysia ■ Engineering/technology transfer for 6 Submarines Scorpene for India ■ 8 Patrol Ships for Venezuela.

Some of Navantia’s star products are: Orderbook is:

Design The new S80 has been designed by the Spanish Shipyard NAVANTIA. The S80 is truly a new concept of Submarine designed from its concept to be an AIP submarine, to launch a wide variety of weapons, and to accommodate and deploy Special Forces. These improvements and its characteristics have conditioned the shape, arrangement and size of the Submarine, which are clearly different from other conventional submarines that are available on the market. The submarine has been designed to achieve maximum stealth capabilities, minimizing the principal sources of noise (radiated, self noise, cavitation, and airborne) and the different non-acoustic signatures (Optical, Magnetic - a degaussing system is fitted, Electric, Electromagnetic, Infrared, Pressure and Wake). This new Submarine is capable of diving deeper and for longer than any other conventional submarine. The S80 incorporates a high level of system redundancy to achieve an improved endurance availability (more than 240 days per year) and can be operated by a crew of 32.

Missions: ■ Anti-submarine warfare. ■ Anti-surface warfare. ■ Littoral power projection (Land attack). ■ Intelligence gathering. ■ Surveillance. ■ Mine laying. ■ Deterrence. ■ Special Operations.

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S-80

tional submarine in the world ■ F-100 frigates, equipped with the AEGIS system ■ LHD amphibious ships, as “Juan Carlos I” for the Spanish Navy ■

Main Particulars: ■ Overall Length: 71 m ■ Pressure hull diameter: 7.3 m ■ Mean Draft: 6.2 m ■ Overall Height (mast lowered): 13.7 m ■ Submerged displacement: 2,400 t ■ Operating depth : > 300 m ■ Mission endurance : 50 days for 32 crew + 8 SOF. ■ Maximum speed > 19 knots

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(of a series of 5), 1 Combat Supplier Ship, and 4 Maritime Action Ships (OPV’s) , for the Spanish Navy ■ 2 LHD and 3 Air Warfare Destroyers

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■ S-80 submarines, the most modern conven■ 1 LHD, 4 Submarines S-80, 1 Frigate F-105

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avantia represents advancement, naval activity and modernity, but also inherits more than 260 years’ experience in construction, maintenance and conversion of the Spanish Navy’s ships. Activities include naval construction, propulsion and energy, ship repairs, military and civil platform control systems as well as weapons. It is one of very few companies that has a complete capacity in the fields of design, development, production, integration and integrated logistic platform support, propulsion and naval combat systems as well as the ability to deliver fully operational vessels. Navantia also has an enviable product list in military and coastguard vessels and an enor-

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

The Spanish Military Shipbuilder

T E C H N O L O G Y

NAVANTIA


NORTHROP GRUMMAN E-2D Advanced Hawkeye – Continuing a Legacy

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he Northrop Grumman E-2D Advanced Hawkeye is built on a legacy of providing world-class airborne early warning (AEW) and control capability, dating back to the late 1950s. In 1964, the U.S. Navy took delivery of the first aircraft specifically designed for AEW, the E-2A Hawkeye. Since then, evolutionary upgrades have progressively improved the Hawkeye to meet emerging threats and take advantage of new technologies. A nation must leverage multiple early warning capabilities to ensure proper coverage while permitting quick response and reaction time. Identifying threats as early and as distant as possible is the legacy of this AEW&C aircraft. The E-2D Advanced Hawkeye is at the leading edge of technology and is the premier, cutting edge Airborne Battle Management Command and Control Weapon System available today. It is capable of meeting the requirements that all nations need for today’s missions as well as the missions of tomorrow. Northrop Grumman is developing and fielding the E-2D for the U.S. Navy, to provide maritime domain awareness including airspace control, monitoring of surface movements, civil support and to provide command and control of tactical forces. While the external appearance of the E-2D is similar to the E-2C, the systems

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5 One of three weapons systems operators

conducting systems flight test in the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye aircraft. and capabilities which the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye contains have been completely redesigned. As the environment and threats have evolved over time, upgrading the earlier design of the Hawkeye’s proven airframe has been a low risk way to bring the revolutionary new technology and capabilities required to meet those evolving threats, to the fleet.

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Designed from the outset to be a central or controlling node for network centric operations, the E-2D has a built-in capability to interface with supporting intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance assets, both of American origin and of foreign design. This capability facilitates the coordination of homeland defense resources for all military assets, and also those of civilian emergency management and police organizations. In late 2001, Northrop Grumman was asked by the U.S. Navy to build a new Hawkeye - the

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W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

C O N T E N T S powered by a single Pratt & Whitney F-135 engine in India’s commercial airline market, and the company welcomes a relationship with the Indian Air Force. ■ Pratt & Whitney’s most powerful fighter engine ever built – the F135 – is powering the new, advanced, single-engine tactical fighter, the F-35 Lightning II developed by Lockheed Martin. The F-35 will have unique capabilities for land-based conventional takeoff and landing (CTOL), carrier-variant (CV),

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5 F-35 Lightning II, Joint Strike Fighter

and short take-off and vertical landing (STOVL) that provide unique operational flexibility for conventional and naval air forces. ■ The F135 is a derivative of Pratt & Whitney’s F119 engine that powers the U.S. Air Force’s F-22 Raptor, another fifth generation aircraft developed by Lockheed Martin. The F119’s thrust vectoring provides the aircraft with exceptional control and maneuverability. The aircraft features stealth capabilities and the ability to fly at supersonic speeds without the use of afterburner, making it the world’s most advanced fighter engine. The C-17 Globemaster III, exclusively powered by four Pratt & Whitney F117 engines, is meeting the transport needs of the United States Air Force, United Kingdom's Royal Air Force, Qatar Air Force, the Royal Australian Air Force, the Canadian Air Force and users around the world. Pratt & Whitney is a world leader in the design, manufacture and service of aircraft engines, space propulsion systems and industrial gas turbines. United Technologies, based in Hartford, Conn., is a diversified company providing high technology products and services to the global aerospace and building industries. ■

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ratt & Whitney, a world-class engine manufacturer, is focused on meeting the new demands of the 21st century through its next-generation engine technology, world renowned manufacturing processes and unmatched global service organization. With more than 11,000 military engines in service with 27 armed forces around the world, Pratt & Whitney is setting new standards for performance and dependability. Pratt & Whitney’s family of F100 engines is the mainstay of air forces worldwide, powering F-15 and F-16 fighter aircraft in 22 nations, in addition to the United States Air Force. Pratt & Whitney’s F100 engine powers 99 percent of operational F-15s and the majority of F-16s in service today. Pratt & Whitney’s F100 benefits from infusion of advanced technologies from the F119 and F135 engines, and continues to be the most reliable fighter engine in the world. The F100 has accumulated over 21 million flight hours of operational experience. Of the 7,000 produced, 5,000 F100 engines are still in service. India is an important strategic growth market for Pratt & Whitney Military Engines. Pratt & Whitney has a significant presence

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Powering Freedom™ for the World’s Premier Military Aircraft

T E C H N O L O G Y

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

PRATT & WHITNEY


RAFAEL Rafael’s Air and Missile Defense Systems - Iron Dome - David’s Sling - Spyder-SR/MR - Barak/Barak-NG Naval Air Defense System

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efense of the home front and population centers from short to medium range missile and rocket threats is now a strategic imperative. Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd., Israel is taking a leading position as a skilled developer and manufacturer of advanced weapon systems in the Air Defense market. Rafael is offering now a complete air and missile defense system of systems solution (RAD-SOS). Rafael’s Air Defense system of systems (RAD-SOS) provides a complete solution ensuring tactical overmatch against a broad spectrum of air and missile threats. The RAD-SOS is based on a multi-layered concept that has been designed to provide optimum protection against all current and future airborne threats. The layered concept consists of two separate double-tiered systems that cope effectively with two different types of threats. These separate systems are modular, yet provide maximum interoperability and connectivity. The new Iron Dome and David’s Sling missile defense systems provide a comprehensive double-tiered solution. The Iron Dome will be used for missile defense against short range artillery rockets and the David’s

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5 Iron Dome Scenario

Sling, produced and developed together with Raytheon, will be used against medium and long range rockets, short range ballistic missiles and cruise missiles. Both systems are in the testing phase of development and have already been selected by the Israeli Ministry

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of Defense as part of a comprehensive Israel air defense solution. The other double-tiered solution offered by Rafael is the Spyder family of air defense systems. The Spyder-SR is a slant-launched SHORAD system and the Spyder-MR is a vertically launched medium range system. RAD-SOS provides a comprehensive air and

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RHEINMETALL Global leader in artillery technology

RWG-52 and RTG-52 for India’s Artillery programme

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ver the next ten to 15 years, the Indian Army plans to update its artillery by replacing obsolete systems. After all, it takes highly mobile, hard-hitting modern artillery assets to respond to threats in scalable fashion, engaging targets at extraordinarily long ranges with extreme accuracy. The Indian armed forces have thus launched a programme to procure state-of-the-art artillery systems, well aware of the need to adapt their artillery capabilities to future challenges. As one of the world’s leading suppliers of defence technology systems, Rheinmetall Defence of Germany is able to offer flexible concepts for equipping modern armed forces from a single source, drawing on an extensive array of technology and long years of experience. A case in point is the artillery system family Rheinmetall is contributing to the Indian artillery programmes.

RWG-52 und RTG 52 Armed with 155mm ordnance, the Rheinmetall Wheeled Gun (RWG)-52 is a highly mobile 6x6

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5 155 mm sensor-fused SMArt 155 – or DM

702 in German Bundeswehr parlance – is an autonomous, fire-and-forget artillery projectile coupling outstanding battlefield lethality with high cost effectiveness

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artillery system for flexible fire support operations. This 49-ton vehicle has a maximum road speed of 80 km/h, and can reach speeds of up to 70 km/h when operating off-road. Its strategic range is 700 km, its tactical range

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300 km. A built-in tyre pressure management system further enhances the vehicle’s excellent off-road performance. The heart of the system is the autonomous turret, equipped with the same tried-and-tested L/52 Rheinmetall gun used in Germany’s PzH 2000 self-propelled howitzer. This highly advanced weapons system is in service with the armed forces of Germany, Italy, Greece and the Netherlands, the latter having successfully deployed it in combat operations in Afghanistan. With its extremely stable, 52-calibre-length gun tube, the L/52 can lob standard ERFB-M1 ammunition up to 31 km. The gun’s maximum effective range increases to 42 km when firing improved ERFB base-bleed projectiles. Besides an automated laying and navigation system, a launcher management system facilitates operation, which is controlled from a gun firing panel. Thanks to automatic loading, the gun can fire up to six rounds a minute. The system can provide sustained fire support for an entire hour, firing 75 rounds, which equates to a rate of fire of 1.25 rounds per minute with a full charge. Moreover, the RWG-52 has a Multiple Round Simultaneous Impact (MRSI) capability, enabling up to five rounds to hit the target zone at the same time. In order to defend itself,


SAFRAN S

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AFRAN is an international hightechnology group with three core businesses: Aerospace Propulsion, Aircraft Equipment and Defense Security. As of September, 2008, it had 58,200 employees in over 30 countries, and its 2007 annual revenues exceeding 12 billion euros. The SAFRAN Group comprises a number of companies with prestigious brand names, and holds, alone or in partnership, global or European leadership positions in all of its markets. SAFRAN is a public company listed on NYSE Euronext Paris.

Aerospace Propulsion Activities The aerospace propulsion activities consist in design, production and support (MRO) propulsion systems for airplanes, helicopters, missiles, launch vehicles and satellites, in the civil and military markets. Aircraft engines: Snecma, alone or in partnership, designs and produces turbofan engines powering civil and military airplanes and propulsion systems for launchers, satellite and space vehicles. In partnership with General Electric, it produces the CFM56 engine family, the best selling commercial aero-engine in the world; several large turbofans as the CF6, GE90

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5The Sagem’s EUROFLIR™ Optronic

Payloads is designed for long-range observation in airborne applications (surveillance, maritime patrol missions - SAR and combat SAR - and law enforcement missions). This EUROFLIR™ family can be fitted to military and homeland security for helicopters, airplanes or UAV. EUROFLIR™ can include aiming functions for delivery of air-to-surface weapons. It has been ordered by the French Navy and the French Army.

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and GP7200; in partnership with NPO Saturn, it develops the SaM146 engine for the new Sukhoi’s Superjet100 regional aircraft, etc. In the MRO field, Snecma invests a large share of its budget in R&D for new repair solutions. The company offers a complete range of maintenance, repair and overhaul services for both civil and military aircraft engines, used by airlines, armed forces and other operators. To help its customers reduce maintenance costs, it does everything possible to extend on-wing engine life and make its shop visits as efficient as possible. Snecma also handles the spare parts supply chain and manage engine maintenance contracts. Solid propulsion: Snecma Propulsion Solide designs, develops and produces solid rocket motors for space launch vehicles and missiles. It provides also composite materials for defense, aeronautics, space and industrial applications. Helicopter engines: N°1 worldwide, Turbomeca provides a complete, unrivaled range of helicopter turboshaft engines. They power civil and military helicopters built by world’s leading manufacturers (Eurocopter, Sikorsky, NH Industries, HAL, Kamov, etc.). Its subsidiary, Microturbo supplies turbojet engines for missiles and target drones, start-

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C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S T E C H N O L O G Y B U S I N E S S I N D I A N D E F E N C E

BUY YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE T3-Plus

global supplier of advanced mission-critical communications, navigation and identification solutions to protect communities and

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Communications, we are proud of our heritage, which features a wealth of communications and defense electronics industry innovation. We entered the market at the beginning of the 20th century, when military leaders began to understand the importance that radio communications would play in the future of military operations. In the following years, the company diversified its activities to include space, avionics, aeronautical and terrestrial communications, and 5 ElettraSuite Puma expanded globally to become a multinational company that generates approximately half of its income in the international market. Today, SELEX Communications is a

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ELEX Communications, a Finmeccanica Company, is a global supplier of advanced communications, navigation and identification solutions to protect communities and critical national infrastructure. A leader in the delivery of Network Centric Communications, SELEX Communications supplies secure, integrated and interoperable networked solutions for governmental, civil and military applications. With over 100 years of experience and driven by a relentless quest for innovation, the company develops stateof-the-art communications solutions that meet customer requirements and exceed their expectations. Headquartered in Italy and with worldwide operations, SELEX Communications employs about 5,000 people. Our mission is to be a world class provider of integrated communications solutions to professional, civil and military customers for the protection of communities and critical national infrastructure. SELEX Communications will be recognised as a trusted market leader, pro-actively anticipating customer needs and the potential of new technologies to provide customers with excellent and innovative communication solutions, to equip them to better fulfill their mission. At SELEX

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

SELEX COMMUNICATIONS


C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

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SELEX Galileo specialises in the design, development and manufacture of precision electronic systems and sub-systems that embrace a wide range of radar, electro-mechanical, electro-optical, laser and thermal imaging technologies in order to deliver effective solutions and capabilities within the air, sea, land and space-borne domains. Key items in our extensive product portfolio are: Airborne Radars – using both mechanically-scanned and electronicallyscanned (AESA) technologies, Land-borne and Naval Radars – Precision Approach as well as Low Probability of Intercept radars, EO/TI Systems – Turreted Airborne Systems as well as Driver Vision Systems, Sighting Systems and Fighting Systems for armoured

SELEX Galileo’s long and distinguished record provides it with the wealth of experi-

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CORE TECHNOLOGIES

vehicles, Laser Systems – Spot-Trackers, Designators and Burst-Illumination systems, Artillery Systems – Sound ranging systems and Artillery Pointing Systems, Airborne Systems – both Mini- and Tactical- sized UAVs as well as transonic target drones and reconnaissance systems, EW Systems – Covering a wide range of fixed-wing (fast-jet and transport), rotary-wing, UAV and marine applications, Simulator Systems – turnkey solutions at sub-system, system and platform levels, TI Detectors – Covering the SW, MW and LW domains for military and space-borne applications and Space Systems – Sensors and Systems as well as a payload development capability.

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ELEX Galileo, a Finmeccanica Company, is the new driving force in the Defence Electronics sector in Europe, a company formed in early 2008 by the amalgamation of Galileo Avionica S.p.A of Italy with SELEX Sensors & Airborne Systems Limited of the UK.

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

SELEX GALILEO


TATA MOTORS Providing complete defence solutions for the armed forces

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The range of tactical and transport solutions from Tata Motors is an amalgamation of its unmatched strengths in manufacturing and product development over the last 50 years that has enabled the company to guarantee a reliable, effective and consistent response to the ever-changing requirements of modern defence. Tata Motors has also channeled its innovative capability into the development of an integrated system to combat global terror and security threats. Tata Motors offer products and services that not only meet the needs of the domestic market, but are also positioned to meet most the stringent requirements of armies across the world. Tata Motors exports its range of specialised defence vehicles to countries in the SAARC region, ASEAN, and Africa.

6 Mobility solution from Tata Motors

Tata Motors has a range of armoured vehicles for catering to varied needs of Armed forces. It includes Armoured SUMO for CIOps, Armoured Safari for VVIPs, Light Armoured Troop Carrier (LATC), Armoured Bus & Mine Protected Vehicles. Tata Motors is now focusing on modernisation and system upgrades of mobility platforms. Project management and system integration expertise has positioned Tata Motors as prime contractor in various upgrades and life extension programme based on in-house core competencies and technologies. Such upgrade programme includes Missile Carriers, Mine Protected Vehicles and Main Battle Tanks(MBT). In addition to products, Tata Motors’ defence solutions include Consultancy & Advisory Services, Prime Contracting Services, R&D and Test Services, Information Technology (Software+ Hardware services), Manufacturing Services, Maintenance and Repair Services, Packing Storage and Transport Services. ■

BUY YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE CONTACT US Tata Motors Limited Sales Headquarters World Trade Centre 26th Floor, Centre 1, Cuffe Parade, Mumbai-400001. Contact Person: Mr. Vernon Noronha Email: defencesolutions@tatamotors.com Tel: 91- (0) 22-6656l825 Fax: 91-(0) 22-66360408 Website: www.tatamotors.com

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ata Motors Limited is India’s largest automobile company, with revenues of Rs. 35651.48 crores (USD 8.8 billion) in 2007-08. It is the leader in commercial vehicles in each segment, and among the top three in passenger vehicles with winning products in the compact, midsize car and utility vehicle segments. The company is the world’s fourth largest truck manufacturer, and the world’s second largest bus manufacturer. Tata Motors has been associated with the country’s defence forces since 1958. Over 1,00,000 vehicles have been supplied to Indian military and paramilitary forces so far. Tata Motors defence solutions cover the complete range of logistics, tactical & armoured vehicles.

5 Tata 6x6 with communication shelter

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C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

TERMA

Terma is bidding for the contract for the Modernisation of Airfield Infrastructure with Indian partners, where the company will supply its solutions for the control towers of the involved airfields.

B U S I N E S S

Integrated solutions for defence and civilian applications

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In India, Terma is involved in a number of exciting programs, which include modernisation of airfields, coastal surveillance programs, and self-protection solutions for India’s coming fighter in the Medium Multi Role Combat Aircraft (MMRCA) program as subcontractor to Lockheed Martin – one of the contenders in the ongoing competition.

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erma is a global supplier of solutions for the defence, aerospace, and security markets. Terma’s products are developed and designed for use in extreme mission-critical environments and situations where human lives and valuable material assets are at stake. Terma’s strength lies in the flexibility of its solutions, which are focused in key hightech niches. These niches comprise command & control software solutions for air traffic management, small- and medium-sized navy vessels, and army, air defence, and homeland security applications. Terma is a leading supplier of advanced self-protection systems for fixed and rotary wing aircraft as well as decoy systems for naval vessels and a world leading supplier of radars for coastal surveillance. The company is headquartered in Denmark with subsidiaries in the United States of America, The Netherlands, Singapore, and facilities in Germany. More than 80 percent of its turnover is based on exports, and Terma continuously seeks to expand its global presence including South and 4 Terma Radar South East Asia. system

T E C H N O L O G Y

Provider of mission-critical solutions for the global defence and aerospace markets


W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

C O N T E N T S The systems will be developed, produced and maintained in India with the aim of producing a true Indian product destined for the local market. All Thales entities were incorporated in 2008 into Thales India Ltd. Finally, Thales will open a new office in Gwalior in 2009. Major contracts with the MoD have included: ■ Air defence radars and systems such as THD 1955, Master M, Flycatcher Mark 1 and Reporter. ■ Vicon 91 Reconnaissance pods for the Air Force. ■ FLYCATCHER Mk1 Radar and Fire Control System.

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5 Scorpene

as the Mirage 2000, Mig 21 and 27 , Su 30. ■ Optronics: 500 HHTI Sophie and 1000 Catherine Thermal Imagers on T90. ■ EW systems for Army and Navy. ■ Sonars on the Sea King helicopters and Scorpene submarines. ■ Mine Hunting sonar and CMS for the Karwar class refit. ■ DA 04 and LW08 long-range surveillance radar for Navy. In September 2005, the Indian government selected Armaris (a 50-50 JV between Thales and DCN) as prime contractor for a technology transfer programme involving the construction of six Scorpene (P75) type submarines, taking the long-standing cooperation between India and France to a new level. Thales International India Ltd.’s long term objective in line with the group's multidomestic policy is to address the Indian market as an Indian player through the development of its local entity and the creation of JVs with the major PSU and Private Industrial Partners, in order to answer tenders with locally-developed products or systems. ■

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

■ Avionics and INGPS for military aircraft such

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

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hales has been operating in India since 1953, participating in the creation of Bharat Electronics Ltd. (BEL), and has been a constant partner of the Indian Armed Forces ever since. After opening its first permanent representative office in Delhi in 1970, Thales created a service company in 2003: Thales International India Pvt Ltd, in order to deliver reliable and very high-level support services to its various customers. Today, TII is recognized as a trusted partner and provides services to the three Indian armed forces for all their equipment. In 2006, Thales opened an office in Mumbai, followed by one in Cochin in 2007. Thales Software India was created in Chennai in 2007 to develop software for its worldwide customer base. In 2006, Thales formed a JV with Rolta to locally develop world-class C4ISR solutions for the Indian and worldwide markets. In 2008, another JV was formed with Samtel - Samtel Thales Avionics Ltd will work towards the development, production and sale of Helmet Mounted Sight Displays and avionics for the Indian and export markets.

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

World Leader in Mission Critical Systems

T E C H N O L O G Y

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

THALES


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I N D I A N D E F E N C E

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Concepts & Perspectives C O N C E P T S & P E R S P E C T I V E S

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Contents O N E

CHALLENGES FOR INDIAN ARMY

3

T WO

CHALLENGES FOR INDIAN NAVY

7

T H R E E

CHALLENGES FOR INDIAN AIR FORCE

11

F O U R

GLOBAL STRATEGIC MILIEU

15

F I V E

CHINA’S RISE: IMPACT ON INDIA

19

S I X

MILITARY VIEWPOINT ON PAKISTAN

23

S E V E N

HOMELAND SECURITY

27

E I G H T

INDIA’S MARITIME PERILS

33

N I N E

WAR-GAMES, MODELLING, SIMULATION

37

T E N

OBAMA’S POLICIES ON ASIA

41

E L E V E N

MEDIA & NATIONAL SECURITY

45

T W E LV E

SPOTLIGHT ON MANAGING DISASTER

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Challenges for Indian

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The writer is a former Vice Chief of Army Staff.

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 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

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here are multifarious threats or chalToday, there is no clear separation of peace and war, LT G E N E R A L ( R E T D ) lenges facing both the nation and the as both seem to have merged. In the present context V I J AY O B E R O I Indian Army. As the army continues to be of networks and instant communications, the need the last bastion of security of the nation is for reconfigured military forces with a broad range many of these challenges are congruent. The challenges are of skills for employment across the spectrum of conflict. military and non-military, as well as external and internal. Warfare is also evolving, with a transmutation of conflicts underAs the ultimate instrument, which the nation can employ when others way. For example, the concept of fighting a nuclear war has given way have not succeeded or the task is beyond their resources, capacity or to deterrence. Protracted regional conventional wars are also unlikely expertise, the army along with the other two services, is called upon and conventional wars are being replaced by proxy wars, which tend to to successfully tackle it. Thus, there is a heavy responsibility which the keep the adversary, politically destabilised and economically burdened. nation bestows on its military. Since the army is the largest of the three There is visible and vocal public restraint on defence spending and services, its involvement, both in frequency and content, is proportion- large military establishments. In future, the aim of using force may not ally higher. This is a historical fact and I do not foresee any dilution in be annihilation or attrition but calibrated elimination of the enemy’s the nation’s dependence on the army to tackle difficult and varied situ- resistance by careful and proportionate use of counter-violence includations that may affect the security of the nation. ing surgical strikes. We are in an era where all security issues are inter-related. Threats and challenges need to be assessed in light of the prevailThis includes both internal and external security. Externally, national ing security situation within the region as well as the impact of major security has become highly dependent on the state of regional secu- players further afield, as they affect the nation’s security. In addition, rity. At times, this dependency extends even to international security. technology and the changing face of war and conflicts also directly Consequently, we must not think about challenges in relation only to impact on challenges, as they are pointers to the restructuring and India or the Indian Army. This also implies that linear thinking and rigid transformation needed for defence forces of all countries. These are the military force structures should be abandoned and traditional concepts facets discussed in some detail in this paper. The analysis would be in of deterrence and defence need to be supplemented by new doctrines, three parts as under: which may include prevention, pre-emption and a pro-active stance.  Part - I: Global and Regional Security Scenario.

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

India is confronted with a large number of military and non-military challenges, most of which would have to be tackled successfully by the Indian Army. Our external problems are largely inherited from pre-Independence days. Internal problems should be expected in a large and populous country like India for at least a decade or two more. The latter require to be dealt mainly by non-military means but the army may have to step in if they cannot be effectively tackled by the government and the civil society.

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Need to Restructure & Transform

B U S I N E S S

T E C H N O L O G Y

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Army

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Challenges for Indian

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The writer is a former Chief of Naval Staff.

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f the Indian Navy (IN) received its baptism capability as far back as the 1960s. With an aircraftADMIRAL (RETD) by fire in the 1971 Bangladesh War, the great carrier, two cruisers, 14 destroyers/frigates and fleet ARUN PRAKASH Asian Tsunami of 2004 provided the setting for auxiliaries, India has the region’s largest naval force, its debut as a regional force of substance. In a which acquired its submarine and maritime reconcopybook demonstration of rapid response and professionalism, naissance wings in the seventies. The IN also possessed the skills as the IN mobilised ships, helicopters, aircraft, medical personnel well as the wherewithal to operate far and wide in the Indian Ocean and relief material for a unique mercy mission in a matter of hours. By Region (IOR) in this era but neither claimed nor was it accorded the the morning following the disaster, IN personnel were rendering succour status of a ‘blue water’ navy. to their own disaster stricken countrymen on the East coast and in the Far more important than the accretions and upgradation of the Andaman Islands and simultaneously helping distressed neighbours in Navy’s hardware that have taken place over the past three to four Maldives and Sri Lanka. Three days later IN ships were off the coast of decades, is the maturing of attitudes that has come about in the same Aceh. The US Navy arrived on the scene almost a week later. period. The difference between “then and now” may be summed up The significance of this humanitarian relief deployment lay, not as follows: so much in the navy’s swift and purposeful mobilisation of men and  Having overcome much of the diffidence and tentativeness that material, as in the unprecedented synergy that emerged between marked India’s post-independence outlook, its foreign policy has finally Naval HQ, MoD and MEA. Of even greater import was the fact that cast aside its moralistic rhetoric and is now, coming to terms with the quick and unequivocal decisions could be obtained telephoni- primacy of national interests above all else. cally from the National Security Adviser; the customary paperwork  This dawn of realpolitik in India, marked by developments like a followed in due course. belated recognition of Israel, and the blossoming of Indo-US relations, has led to an era of more focused foreign policy initiatives. Change in Perceptions  The restrained but very significant role played by the Navy in In spite of frequent media queries as to when the IN would acquire a the evolving matrix of India’s international relations, has not gone blue-water capability, we can safely state that the IN had a blue water unnoticed. It has brought home the realisation to the political establish-

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

Nature has ensured that India’s geographical configuration makes her as reliant on the seas as any island nation. Emerging geo-political imperatives as well as India’s post-liberalisation economic trajectory have now combined to erase the nation’s continental mindset and highlight her maritime dependence. It would not be an exaggeration to say that the future of the IN is intimately linked with the realisation of India’s manifest destiny. The Indian Navy has attained a certain stature and credibility, both nationally and internationally.

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

A Force of Substance

B U S I N E S S

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Navy

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Concepts & Perspectives


 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

tial that the available resources are utilised optimally to meet the demands of the moment. Imaginative use of resources is called for. These seemingly elementary conclusions are basic and obvious, but they represent the most pervasive and important challenge for the IAF. They encompass the entire ambit of IAF activities which range from force structure planning to acquisitions, training, operational planning with frequent reviews, maintenance systems and HRD. The IAF has to maintain a high alert status with the ability to launch a variety of operations with speed, efficiency and effectiveness. The IAF also has the onerous responsibility to ensure that it must always prevail. It is an established fact that no country has won an aerial war while losing the war on land. And yet, no country has won a war on the ground after losing the aerial war. The already very high salience of air power in conflict situations can only increase with time and the IAF must ensure that it is up to the task. The most essential challenge is to be always ready to undertake operational tasks with confidence and to win. It is the raison d’etre of the IAF.

AIR MARSHAL (RETD) PAT N E Y

he challenges facing the IAF are many VINOD and varied. All armed forces are mandated to forever maintain vigil and ensure that extant capabilities meet the varied demands that may be placed upon them. Such demands include the need, maybe continuous need to deter or coerce adversaries, fight a war successfully in case deterrence or coercion fails, provide aid to civil powers and speedy action in case of natural calamities. Sometimes air power may be the only means to deliver aid or undertake operations at short notice. The list of possible tasks is indeed extensive but the resources are limited. Undoubtedly, in the case of the IAF, the same resources may be utilised for different contingencies, but this militates against optimisation of capabilities for different needs. Hence, it follows that the service must maintain both a judicious and cost effective force structure in spite of limited budgets as well as ensure the availability of requisite operational capabilities. Given the high cost of military equipment and the long lead times for acquisition, it is inevitable that the life of equipment is likely to be very high. This implies that the equipment still in use could have been designed and manufactured in times when the nature of threats was very different. In addition, insufficiencies and inadequacies will also abound. At times, the insufficiencies can be very significant. It is essen-

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Effective Reach In the fast changing geo-political environment there is a need for India to expand her sphere of influence in keeping with her growing economic and diplomatic strength. To facilitate this, the IAF should develop the

The writer is a former Vice Chief of Air Staff.

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Force Structure Constraints

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

The challenges facing the IAF are many and varied. All armed forces are mandated to forever maintain vigil and ensure that extant capabilities meet the varied demands that may be placed upon them. Such demands include the need, maybe continuous need to deter or coerce adversaries, fight a war successfully in case deterrence or coercion fails, provide aid to civil powers and speedy action in case of natural calamities. Sometimes air power may be the only means to deliver aid or undertake operations at short notice. The list of possible tasks is indeed extensive but the resources are limited.

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Long Range Presence & Persistence

B U S I N E S S

T E C H N O L O G Y

Air Force

C O N T E N T S

Challenges for Indian

W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

3

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Concepts & Perspectives


The Emergence of New & Complex Threats

Emergence of New and Unconventional Threats Flush with success in defeating a superpower, the USSR, in Afghanistan, Islamic jehadi warriors turned their attention to new targets, mainly the US, the remaining superpower, now perceived as the main oppressor of Islamic causes, countries and people. A new strategic landscape

started emerging. In the past, it was mainly rivalry between the strongest states which posed major challenges to global peace and stability. Today it is the weak state, the failed or failing state which poses new and complex, difficult-to-handle threats. The latter consists primarily of countries ruled by authoritarian regimes or countries with weak institutional infrastructure and economies, countries on the verge of becoming failed states. It is a remarkable fact that individuals and groups indulging in international terrorism and proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) have without exception originated in and nurtured by countries with authoritarian regimes. In addition, a new and potent player is the non-state actor. As fascism and communism provided the ideological moorings of conflict in the twentieth century, religious fundamentalism and militancy threaten to do likewise in the contemporary world. While traditional security threats continue to exist, non-state actors, particularly those who speak and act on behalf of radical Islam, have become perhaps the most important security threat not only to individual countries but to entire regions, indeed to the world at large. And, threats to national security are the greatest where state hostility is combined with state-promoted activity of ostensibly non-state actors. However, the US did not pay appropriate attention

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A retired IFS officer, the writer was successively India’s Ambassador to Yemen (North), Venezuela, Oman, Thailand and Spain and, finally, Head of India’s non-official office in Taiwan. Currently, he is Visiting Fellow at the Institute of Defence Studies and Analyses, and Visiting Fellow at the Institute of Chinese Studies.

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G U P TA

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

B

y the end of the twentieth century, RANJIT the US had emerged as the sole and unchallenged superpower commanding global diplomatic, economic, military, political and technological pre-eminence unprecedented in human history. No country, by itself or in alliance with others, was in a position to challenge America’s predominant global influence. It had appeared that the entire strategic landscape was America’s to shape almost as it liked but a bolt from the blue, almost literally, dramatically changed US strategic planning and sharply altered the evolving global strategic trajectories. For the first time in its history, on September 11, 2001, the US mainland was attacked targeting the symbols of its military and economic might. This traumatic experience compelled the US to turn away from its other concerns, particularly relating to China, and made the ‘War on Terror’ its top strategic priority.

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

India has emerged as a new factor on the global stage. India’s economy has been showing impressive growth rates on a consistent basis and India is poised to become the world’s third largest economy before 2050 and the world has taken notice. In 1998, India barged into the exclusive club of nuclear weapons powers amidst very strong criticism by the world’s most powerful and important countries such as the US and China in Joint Statements at the Presidential level. However, the new US President, George Bush, prodded by the urge to constrain China, in a stunning reversal of decades old US policy, decided to forge a strategic partnership with India, a consciously chosen new plank of US global strategy.

W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

Milieu

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Global Strategic

T E C H N O L O G Y

4

B U S I N E S S

Concepts & Perspectives


China is engaged in developing “a revolutionised, modernised and regularised people’s army with Chinese characteristics. It is endeavouring to transform its armed forces from a numerically superior to a qualitatively superior type and from a manpower-intensive to a technology-intensive type, as well as to train high-quality personnel and improve the modernisation of weaponry in order to comprehensively enhance the armed forces combat effectiveness.” The Gulf War of 1991 brought about a rude awakening as China realised that there was a wide gap between its technological capabilities and those of the West. "Information warfare and electronic warfare, which are of key importance while fighting on the ground, can only exploit the victory." —General Liu Huaqing, Vice-Chairman, Central Military Commission, 1999

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

New Doctrines: Active Defence and Hi-tech Limited War

‘people’s war’, a strategy to ‘lure the enemy in deep’ into one’s own territory, the modern PLA doctrine of ‘active defence’ calls for forward positioning, frontier defence, engagement of the enemy at or over the border and potential engagement in conflict beyond China’s immediate periphery.” Consequently, China has had to redefine its ‘strategic frontiers’, a commonplace term in the West, but one that has been adopted in China only over the last seven or eight years. The Chinese now think in terms of their strategic frontiers encompassing ‘defence of air, space and sea frontiers’. China defines strategic frontier as the living space of a state and a nation that contracts with the ebb and flow of comprehensive national strength. Compared with China’s historically reactive stance of luring the adversary deep inside and destroying him through strategic defence, the present doctrine is essentially pro-active and seeks to take the battle into enemy territory.

BRIGADIER (RETD) GURMEET KANWAL

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he People’s Liberation Army (PLA) is gradually becoming a more modern and professional force capable of dealing with diverse threats. This transformation is being fuelled by significant changes in doctrine and tactics, the introduction of sophisticated command and control systems, the gradual acquisition of state-of-the-art hardware, an enhanced training regime and steady downsizing of para-military personnel to improve the teeth-to-tail ratio. Underpinning the new professionalism of the PLA is the new doctrine of ‘active defence’ (jiji fangyu) and ‘limited war under hi-tech conditions’ (jubu zhanzheng zai gaoji jishu tiaojian xia). Since China’s ignominious incursion into Vietnam in 1979, PLA doctrine has evolved from Mao’s ‘people’s war’ to ‘people’s war under modern conditions’ through a ‘limited/local war’ phase to the current doctrine introduced in 1993. The new doctrine is more assertive than previously and is not bound by any restrictions to confine and limit future conflict to within China’s national boundaries. Professor David Shambaugh has written, “Rather than conducting a

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Hardware Modernisation China is engaged in developing “a revolutionised, modernised and regularised people’s army with Chinese characteristics. It is endeavouring to transform its armed forces from a numerically superior to a quali-

The writer is Director, Centre for Land Warfare Studies, New Delhi.

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C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES T E C H N O L O G Y

Match Strategic Challenge, Develop Military Deterrence

B U S I N E S S

on India

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

China’s Rise: Impact

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

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R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Concepts & Perspectives


As it stands, Pakistan is far from developing a sustainable democratic system. Its politics is weaker than ever in a post-military rule scenario of the past. The Army can be expected to continue to set the limits on what is possible in Pakistan. Key areas such as the control of nuclear weapons, the policy on Afghanistan and Jammu & Kashmir, hardware procurement, corporate interests of the military and organizational autonomy are unlikely to be surrendered to the civilian regime.

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

A

fter nine years of military rule, fourth ‘interesting and alarming’. In his book ‘The Idea of GENERAL (RETD) since inception, and a general election Pakistan’, he has titled the third chapter ‘The Army’s V. P. M A L I K that introduced a fractured political Pakistan’ and given it priority over the chapters on power in the form of a tottering four Political and Islamic Pakistan. The connotation is party coalition, Pakistan is once again at the crossroads. not difficult to comprehend. In any democratic nation, the constituThere are doubts being raised on the ability of the coali- tional role of the Army is to ensure nation’s external security and provide tion partners to set aside petty differences and focus on the country’s assistance to civil authority for internal security without dominating its serious economic and internal security problems. Prospects of a change politics. But when that Army has an unstated, self-appointed mission of over from a military to a civilian rule also appear distant. The Pakistan guarding the domestic order, no analyst or a historian can be blamed for Army is not in a position to step into the present political quagmire. The describing the situation in the way Stephen Cohen has done. Pakistan major question, therefore, is what kind of civil-military relations can be has been a ‘largely military dominated’ nation till recently. expected in the foreseeable future? General Musharraf’s last year in power saw a turbulent Pakistan. Nurturing a Military Culture There were extended civil society protests, more violence and frequent Pakistan has never developed any robust state institutions save for the suicide terrorism. Taliban and Al Qaeda supporters were able to spread military. More appropriately, Pakistan’s military culture did not allow their writ from FATA to cities of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP). development of a robust political institution. After nine long years of In Waziristan alone, over 850 soldiers were killed and 559 captured, the last military rule and in the absence of any charismatic political of whom 439 were later released, in the ever intensifying counter leader or party, Pakistani politics is a much weaker institution today militancy operations. Army commandos assaulted the Lal Masjid and its than ever before. madrasas in Rawalpindi. There was a declaration of emergency, change In the last general elections, Pakistan Muslim League (Q), which of guard in the Army, assassination of former Prime Minister Benazir supported Musharraf’s military rule, was decimated. Four parties that Bhutto, an assassination attempt on Musharraf himself and finally the emerged at the top and formed the coalition government were the general elections. Pakistan Peoples’ Party (PPP) under Asif Ali Zardari, Muslim League South Asia analyst Stephen Philip Cohen finds Pakistan both (Nawaz) (ML-N) under Nawaz Sharif, Awami National Party (ANP)

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The writer is a former Chief of Army Staff. Now associated with Observer Research Foundation, New Delhi.

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C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES T E C H N O L O G Y

Under the Shadow of Fundamentalists

B U S I N E S S

Pakistan

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

Military Viewpoint on

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

6

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Concepts & Perspectives


The writer is a former Research Fellow, Centre for Land Warfare Studies, New Delhi

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I N D I A N D E F E N C E

Ë Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

I

ndia aspires to attain a ‘developed nation’ disparities and complex socio-cultural and ethnoAMIT KUMAR SINGH status in the near future. It has been experireligious traditions. Unhealthy vote bank politics, encing sustained high economic growth rate foreign interference and an inadequate and untimefor about a decade and is being projected as ly response from the government together have an emerging economic giant. On the political and strategic front, produced scores of conflict situations wherein various sub-national, it has made its presence felt globally. It seems that India is ready religious, ethnic, cultural, casteist, linguistic and provincial identities to take its rightful place as the world is willing to restructure decade old have cropped up. treaties to accommodate India’s interests. But the momentum of growth and recognition is largely dependent on the nation’s ability to provide Nation Building: A Protracted Exercise credible internal security. India’s political and administrative structure is a continuation of what Over time, the very nature and diversity of the integral constituents had been laid down and practiced by the colonial rulers. Although of India’s internal security have broadened and acquired multifaceted efforts to customise the same to the Indian situation have been underdimensions. This encompasses threats from separatist, ethnic and ter- taken, the process has been very slow and certain societies and regions rorist violence, challenges pertaining to infiltration and sponsorship continue to remain outside the mainstream development process. The of terrorism from across the borders, subversive activities of some masses in these regions feel alienated as they have no stake in the groups/individuals within the country, threats to security of individuals system, which appears to them as imposed. and vital installations and services and trans-national crimes relating to Given the civilisational and political history of the country, vardrug trafficking, smuggling of arms and fake currency. Since many of the ied patterns of regional settlements and demographies, social and internal problems have external linkages, the line between the internal linguistic variations, religious beliefs and customs, and a complex and external threats has become blurred. and stratified social structure have come into being. The huge Indian society is divided along the lines of caste, religion, race, ethnicity and Major Factors Affecting Internal Security language. In spite of all efforts towards achieving ‘Unity in Diversity’, India’s internal security problems are rooted in its history, geogra- the state has not been able to accommodate, satisfy and maintain phy, colonial legacy, burgeoning population, social and economic the extremely diverse socio-economic and political milieu leading

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

The malfunctioning of government machinery in terms of inefficiency, corruption and exploitation is largely considered as the factor behind the creation of a power vacuum as well as an opportunity for various extremist and insurgent groups to take root and find legitimacy amongst the deprived and the impoverished sections of the populace. The judicial system and law enforcement agencies function under the influence of local political leaders which makes them slow, biased and literally non-functional.

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

A Multifaceted Challenge

B U S I N E S S

T E C H N O L O G Y

Security

C O N T E N T S

Homeland

W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Concepts & Perspectives


Concepts & Perspectives

HOMELAND SECURITY

to unrest, discontent and conflicts within sections of the society. Besides, regional social imbalances have given rise to and fuelled insurgencies, terrorism, sub-nationalism and communalism. Rise of contentious politics based on sectarian, ethnic, linguistic or other divisive criteria, is also responsible for undermining the process of nation building.

literally non-functional. Continuous political exploitation of the police organisation has adversely affected the discipline, morale, efficiency, honesty and trustworthiness of the constabulary. Since the culprits often remain at large, citizens have lost faith in the capability of law enforcement agencies to maintain order and law as well as the ability of the judicial system to impart justice. A direct manifestation of this is the increasing instances of vigilantism demonstrated by people in a few parts of the country. After sixty-one years of independence, a quarter of our population is still Below the Poverty Line (BPL) (See Graph below). Persistence of large scale illiteracy, unemployment, shelter, clean drinking water, basic sanitation and health care facilities, food and nutrition - all point towards the failure of governance. Uneven economic development and unfulfilled aspirations of the people create a sense of deprivation. Disparities have become even more pronounced in an era when structural changes in

Failure of Governance and Growing Disparities The malfunctioning of government machinery in terms of inefficiency, corruption and exploitation is largely considered as the factor behind the creation of a power vacuum as well as an opportunity for various extremist and insurgent groups to take root and find legitimacy amongst the deprived and the impoverished sections of the populace. The judicial system and law enforcement agencies function under the influence of local political leaders which makes them slow, biased and

Percentage of Population Living Below Poverty Line in Various States

J&K Punjab Himachal Haryana Kerala Andhra Pradesh Gujarat Assam Rajasthan Tamilnadu West Bengal

www.spguidepublications.com

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

Karnataka All India Maharashtra Uttar Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Uttrakhand

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Jharkhand Chhatisgarh Bihar Orrissa

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

Source: ‘Poverty Estimates for 2004-2005, Planning Commission, March 2007, Available at URL, http://planningcommission. nic.in/news/prmar07.pdf

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The biggest lacuna in our system of port and coastal security, if indeed one exists, is the total lack of coordination between the 14 or more ministries, departments and agencies such as MoST, MHA, MoD, DG Shipping, ONGC, Customs, Immigration, Fisheries and so on, that have a degree of involvement in maritime related issues. Security compromises take place on an almost daily basis because the left hand does not know what the right is doing. Agencies work at cross purposes, while important harbours like Mumbai remain unguarded and porous.

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

F

or nearly six decades after indepenthe Trojan War to the attack on Pearl Harbour, hisADMIRAL (RETD) dence, we remained oblivious to the tory has demonstrated that ‘surprise’ is a key factor A R U N P R A K A S H fact that a peninsular country like India, in the success of any well-planned and profescircumscribed by high mountain ranges sionally executed operation. Similarly, experience to its north, is as abjectly dependent on the ocean environ- has demonstrated that the obvious antidote to surprise is sound and ment for its trade, security and economic well being, as any timely ‘intelligence’. island nation. It was the opening up of the economy in the early years In this context, if we reflect briefly on the conflicts that the sub-conof the last decade, and the consequent globalisation of trade that tinent has seen over the past six decades, we will realise that starting triggered a change in perceptions. The realisation has slowly begun with the Pakistani invasion of Kashmir a few weeks after Independence, to dawn on politicians, bureaucrats and diplomats that the roots of and the 1962 Chinese attacks in NEFA and Ladakh, right up to the economic prosperity of India lie in the safety of her maritime trade infiltration into Kargil heights in 1999, our intelligence apparatus has and energy lifelines, which can only be ensured if maritime security invariably let us down. receives due importance. The 26/11 terrorist strikes in Mumbai were simply more of the same But has there been a similar awakening in our national security and demonstrated that people like us who fail to learn from history are establishment? Two of India’s sea services, the Indian Navy (IN) and condemned to re-live it, over and over again. Here, let me attempt to the Coast Guard (CG), have been in the news in recent weeks because enlighten the ill-informed debate that followed this appalling episode, of events that have happened virtually at our doorstep in Mumbai, as as a part of the post-facto ‘blame game’ that different agencies seem to well as in the distant waters of the Gulf of Aden. The passage of a few consider essential. weeks since their occurrence has perhaps permitted us the necessary An intelligence report can be considered ‘actionable’ only if it detachment to reflect on them. clearly contains three elements: WHAT (description), WHERE (position) and WHEN (date and time of detection). In the case of a mobile target Surprise and Intelligence like a ship or aircraft, it needs a fourth ingredient: WHITHER (course The element of ‘surprise’ is one of the Principles of War, first enunci- and speed). If any of these ingredients is missing or vague, the user ated by the 19th century German strategist Carl von Clausewitz. From would be justified in classifying such intelligence as ‘unactionable’

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The writer is a former Chief of Naval Staff.

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Sound & Timely Intelligence Hold the Key

B U S I N E S S

Perils

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

India’s Maritime

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

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Concepts & Perspectives


 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

BRIGADIER (RETD) ANAND

model has been defined as a physiVINOD cal, mathematical or otherwise logical representation of a system, entity, phenomenon or a process. Both in the military and civil arena, mathematical models are employed for resource allocations to solve management problems. Physical models are used for experimentation and extensive testing and virtual reality simulations are used to provide decision makers an environment to examine a wide range of issues. Several models for war games at different levels as well as for research and training have been developed as important tools for military analysis. Military applications of modelling and simulation techniques have been found useful in seeking answers to questions regarding the structure the military forces, maintenance of viable military industrial complex and allocation of limited defence budget among services given the uncertainty of the future. Live military simulations involve real people using real systems. For instance, use of troops in field exercises. Virtual simulations involve real people using simulated systems such as the use of a flight simulator or a driving simulator. It would also include exercises with real people using real systems, interacting with and reacting to actions of simulated people or systems. In military parlance, generally when we talk of models and simulation, it is ‘constructive’ simulation we allude to. Constructive simulations are considered to be contained in the computer with the potential of limited human input. Human in the loop and

distributed simulation systems are essential aspects of military training. Constructive simulations are used for budgets, acquisitions, structure, employment and deployment of forces and several other

military problems. Further, war gaming and simulation modelling - the methodology and techniques of management discipline of Operational Research (OR) are utilised in analysing battle systems for military planning. Although the evolution of the methodology for combat modelling and war management is based in complex mathematical theory, it has been found to be an extremely valuable tool in decision making at strategic, operational and tactical levels.

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Modelling and Simulation Concepts

The earliest mathematical models for combat modelling, which have found extensive use in attrition modelling utilised in almost all the war gaming models developed so far, were evolved by F.W. Lanchester in 1914. The US has been the front runner in evolving a number of complex military models to address a broad range of military issues. In the Indian armed forces, the subject of Operations Research and associated modelling techniques were included as part of the curriculum of the College of Defence Management (CDM) when it was established in the mid 1970s at Secunderabad. Thus, even though awareness and knowledge of Operations Research techniques existed in the forces, formal military education can be said to have commenced only in the 1970s. A few

The writer is a Senior Fellow, Centre for Strategic Studies and Simulation, United Service Institution of India, New Delhi.

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Defining a Model

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Computerised exercises add to the cost-cutting efforts of the defence forces as the officers and men can directly learn on computers, and the field exercises and training, which involve costly equipment, could be reduced. It was further revealed that a comprehensive corps-level war game was also under development and would soon be unveiled. However, almost a decade has passed but the operational/corps level war game project is yet to see fruition.

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Striving to Yield Better Dividends

B U S I N E S S

T E C H N O L O G Y

Simulation

C O N T E N T S

War-games, Modelling,

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Concepts & Perspectives


Obama’s Policies on

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

K . S U B R A H M A N YA M

the Indian support swung in his favour. For Indians, Obama represented American pluralism at its best and also the fulfillment of the dream of Martin Luther King who acknowledged that he owed his inspiration for the nonviolent agitation for civil rights to Mahatma Gandhi. Obama himself kept a portrait of Gandhiji in his office. Once Obama selected Senator Joe Biden as his Vice-Presidential candidate, even the small strategic community which earlier preferred a Republican victory concluded that Obama was a better bet for India as Joe Biden was known for his pro-India stance. He worked very hard as Senate minority leader to mobilise the support of the Democrats in favour of the Indo-US civil nuclear cooperation agreement. Senator Obama wrote a letter to the Indian Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh on September 23, 2008, six weeks before the election and three days after the bomb explosions in Delhi which killed 20 people and wounded hundreds. Obama offered condolences for the loss of lives, both in Delhi and Kabul embassy explosions. He wrote, “These cowardly acts of mass murder are a stark reminder that India suffers from the scourge of terrorism on a scale few other nations can imagine. I will continue to urge all countries to cooperate with Indian authorities in tracking down the perpetrators of these atrocities.”

he election of Senator Barrack Hussein Obama as the forty-fourth President of the US received enthusiastic reception in India. Initially as the campaign for Democratic Party candidature was on, the Indian opinion was split between support to Senator Hillary Clinton and Senator Obama. This was partly because Hillary Clinton had visited India, especially to participate in the funeral of Mother Teresa and was a well known figure to the USIndian Community. Secondly, Senator Obama under the influence of Non-proliferation fundamentalists had moved a ‘killer amendment’ to the US-Indian civil nuclear cooperation agreement when it was under discussion in the Senate. After the defeat of the amendment he voted in favour of Indo-US civil nuclear cooperation. These reservations vanished when Hillary Clinton conceded the Democratic candidacy to Obama and pledged full and active cooperation. There was however a small section of strategic community who felt that the pro-India policy initiated by the US under President Bush and Secretary Condoleezza Rice would have a better chance of continuity under a Republican Administration than under a Democratic one and it was more likely the Nuclear Non-proliferation Ayatollahs would be more influential in a Democratic regime than a Republican one. However, as the campaign progressed and candidate Obama made clear his attitude and policies towards India, increasingly

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Obama’s Views on Pakistan Following the terrorist attack on Mumbai on November 26, 2008, the

The writer is a renowned strategic analyst and a former Director of IDSA and Convener of the National Security Advisory Board.

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Indian Support in Obama’s Election

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

Never before in the history of India and the US, have two nations been at such cross roads which can result in a close strategic partnership between the two countries or revert to the estrangement that marked the Cold War period. The initiative is with President Barack Obama and it depends on the strategic choice he makes. Unlike the Vietnam War, which the US could afford to lose because the Vietnamese had no aggressive intentions towards the US, this present war against Jehadism, the US cannot afford to lose, both in its own interest and that of other civilisations. The Jehadis carried the war across the oceans into the US when they hit the twin towers in New York and the Pentagon.

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Addressing India's Concerns

B U S I N E S S

T E C H N O L O G Y

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Asia

C O N T E N T S

10

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Concepts & Perspectives


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The writer is a renowned strategic analyst and a former Director of IDSA and Convener of the National Security Advisory Board.

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 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

T

he terrorist attack on Mumbai from were leveled about Indian aircraft intrusions and a K . S U B R A H M A N YA M November 26 to 28 in 2008, and the telephonic threat alleged to have been conveyed subsequent ‘war of words’ in the media by the Indian Foreign Minister to the Pakistani of India and Pakistan have focused President. There was engineered war hysteria in attention on the role of media in the management of Pakistan. For knowledgeable observers, it was obvious that both national security. Intercepts of the mobile telephone con- terrorist attack and the subsequent war hysteria were carefully versations between the terrorists during their operation in Mumbai and designed to create a situation of confrontation between India and their handlers in Pakistan brought out the fact that the latter were able Pakistan analogous to the one that followed the attack on the Indian to watch the live TV coverage of the counter terror operations of security Parliament on December 13, 2001. There were both mentions in services and convey instructions to the terrorists. This has raised ques- Pakistani electronic and print media about its Army mobilising its tions about the nature of the media coverage, which seemed to have forces, which are currently deployed on the Western borders in the helped the terrorists. Similar questions had also arisen during the TV campaign against the Taliban, to the east in order to counter the coverage of the Kargil war. Indian threat. The Pakistani Air Force also conducted sweeps over major cities. Post 26/11 Brouhaha In retrospect, it appeared that the terrorist attack and the subseFollowing the terrorist outrage in Mumbai there has been intense quent statements of Pakistani leadership, strongly supported by the anger in the country not only about the failure of intelligence and discussions in the media on the Indian threat were meant to justify inadequacies of the security system to deal with a terrorist challenge the Pakistani withdrawal of their troops from the Western front in but also about the response of the government to this aggression view of their reluctance to campaign against the Taliban under US and humiliation inflicted upon the country. This was understand- pressure. Simultaneously, a number of supply convoys transporting able. The Government of India was very cautious in its formulation war materiel to US and NATO forces deployed in Afghanistan were of the charge that the terrorist attack was carried out by elements attacked again - a signal to the US that the proposed `surge’ plan of originating from Pakistan. While the very first response from the the US forces in Afghanistan might run into difficulties. Pakistan government sounded positive, within hours wild charges While fortunately the Government of India did not walk into

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

The Indian electronic media pathetically failed to counter the Pakistani propaganda and in a few cases, even lent itself to project the Pakistani propaganda without any caveats and thereby became instrumentalities of Pakistani propaganda offensive. The Indian electronic media helped to unify the Pakistani public opinion behind a perceived stand that their country was uniting bravely against a bullying Indian posture. In this ‘war of words’ the Indian electronic media overlooked the basic fact that Indians were killed, Indian soil was invaded and Mumbai was held to ransom.

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Focus on Domain Knowledge

B U S I N E S S

T E C H N O L O G Y

Security

C O N T E N T S

Media & National

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Concepts & Perspectives


The writer is a former Chief of Army Staff.

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f it is not an earthquake, it may be floods in pared and equipped to deal with the consequences GENERAL (RETD) Assam, a cyclone in Orissa or a fire in a packed of these disasters. V. P. M A L I K cinema hall in Delhi. The national calendar is often defined by disasters. In the last 15 Disaster Relief and Management to 20 years, we have seen a disastrous tsunami in South India Disaster relief and management, in principle, are a function of the civil and neighboring countries, earthquakes in Uttarkashi, Latur and administration. The role of the armed forces is to provide ‘emergency Gujarat, devastating cyclones in Andhra, Orissa and Gujarat, the Malpa aid to civil administration’. If the use of the armed forces in natural and landslide and destructive floods almost every year, somewhere or the man-made disasters has grown substantially, it is a tribute to their disciother in the country. Terrorist strikes in urban areas have become the pline and duty conscious ethos, but it also points to the lack of prevenlatest addition to this list. tion and preparedness by the civil authorities. Today, even when a child The statistics are mind boggling. Of the 31 Indian states, 22 have falls into an abandoned bore well or people are trapped at a picnic spot, been identified as vulnerable to natural disasters. 40 million hectares of it is the Army which is summoned to carry out the rescue operation. land is flood prone; an average of 18.6 million hectares is flooded annuThe armed forces have become the Government’s chief rescue ally. About 16 per cent of the country is drought prone; 50 million people and relief force, much like the US Marines because they are disciare affected annually by drought. About 50 to 60 per cent of India is vul- plined, efficient and dedicated. Being well organised and equipped nerable to seismic activity of varying levels. India’s 5700 km coastline is to provide emergency support to a wide range of essential services regularly devastated by tropical cyclones. The Indian Ocean is one of the such as communications, transportation, emergency health and six major tsunami or cyclone-prone regions of the world. Civilian casual- public works, they can react rapidly, are self-contained and highly ties in India on account of terrorist attacks stand next to Iraq. mobile. They have the ability to create infrastructure even in remote It has been suggested that more frequent floods, droughts, and places where the civil administration may be weak. But the problem cyclones are a function of global warming. We can expect more of these begins when the army is seen as a substitute response mechanism in future. Other disasters like earthquakes have reasons beyond the for crises which ought to have been anticipated and planned for by control of man. The truth of the matter is that we are inadequately pre- the civil administration.

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

Ë Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

The armed forces have become the Government’s chief rescue and relief force, much like the US Marines because they are disciplined, efficient and dedicated. Being well organised and equipped to provide emergency support to a wide range of essential services such as communications, transportation, emergency health and public works, they can react rapidly, are self-contained and highly mobile. They have the ability to create infrastructure even in remote places where the civil administration may be weak. But the problem begins when the army is seen as a substitute response mechanism for crises which ought to have been anticipated and planned for by the civil administration.

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Expanding Role of Armed Forces

B U S I N E S S

T E C H N O L O G Y

Disaster

C O N T E N T S

Spotlight on Managing

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Concepts & Perspectives


Concepts & Perspectives

SPOTLIGHT ON MANAGING DISASTER

Disaster Management Act, 2005: An Excerpt ‘Disaster Management’ means a continuous and integrated process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing necessary measures to mitigate the devastating effects of a disaster or calamity.

Without prejudice to generality of the provisions contained in sub-section (1), the NDMA may:  Lay down policies on Disaster Management.  Approve the National Plan.  Approve the plans prepared by the Ministries or Departments of the Government of India in accordance with the National Plan.  Lay down guidelines to be followed by the State Authorities in drawing up the State Plan.  Lay down guidelines to be followed by the different Ministries or Departments of the Government of India for the purpose of integrating the measures for prevention of disaster or the mitigation of its effects in their development plans and projects.  Coordinate the enforcement and implementation of the policy and plan for Disaster Management.  Arrange for and oversee the provision of funds for the purpose of mitigation, measures, preparedness and response in the event of a disaster.  Provide such support to other countries affected by major disasters as may be determined by the Central Government.  Take other such measures for the prevention of disaster, mitigation, or for preparedness and capacity building in dealing with the threatening disaster situation or disaster as it may consider necessary.

Definition ‘Disaster’ means a catastrophe, mishap, calamity or grave occurrence affecting any area, arising from natural or man made causes, by accident or negligence which results in substantial loss of life or human suffering or damage to and destruction of property, or damage to or degradation of environment, and is of such a nature or magnitude as to be beyond the capacity of the community of the affected area to cope with the disaster. ‘Disaster Management’ means a continuous and integrated process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing necessary measures to mitigate the devastating effects of a disaster or calamity. These include:  Prevention of danger or threat of any disease.  Mitigation or reduction of risk of any disaster or its severity or consequences.  Capacity building.  Preparedness to deal with any disaster.  Prompt response to any threatening disaster situation or disaster.  Evacuation, rescue and relief.  Rehabilitation and reconstruction.

Advisory Committee The NDMA may constitute an Advisory Committee consisting of experts with practical experience in the field of Disaster Management at the national, state or district level to make recommendations on different aspects of the exercise.

National Disaster Management Authority The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) shall consist of such number of members, not exceeding ten, as may be prescribed by the Central Government and unless the rules otherwise provide, the National Authority shall consist of the following:  The Prime Minister of India, who shall be the Chairperson, ex-officio  Nine other members to be nominated by the Prime Minister.  The Chairperson of the NDMA may designate one of the members under sub-clause (b) of sub section (2) to be the Vice Chairperson.

National Executive Committee & Sub-Committees The National Executive Committee shall consist of the following members:  Secretary to the Government of India in charge of the Ministry or Department entrusted with administrative control of Disaster Management, who shall be Chairperson, ex-officio.  Secretaries to the Government of India in the Ministries or Departments entrusted with administrative control of agriculture, atomic energy, defence, drinking water supply, environment and forests, finance

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Responsibility and Functions of NDMA Subject to the provisions of this Act, the NDMA shall be responsible for laying down policies, plans and guidelines for disaster management.

Disaster Management Act, 2005 and Role of the Armed Forces

response of the armed forces and discourages their enthusiasm while the other view recommends a proactive and more participative role. We are witness to several initiatives in various fields of disasters management now. A National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) is being set up to tackle situations arising from different types of disasters with state-of-the-art gadgets. Comprising eight battalions from the Central Reserve Police Force, the Central Industrial Security Force, the IndoTibetan Border Police and the Border Security Force, the force would be positioned at eight locations in different parts of the country. There would be 15 regional response centres. Some States have formed disaster management authorities at their level. Others are preparing to do so. Fire Services, Police, Civil Defense and Home Guards are being trained and equipped for a more effective role during disasters. The efficacy of these organisations in terms of training, equipment, culture, ethos, professionalism and their effectiveness will no doubt take time. Unfortunately, some of these developments have also created

The Government of India has now passed the Disaster Management Act, 2005 to put in place the necessary mechanisms for drawing up and monitoring the implementation of disaster management plans, ensuring prevention of and mitigating the effects of disasters and for undertaking prompt, coordinated response. National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) has been established (extracts attached). A National Executive Committee, comprising the Home Secretary and 14 other secretaries, has also been constituted to implement the policies and plans of the NDMA, and to take all measures for the purpose of disaster management. This new approach to disaster management, no doubt laudable, has also stirred an unnecessary debate over the role of the armed forces in fighting disasters - at least in the services. Two divergent views are being voiced in various forums. One view envisages diluting the

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50 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

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Te chnology T E C H N O L O G Y

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R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

S C O N C E P T S & P E R S P E C T I V E S

W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

C O N T E N T S


T E C H N O L O G Y

Contents O N E

NEW AGE PRECISION TARGETING

57

T WO

THE FUTURE OF WARFARE

63

T H R E E

TECHNOLOGICAL PROWESS

67

F O U R

MORE FIREPOWER FOR TANKS

71

F I V E

FUTURE WEAPONS

75

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The writer is a former Commandant, National Defence Academy.

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Ë Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

C

oncurrent with the tremendous progmother aircraft. Existing warheads could be conAIR MARSHAL (RETD) ress in all aspects of fighter aircraft verted to Laser-Guided Bomb (LGB) configuration A.K. TRIKHA design in the last few decades, there by attaching a guidance kit in the nose. The kit comhas been a quantum leap in the effecprised a semi-active laser seeker, a computer control tiveness of aerial weaponry as well. Constraints once group containing guidance and control electronics, a thermal battery imposed by weather or hours of darkness have all but and a pneumatic control augmentation system. There were front control disappeared. While improvements have come about in all aspects of canards and rear wings for stability. A target illuminated by an airborne weapons design, the single most significant capability has emanated or ground laser beam reflected laser energy incident upon it. This was from cost effective technologies which have made precision targeting a picked up by a detector array in the nose which kept the homing head reality. The concept of precision delivery of weapons dates back to the aligned to the target. The homing head measured the angle between the Second World War when the US Air Force (USAF) used radio-steered longitudinal axis of the missile and the missile-to-target line thus creatbombs called the ‘Azon’ in Burma to knock down 27 Japanese-held ing the basis for guiding the missile to the centre of the laser illuminated bridges that had resisted conventional bombs. However, during the spot. Due to such simple technology, the cost of a single Paveway was early Cold War period, pre-eminence of the nuclear strike mission so about $8,000 (Rs 396,600) but its accuracy made it as effective as 25 dominated US thinking that attention to the various aspects of fight- unguided bombs of equivalent weight. ing a conventional war took a backseat. Incredibly, the USAF actually Essentially based on the same operating principle, a family of ran out of iron bombs during the Vietnam War and had to buy back Paveway laser-guidance units was developed. Paveway II system had 5,000 of them from erstwhile West Germany to whom these had been an improved seeker and continues to be the mainstay of the USAF. The sold as scrap. It was the hard knocks during the Vietnam War that latest ‘enhanced’ versions, such as the dual mode variants, add an IN/ forced the US to focus its attention on the acquisition of capabilities GPS receiver and a MIL-Standard-1760 Databus Interface to the existing to fight a conventional war. Thus, precision bombing emerged as one laser guidance head. The weapon uses laser illumination to refine its of the key areas. aim point but can continue to be guided to its programmed aim point even if illumination is lost. The Paveway Series Paveway III system used a much more sophisticated seeker with a Paveway technology was simple and required no modifications to the wider field of view and proportional navigation guidance thus minimis-

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

The concept of precision delivery of weapons dates back to the Second World War when the US Air Force used radio-steered bombs called the ‘Azon’ in Burma to knock down 27 Japanese-held bridges that had resisted conventional bombs. However, during the early Cold War period, pre-eminence of the nuclear strike mission so dominated US thinking that attention to the various aspects of fighting a conventional war took a backseat.

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Air to Surface Weapons

B U S I N E S S

T E C H N O L O G Y

Targeting

C O N T E N T S

New Age Precision

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CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Technology


Technology

NEW AGE PRECISION TARGETING

ing energy loss due to course corrections. Paveway III can, therefore, extract a considerably longer glide range than the earlier versions enabling it to be dropped in level flight from low altitude, in a dive or even in a toss manoeuvre. Like the enhanced Paveway II, Paveway III also incorporates an IN/GPS receiver which lends the weapons an autonomous all weather capability. However due to its cost, the USAF adapted the kit only for the larger 2,000 lb class and heavier weapons.

INS guidance, the accuracy of the JDAM is within 10 m. However, if GPS is rendered ineffective due to jamming or any other reason, the accuracy still remains within 30 m. From typical operating altitudes, the standoff range of a JDAM weapon is anything from eight to 24 km. A cockpit indication informs the pilot when he is within the drop envelope for the desired target coordinates. JDAM precision guided bombs have effectively replaced ‘dumb’ bombs as the standard general-purpose air-to-ground weapon and today, all US bombers and strike aircraft can carry them. In the Iraq operations in 2003, the majority of dropped munitions were JDAM. One big advantage JDAM has over the modern Paveway III LaserGuided Bombs is that its operation is inherently simpler. Its all-weather capability does not need to laser-designate the target, and it is a true fire-and-forget weapon. However, it is slightly less accurate than LGBs, and cannot be used on moving targets. However, two developments point towards intent to expand the JDAM’s capability. During a maritime strike exercise in 2004, JDAMs equipped with Link 16 receivers were used to engage and destroy moving maritime targets. An E-8C JSTARS tracked the targets using its APY 3 radar and used the data link to transmit continuous position updates to the bombs in flight. In May 2006, a laser seeker was mounted in the nose of a GMU 38 JDAM to engage moving battlefield targets. As a consequence, Boeing received the first production contract of 600 laser seeker add-on kits for JDAM.

Homing Bombing System Another Vietnam-era development for ‘smart’ bombs was the TV-Guided Pave Strike HOBOS, of which the GBU-8 was the main production model. The HOBOS kit consisted of a nose section with a black and white TV camera, seeker electronics, strakes along the bomb body and four cruciform tail fins with flying surfaces to control the Electro-Optically Guided Bomb (EOGB). The pilot manoeuvred the aircraft to align the seeker head with the target, while the Weapon System Officer (WSO) watched a TV screen displaying the camera’s image. If the target possessed sufficient image contrast, the WSO could gate the target, lock the seeker and drop the bomb in ‘release range’. The weapon would continue to be guided towards the target by seeker logic. The HOBOS guidance kits had either image contrast seekers (KMU 353/B, KMU 390/B) or Imaging Infra Red (IIR) (MU359/B) for limited use by night or bad weather. Compared to the Paveway I LGBs, the HOBOS EOGBs had the advantage of being fully autonomous ‘fire-and-forget’ weapons. No external support, like laser illuminators for the LGBs, was necessary. However, this advantage was more than off set by the much higher cost of the EOGB kits, the necessary modifications to the delivery aircraft, and the weapon’s utility being limited only to high-contrast targets. Furthermore, the image contrast seeker technology of the time was not very sophisticated and consequently, on the whole, the HOBOS bombs were less reliable and accurate than the LGBs.

Joint Standoff Weapon JSOWs are intended to provide low observability, low cost with standoff capability to enable attacks against ground targets from outside the range of point air defence weapons. The JSOW is a ‘launch and leave’ weapon that employs a coupled IN/GPS package for navigation and is capable of all-weather, day-and-night operations. The design enables standoff capabilities up to 120 km depending on the altitude of launch. It is modular in design. All variants share the basic airframe and navigation guidance systems but differ in payloads depending on targeting needs. Three variants of the weapon were developed. The AGM-154A is the first variant of the weapon as well as the baseline JSOW and is intended for use against soft targets and close support of troops. It carries 145 X BLU-97A/B Combined Effects Bomblets. The second variant is the AGM-154B, a specialised anti-armour weapon, which carries six sticks of Sensor Fuzed Weapon sub-munitions with shaped charge warheads. Each bomblet releases four projectiles that use infrared sensors to detect targets. The third variant, the AGM-154C, is kitted out with a thermal imaging terminal seeker and carries the Bomb Royal Ordnance Augmented Charge warhead which is made up of two stages. The first stage is a shaped charge which cuts a passage through armour, concrete and earth, allowing a larger follow-through bomb to penetrate inside the target before detonation in the second stage. The weapon is designed to attack hardened targets. The AGM-154C is also being further upgraded with a Link 16 weapons data link for capability against moving maritime targets. In February 2007, Raytheon demonstrated an engine for a powered JSOW. The powered variant JSOW-ER (Extended Range) will enhance the weapon’s range from 120 km to about 500 km while retaining its low observable characteristics. Free flight demonstration of JSOW-ER is expected sometime in 2009.

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Modular Guided Weapon System (MGWS) Although the HOBOS by itself was not a particularly successful system, it did lay the base for a vastly improved MGWS family of weapons. The concept behind the MGWS was to integrate different warheads, guidance units and control airfoils/wing designs to create a weapon of choice for different target systems and environments. Two basic MGWS were developed: a GBU-15(V)1/B, using daylight only TV image contrast seeker, and a GBU-15(V)2/B with an IIR guidance unit for limited all weather day-night capability. Other than the seeker head, the components and guidance system are identical for both versions. The seeker, TV or IIR, transmits a picture to a screen in the cockpit. When the pilot or WSO identifies the target on the screen, he locks the image and releases the weapon at optimum range. The guidance system continually compares the current image with the locked scene and initiates control movements to correct any mismatch. Alternatively, the pilot could release the weapon and guide it all the way to impact through a data link. Several variants were made using the modular concept.

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Joint Direct Attack Munitions The Global Positioning System (GPS) now occupies centrestage in the arena of precision targeting. A revolution of sorts has come with a new class of guided bombs known as JDAM, which in fact refers to an addon kit that converts a variety of dumb warheads into ‘smart’ weapons. The kit comprises a guidance and control section which is mounted at the tail of the bomb body. This section houses the INS unit, the GPS receiver, the control electronics and cruciform tailfins—three mobile and one fixed, to steer the bomb. The bomb body is also fitted with strakes to enhance its stability and gliding range. Using full GPS-aided

Small Diameter Bomb The latest weapon of choice in the USAF and Navy arsenal is the SDB. Designated the GBU-39B, it is a 250 lb weapon and is half the weight of the smallest bomb in US inventory—the 500 lb Mark 82. It has demonstrated penetration of more than six feet of reinforced concrete.

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The Future of

EM weapons hold the promise of achieving high precision, well-calibrated impact with minimum collateral damage, often without any adverse effects on humans. There is no doubt that EM technology shows the most potential as a replacement for current explosives-based munitions. Ongoing research has triggered fresh thinking in military circles on the evolving concepts for offensive as well as defensive use of these weapons in combat. It has been predicted that by 2020, directed energy will be the centrepiece of US military arsenal.

Frequency, Hz

1.0 1 Hz

102

104

106

108

1010

1012

1014

1016

1020

1022

1024

1 KHz

X-rays

Microwaves

AM

Visible light

FM, TV

Redio waves

Gamma rays

Ultraviolet Infrared

1 Km

108

106

104

102

1m

1 cm

1.0

10-2

1 nm 1 um (micrometer) (nanometer)

10-4

10-6

10-8

The EM Spectrum

63 2008-2009

1026

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1 KHz

Brigadier (Retd) Vinod Anand and Subodh Kumar are Senior Fellows in the Centre for Strategic Studies and Simulation, USI of India.

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10-10

10-12

10-14

10-16

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

magnetic coils to impart kinetic energy to the projectile. A classic example of this class of weapons is the rail gun. Others aim to replace the traditional explosive warhead with a ‘beam’ of high powered microwave or laser energy for achieving destruction or degradation at the target end. In addition, some EM weapons rely on the effect of EM energy on humans and electronic equipment to achieve their destructive aim. Overall, the abiding characteristic of EM weapons is the sheer range of their destructive power and the

BRIGADIER (RETD) & SUBODH KUMAR

rominent amongst the breakthrough VINOD ANAND technologies is the promise inherent in weapons using electro-magnetic energy in place of chemical/thermodynamic energy to achieve the desired destruction or degradation at the target end. Dubbed Electro-magnetic (EM) Weapons, these include directed energy weapons using high energy microwaves/lasers/ sub-atomic particles, rail guns, non-nuclear electro-magnetic pulse bombs, super-conductivity, nanotechnology and many other technological innovations. EM weapons hold the promise of achieving high precision, well-calibrated impact with minimum collateral damage, often without any adverse effects on humans. There is no doubt that EM technology shows the most potential as a replacement for current explosives-based munitions. Ongoing research has triggered fresh thinking in military circles on the evolving concepts for offensive as well as defensive use of these weapons in combat. It has been predicted that by 2020, directed energy will be the centrepiece of US military arsenal. Broadly speaking, EM weapons aim to solve the basic gunnery problem – delivering the requisite destructive force at the requisite place and time - with the help of electro-magnetic energy instead of chemical/thermal energy. One class of EM weapons aims to replace the propellant charge with a system utilizing high powered electro-

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Overview

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

Electro-Magnetic Weapons

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T E C H N O L O G Y

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

Warfare

C O N T E N T S

Technology


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The writer is Director General, Seabird, Integrated HQ, MOD (Navy).

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avies operate in international waters technologies and trends in naval technology which REAR ADMIRAL well beyond the territorial limits of are largely going to influence the way the navy is A.R. RADHAKRISHNAN nations in war, crisis situations as going to operate in three dimensions of surface, well as peace time operations. As it air and underwater, in the foreseeable future are is a versatile instrument of the state, the navy can be addressed in the succeeding paragraphs. used in critical situations to impose, influence, coerce, or indicate support, whenever and wherever required. The Indian Computation and Automation defence forces have acquired military technology through import from With high-performance and quick computation capabilities emerging a diverse sources. Though the DRDO has contributed substantially to necessity in almost every conceivable application, information technolself reliance through indigenisation, there is still much ground to ogy has become an essential and indispensable feature in the entire be covered. Indian industries are yet to integrate themselves into range of equipment and systems in the navy. Advancements in related the demand-supply chain of weapons and armament for the defence technologies are propelled towards further miniaturisation, increase forces. in computational speed, power and lowering of costs, leading to the The Indian Navy (IN) has acquired adequate experience in the development of more compact and powerful weapons and sensors. hull design and construction of various types of warships. It is also Further, automated systems have already found their way on to naval somewhat self-reliant in many other fields like propulsion systems and platforms for survey and management of machinery, power and battle related auxiliary machinery. However, weapon systems and their control damage assessment systems. With the advancements in computation elements, electronic warfare systems, sensors such as fire control (FC) and sensor technologies, together with the advancements in Microradar and automation are relatively weaker areas. Although there are Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and nano-technologies, the next adequate design capabilities and a reasonable production base, con- two decades will witness the increased availability of sophisticated siderable performance enhancement is required in underwater sensors, automated systems for a wide range of naval applications. Thus, comcommand and control, as also IT-based systems as their critical sub- puters, microprocessors and related software that provide computation systems and components being still of imported origin. The emerging and automation capabilities, are among the most important technolo-

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 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

Though emerging technologies form the backbone of the contemporary revolution in military affairs, it is the synergistic combination of technology, systems, operations, organisation and strategy that alters the nature of warfare. The emerging technologies with respect to armaments are going to change the way military planners conceive and execute war. In fact, the coming years would witness a leaner, fitter and technology intensive armed forces. The vision must be clear that armed forces that readily embrace emerging technologies are the ones who will dominate the battlespace in the years to come.

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Emerging Trends in Naval Armament

B U S I N E S S

T E C H N O L O G Y

Prowess

C O N T E N T S

Technological

W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

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Technology


More Firepower for

Typically, an Integrated Fire Control System consists of a stabilized sighting system for target detection and acquisition. The sighting system is linked with the weapon system through a resolver chain. The ballistic offsets are calculated by the fire control computer, based on different inputs like range, gun angle, tilt, own and target speed as well as meteorological parameters, fed to the weapon. Using Electro Optical (EO) sensor imagery, target tracking is either manual or automatic. Target designation is also possible using battle management data. Thus, two servo control loops for Line-Of-Sight (LOS) stabilization and weapon slaving to LOS concurrently function in an IFCS. Data fusion techniques can also be used when multiple EO sensors like thermal imager and Charged Couple Device (CCD) are used. The same IFCS can also be used to fire different armaments. The Gunner’s Articulated Sight, which is mechanically coupled to the trunnion axis of the gun, is also used to engage static targets as a standby arrangement. Desired features of the Fire Control System are:  LOS Stabilization  Day/night and all weather observations  Hunter Killer Approach  Fast and accurate target identification and designation  Target tracking and co-incidence window firing  Advanced Image Processing  Battle Management System

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The writer is Associate Director, Instruments Research & Development Establishment, Dehradun, India.

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Desired Features of Modern IFCS

SINGH

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 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

I

n the typical war scenario today, Armoured IKBAL Fighting Vehicles (AFVs) are under threat from airborne platforms like aircraft, helicopters and missiles and land systems like artillery, infantry and armoured vehicles. Warfare has become extremely complex and a fast and accurate Integrated Fire Control System (IFCS) in AFVs is needed for first round hit probability. The concept of IFCS for AFVs was developed in the early 1990s. The IFCS is a fully computerized fire control system, mainly comprising stabilized day/night sighting system(s) and a Laser Range Finder (LRF) with an integrated ballistic computer. This system facilitates acquisition, locking and engagement of moving targets by means of manual or automatic tracking, even while the vehicle itself is on the move. It is foreseen that, in future, the main thrust would be to provide an integrated sight for all armaments of AFVs and to enhance the surveillance and firing capability of the crew. Optimization of the size, weight and the compactness of the instrumentation package to provide a full-fledged IFCS would be a critical issue. It is indicated that the state-of-art technologies like thermal imaging, line of sight stabilization, auto-tracking, complex control loops and sophisticated data processing computers for ballistic solution supplemented by the intelligent decision making blocks, data fusion, miniaturized electronics and concepts like common bus for complete electronics will be the key features of the futuristic IFCS of AFVs.

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

The concept of IFCS for AFVs was developed in the early 1990s. The IFCS is a fully computerized fire control system, mainly comprising stabilized day/night sighting system(s) and a Laser Range Finder (LRF) with an integrated ballistic computer. This system facilitates acquisition, locking and engagement of moving targets by means of manual or automatic tracking, even while the vehicle itself is on the move.

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Integrated Fire Control Systems for Armoured Fighting Vehicles

T E C H N O L O G Y

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Tanks

C O N T E N T S

4

W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

Technology


Military Applications

ntelligence is the ability to acquire and apply knowledge, and skills to achieve results. Intelligence exists in humans and animals in varying types and degree. Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the science and engineering of intelligent machines and software. Work on intelligent machines started soon after World War II and by the late 1950s, many scientists were working on AI by programming computers. Although similar to using computers to understand human intelligence, AI mainly involves studying problems the world presents to intelligence rather than studying people or animals. Intelligence involves processes and AI research strives to discover a few of the processes carried out by computers. Arthur R. Jensen, a leading researcher in human intelligence, suggests that all normal humans have the same intellectual mechanisms and that differences in intelligence are related to speed, short term memory and the ability to form accurate and retrievable long term memories. The situation in AI is opposite of human intelligence as computers have plenty of speed and memory. The mystery of the brain has not been fully unraveled and until this is done it may not be possible to replicate it in AI. The ultimate goal is to create computer programmes that can solve problems as well as humans without duplicating the human brain with its peculiarities.

The US is leading in development and research in the military applications of AI and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) plays a leading role. Some of the military applications are: Multi-sensor Data Fusion: Multi-sensor data fusion is an emerging technology applied in areas such as automated target recognition, battlefield surveillance as well as guidance and control of autonomous vehicles. Techniques for multi-sensor data fusion are drawn from a wide range of areas including artificial intelligence, pattern recognition and statistical estimation. Language Learning: US troops are deployed all over the globe. One of the major hindrances for troops is their lack of knowledge of the local languages. Scientists have developed the Phraselator, which is a oneway translation device with phrases from eight different languages. This has facilitated learning of even languages such as Arabic, which are quite different from English. Incorporating AI into Military Decision Making: The US Army Battle Command Battle Lab has successfully conducted experiments of AI-based decision aids for performing several critical steps of a US Army brigade Military Decision Making Process ranging from capturing a high-level course of action to producing a detailed analysis and plan of tasks. Agent-Based Computing for Autonomous Intelligent Software: A

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Compiled by SP’s research team comprising Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor and Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand.

75 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

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I

What is Artificial Intelligence?

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

Arthur R. Jensen, a leading researcher in human intelligence, suggests that all normal humans have the same intellectual mechanisms and that differences in intelligence are related to speed, short term memory and the ability to form accurate and retrievable long term memories. The situation in AI is opposite of human intelligence as computers have plenty of speed and memory. The mystery of the brain has not been fully unraveled and until this is done it may not be possible to replicate it in AI. The ultimate goal is to create computer programmes that can solve problems as well as humans without duplicating the human brain with its peculiarities.

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Intelligent Machines

B U S I N E S S

T E C H N O L O G Y

Weapons

C O N T E N T S

Future

W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

5

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Technology


I N D I A N D E F E N C E

C

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

E T I O

SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

N

2008-2009

T H

79

38th Year of Issue

E E B U S I N E S S

B usiness R

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

S T E C H N O L O G Y

C O N C E P T S & P E R S P E C T I V E S

W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

C O N T E N T S


B U S I N E S S

Contents O N E

DPP 2008: REDEFINING THE RULES

81

T WO

DEFENCE OFFSET POLICY REVISITED

87

T H R E E

WHAT’S NEW IN DPP 2008

91

F O U R

HEADQUARTERS IDS

95

F I V E

INDIA’S DEFENCE BUDGETS

97

S I X

MODERNISING INDIA’S ARMY

103

S E V E N

MODERNISING INDIA’S NAVY

107

E I G H T

MODERNISING INDIA’S AIR FORCE

113

Diagrams/Graphs Defence Acquisition Structures Categorisation of Developmental Proposals Flow Chart: From RFP to Contract Administration Flow Chart of Planning Stage World Military Expenditure, 1988-2007

82 83 84 96 98

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Review of the Defence Procurement Procedure at regular intervals testifies to the Government’s resolve to streamline the entire process and promote transparency. It wants to convince the environment that acquisition methodology is fair, above board, transparent and impartial. Intimation of reasons for disqualification to vendors is a bold step, especially after staff evaluation.

Ë Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

T

he genesis of India’s Defence has since been reviewed periodically to make it MAJOR GENERAL (RETD) Procurement Procedure lies in the 187th all-encompassing and to remove all ambiguities. Its MRINAL SUMAN Report (1989) of the Public Accounts latest version, the Defence Procurement Procedure Committee, wherein it stressed the 2008 (DPP-2008) was issued in August 2008. need to lay down detailed guidelines for defence procurement. The Report emphasized that a written procedure Salient Aspects of DPP-2008 would facilitate decision making, expedite procurement and elimi- DPP-2008 is applicable to all procurement cases where Request For nate adhocism. Consequently, Defence Procurement Procedure 2002 Proposals (RFP) has been issued after September 1, 2008. However, all was promulgated in February 2002. The procedure however, had cases already under progress under the provisions of earlier versions a number of loopholes and failed to serve the desired purpose. of the procurement procedure will continue to be governed by them. Procurement of defence equipment continued to remain mired in Salient aspects of DPP-2008 are as follows: bureaucratic apathy while the services suffered deficiency of urgently required equipment. Evolution of Acquisition Plans After the Kargil conflict, the Group of Ministers (GoM) on National The Annual Acquisition Plan (AAP) of each service for capital acquisiSecurity examined the then existing procurement system and found it tions would be a two-year roll on plan. The AAP shall contain schemes be devoid of integrated planning. Apart from weaknesses in linkages included in the approved five-year Services Capital Acquisition Plan between plans and budgets, cumbersome administrative, technical (SCAP). Part A of the AAP will show carry-over schemes from the previand financial evaluation procedures and absence of a dedicated, ous year and schemes where Acceptance of Necessity (AON) has been professionally equipped procurement structure within the Ministry accorded during the year. Part B would include cases likely to be initiof Defence (MoD) plagued the system. The GoM recommended a ated for seeking AON in the forthcoming year. total overhaul of the structures and procedures governing defence Service Headquarters (SHQ) would forward their respective AAP to acquisitions. Headquarters Integrated Defence Staff (HQ IDS) by December 31, of Following acceptance of the Report, a new set up was established each year duly vetted by the Acquisition Wing. HQ IDS would allot a in the MoD in October 2001. Broad guidelines for the formulation of a unique identification number to each case and would obtain approval new procurement procedure were also issued in 2002. The procedure of final AAP from the Defence Procurement Board (DPB) by April 15 of The writer is a former Technical Manager, Army and a specialist on the subject.

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C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES T E C H N O L O G Y

Evaluation & Acquisition Under Scanner

B U S I N E S S

The Rules

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

DPP 2008: Redefining

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

1

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Business


Business

DPP-2008: REDEFINING THE RULES

Defence Acquisition Structures

Defence Acquisition Council (Headed by Defence Minister) • Approve in principle 15 year Long Term Integrated Perspective Plan and 5 year Services Capital Acquisition Plan. • Accord approval to invoke Fast Track Procedure. • Approve all capital acquisition projects and identify them as ‘Buy Indian’, ‘Buy Global’, ‘Buy and Make’ and ‘Make’ cases. • Monitor progress of major projects.

Def Procurement Board (Headed by Def Secretary) • Approve Annual Acquisition Plan. • Oversee all activities related to ‘Buy’ and ‘Buy & Make’ cases. • Coordinate, monitor and supervise acquisition process. • Examine proposals and make necessary changes in procurement process on approval of Defence Minister.

Def Production Board (Headed by Secretary DDP) Oversees all activities related to indigenous manufacture under department of defence production flowing from ‘Buy & Make’ and ‘Make’ decisions of DAC.

Defence R&D Board (Headed by Secretary Def R&D) Responsible to progress, monitor and report on all projects requiring sophisticated technology of strategic, complex and security sensitive nature as per DRDO procedure and utilising DRDO funds for execution.

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Acquisition Wing (Headed by DG Acquisition) • Assists Defence Procurement Board in respect of all ‘Buy’ and ‘Buy and Make’ cases. • Assists Defence Production Board in all ‘Make’ cases. • Makes recommendations to Defence Procurement Board as regards changes required in procurement procedure.

Publicity The DPP-2008, in a noteworthy departure from the earlier practice, encourages maximum publicity of procurement proposals albeit within security constraints. Generic requirements of the services would be advertised on the MoD website to enable vendors desirous of seeking RFP. After ascertaining relevant details, eligible vendors would be included in the list of vendor database. Expression of Interest and advertisements through newspapers may be resorted to in case website publicity does not generate adequate vendor response. Such advance publicity would provide additional time to vendors to be prepared to respond to RFP.

the relevant financial year. Part A would be the working document for the Acquisition Wing for the initiation of acquisition process by issuing RFP. Once schemes of Part B are accorded AON, they are shifted to Part A. Schemes not listed in SCAP can only be processed after due approval of the Defence Acquisition Council (DAC). Based on the schemes included in AAP, the HQ IDS would project requirement of funds for each service, taking into account committed liabilities and anticipated cash outgo.

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Evolution of Services Qualitative Requirements With a view to generate maximum competition, broad based SQR would be drafted by the user directorate at SHQ by obtaining necessary inputs by:  Issuance of Request for Information on MoD website.  Corresponding with maximum number of manufacturers.  Obtaining information from defence attaches, internet and defence journals/magazines/exhibitions.  Study and analysis of previously contracted cases in similar category. The endeavour would be to generate a compliance table of SQR vis-à-vis technical parameters of equipments in as much detail as feasible, to ensure emergence of multi-vendor situation.

Selection of Production Agency for Receipt of Transfer of Technology In cases where TOT is being sought, the Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Higher Committee (SCAPCHC) would select the Production Agency (PA). The PA could be selected from any of the public/private firms including a joint venture company based on the inputs from the Department of Defence Production (DDP) and if required, from the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). Final approval would be accorded by the DAC. This provision is a deviation from the earlier policy wherein, selection of PA was done by the DDP and the selected entity was always a public sector company. The new policy provides a level playing field to the private sector.

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The basic flaw in the Indian defence offset policy lies in its genesis. It is purely an initiative on the part of the MoD and not a part of any national offset mission. India has no national offset policy. Most countries have realised the importance of offsets. They do not treat them as pure counter-trade arrangements but as an excellent opportunity to fill an existing economic or technological void. Offsets are formal arrangements of trade wherein a foreign supplier undertakes specified programmes with a view to compensate the buyer for his procurement expenditure and outflow of resources.

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

I

ndia is a recent entrant into the world of country’s economy through channelisation of offset MAJOR GENERAL (RETD) defence offsets. This concept was first introinflows into well-designated activities. M R I N A L S U M A N duced in 2005 and since then, the policy has It was in 2005 that functionaries of the MoD already undergone revision twice – once in realised that the annual value of exports from Indian 2006, and recently as a part of Defence Procurement Procedure defence public sector undertakings and ordnance factories was a paltry 2008 (DPP-2008). There has not been a single case of successful $50 million (Rs 244 crore), whereas India was importing defence hardfulfillment of offset obligations so far. The Ministry of Defence (MoD) ware worth billions of dollars. It was believed that through the mechais still struggling to put its act together. Although, it wants to continue nism of offsets, foreign vendors could be persuaded to buy goods and with its policy of following an approach of gradual, incremental and services from the Indian defence industry (meaning the public sector). phased application of offsets, the MoD possesses neither the expertise The initial policy was totally loaded in favour of the public sector to nor the infrastructure to handle offsets worth billions of dollars. There the extent that even the task of monitoring implementation of offsets are serious apprehensions being expressed by knowledgeable observers was assigned to the public sector. Thus, it became a pure counter-trade regarding the ability of the MoD to manage offsets. arrangement, designed primarily to promote exports from the public The basic flaw in the Indian defence offset policy lies in its genesis. sector. Under pressure from the private sector, the Government widened It is purely an initiative on the part of the MoD and not a part of any the scope of the Indian defence industry in 2006, to include any private national offset mission. India has no national offset policy. Most coun- defence industry manufacturing products or components under an tries have realised the importance of offsets. They do not treat them industrial licence granted for such manufacture. as pure counter-trade arrangements but as an excellent opportunity Although the offset policy of 2006 was a well formulated docuto fill an existing economic or technological void. Offsets are formal ment, it was questionable on account of the following: arrangements of trade wherein a foreign supplier undertakes specified  Necessity of seeking prior licence by private sector companies acted programmes with a view to compensate the buyer for his procurement as an unfair deterrence. expenditure and outflow of resources. However, the value of such com-  Offset banking was not permitted. pensation is directly proportional to the degree of relevance of such  Transfer of Technology was not allowed against fulfillment of offsets. programmes. It is a leverage which should be utilised to boost the  As only defence related offsets were allowed, many expressed

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The writer is a former Technical Manager, Army and a specialist on the subject.

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C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES T E C H N O L O G Y

With an Eye on Achieving Self-Reliance

B U S I N E S S

Revisited

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

Defence Offset Policy

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

2

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Business


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(New Addition)

BUY AND MAKE: Role Of Joint Ventures (JVs) – Para 19

 To make broad based SQRs, information be obtained through: – Issue of Request for Information from various sources including websites. – Correspondence with maximum manufacturers.

 Indian JVs will not be issued Request for Proposals (RFPs).  In addition to public/private firms, Indian JVs can be nominated as

The writer is General Manager, National Marketing, Bharat Electronics Ltd. The article should be read in conjunction with DPP-2006 and DPP-2008.

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I N D I A N D E F E N C E

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

S

peedier acquisition of armaments, sys– Defence attaches. BRIGADIER (RETD) tems and platforms while ensuring greater – Internet. A N A N D M E H R A transparency in the procurement process – Defence journals / magazines / exhibitions. are some of the hallmarks of the Defence  The above information may be used to prepare a Procurement Procedure 2008 (DPP 2008), which was unveiled compliance table of SQRs vis-a-vis the technical parameters of equipby the Defence Minister A.K. Antony on August 1. The DPP ment available in the world market. 2008 aims at boosting the indigenous defence industry, encouraging competition by broadening the vendor base and enhancing the delega- Financial Powers – Para 18 / Appendix A 1 tion of financial powers to the Services while focusing on better quality Competent Financial Authority (CFA) and reliability. The 248-page document is operational from September  DG Indian Coast Guard (DGICG) – Up to Rs 10 crore 01, 2008. A few of the major changes have been highlighted in subse-  VCOAS/VCNS/DCAS/CISC – Up to Rs 50 crore quent paragraphs.  Defence Secretary – Above Rs 50 crore to Rs 75 crore  Defence Minister – Up to Rs 100 crore Annual Acquisition Plan (AAP) – Para 10 (a)  Finance Minister – Up to Rs 200 crore  Part A: Includes carry over schemes from the AAP of the previous  Cabinet Committee for Security (CCS) – Above Rs 200 crore Financial Year (FY) as well as schemes whose Acceptance of Necessity (AON) has been accorded during the current FY. Approval of Cases  Part B: Includes cases likely to be initiated for seeking AON in the  Services Acquisition Plan Categorisation Higher Committee (SCAPCHC) forthcoming FY (New Addition). – Up to Rs 50 crore  Defence Procurement Board (DPB) – Rs 50 crore to Rs 100 crore Service Qualitative Requirement (SQR) – Para 14  Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) – Beyond Rs 100 crore

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

Post-Kargil, in 2001, a Group of Ministers was formed to reform the National Security System. Apart from other recommendations they reviewed the procurement procedures and recommended the setting up of new Defence Procurement Management Structures and Systems.

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Revisions & Additions

B U S I N E S S

T E C H N O L O G Y

DPP 2008

C O N T E N T S

What’s New in

W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

3

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Business


Headquarters

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95 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

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I N D I A N D E F E N C E

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

H

istorically, defence acquisitions in tion, Headquarters Integrated Defence Staff (HQ AIR MARSHAL (RETD) India were neatly compartmenIDS), wherein all the three services would be staffed. V. K . V E R M A talised: the Service Headquarters Second, was the creation of Defence Procurement (SHQ) specified what they need and Board (DPB), comprising three Acquisition Wings, the ministry of defence thereafter procured the neces- one for each service. Each Acquisition Wing has two components: an sary. Functions like the identification of equipment, Acquisition Manager and his team representing the Ministry, and a costs involved and the contracting were left to civilian bureaucrats and Technical Manager and his team representing the military service. Basic political masters. The cases for acquisition were moved on file individu- role of the Acquisition Wings was to streamline the second half of the ally by the SHQ, a process that involved myriad steps that took up an acquisition process which is the procurement stage. These wings come enormous amount of time. The civilian bureaucracy—not so well versed into play after the RFP has been floated and remain in the process till with equipment military—would naturally want to be thoroughly con- the contract is signed. These wings have done commendable job and vinced as to why any equipment was needed and in what quantity, as their contribution is well known. What is not so well known is how the the cost to the exchequer was enormous and the budget limited. first half of the acquisition process (planning stage) has evolved, and For this exercise, the methodology adopted was to seek clarification the unique contribution made by HQ IDS in its evolution. on file. Each clarification consumed time, and months stretched into One of the branches in HQ IDS is the Policy, Plans and Force years. To ease matters, a few military personnel were staffed in the min- Development (PP&FD) branch. As the name suggests, the main charter istry, affording a very minor relief to the system. Such a process resulted of this branch was to predict and help contour the future shape of in a larger portion of defence budget remaining unspent year after year. India’s armed forces by laying down policies, assessing technology The military would keep complaining about its obsolete capability and environment, formulating and coordinating long term plans and providthe need to modernise its arsenal. The ministry would point to the ing financial planning support. In addition, one of the charters of this budgeted amount each year and ask the military to spend the money. branch is to assist the Defence Acquisition Council and the Defence The blame game continued and a few attempts to right the system, like Procurement Board in their functioning. In the initial days, very little was roll on plans, were formulated and then aborted. entrusted in the hands of HQ IDS in this sphere. As the ministry offiHowever, the Kargil fiasco and the consequent Arun Singh Committee cials realised that HQ IDS provides them unbiased professional military report suggested many changes in the methodology. Consequently, two advice and is helping them speed up the procurement cycle, more and major events occurred in 2001. First, was creation of a joint organisa- more responsibility began to be transferred on it.

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

HQ Integrated Defence Staff has been able to install an efficient system to bring down the time frame of the planning stage to maximum four months. With its non-partisan approach, it is able to view each case dispassionately, assemble all the information provided by each member, evaluate all suggestions, debate them and suggest a recommendation/approval.

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

The Military Filter for Procurements

B U S I N E S S

T E C H N O L O G Y

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

IDS

C O N T E N T S

4

W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

Business


India’s Defence Budget over the last three decades has varied between 2 to 3.16 per cent of the GDP. This corresponds to 13 to 17 per cent of the central government expenditure. Annual increase has varied from as low as three per cent to a high of 26 per cent. Historically, the resource allocation strategy of the government has appeared to be incremental driven and dominated by the felt need of individual service for replacement of existing obsolete hardware and addition of newer and better instruments of war fighting.

Ë Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

T

he key challenge that confronts a nation between 2 to 3.16 per cent of the GDP. This corLT G E N E R A L ( R E T D ) is to ensure peace and security. This responds to 13 to 17 per cent of the central govV. K . C H O P R A challenge is complex, dramatically unpreernment expenditure. Annual increase has varied dictable and omnipresent. In the last from as low as three per cent to a high of 26 per two decades, traditional threats and the cent. Historically the resource allocation strategy potential for outright aggression have diminished. War as an of the government has appeared to be incremental driven and instrument of policy has not disappeared, though the way it is executed dominated by the felt need of individual service for replacement has been changing. Proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, spectre of existing obsolete hardware and addition of newer and better of terrorism, criminal networks and insurgent groups are an ever growing instruments of war fighting. menace that confronts the stability of countries and retards social and Expenditure on defence is an input measure and quantifies the economic growth. The world’s military expenditure in the past five years funds available for maintaining existing force levels as also upgrading has been increasing at a rapid pace and is now almost more than the and replacement cost of equipment and infrastructure. It is paradoxical expenditure at the height of the Cold War. The US accounts for nearly half that military expenditure has no or very little direct link between the the world expenditure. As shown in Table 1 and Table 2 below, the expen- input of financial resources and the output in terms of military capaditure in the year 2005 is more or less the same as it was in the late bility. Military capability depends not only on the level of expenditure 1980s. The world’s military expenditure in the past five years has been but also on how it is spent and on the existing military assets. Thus, increasing at a rapid pace and is now almost more than the expenditure the input- output ratio for military expenditure depends on a range of at the height of the Cold War. The US accounts for nearly half the world factors, some of which are: expenditure. As shown in Table 1 and Table 2 below, the expenditure in n The inventory of the service at the time of spending. the year 2005 is more or less the same as it was in the late 1980s. n The revenue to capital ratios. n Whether arms are being manufactured indigenously or being imported. India’s Defence Budget n The technological level and performance of acquired weapon systems. India’s Defence Budget over the last three decades has varied The writer has held the appointments of the Additional Director General Financial Planning and Master General of Ordnance at the Integrated Headquarters of the Ministry of Defence (Army).

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C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES T E C H N O L O G Y

Critical Analysis vis-à-vis China & Pakistan

B U S I N E S S

Budgets

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

India’s Defence

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

5

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Business


Business

INDIA’S DEFENCE BUDGETS

Trends In India’s Defence Expenditure

The Major Defence Spenders in 2007 Rank

Country

Spending ($b)

1

USA

547

45

4

2

UK

59.7

5

2.6

3

China

58.3

5

2.1

4

France

53.6

4

2.4

5

Japan

43.6

4

1

762.2

63

Total

Defence Expenditure & Central Government Expenditure (1985-1986 to 2007-2008) FY

% of Def CGE Exp/GDP

% of Def Exp/CGE

7,987.49

262,243.00

3.05

53,112.40

15.04

1986-87

10,477.46

292,949.00

3.58

64,023.10

16.37

1987-88

11,967.49

333,201.00

3.59

70,304.60

17.02

8.5

1988-89

13,341.02

395,782.00

3.37

81,402.30

16.39

3

1.8

1989-90

14,416.17

456,821.00

3.16

95,049.40

15.17

24.2

2

2.7

1990-91

15,426.48

535,534.00

2.88

104,972.90

14.70

925

76

1991-92

16,347.04

616,799.00

2.65

112,730.70

14.50

36.9

3

1.3

7

Russia

35.4

3

3.6

8

Saudi Arabia

33.8

3

9

Italy

33.1

10

India

11

South Korea

22.6

2

2.5

8th Def Plan

12

Brazil

15.3

1

1.5

1992-93

17,581.79

705,918.00

2.49

125,926.90

13.96

13

Canada

15.2

1

1.2

1993-94

21,844.73

876,952.00

2.49

145,788.00

14.98

14

Australia

15.1

1

1.9

1994-95

23,245.23

917,058.00

2.53

166,998.40

13.92

15

Spain

14.6

1

1.2

1995-96

26,856.29

1,073,271.00

2.50

185,232.80

14.50

Grand Total

1008

83

1996-97

29,505.08

1,243,547.00 2.37

211,259.60

13.97

World Total

1214

100

9th Def Plan 2.5

World Military Expenditure, 1988-2007 1400

1997-98

35,277.99

1,390,148.00

2.54

224,366.00 15.72

1998-99

39,897.57

1,598,127.00

2.50

263,755.00 15.13

1999-00

47,070.63

1,761,838.00

2.67

307,509.10

2000-01

49,622.04

1,902,999.00 2.61

328,264.70 15.12

2001-02

54,265.73

2,081,474.00 2.61

360,616.30

15.31

15.05

10 Def Plan

1200

2002-03 55,661.83

2,254,888.00 2.47

398,878.90 13.95

1000

2003-04 60,065.86

2,519,785.00 2.38

426,131.60

600

2004-05 77,000.00

2,878,000.00 3.05

463,830.90 16.60

2005-06 80,800.00

3,276,000.00 2.46

501,083.30

2006-07 86,000.00

3,790,000.00 2.26

578,605.90 14.86

4,283,000.00 2.15

683,347.90 14.04

2008-09 105,000.00 5,25,000 (BE)

2007

2005

2003

2001

1999

1997

1995

2007-08 92,500.00 (RE) 1993

200

1990

11 Def Plan

1988

400

0

13.98

BUY YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE

800 World

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

GDP at Current Prices

1985-86

Germany

Source: SIPRI Year Book 2008

www.spguidepublications.com

Def Exp at Current Prices

7th Def Plan

6

Total

India’s defence expenditure has risen from Rs 161 crore in 1950-1951 to Rs 105,000 crore in 2008-2009. A tabulation of the defence expenditure over the last four plan periods is appended below:

World Share % of GDP

Region

2.0

Source: Economic Survey of respective Years

98 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue

750,000

16.12

14.0 $


Modernising India’s

BUY YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE

The writer is Director, Centre for Land Warfare Studies, New Delhi.

103 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

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38th Year of Issue

B U S I N E S S I N D I A N D E F E N C E

D

espite the leadership’s best efforts, be maintained. Also, a high degree of preparation and BRIGADIER (RETD) the ongoing Revolution in Military operational readiness are necessary as conventional G U R M E E T K A N W A L Affairs (RMA) had, till recently, almost war, though improbable, cannot be categorically ruled completely passed the Indian Army out due to unresolved territorial and border disputes by. For well over a decade, the army’s efforts at moderni- with China and Pakistan. At the same time, heavy capital investments sation had been thwarted due to political neglect and in modern defence equipment are undoubtedly a drain on a developing lack of adequate budgetary support. The fact that 155mm ammunition economy ill-equipped to handle the burgeoning defence expenditure. for the Bofors Howitzer had to be imported from South Africa during the Several eminent analysts have recommended that qualitative upgradaKargil conflict in 1999, tells its own tale of persistent shortages. Had the tion should be accompanied by quantitative downsizing of personnel conflict not been confined to the 150 km frontage of the Kargil sector, T-72 strength of the army to generate funds for modernisation. However, given and 130 mm medium gun ammunition would have also run short. This its responsibilities for border management and the manpower-intensive would have been a political embarrassment for the government as well as sub-conventional operations that the army is involved in, this is easier the army. In the plains, the army would have had to fight with obsolete said than done. Vijayant tanks and several other vintage equipment unsuitable for comFuture conventional conflict on the Indian sub-continent will in all bat. Even now, the funds made available for modernisation are extremely probability result from the ongoing low-intensity limited war on the Line limited and a large portion of these funds is surrendered year after year. of Control (LoC) with Pakistan or the unresolved territorial and boundFor Financial Year 2006-2007, a sum of Rs 3,000 crore was surrendered as ary dispute with China and will be predominantly a land conflict. The unspent. However, sustained efforts by the Army HQ have now borne fruit Indian Army seriously lacks a potent firepower punch. Precision Guided and the army’s modernisation drive is once again well underway. Munitions (PGMs) have still to enter service in numbers large enough In the prevailing era of strategic uncertainty, while terrorism is gradu- to make a real difference. The Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Target ally becoming the primary threat, the external and internal threats and Acquisition (RSTA) assets necessary for the optimum exploitation of even challenges faced by India are such that a large army is still required to the existing firepower assets are grossly inadequate. Automated com-

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

Future conventional conflict on the Indian sub-continent will in all probability result from the ongoing low-intensity limited war on the Line of Control (LoC) with Pakistan or the unresolved territorial and boundary dispute with China and will be predominantly a land conflict. The Indian Army seriously lacks a potent firepower punch, especially in the mountain sector. Precision Guided Munitions (PGMs) have still to enter service in numbers large enough to make a real difference. The Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Target Acquisition (RSTA) assets necessary for the optimum exploitation of even the existing firepower assets are grossly inadequate. Automated command and control and decision support systems have been on the drawing board for several decades but are yet to be realised.

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Fast-Track to Acquisition, Upgradation

T E C H N O L O G Y

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Army

C O N T E N T S

6

W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

Business


Modernising India’s

B

eginning with the Maritime Doctrine These three documents represent current COMMODORE that was issued in 2004, a series naval thinking and their publication marks three R A J E E V S AW H N E Y of significant policy documents have extremely important milestones on the path being seen the Indian Navy (IN) articulate its travelled upon by the IN. ‘Parivartan’, as the IN vision for the future. The Maritime Doctrine was followed likes to call it, clearly enunciates and guides the overall direction by the ‘Maritime Capability Perspective Plan’, a classified and orientation of the process of managing change. For this purpose, blueprint of the envisaged force-level structure of the IN to support the IN has published a set of three guidance-documents. The first its plans for the next decade and a half which was approved during and the overarching one is entitled the ‘Vision Statement of the the annual Commanders’ Conference in April 2006. The document was Indian Navy’. The second is an introductory-primer entitled ‘What said to outline the force structure plans for the IN till 2020. It would Does Transformation Mean for the Indian Navy?’ which provides be safe to assume that the doctrine had considerable impact on the the contextual meaning of term ‘Transformation’, and identifies the formulation of these plans. The final segment of the trilogy, ‘Freedom of drivers of ‘Transformation’ vis-à-vis the IN. The third and the most the Seas: India’s Maritime Military Strategy’, was unveiled by the then contemporary one is ‘Strategic Guidance for Transformation’, which Defence Minister, Pranab Mukherjee at the annual Navy Senior Officers’ was released by the Naval Chief in 2006. Conference in mid-October 2006. An unclassified version followed in The IN’s Vision Document envisages a three-dimensional techMay 2007, a departure from the past which had seen little articulation nology-enabled and networked force capable of projecting combat of the rationale, driving the growth of the IN’s maritime capability. power across the littoral. Its area of strategic interest was clearly

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The writer is Senior Research Consultant with the National Maritime Foundation.

107 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

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I N D I A N D E F E N C E

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

“In order to ensure that the Indian Navy continues to retain its relevance as a prime instrument of state policy in the midst of future imponderables, we will need to develop a flexible approach and ensure continuous upgradation of our warfighting capabilities and skills.” – Vision Document, Indian Navy

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

Departing from traditional wisdom that predicates a strategy on definite specified threats, the IN’s Maritime Strategy has preferred to adopt a generic capacity building approach. This is justified by the well known dictum that there are no permanent friends or enemies, only permanent maritime interests. Such an approach provides dual advantage, firstly controversy is avoided through naming likely adversaries and secondly, a framework provided to outlive any major shifts in threat perception. One basic philosophy adopted in the strategy is to acquire capabilities that would enable it to influence events ashore and to undertake ‘Military Manoeuvre from the Sea’.

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Technology-Enabled & Networked

B U S I N E S S

T E C H N O L O G Y

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Navy

C O N T E N T S

7

W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

Business


With India emerging as the new economic powerhouse, the resultant geo-political and security scenarios require it to possess comprehensive military capability characterised by flexibility, quick response, mobility and transportability of all forms of national power as well as long reach and precision-targeting firepower with minimal collateral damage – all the attributes of a modern air force.

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

A

lthough 76 years is not much of an forces and, as far as the IAF was concerned, a AIR MARSHAL (RETD) age for a combat arm of a nation, force level of up to 64 squadrons (with 45 combat V. K . B H AT I A as far as air powers are concerned, squadrons) was recommended to effectively fight a the Indian Air Force (IAF) is rightfully two-front war simultaneously against its belligerent considered to be one of the oldest independently func- neighbours. The closest that the IAF has been able to come to this tioning air forces in the world. Born on October 8, 1932 was the officially declared figure of 391⁄2 combat squadrons achieved but operationally baptized only on April 1, 1933, with a flight of four during the ‘golden era’ of the seventies and eighties. Wapiti aircraft, the IAF grew rapidly during WWII as an extension of The late 1970s saw the dawn of the golden decade of the IAF the Royal Air Force to fight Burma and related campaigns in the east. with the induction of the Anglo-French Sepecat Jaguar DPSA (Deep In 1947, the residual RIAF (Royal Indian Air Force) assets were divided Penetration Strike Aircraft) into operational service. This was quickly between India and Pakistan in a 3:1 ratio. With just six squadrons of followed by the induction of the Soviet MiG-23s both, the strike and fighter aircraft and a little less than a transport squadron, it was a very the air defence versions into the IAF in substantial numbers. MiG-27, a humble beginning that led to its long journey to not only become a fixed-intake improvement of the MiG-23BN did not only follow in quick highly professional and respected force, but also earn the sobriquet of succession but this variant was also licence-produced by the HAL. being the ‘Fourth Largest Air Force in the World’. At about the same time the IAF also received from the Soviet Union Throughout its long and mostly turbulent history, the IAF has some- the Mach-3 strategic reconnaissance version of the formidable MiGtimes ‘super-cruised’ and, at other times, literally stalled in its quest to 25 and the MiG-29 air superiority fighters. But the icing on the cake create operational capabilities to meet the multifarious challenges. This was the prize acquisition of the multi-role Mirage 2000 from France has by and large been due to the ‘knee-jerk’ policies of the Indian gov- which formed two front-line state-of-the-art IAF combat squadrons in ernment which is known to respond only in a reactive mode as far as the early 1980s. These also provided much greater teeth in terms of the country’s defence needs are concerned. In the past, after each war enhanced operational capability and were to show their prowess later it was forced to fight with its neighbouring countries, India embarked on during the 1999 Kargil war against Pakistan. a soul-searching mission to rationalize its defence needs. These were truly happier times for the IAF but unfortunately, the In the 1960s, post two quick conflicts against China and Pakistan, golden period did not last long. The beginning of the 1990s witnessed respectively, various studies were conducted to strengthen the armed the then unimaginable and sudden disintegration of the Soviet Union

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The writer has held the appointment of Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief of three major Operational Commands of the IAF.

113 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

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C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES T E C H N O L O G Y

Undergoing Metamorphic Transformation

B U S I N E S S

Air Force

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

Modernising India’s

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

8

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Business


SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

117

38th Year of Issue

BAE Systems

Sagem Défense Sécurité

Northrop Grumman

US Navy

Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd

US Air Force

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

General Dynamics NASSCO,

US Navy

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

BAE Systems

Lockheed Martin

US Army

US Army Aviation

Lockheed Martin

Government of Canada

BAE Systems

UK Ministry of Defence

General Dynamics

BAE Systems

UK Ministry of Defence

US TACOM Lifecycle Management Command

Country/Supplier/ Company

Country/ Recipient

Product/Job/Task

100

148 17

17

February 2008

February 2008

February 2008

February 2008

January 2008

January 2008

January 2008

January 2008

January 2008

January 2008

Date of Contract

IDIQ

2010

Remarks

W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

The Air Force’s KC-45A is based on the highly-successful A330 commercial airframe, produced by EADS

These systems will be used on the Indian Air Force Sukhoi fighters and the Tejas fighters

BAE will provide the technical expertise and personnel for execution of these services

The Canadian Forces’ new Super Hercules will be the longer fuselage or “stretched” variant of the C-130J

Components for the production of 125 M1A1 Abrams tank kits

It involve the design, development, integration and clearance of a number of systems

It will involve the design, development, integration and embodiment of an upgraded Secure Communications System

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

July 2010

Begin in 2010

July 2011

Date of Delivery

T E C H N O L O G Y

Quantity

B U S I N E S S

KC-45A aerial refueling tanker

SIGMA 95N navigation systems.

Enterprise Platform Integration aboard new construction ships

T-AKE dry cargo-ammunition ship, and to purchase longlead construction materials for an eleventh ship

Long-lead materials to reset 639 Bradley Combat System vehicles

- PAC-3 Missiles, - launcher modification kits, spares and other equipment, as well as program management and engineering services.

C-130J Super Hercules

Egyptian tank co-production programme

Capability E’ on Harrier GR9 aircraft

Capability Upgrade Strategy (Pilot)) for the Tornado GR4

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

$1.5 billion

$242 million

$460 million

$375.2 million

$556 million

$1.4 billion

$349 million

$165 million

$394 million

Contract Value

Global Contracts

C O N T E N T S

Business


SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

Lockheed Martin

Northrop Grumman

Raytheon

Sagem Défense Sécurité

BAE Systems

Department of Defense

US Air Force

Republic of Korea

French Defense Procurement Agency DGA

US Department of Defense

Lockheed Martin

General Dynamics

US Navy

US Air Force, Army, Navy

BAE Systems

US Army

BAE Systems

Northrop Grumman

US Navy

US Marine Corp

Country/Supplier/ Company

118

38th Year of Issue $176 million

$241 million

$239 million

$344 million

$766 million

$226 million

$325 million

$185 million

$1.4 billion

Contract Value

Product/Job/Task

M777A2 155mm towed howitzers

FELIN integrated infantry soldier equipment suites

Command and control, communications, maintenance support, and training equipment for the Patriot air and missile defense system

Systems Engineering, Management and Sustainment (SEMS) II

Systems integration, applications and user support to DoD High Performance Computing Modernization Program

Airborne and Maritime/Fixed Stations (AMF) JTRS

Support for Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) vehicles

Long lead time material for the Virginia-Class submarine, SSN-784 and SSN-787

- Army-configured M88A2 HERCULES recovery vehicles - Marine Corps-configured M88A2 HERCULES recovery vehicles

Zumwalt-class destroyer, DDG 1001

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

Country/ Recipient

www.spguidepublications.com

87

5,045

4

4

90

Quantity

April 2008

April 2008

March 2008

March 2008

March 2008

March 2008

March 2008

March 2008

March 2008

February 2008

Date of Contract

2010

Mid-2009 and the end of 2010

December 2008

September 2011

2014

Date of Delivery

It is the world’s lightest 155mm howitzer, half the weight of a conventional 155mm system

To equip five infantry regiments

US Foreign Military Sales

SEMS II systems deliver accurate, relevant, and timely space and terrestrial environmental information anywhere in the world

AMF JTRS will network enable and provide interoperable communications for more than 160 platform types including fixed and rotary wing aircraft, submarines and surface ships, and fixed stations world-wide

It will include engineering changes and provide spare parts of the vehicles

The contract contains an option worth $163 million to purchase up to 66 additional vehicles

DDG 1000 is the first in a class of new US Navy multi-mission surface combatants tailored for the littoral, air and sub-surface warfare

Remarks

Business GLOBAL CONTRACTS


SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

119

38th Year of Issue

AM General

General Electric

Raytheon

US Army

US Naval Air Systems

US Army Aviation

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

AM General

US Army

84

1,578

3,216

6

IDIQ

1 1

1

3 1

3

3

IDIQ

May 2008

May 2008

May 2008

May 2008

May 2008

May 2008

May 2008

April 2008

April 2008

April 2008

April 2008

Date of Contract

Remarks

W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

ITAS is the advanced electro-optic target acquisition fire control system

The first F-35A test aircraft has completed 40 flights and has exceeded performance and reliability expectations

The units delivered under this contract will support ongoing US Armed Forces force protection programs

A possible Foreign Military Sale

It will support a variety of missions while operating independently or in direct collaboration with fleet assets.

USS Enterprise is the world’s first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier and the only ship of its class.

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

December 2009

December 2009

December 2009

89-month

Over 5 years

Date of Delivery

T E C H N O L O G Y

Quantity

B U S I N E S S

Improved Target Acquisition Systems

F-414-GE-400 engines and device kits and 10 engine fan modules for the F/A-18E/F and EA-18G aircraft.

High Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicles

EA High Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicles

F-35A Lightning II

Star SAFIRE III stabilized multi sensor systems

- AN/SPQ-9B Horizon Search Radars, - Cooperative Engagement Capability Systems, - Naval Fire Control Systems, - Multi-Functional Information Distribution Systems, - AN/SLQ-25A Nixie Countermeasure Suite, - MK160 Gun Computer System, - AIMS MK XII Identification Friend or Foe (IFF)

Broad Area Maritime Surveillance Unmanned Aircraft System (BAMS UAS)

Communications, navigation and identification (CNI) subsystem of the US Air Force’s F-22 Raptor fighter

Maintenance work on USS Enterprise (CVN 65).

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

$203.3 million

$321 million

$206 million

$522 million

$2.2 billion

$358.4 million

$1.16 billion

$252 million

$453.3 million

Portable satellite communications solutions

Product/Job/Task

C O N T E N T S

Business

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Lockheed Martin

Lockheed Martin $450 Maritime Systems / million Raytheon Systems / Northrop Grumman

Government of Australia

US Air Force

Northrop Grumman

US Navy

FLIR Systems

Northrop Grumman

Lockheed Martin

US Army

Northrop Grumman

US Navy

$441 million

CVG, Inc

US Navy

Contract Value

Country/Supplier/ Company

Country/ Recipient

GLOBAL CONTRACTS


SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

BAE/ Boeing/ Raytheon/ Lockheed Martin/ Northrop Grumman

Boeing

Lockheed Martin

Gyrocam Systems

BAE Systems

BAE Land Systems

Curtiss-Wright Corporation

Romanian Air Force

NATO Airlift Management Organization

US Air Force

US Army

US Army

Government of Canada

Fincantieri

120

38th Year of Issue

Northrop Grumman Corporation and its partner DHS Systems

Caterpillar

Rheinmetall Waffe Munition

Raytheon & General Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical Systems

US Army

Marine Corps

US Army

BUY YOUR COPY TO READ IN COMPLETE

US Army

Lockheed Martin Goodrich and General Corporation Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE)

Country/Supplier/ Company

Medium Tactical Vehicles M777 155mm Light-Weight Towed Howitzers TC-ASIST helicopter handling systems

$1.65 billion $114 million

$232.3 million

$259 million

$397 million

$240 million

XM 1111 Mid-Range Munition

Mk281 Mod 0 and Mod1 training cartridges

Light T-5 dozers and medium T-9 dozers with type A armor kits and type C armor kits

Tactical operations centers

Pylons and nacelle systems for C-5 Galaxy strategic airlifter

June 2008

Gyro stabilized camera systems

$302 million

$600 million

June 2008

GPS III Space System

36

2

10,000

500

June 2008

June 2008

June 2008

June 2008

June 2008

June 2008

May 2008

May 2008

May 2008

$1.4 billion

2

C-17 Globemaster III aircraft

May 2008

Date of Contract

$700 million

24

Quantity

F-16C/D Block 50/52 aircraft

Product/Job/Task

$4.5 billion

Contract Value

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

Country/ Recipient

www.spguidepublications.com

63-month contract

October 2013

June 2018

Through 2011

Late 2009

Date of Delivery

Mid-Range Munition incorporates dual-mode seeker suite comprising an imaging infrared sensor and a digital semi-active laser seeker

Cartridges are to be used in the Mk19 Grenade Machine Gun

Follow-on contracts are expected to cover an additional 160 pylons

Contract also contains options for the remaining eight ships planned in the class for the Italian Navy.

A possible Foreign Military Sale

Contract includes a one year option for the procurement of 10,000 additional vehicles.

The new equipment will provide the warfighter with significantly enhanced situational awareness capabilities

This program will improve position, navigation and timing services for the warfighter, and civil users worldwide

A possible Foreign Military Sale

A possible Foreign Military Sale

Remarks

Business GLOBAL CONTRACTS


A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

E C T I O N F

SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK 2008-2009 38th Year of Issue

135

O U

I n d i a n Defence I N D I A N D E F E N C E

R

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

S B U S I N E S S

T E C H N O L O G Y

C O N C E P T S & P E R S P E C T I V E S

W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

C O N T E N T S


I N D I A N

D E F E N C E

Contents O N E

INDIA’S HOMELAND SECURITY

137

T WO

INTEGRATED DEFENCE STAFF

147

T H R E E

INDIA’S DEFENCE BUDGET

155

F O U R

THE INDIAN ARMY

159

F I V E

THE INDIAN NAVY

183

S I X

THE INDIAN AIR FORCE

211

S E V E N

THE INDIAN COAST GUARD

235

E I G H T

WHO’S WHO IN INDIAN DEFENCE

245

N I N E

DEFENCE INDUSTRY

263

T E N

DEFENCE R&D

285

Diagrams/Graphs Paramilitary Forces under Ministry of Home Affairs Organizational Command & Control of Central Police Forces Organisation of Integrated Defence Staff Service-Wise Share of the Defence Budget—A Comparison Defence Budget Allocations Breakup of the Defence Budget 2008-2009 (in Rs crore) Diagrammatic Layout of the Army’s Chain of Command Organisation of Indian Army Headquarters Organisation of Indian Navy Headquarters Organisation of Indian Air Force Headquarters Organisation of Indian Coast Guard Headquarters Indian Coast Guard SAR Organisation Summary of the output of the defence industry, including ordnance factories and DPSUs, during the previous three years (upto 2007-2008) Organisation Chart of the Department of Defence Production & Supplies (DDP&S) Organisation Structure of OFB Performance Summary of DPSUs (upto 2007-2008) Values of stores assured by DGQA DRDO: Ministry of Defence Organisational Structure of Defence Research & Development Organisation 136 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK 2008-2009 38th Year of Issue

138 146 148 155 156 156 161 162 185 214 237 242 263 264 265 269 283 286 287


The Ministry of Home Affairs handles India’s internal security management mechanism. Threats and challenges to internal security arise from a mixed hue of separatist, ethnic and terrorist violence; infiltration and sponsorship of terrorism from across the borders; subversive activities of groups within the country; threat to individuals and vital installations and services; and, transnational crimes relating to drug trafficking, smuggling of arms, fake currency, and so on. Since many of the internal problems have external links, the line between internal and external threats has become blurred.

I

Ë Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

India’s Security Scenario n the new global order which is driven by economic considerations, the security dynamic of the last 50 years has undergone significant changes. China’s phenomenal economic and military growth and its acceptance in the Asian region as a whole have shifted security emphasis to cooperative security. In this, a rapidly growing India is also being co-opted in regional and extra-regional security arrangements in Asia. India, on its part, has put into effect a border management treaty with Beijing which has greatly reduced the risk of military clashes with China on disputed borders. It has also led to a reduced deployment on the Sino-Indian border. However, the peace process between India and Pakistan has been put on the backburner after the Mumbai terror attacks on November 26, 2008. The current turmoil in Pakistan precludes any serious dialogue with Islamabad as there is no single political authority within the power structure of Pakistan with whom negotiations can be resumed. Moreover, distrust in India remains high due to continuing infiltration of terrorists from Pakistan not only into Jammu and Kashmir but the entire country. The recent Kupwara operation by the Army in March 2009 in which 17 terrorists from Pakistan were killed puts paid to all claims by analysts that near normalcy has returned in Jammu and Kashmir. In the aftermath of the operation, the Army Chief’s statement to the media that 40 to 50 camps were still operating in Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK) does not auger well for the future. Further, Pakistan itself stands partially desta-

bilised with Taliban controlling large swathes of the territory north and west of Indus R. Destabilisation of this nuclear armed neighbour has serious implications for India’s external and internal security. Addressing the Conference of Director-Generals and InspectorGenerals of Police on October 4, 2007 in Chandigarh, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said the country’s internal security situation continued to remain a cause for concern for both the central and state governments. Referring to the terror attacks and the Naxal violence, the Prime Minister said these pointed to the formidable challenges faced by the country, emhasising that terrorism had become a global phenomenon. Terrorists, he said, are increasingly determined, committed and highly motivated adversaries working with an evil design and intent. Threats and challenges to India’s internal security arise from a mixed hue of separatist, ethnic and terrorist violence; challenges pertaining to infiltration and sponsorship of terrorism from across the borders; subversive activities of some groups/individuals within the country; threats to security of individuals and vital installations and services; and, transnational crimes relating to drug trafficking, smuggling of arms, fake currency, and so on. Since many of the internal problems have external linkages, the line between the internal and external threats has also become blurred.

Internal Security Management India’s internal security remains a major area of concern. Internal security management has been an important component of India’s national

137 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK 2008-2009 38th Year of Issue

C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES T E C H N O L O G Y

A Key Component of National Security

B U S I N E S S

Security

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

India’s Homeland

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

1

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Indian Defence


www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK 2008-2009 38th Year of Issue

138 Shashi Bhushan Joint Secretary (Justice-II) Dharmendra Sharma Joint Secretary (Police Modernisation) A.K. Yadav Joint Secretary (Human Rights)

Sada Kant Joint Secretary (Border Management)

Ray Pratap Nath Joint Secretary (Administration)

K.C. Jain Joint Secretary (Coord. & Pub. Grievance)

A.K. Goyal Joint Secretary (Freedom Fighters & Rehabilitation

O. Ravi Joint Secretary (Policy Planning)

N.S. Kalsi Joint Secretary (Centre State)

Anita Choudhary (Ms.) Addl. Secretary (Centre State)

Ashim Khurana Joint Secretary (Foreigners)

A.E. Ahmad Addl. Secretary (Border Management)

Shakeel Ahmad Minister of State (A)

D.K. Sikri Spl. Secretary, Registrar General of India & Census Commissioner of India

Madhukar Gupta Home Secretary

Sriprakash Jaiswal Minister of State (J)

P. Chidambaram Home Minister

Prabhanshu Kamal Joint Secretary (Disaster Management)

K. Skandan Joint Secretary (Kashmir)

Naveen Verma Joint Secretary (North East)

D.K. Kotia Joint Secretary (Police-II)

Joint Secretary (Police-I)

K. Skandan Joint Secretary (Kashmir) Naveen Verma Joint Secretary (North East)

Lokesh Dut Jha Joint Secretary (Internal Security-II)

D Diptivilasa Joint Secretary (Internal Security-I)

Raman Srivastava Spl. Secretary (Internal Security)

Sanjeev Mishra Chief Controller of Account (H)

Vishwapati Trivedi Addl. Secretary & Financial Adviser (H)

V Radhika Selvi (Smt.) Minister of State (R)

Sada Kant Joint Secretary (Border Management)

A.E. Ahmad Addl. Secy. (Border Management)

Vinay Kumar Secretary (Border Management)

Paramilitary Forces under Ministry of Home Affairs

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B. Bhamathi (Ms.) Joint Secretary (Union Territory)

Kashmir Singh Joint Secretary (Naxal Management)

Dileep Raj Singh Chaudhary Addl. Secretary (Naxal Management)

Indian Defence INDIA’S HOMELAND SECURITY


Departments Under the Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules, 1961, the Ministry of Home Affairs has the following constituent departments: Department of Internal Security deals with the Indian Police Service, Central Police Forces, internal security and law and order, insurgency, terrorism, Naxalism, activities of inimical foreign agencies, rehabilitation, grant of visa and other immigration matters, security clearances, and so on. Department of States deals with Centre-state relations, inter-state relations, administration of Union Territories, Freedom Fighters’ pension, human rights, prison reforms, police reforms, and so on. Department of Home deals with the notification of assumption of office by the President and Vice-President, notification of appointment/resignation of the Prime Minister, ministers, governors, nomination to Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha, census, registration of births and deaths, and so on. Department of Jammu and Kashmir Affairs deals with the constitutional NAME / DESIGNATION

ROOM NO.

OFFICE

P. Chidambaram HOME MINISTER

104

Rajeev Kumar Mital PS To HM

provisions in respect of the State of Jammu and Kashmir and all other matters relating to the state, excluding those with which the Ministry of External Affairs is concerned. Department of Border Management deals with management of international borders, including coastal borders, strengthening of border guarding and creation of related infrastructure, border areas development, and so on. Department of Official Language deals with the implementation of the provisions of the Constitution relating to official languages and the provisions of the Official Languages Act, 1963. The Department of Internal Security, Department of States, Department of Home, Department of Jammu and Kashmir Affairs and Department of Border Management do not function in watertight compartments. They all function under the Union Home Secretary and are inter-linked. The Department of Official Language has a separate Secretary and functions independently. Information pertaining to Ministers, Home Secretary, Secretaries, Special Secretaries, Additional Secretaries and Joint Secretaries who held/are holding position in the Ministry of Home Affairs (excluding the Department of Official Language and Department of Justice) are listed below.

Divisions The different Divisions of the Ministry of Home Affairs, indicate major areas of responsibility and include the Administration Division; Border Management Division; Coordination Division; Centre-State Division; Disaster Management Division; Finance Division; Foreigners Division; Freedom Fighters And Rehabilitation Division; Human Rights Division; Internal Security Division; Jammu & Kashmir Division; Judicial Division; Naxal Management Division; North East Division; Police Division; Police Modernisation Division; Policy Planning Division; and Union Territories Division. Details of each division are published regularly in the MHA Annual Reports available on the Internet.

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RESIDENCE

23092462, 23017256 (PH)

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23092631, 23094221 (Fax)

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MINISTERS

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C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) has multifarious responsibilities, foremost among them being internal security, management of central police forces, border management, Centre-state relations, administration of Union Territories and disaster management. In terms of Entries 1 and 2 of List II—‘State List’—in the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution of India, ‘public order’ and ‘police’ are the responsibilities of states. However, Article 355 of the Constitution enjoins the Union to protect every state against external aggression and internal disturbance and to ensure that the government of every state is carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution. In pursuance of these obligations, the Ministry of Home Affairs extends manpower and financial support, guidance and expertise to the state governments for maintenance of security, peace and harmony without encroaching upon the constitutional rights of the states.

T E C H N O L O G Y

Mandate & Organisational Structure

B U S I N E S S

THE MINISTRY OF HOME AFFAIRS

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

gency in Punjab, the dissidence and proxy war in Jammu and Kashmir and the burgeoning Naxalite violence which is currently affecting 16 states (194 districts) of the Indian Union are serious enough to destabilise the Indian State if allowed to grow unchecked. This section is devoted to the organisation and the role of the controlling ministry and the short history and outline with brief additional details of all the Central Police Forces under the Ministry of Home Affairs.

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

security management ever since India became independent in 1947. The Ministry of Home Affairs of the Government of India handles India’s internal security management mechanism. In the formative years after independence, the country focussed its energies on the maintenance of law and order, communal peace and harmony, crime control and counter-insurgency which was mainly confined to the Northeast in the early years. However, in the past five decades or so, the ongoing insurgency in the Northeast, the now extinguished insur-

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Indian Defence

INDIA’S HOMELAND SECURITY


Till some time ago, the three service headquarters had always done their Perspective Planning individually. In Army Headquarters it was carried out in the Military Operations Directorate till 1984, and thereafter by the Perspective Planning Directorate. In Naval Headquarters, it was carried out in the Plans Directorate, and in Air Headquarters, in the Plans Branch. As sophistication in thought developed and interdependence of the services grew, the need arose for integrated tri-service perspective planning.

Ë Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

T

he Defence Planning Staff (DPS) was The Task Force on the Management of Defence, BRIGADIER (RETD) established in 1986 under the Chiefs headed by Arun Singh, recommended among other VINOD ANAND of Staff Committee (COSC), when it things, the appointment of a Chief of Defence Staff became clear that future wars would (CDS) and the setting up of a Headquarters for the be fought jointly by the three services and that it was time Integrated Defence Staff (IDS). for ‘jointmanship’. Working under the COSC Chairman, and headed by the Director General Defence Planning Staff (DGDPS), the Key GoM Recommendations DPS had under it, directorates covering Policy and Plans, International After considering the report of the Task Force on the Management of and Regional Security Affairs, Weapons and Equipment and Financial Defence, the GoM made the following key recommendations: Planning. It also operated as a think tank for the COSC. The DPS was n Integration of the armed forces headquarters with the Ministry of the forerunner to the Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) or what is known as Defence (MoD). ‘Joint Staff’ in some countries. n Creation of the posts of CDS and Vice Chief of Defence Staff (VCDS). The IDS came into being in October 2001, with the merging of the n Setting up of IDS to support the CDS. Military Wing, which was established at the time of Independence and n Establishment of a Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA). had functioned under the Cabinet Secretariat for a number of years till n Organisation of an Andaman & Nicobar Command (ANC). it came under the COSC - with the DPS. After the Kargil War in 1999, the n Creation of a Strategic Forces Command (SFC). report of the Kargil Review Committee, headed by K. Subrahmanyam, n Establishment of a Defence Procurement Board (DPB). was examined by a Group of Ministers (GoM). They recommended n Setting up of a National Defence University (NDU). the formation of the following four task forces to review the national n A number of other long term recommendations on aspects concernsecurity system: ing air space and maritime management, budgetary reforms including n Management of Defence performance budgeting, private sector participation in defence pron Internal Security duction, improvement in service conditions, media handling and cost n Border Management effectiveness. n Intelligence Systems & Apparatus All the recommendations except the one on the appointment of the The writer is a Senior Fellow in the Centre for Strategic Studies and Simulation, USI of India.

147 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK 2008-2009 38th Year of Issue

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Jointmanship in Planning, Procurement

B U S I N E S S

Staff

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

Integrated Defence

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

2

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Indian Defence


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148

SA (Scientific Advisor) to DCIDS (PP&FD)

IFA (Integrated Financial Advisor)

ACIDS (FP) (Financial Planning)

ACIDS (Strategic Ops) ACIDS (Pers)

ACIDS (Doctrine & Trg)

Air Marshal Dheeraj Kukreja DCIDS (Doctrine, Organisation & Trg)

ACIDS (Joint Ops)

Vice Admiral Anup Singh DCIDS (Ops)

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ACIDS (WS, ORSA & Infrastructure) (Weapon Systems Operational Research & Systems Analysis and Infrastructure)

ACIDS (Maj Gen Equivalent) (PP&FS) (Policy, Plans & Force Structures)

Lt Gen N.S. Brar (till March 31, 2009) DCIDS (Lt Gen Equivalent) (PP&FD) (Policy Planning & Force Development)

Organisation of Integrated Defence Staff

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ACIDS (Sig Int)

ACIDS (Counter Terrorism)

ACIDS (Tech Int)

ACIDS (Int. 'B')

ACIDS (Int. 'A')

Lt Gen Tejinder Singh DGDIA (Dir Gen Def Int Agency & DCIDS (Int) DACIDS (MS & SD)

Air Marshal S.K. Mukul CISC (Vice Chief Equivalent)

SA (Scientific Advisor) to CISC

Admiral Sureesh Mehta Chief of the Naval Staff & Chairman COSC

IFA (Integrated Financial Advisor) to CISC

JS (International)

DACIDS (Net Assesment)

DACIDS (Adm Coord)

Indian Defence INTEGRATED DEFENCE STAFF


3

India’s Defence

A

ll countries have a tendency to proIndia’s defence budget now stands reduced to LT G E N E R A L ( R E T D ) tect what they consider crucial inforbelow two per cent at approximately 1.99 per cent V. K . K A P O O R mation about their defence capabilof the GDP, the lowest percentage in the history of ity for well-founded reasons. Defence the country since the last 46 years. This figure is expenditure is a part of this kind of information. Hence closest to the allocation given in 1962, which was 1.59 per cent of the tracking and assessments of the defence spending world GDP and India suffered a shameful defeat at the hands of the People’s over is a difficult phenomenon due to the secrecy attached to informa- Liberation Army of China. These declining trends, incidentally, are in tion of this nature. However, democratic states practise greater trans- contrast to the commitment made by the Prime Minister to push the parency as a part of their liberal ethos, domestic obligations and public Defence Budget towards the three per cent of the GDP mark in the oversight and well established procedures of accountability. backdrop of strong economic growth. The 16th Report, Demands for Grants (2007-2008), Standing Committee on Defence, Fourteenth Lok

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155 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK 2008-2009 38th Year of Issue

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

The Union Budget 2008-2009 has allocated Rs 1,05,600 crore for India’s Defence. The highlights are as under:  Budget = Rs 1,05,600 crore ($21 billion)  Revenue Expenditure = Rs 7,593 crore (54.5%)  Capital Expenditure = Rs 48,007 crore (45.5%)  Share of Army = Rs 49,595 crore (47%)  Share Navy = Rs 19,534 crore (18%)  Share of IAF = Rs 30,176 crore (29%)  Defence R&D = Rs 6,486.35 crore (6.14%)  Defence Budget as % of GDP = 1.99%  Defence Budget as percentage of Government Expenditure = 14.06%

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

Budgetary Details

T E C H N O L O G Y

Keeping in view the challenges facing the country and the economic growth that is intended, in the long run, India needs to maintain an adequate military capability to deter potential adversaries and to defeat designs of inimical neighbours who are trying to keep her tied down in internal and regional conflicts to prevent overall development and growth. Hence the question that needs to be resolved is what India’s defence expenditure should be in order to fulfill her defence needs while considering her volatile neighbourhood and the defence expenditures and military preparedness of her potential adversaries.

B U S I N E S S

Greater Outlays Need of the Hour

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

Budget

C O N T E N T S

Indian Defence


Ë Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

In this emerging environment, national security is not just a function of military strength but is evermore linked with the development and exercise of comprehensive national power. This formulation of power includes economic strength, internal cohesion, diplomatic and policy capacity that enables exercise of national will and technological progress. Food security, energy security, a clean environment, equality before law and good governance all contribute to national security and, conversely, are affected by threats to national security. The logical corollary is that national security is no longer the concern of any particular ministry or ministries but a larger inter-ministerial and inter-agency construct at both central and state levels. The role of non-government groups and institutions has also acquired a new significance.

I

Emerging Security Environment

Core Values of India

ndia stands at a cusp in its history. The world has taken notice of the innate strength of the Indian nation. Many nations and institutions are keen to engage with India, for their benefit as well as their desire to see India play a significant role in world affairs. Yet, there are states and groups which do not view these developments graciously. Within the country, the challenges of rapid and equitable growth create their own social dynamics which impact the security of the country and its people. Those who do not like to see the emergence of India as a global player of significance are keen to exploit all internal fault lines. In this emerging environment, national security is not just a function of military strength but is evermore linked with the development and exercise of comprehensive national power. This formulation of power includes economic strength, internal cohesion, diplomatic and policy capacity that enables exercise of national will and technological progress. Food security, energy security, a clean environment, equality before law and good governance all contribute to national security and, conversely, are affected by threats to national security. The logical corollary is that national security is no longer the concern of any particular ministry or ministries but a larger inter-ministerial and inter-agency construct at both central and state levels. The role of non-government groups and institutions has also acquired a new significance.

India’s core values provide the basis for its existence. These are not only enshrined in its constitution but are part of a legacy that has been bequeathed to the present and coming generations by an ancient civilization. The main values are given in the succeeding paragraphs. Democracy: India believes in democratic functioning at the grassroots level, between states and regions within the country and in its institutions. India believes strongly that genuine democracy pre-empts conflicts and helps in their peaceful resolution. For this reason, India supports democracy in all parts of the world and in the conduct of state to state affairs. Pluralism and Tolerance: Pluralism and tolerance are the legacy of our civilization and the long struggle to gain genuine freedom for our people. India accepts that there are differences among people and countries and believes in protecting the rights of minorities and socially deprived groups within and outside the country. Tolerance of unique religious and social practices forms a basic component of Indian understanding of freedom. India celebrates its diversity. Secularism: India believes in respect for all religions and freedom for all people to choose and pursue religious practices, without temptation, fear or coercion. Religion as the basis for existence of states or as a guide to the formulation and conduct of state policy does not agree with Indian values.

159 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK 2008-2009 38th Year of Issue

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Beyond National Defence, To Nation-Building

B U S I N E S S

Army

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

The Indian

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

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Indian Defence

THE INDIAN ARMY

Peaceful Co-existence: India believes in peaceful co-existence of nations and communities. Such co-existence must be on mutual terms, respecting the rights of either parties to pursue their interests without adversely affecting those of others. India also believes that all differences can be resolved in a peaceful manner, within a just and responsive international framework, without recourse to force. In so doing, India recognizes the right of countries to act in self-protection against threats from those who do not believe in mutual peaceful co-existence. Openness: India believes in openness of its society and economy. Openness also means participative governance and proactive policies to ensure that no groups feel isolated from the mainstream of national consciousness. India’s openness extends to its international relations and it supports the same values between other nations. Rule of Law: Differences and conflict are a manifestation of the collapse of higher values common to the human race. The moral and intellectual evolution of the human race has also provided a framework of rules and laws for resolving all differences. India believes that universal adherence to the rule of law provides the best guarantee of security. India supports all efforts towards enforcing the rule of law, abrogating impunity. India believes in fulfilling all its obligations within the framework of rule of law and supports the application of the same principle to relations between all states. Human Rights and Freedom: Freedom is a basic human right. India believes in the protection of human rights of all people in the world within the construct of Rule of Law and Peaceful Co-existence. India believes that basic human rights deserve protection any where in the world. Moderation: Moderation is a value that is complementary to plurality and tolerance. Moderation implies a readiness to discuss, negotiate and re-consider differences. Eschewing extreme positions and strategies is a natural corollary to other Indian values.

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India’s National Security Objectives The above stated values have guided the evolution of India’s national security objectives which are as under:  Defending the country’s borders as defined by law and enshrined in the Constitution;  Protecting the lives and property of its citizens against war, terrorism, nuclear threats and militant activities;  Protecting the country from instability and religious and other forms of radicalism and extremism emanating from neighbouring states;  Securing the country against the use or the threat of use of weapons of mass destruction;  Development of material, equipment and technologies that have a bearing on India ’s security, particularly its defence preparedness through indigenous research, development and production, inter-alia to overcome restrictions on the transfer of such items;  Promoting further co-operation and understanding with neighbouring countries and implementing mutually agreed confidence-building measures; and  Pursuing security and strategic dialogues with major powers and key partners.

Indian Army: Roles & Responsibilities The Indian Army is the world’s second largest standing army with the fourth largest budget globally, apolitical in a sub-continent that has witnessed armies often imposing their will on their people by eliminating legitimate democratic dispensations. It remains the repository of the Indian citizens’ hopes and aspirations. In a milieu of degenerating institutions, it is, as is often touted, the last bastion that inspires confidence. As a result, the Indian Army’s role has gone far beyond national defence to also substantially address nation-building. It is these influences that have shaped the

role and functioning of the Indian Army. The basic role of the Indian Army is to safeguard the territorial integrity of the nation against external aggression. With borders that are aligned over the highest mountain ranges, across turbulent water channels, through rolling fields, over shifting sand dunes, amidst dense jungles, along stretches that remain disputed, a mass of imponderables emanate that are unique in many ways. The Army has to constantly prepare itself for these multi-faceted diverse challenges. In addition, the Army is often required to assist the civil administration for internal security and in the maintenance of law and order, in organising relief operations during natural calamities like floods, earthquakes, cyclones and in the maintenance of essential services. With the efficiency of most government institutions at levels below par, demands on the Army have increased manifold with near continuous deployment of its forces in intense counter insurgency operations in Jammu & Kashmir and in the north east, being the greatest augment.

Operational Formations (Fighting Formations) Command Headquarters In the global context, Command Headquarters of the Indian Army can be equated to an Army Group Headquarter with an officer of the rank of a Lieutenant General, a three-star General Officer Commanding-in-Chief exercising operational and administrative command. Beneath the Command Headquarters, in the structural architecture of the Indian Army, are the Corps Headquarters, which are parallel to the Field Army Headquarters in many other countries. The Indian Army’s combat formations are grouped and tailored under many such Corps Headquarters (with some forces being retained under static Area Commands). A Corps of Indian Army is structured for independently undertaking major operations. These are, in effect, the highest field formations at the operational levels, while the Commands are in the military-strategic realm. The Indian Army is organised into six regional commands and an Army Training Command  Headquarters Central Command, Lucknow;  Headquarters Eastern Command, Kolkata;  Headquarters Northern Command, Udhampur;  Headquarters Western Command, Chandimandir;  Headquarters Southern Command, Pune;  Headquarters South Western Command, Jaipur;  Headquarters Army Training Command (ARTRAC), Simla. Corps The field forces (combat manoeuvre, firepower and combat support elements, as also operational logistics) are grouped in each Corps. Their construct, nature of constituent formations/units and equipment profiling is influenced by their role and tasks. In generic terms they are divided into defensive Holding Corps and offensive Strike Corps. However, such categorization is not essentially an absolute truth, with Holding Corps having enough combat potential uncommitted to ground holding role for undertaking limited offensives with shallow objectives. Corps Headquarters are designed to handle three to five divisions or their equivalents. Strike Corps comprise three to four divisions (approximately 100,000 to 150,000 soldiers of all arms and services with either or both mechanized infantry or infantry, and a variety of tanks, guns, combat support equipment, as also operational logistics). Strike Corps may be viewed as theatre assets to be employed by Theatre (Army) Commanders, in accordance with strategic objectives and directions of the Army Headquarters.

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The Division & Independent Brigade Group In the architecture, beneath the Corps are divisions and independent brigades. These are the lower field formations (about 20,000 and

160 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK 2008-2009 38th Year of Issue


A major wartime role indicated for the TA of the future is of providing highly qualified specialists and experts in various fields to fill certain specialist appointments in all three services. This concept, which may be termed as ‘Individual Reserves’, would involve identifying these experts in various disciplines and providing adequate incentives, such as offering them military ranks commensurate with their age, service, experience and eminence, for them to join the TA. Such individuals would be attached to regular or TA units and posted to their designated unit during war or a major national emergency, through the TA channel.

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

“The Territorial Army has rendered valuable services to the Armed Forces, both during war and in peacetime and has commendably assisted civilian authorities when called upon to do so. It is a symbol of national integration and provides an opportunity to civilians to contribute to the defence of our motherland.” —K.R. Narayanan, Former President of India

T

he Territorial Army (TA) has been in European countries have territorial type of forces. MAJOR GENERAL existence in India since 1897, when it UK, for example, has a 40,000 plus TA force level as ( R E T D ) G U R D I P S I N G H was raised as ‘Volunteers’ recruited against a regular army of one lakh plus and is heavfrom amongst Europeans and Angloily dependent on its TA and other reserves to comIndians. With the passing of Indian Territorial Army Act, 1920, plete its Order of Battle (ORBAT). It has units of all arms and services. the TA was reorganized into two separate Wings, namely the The TA in India as of now comprises only infantry units as its combat Auxiliary Force and Indian Territorial Force, the latter being meant for element. In addition it has some departmental units to meet special Indians. On attainment of independence in 1947, the Territorial Army Act secondary requirements such as maintenance of essential services of 1920, was replaced with the Territorial Army Act 1948 leading to the during emergencies. These include Oil sector units, Railway engineer raising of the Territorial Army as it exists today. It is a part of the Army as regiments and General Hospital units. There are also some ecological defined in the Defence Service Regulations. units for afforestation and wasteland development tasks. TA essentially implies part time soldiering. Individuals volunteering The increasing commitments of the Army may require enhancement for the TA are required to be gainfully employed. These citizens on join- of its strength. Given the constraints of the defence budget, increase ing the TA undergo a short period of military training and subsequently in the regular army strength could adversely affect its modernization attend annual camp every year to refresh and upgrade their military programme. Smaller and tighter budget makes it imperative that we turn skills. Whenever the need arises, these personnel may be called upon to a concept which would allow manpower costs to be kept low while for military service in support of the regular army. maintaining a substantial and credible potential for rapid expansion. It Several countries particularly, the UK, USA, Australia and many is here that the TA fills in admirably.

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The author is a former Additional Director General of the Territorial Army

169 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK 2008-2009 38th Year of Issue

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Potential to Counter External & Internal Threats

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

A Vision

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

Territorial Army:

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Indian Defence


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SP’s: Have the exercises with armies of friendly countries in any way impacted the operational philosophy of the Army? COAS: Our ‘Operational Philosophy’ is developed to cover the peculiar circumstances, threats and challenges that we face as a nation. It therefore is unique to meet our operational requirements. What we gain from these joint exercises and training is an exposure to each other’s best practices and techniques, as also generate confidence to operate alongside, under

173 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK 2008-2009 38th Year of Issue

B U S I N E S S

SP’s: What are the aims and objectives of defence cooperation with various nations? With which nations is the IA currently exercising at levels higher than platoons and companies? COAS: Military to military cooperation between India and other friendly countries has helped in not only familiarising with available technologies and best practices but has also enhanced mutual understanding with friendly foreign countries. I view the gains accruing to us from this aspect in terms of developing mutual trust and confidence, and the capability to operate along side other armies to undertake international military engagements. This is also the basis for addressing shared concerns over threats like terrorism, extremism and militancy. Besides, such interaction also helps us keep abreast of latest developments world wide in technology and doctrinal concepts. Our focus remains on engaging with countries in our immediate and strategic neighbourhood, as also with leading world powers to strengthen defence relationships thereby promoting peace and stability in the region. Joint exercises, at company level, are only being conducted with select friendly foreign countries. In the recent past such exercises have been conducted with the USA, UK, China and Singapore. Gradually the level will be enhanced over a period of time.

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

SP Guide Publications (SP’s): As the COAS, what in your perception are the security challenges facing the nation in general and the Indian Army in particular? Chief of Army Staff (COAS): The global security architecture is gradually shifting towards multi-polarity in power equations with a discernible shift in the global Centre of Gravity to Asia. However, this region is beset with myriad problems and conflicts marked by deep rooted distrust and rivalries. Countries in our immediate neighbourhood are also undergoing varying forms of instability. The nature of warfare is changing and evolving rapidly with Fourth Generation Warfare (4 GW) and asymmetric threats coming to the fore. Terrorism, proxy war, militancy and insurgency are forms of irregular and 4 GW, which will be increasingly employed by non state actors to exploit the vulnerabilities of ‘stronger’ states and military powers. This will pose a major threat to the country in the future and will increasingly take ingenuous forms and means to constantly challenge the expertise of security forces. The epicentre of global terrorism being in our neighbourhood, coupled with the threat of asymmetric warfare, presents special security challenges for the Nation. The non-conventional threats transcend interstate boundaries in the region, and these threats could be targeted at our economy, technology, culture and morale. A conventional conflict in the future is, therefore, likely to be accompanied by a large number of such 4 GW manifestations. India therefore faces unique challenges – ranging from ‘Traditional Land Centric Threats’ necessitating multifront obligations, to ‘Asymmetric Threats’ including its proxy war manifestations, combined with other internal security challenges.

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

General Deepak Kapoor took over as the Chief of Army Staff (COAS) on October 1, 2007. In a candid and wide-ranging interview with SP Guide Publications, the COAS shares his thoughts and perceptions on several issues, such as the security challenges facing the nation and modernization of the army.

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

‘Space is emerging as a vital fourth dimension of warfare’

T E C H N O L O G Y

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Army

C O N T E N T S

Interview: Chief of

W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

Indian Defence


Indian Defence

EQUIPMENT CATALOGUE INDIAN ARMY

Equipment Catalogue Indian Army MBTs T-90S Characteristics Crew Cbt Weight Width, over tracks Height, over turret roof Engine

Road range Armament and Amn

: 3 : 46.5 ton : 3.37 m : 2.23m : V-84MS four-stroke 12-cylinder multifuel diesel engine, developing 840 hp

Main gun rate of fire

: 550 km : Main: 1 x 125mm SBG which fires an ATGM as well as conventional amn. Has a laser range finder & thermal imaging night sight [43 (22 - in autoloader) rounds] Co-axial: 1 x 7.62 mm MG (2,000 rounds) AA: 1 x 12.7 mm MG (300 rounds) : 8 rounds/min

Main gun amn Engine Speed Range Armour Protection

: : : : :

Trench crossing Shallow fording Armament

: 2.6 to 2.8 m : 1.2 m : Main: 1 x 125 mm SBG Coaxial: 1 x 7.62 mm MG AD: 1 x 12.7 mm MG : 16° to -6° : 360° : 3 km : 8 rounds/min : Auto : 44 projectiles/ charges

T-72S Characteristics Crew Cbt Weight Height Armament

: : : :

3 46,500 kg 2.228 m Main: 1 x 125mm SBG AA: 1 x 12.7 mm NSVT (300 rounds) Co-axial: 1 x 7.62 mm

PKT MG (2,000 rounds) 45 x APDSFS/HEAT/HESH (incl 6 ATGW) V-12 multifuel (V-84) 840 hp at 2,000 rpm 60 km/h (max) 550 km 280mm (max)

T-72M-1 (Ajeya) – Cbt Improved

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Characteristics Crew Cbt Weight Height ( turret roof) Engine

Power to Weight ratio Max speed (on road) Max speed (Cross country) Gradient Ability Vertical obstacle

: : : :

3 43.5 tons 2,190mm Up rated V46-6 engine; a 12 cylinder 4 stroke, V 60 turbocharged, water-cooled, multi-fuel, direct injection engine developing 1,000 hp at 2,000 rpm. : 22.98 hp/ton : 60 km/h

: 35 to 45 km/h : 60° : 850mm

Elevation/depression Traverse Max range Main gun rate of fire Amn loading Amn stowage

Note: Other improvements incl Explosive Reactive Armour, Integrated Fire Detection and Suppression System and GPS.

T-55 (Up Gunned) Characteristics Crew Cbt Weight Height Armament

: : : :

3 43,000 kg 2.26 m Main: 1 x 105 mm rifled bore gun Co-axial: 1 x 7.62 mm PKT MG (2,000 rounds)

AA: 1 x 12.7 mm NSV M (2,800 rounds) 43 rounds x APDSFS/HEAT/HESH V-2-55/V-12 Diesel rated at 600 bhp 50 km/h (max) 500 km 140 mm

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Main gun amn Engine Speed Range Armour

: : : : :

Overall height (with AD gun mount) Overall width Ground pressure Armament

: 3.03 m

Arjun Characteristics Crew Cbt Weight Overall length (with gun forward)

: 4 : 58.5 tons : 10.638 m

176 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK 2008-2009 38th Year of Issue

: 3.864 m : 0.85 kg/cm2 : Main: 1 x 120mm Rifled gun


G R E AT P E R F O R M A N C E S .

SMALL “ I TE M S ” .

DESIGN AND PRODUCTION OF ELECTRONIC DEFENCE SYSTEMS.


There is every indication that the need to develop the Indian Navy into a credible maritime force, capable of safeguarding the country’s interests, is now well recognised. As the Indian Navy sails through the opening decade of the new millennium, it does so as a professional, focused and committed force deeply conscious of its ever increasing responsibilities.

Ë Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

T

he Indian Navy’s responsibilities include safeguarding a wide spectrum of the country’s maritime interests. These include a coastline of 7,516.6 km and an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of over two million square kilometers, which is expected to increase to over three million sq km after the inclusion of the extended continental shelf by 2008. In its EEZ, the country has sovereign rights to explore and exploit economic assets without encroachment or hindrance from others. The country’s overseas trade is more than 513.5 million tonnes, over 95 per cent of which by volume and 77 per cent by value moves through the medium of the sea, to and from 13 major ports, and dozens of smaller ones on either coast. India has island territories on both seaboards. To the east, more than 700 miles from the Indian mainland are the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, stretching 450 miles from north to south. The southern-most of these islands is only 90 miles from the western tip of the Indonesian archipelago while in the north, Myanmar (Coco Islands) lies only 22 miles away. To the west, about 150 miles from the mainland are the Lakshadweep group of Islands occupying a strategic location astride vital international shipping lanes. India’s merchant marine is close to nine million tons GRT, comprising over 700 ships. The country shares maritime boundaries with seven Indian Ocean littoral states. Another example of the importance of the seas is India’s current oil consumption which was 2.5 million barrels per day (bbl/d) in 2005, and is likely to rise to 5.3 million bbl/d by 2025. This will mean a drastic increase in oil imports, half of which will come

from the Middle East. Any stoppages or even interruptions are likely to have a crippling effect on the economy. Thus, India is truly a maritime nation and the sea is critical to her survival and prosperity. It is the role of the Indian Navy to ensure that these interests are adequately safeguarded in peace and in war. The Navy will hopefully, in the very near future, provide the third leg of the nuclear triad, which India seeks to develop, in order to safeguard its interests as a de facto nuclear weapons state. The relief operations carried out after the devastating Tsunami in December 2004 have demonstrated the ability of the Indian Navy to respond with alacrity to the humanitarian needs of the neighboring countries in the region, while simultaneously undertaking disaster relief tasks for fellow citizens in our own coastal states and island territories. Thereafter, in 2006 we witnessed the swiftly executed refugee evacuation operation from strife-torn Lebanon, where again the Navy rendered succour, not just to Indian citizens but also to stranded Sri Lankans, and Nepalese. These two successful operations were observed by navies worldwide, and they highlighted the fact that the Indian Navy was capable of discharging its duties commensurate with India’s regional status and responsibilities.

Background The maritime traditions of the country can be traced as far back as the Harappan Civilisation with many archeologists claiming that a basin dating back to 4000 BC, discovered in Lothal was the world’s first dry dock.

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C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES T E C H N O L O G Y

Focus on Relevant & Coherent Strategies

B U S I N E S S

Navy

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

The Indian

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

5

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Indian Defence


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Indian Defence

THE INDIAN NAVY

Indian trade and culture were carried across the seas during the period of the Cholas, Satavahanas, Chalukyas, Pandyas and the Mauryas. The story of the Ramayana and Mahabharata spread by Indian seafarers can, even today, be seen in temple murals and carvings in as distant as Indonesia, Kampuchea and Thailand. These seafarers took Indian silks, spices and artifacts to East Africa, the Gulf and even beyond. But with the arrival of the Mughals, India rapidly began to lose touch with the sea. This was to have tragic consequences, which ultimately led to the enslavement of the country when the Europeans arrived. It took more than 400 years for India to achieve freedom. The growth of Indian Navy over the last six decades has been remarkable. In a short span of less than 15 years after independence, the Navy grew into a credible force with capability to deploy on the high seas for fairly long periods of time. The plans catered for the building of a balanced force capable of meeting a wide variety of tasks, on the British model. The main thrust of the plan was “Self Reliance through Indigenisation” with warship design and buildup undertaken in Indian shipyards with technology transfer, on as required basis. In addition, a number of ships were also acquired, primarily from Russia, to make up immediate shortfalls in the force level. These plans progressed reasonably well until the late 1980s, by which time the Navy had acquired a size and potential, which invited worldwide comment. With two aircraft carriers, 18 submarines, an equal number of frigates, destroyers and a nuclear submarine on lease, the Indian Navy had come a long way from the few sloops and minesweepers which it possessed at the time of Independence. Several more ships were on order. This momentum, however, slowed down in the early 1990s due to financial constraints. The operational status of the force levels steadily declined in the last decade. But orders for ships and submarines have now been placed to arrest the decline. The results of these efforts are already seen with the induction of Talwar and Brahmaputra class ships. A new dimension of the maritime environment is the increasing incidence of piracy at sea. While much of it originates in the waters of the South China Sea, Malacca Straits and off Indonesia, there is a close linkage between such piracy, the movement of narcotics, weapons and other contraband, which in turn fuels and sustains terrorism. The ingress of such arms and ammunition into northern Sri Lanka for use by the LTTE and, into India’s western and north eastern states, is essentially sea based. Located between two of the world’s major narcotics centers, the Golden Crescent countries on the west and the Golden Triangle region on the east, India is critically placed in the centre of these nefarious activities. A growing Coast Guard is not by itself adequate to cope with these threats, which are becoming more and more sophisticated, and could affect the stability of the nation. The Navy has a much more active role to play in countering these threats than it has done so far. As India advances technologically, there is also a need for greater focus on modernisation of electronic warfare capabilities, satellite communication systems and establishing the architecture for network centric operations, which includes an effective intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance capability.

The Indian Navy Today The Indian Navy has about 95,000 personnel including 50,000 civilians and over 130 ships. It has three regional commands with their headquarters at Mumbai, Visakhapatnam and Kochi. The naval formations located in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands along with a few Army, Air Force and Coast Guard units have been part of a full-fledged unified theatre command under the Commanderin-Chief, Andaman and Nicobar Command since 2001. The C-in-C is answerable directly to the Chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee,

and this is the first theatre command in the Indian Armed Forces.

Organisation Naval Headquarters, now re-designated as the Integrated Headquarters of Ministry of Defence (Navy), is located at New Delhi with the Chief of the Naval Staff (CNS****) as the head. He has four Principal Staff Officers (PSOs) to assist him in his duties. The functions of the PSOs are elaborated upon in the succeeding paragraphs. Vice Chief of Naval Staff (VCNS***): He is the coordinating PSO and looks after policy, organisation of NHQ and the Navy, the force planning process, weapons and systems procurement, warship acquisition as well as construction, armament procurement and R&D. He is assisted by the Controller of Warship Production & Acquisition (CWP&A***) and a large in-house warship design organisation. Deputy Chief of Naval Staff (DCNS***): He is in charge of all aspects of naval operations including surface, submarine, airborne, and diving operations, intelligence, communications, tactics, hydrography, oceanography and meteorology. He also oversees the Navy’s crucial foreign cooperation programmes. The DCNS is also responsible for the evolution of doctrines and concepts in the navy. Chief of Personnel (COP***): As the designation suggests, the COP is in charge of human resources of the Navy for both service and civilian personnel including their recruitment, terms and conditions of service, medical and legal affairs, education, training and discipline-related issues. Chief of Material (COM***): The Chief of Material, as head of the technical branches is charged with the task of technology management as also maintenance and material support for the ships and submarines of the IN. He is also responsible for maintaining adequate inventories in respect of spares and consumables, for provisioning of uniforms and for victualling. In the latter tasks, he is assisted by the Controller of Logistics (COL***). Indigenisation is an area of special focus for the Material Branch.

Note: •VCNS, DCNS, COP, COM, are *** Principal Staff Officers (PSOs) with VCNS as the coordinating PSO. •CWPA, CPS and COL are controllers of *** rank. •ACNS (IWOPS), ACNS (P&P), ACCP, ACNS (FCI), ACNS (Air), ACNS (Submarines), ACNS (SPV&AOB), Chief Hydro, ACOP (HRD), ACOP (P&C), ACOP (Civ), ACWPA, DGND (SSG), DGND (SDG), DGNAI, ACOM (IT&Systems), ACOM (D&R), ACOL, ACNS (S/M) are Asst PSOs of ** rank. •DGONA is a civilian officer of Additional Secretary status. •ACNS (Submarines) also carries out duties of Flag Officer, Submarines (FOSM). Assistant Controller, Carriers Project oversees the indigenous building of the first Air Defence Ship and will also coordinate acquisition of the ships, from abroad. He is of ** rank.

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Command Structure

The operational command in the Indian Navy is exercised through two operational control authorities – Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief (FOC-in-C), East and FOC-in-C, West, who are responsible for all operations along their respective seaboards. The FOC-in-C, South is responsible for all training in the Indian Navy and has limited operational responsibility. The following subsidiary authorities carry out functions specific to them:  Flag Officer Offshore Defence Advisory Group (FODAG**): Responsible to FOC-in-C, West for all interactions between the Oil & Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) and the Indian Navy relevant to the security and protection of offshore oil assets.  Flag Officer Commanding Maharashtra and Gujarat Naval Area

184 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK 2008-2009 38th Year of Issue


SP’s: Early 2008, the Indian Navy (IN) had embarked upon the IONS on ‘Contemporary Trans-national Challenges: International Maritime Connectivity’. What are the gains and follow-on frameworks of IONS? CNS: The formal launch of the ‘IONS’ initiative was effected through two sessions of the ‘Conclave-of-Chiefs’, the first held in New Delhi on February 15 and the second in Goa on February 16, 2008. As had been the intention, it was at this ‘Conclave-of-Chiefs’, far from the glare of the media, that the most meaningful progress was made. Comfortably interacting amongst their peers, the Chiefs-of-Navy ratified the four ‘Objectives’ of the movement. Recognising the enormous diversities of our region, a few Measures of Effectiveness were identified to gauge our success. The first was whether we would enjoy sufficient political support. Our Prime Minister’s presence stood testimony to this. The second was whether the Chiefs-of-Navy would indeed attend. The fact that, of the thirty odd invitees, as many as 27 Chiefs were present, speaks for itself. In one case, that of the Republic of Comoros, it took a civil war to eventually preclude his attendance! The third was whether the Chiefs would agree to the activities defined in the draft Charter. This too, was achieved and the Chiefs agreed to abide by the draft Charter even while the document was processed in each navy’s own governmental

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191 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK 2008-2009 38th Year of Issue

B U S I N E S S

regionally relevant mechanisms, events and activities. I believe that the IONS movement is vital to liberating us from the numerous maritime problems. Having begun our work well, with the support of like-minded navies we are confident of bringing about a future that is free from petty rivalries and be better equipped to successfully meet the many common maritime security challenges that confront us in this region.

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

SP Guide Publications (SP’s): The Indian Ocean Region (IOR) has emerged as a hotbed of piracy, hijacking, acts of terror, arms pedalling and drug trafficking. Have the regional navies formalised any framework for co-operative engagement so as to jointly combat such threats? Chief of the Naval Staff (CNS): It is regrettable but true that the Indian Ocean littoral is beset by a number of security related challenges that include, inter alia, the sea-borne trafficking of drugs, arms, and human beings; robbery, armed robbery, hijacking and other forms of maritime crime; marine pollution, poaching, piracy and terrorism. As if all these were not challenges enough, the region is also the locus of 70 per cent of the world’s natural disasters. Today, I think it would be fair to state that every navy and state-run maritime-security agency of the IOR understands that these common challenges can only be met through common responsemechanisms. Consequently, in February 2008, driven by the need to address regional vulnerabilities by capitalising upon regional strengths, the Chiefs of the Navies of very nearly all littoral states of the IOR gathered in New Delhi, both in ‘assembly’ and in ‘conclave’, to launch the Twenty First Century’s first significant international maritime-security initiative, namely, the Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS). The ability to garner such wide acceptance across the length and breadth of the Indian Ocean at the launch of such an important regional initiative was unique. Also commendable is the creation of a single representative of the region that has come into its own and is ready to evolve a broad consensus in facing the myriad security challenges. The IONS seeks to provide a regional forum through which the Chiefs-of-Navy of all the littoral states of the IOR can periodically meet to constructively engage one another through the creation and promotion of

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

Admiral Sureesh Mehta took over as the Chief of the Naval Staff on November 1, 2006, and as Chairman of Chiefs of Staff Committee on October 1, 2007. In an interview with SP Guide Publications, he spoke candidly about the maritime, regional and strategic security issues and their impact on the challenges facing the Indian Navy.

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

‘The IN has a proud record of consistently supporting indigenisation’

T E C H N O L O G Y

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Navy

C O N T E N T S

Interview: Chief of

W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

Indian Defence


Sindhughosh (Kilo) Class (Project 877 EKM/8773) Total No. in service Name

Displacement, Tons Dimensions, feet (metres) Main machinery

Speed, knots Range, miles Complement Torpedoes

Mines Counter measures Weapon Control Radars Sonars

: 10 : Sindhughosh, Sindhudhvaj, Sindhuraj, Sindhuvir, Sindhuratna, Sindhukesri, Sindhukirti, Sindhuvijay Sindhurakshak, Sindhushastra : 2,325 surfaced; 3,076 dived : 238 x 32.5 x 21.7 (72.6 x 9.9 x 6.6)

Programmes

Modernisation : 2 Model 4-2AA-42M diesels; 2 generators; 1 motor 1 shaft; 2 MT-168 auxiliary motors; 1 economic speed motor : 10 surfaced; 17 dived; 9 snorting : 6,000 at 7 kt snorting; 400 at 3 kt dived : 52 (13 officers) : 6-21 in (533 mm) tubes combination of Type 53-65 passive wake homing to 19 km (10.3 n miles) at 45 Kt; TEST 71/96 antisubmarine; active/passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt or 20 km (10.08 n miles) at 25 kt warhead 220 kg Total of 18 weapons. Wire-guided on 2 tubes. : 24 DM-1 in lieu of torpedoes : ESM; Squid head radar warning : Uzwl MVU-119EM TFCS : Navigation; Snoop Tray; MRP-25; I-band : MGK – 400, hull mounted, active/passive search and attack; medium frequency. MG-519; hull mounted active search; high frequency. Being replaced by Sonar USHUS manufactured by BEL, Bangalore in a progressive manner on submarines.

Operational

195 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK 2008-2009 38th Year of Issue

: The Kilo class was launched in the former Soviet Navy in 1979 and India was the first country to acquire these between 1993 and 2000. Indian Navy procured 10 submarines of this class from Russia. This class of submarine has since been supplied to Algeria, Poland, Romania, Iran and China. : Medium refits cum modernisation of the submarines is being undertaken in India/ Russia on a progressive manner. A submarine launched cruise missile (SLCM) capability is also part of the refit. Retrofit and trials of submarine launched version of Brahmos missile (a joint Indo-Russian venture) is expected to be undertaken on one of the submarines.. An Indian designed main battery with a five year life has replaced Russian batteries in all of the class. Battery cooling has been improved. : First four form the 11th Submarine Squadron based at Visakhapatnam and the remainder of the 12th Squadron based at Mumbai. Sindhuvir completed major refit at Severodvinsk from May 1997 to July 1999. Sindhuraj and Sindhukesari completed similar refits at Admiralty Yard St. Petersburg from May 1999 to November 2001. Sindhuratna completed a two-year refit at Severodvinsk in 2002. Sindhughosh was refitted at Visakhapatnam from September 2002 to

C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES T E C H N O L O G Y

12 km at 35 knots; warhead 250 kg. : External Strap-on type for 24 Mines : Decoys; C303 acoustic decoys; ESM Argo Phenix II AR 700 or Koll Morgen Sea Sentry, radar warning Weapon Control : Singer Librascope MKI Radars : Surface Search, Thomson-CSF Calypso; I-band Sonars : Atlas Elektronik CSU 83 active/passive search and attack; Thomson Sintra DUUV5; passive ranging and intercept. Programme: HDW concluded an agreement with Indian Navy on 11 December 1981. Out of the four submarines, first two were built in West Germany and the balance two at Mazagon Docks, Mumbai with supply of material package from HDW. (Submarines form the 10th Submarine Squadron based at Mumbai. Mid life refits-cum-modernisation of the class is being undertaken in a progressive manner starting with Shishumar in 1999.) Mines Counter measures

B U S I N E S S

Total No. in service : 4 Name : Shishumar, Shankush, Shalki, Shankul Specifications: Displacement (in Tons) : Standard 1450 Surfaced 1660 Dived 1850 Dimensions : 211.2 x 21.3 x 19.7(64.4 x 6.5 x 6) Feet (Metres) Main Machinery : Diesel Electric 4MTU 12V 493 AZ80 GA31L diesels; 4 Siemens alternators; 1 Siemens motor; 1 shaft Speed, knots : Surfaced 11; Dived 22 Range, Miles : 8000 Snorting at 8 knots 13000 Surfaced at 10 knots Complement : 40 (8 officers) Torpedoes : 8 Nos. 21 inch (533 mm) tubes carries 14 AEG SUT Mod 1 wire guided active/passive torpedoes homing to 28 km at 23 knots;

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

SUBMARINES Shishumar (209) Class Type 1500

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

Equipment Catalogue Indian Navy

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Indian Defence


Indian Defence

EQUIPMENT CATALOGUE: INDIAN NAVY

2004. One submarine is expected to be fitted out with Brahmos cruise missile – an Indo-Russian venture; the surface

version of this 290 km range missile is already being fitted on Indian Navy’s surface platforms.

FOXTROT (PROJECT 641) CLASS (SS) Indian Designation Total No. in service Name Displacement, Tons Dimensions, Feet (metres) Main Machinery Speed (knots) Range, miles Complement Torpedoes

: : : : :

Kalvari Class Two Vela, Vagli 1,952 surfaced; 2,475 dived 299.5 x 24.6 x 19.7 (91.3 x 7.5 x 6)

: Diesel-electric; 3 Type 37-D diesels; 3 motors; 3 shafts; 1 auxiliary motor : 16 surfaced; 15 dived, 9 snorting : 20,000 at 8 kt surfaced; 380 at 2 kt dived : 75 (8 officers) : 10-21 in (533 mm) (6 fwd, 4 aft) tubes. 22

SET-65E/SET-60; active/passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt; warhead 205 kg. Mines : 44 in lieu of torpedoes Counter measures : ESM; Stop Light; radar warning Radars : Surface search; Snoop Tray; I-band Sonars : Herkules/ Phoenix ; bow-mounted; passive search and attack; medium frequency Structure : Diving depth 250 m (820 ft), reducing with age Programmes: Survivors of an original eight of the class. Vela completed refit in 2001. Form 8th Submarine Squadron at Visakhapatnam. Vagli completed medium refit in 2005.

SCORPENE CLASS (PROJECT 75) Displacement, Tons Dimensions, Feet (metres) Main Machinery (metres) Speed, knots Range, miles Diving Depth Complement Torpedoes Counter measures Weapons control Radars

: 1,668 dived : 217.8 x 20.3 x 19 (66.4 x 6.2 x 5.8) : Diesel-electric; 4 MTU 16 V 396 SE84 diesels; 1 Jeumont Scheneider motor; 1 shaft : 20 dived 12 surfaced : 550 at 4 kt dived 6,500 at 8 kt surfaced : More than 300 m (984 ft) : 31 (6 officers) : 6-21 in (533 mm) tubes : ESM : UDS International SUBTICS : Navigation; Sagem; I-band

Sonars

: Hull mounted passive and attack – medium frequency Programmes: Project 75 negotiations for construction of six submarines in India were completed and contract concluded in late 2005. The contract envisages construction at MDL with transfer of technology from DCN, France. The first submarine is expected to be delivered by 2012, and thereafter one every year. Details of equipment package are speculative and based on those built for Chilean Navy. Design consideration provide special attention to stealth features with the hull forms, the sail and the appendages specifically designed to produce minimum hydrodynamic noise. Armed with Exocet SM 39 antiship missile, the Scorpene also offers advanced capabilities for mine warfare; intelligence gathering and special operations. Structure : Diving depth more than 300 m (984 ft)

Akula (Bars) class (Project 971/971U/09710) (SSN)

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Displacement, tons

: 7,500 surfaced; 9,100 (9,500 Akula II) dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 360.1 oa; 337.9 wl × 45.9 × 34.1 (110; 103 × 14 × 10.4) Main machinery : Nuclear; 1 VM-5 PWR; 190 MW; 2 GT3A turbines; 47,600 hp(m) (35 MW); 2 emergency propulsion motors; 750 hp(m) (552 kW); 1 shaft; 2 spinners; 1,006 hp(m) (740 kW) Speed, knots : 28 dived; 10 surfaced Complement : 62 (31 officers) Missiles : SLCM/SSM: Reduga SS-N-21 Sampson (Granat) fired from 21 in (533 mm) tubes; land-attack; inertial/terrain-following to 3,000 km (1,620 n miles) at 0.7 Mach; warhead nuclear 200 kT. CEP 150 m. Flies at a height of about 200 m. Novator Alfa SS-N-27 subsonic flight with supersonic boost for terminal flight; 180 km (97 mm); warhead 200 kg. May be fitted in due course. SAM : SA-N-5/8 Strela portable launcher. 18 missiles. A/S : Novator SS-N-15 Starfish (Tsakra) fired from 53 cm tubes; inertial flight to 45 km

Torpedoes

:

(24.3 n miles); warhead nuclear 200 kT or Type 40 torpedo. Novator SS-N-16 Stallion fired from 650 mm tubes; inertial flight to 100 km (54 n miles); payload nuclear 200 kT (Vodopad) or Type 40 torpedo (Veder). 4-21 in (533 mm) and 4-25.6 in (650 mm) tubes. Combination of 53 and 65 cm torpedoes (see table at front of section). Tube liners can be used to reduce the larger diameter tubes to 533 mm. Total of 40 weapons. In addition the Improved Akulas and Akula IIs have six additional 533 mm external tubes in the upper bow area. ESM: Rim Hat; intercept. Surface search: Snoop Pair or Snoop Half with back-to-back aerials on same mast as ESM. Shark Gill (Skat MGK 503); hull-mounted; passive/active search and attack; low/medium frequency. Mouse Roar; hull-mounted; active attack; high frequency. Skat 3 towed array; passive; very low frequency.

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Countermeasures Radars

: :

Sonars

:

India is likely to lease one in the near future as per media reports

196 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK 2008-2009 38th Year of Issue


F135 Engine

Powering Freedom. ÂŽ

F119 Engine

F100 Engine

Pratt & Whitney designs and builds the most advanced military engines in the world. These engines provide reliable and affordable power for the C-17 Globemaster III airlifter. Pratt & Whitney engines also power cutting-edge F-35 Lightning II and F-22 Raptor fifth-generation fighters. In fact, 27 nations count on Pratt & Whitney engines so they can accomplish their missions. From design to maintenance, we power freedom every day. The Eagle is everywhere.™

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F117 Engine


A Brief History On October 8, 1932 the IAF Bill was passed, allowing for creation of the Number 1 Squadron of the IAF with only one flight, which was later equipped with four obsolescent Westland Wapiti aircraft, at Drigh Road,

Karachi on April 1, 1933. The flight was commanded by a RAF officer and had five pilots and the first batch of “Hawai Sepoys”. The fledgling IAF went into action for the first time in 1937 during air policing operations in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP). During World War II, the IAF expanded rapidly to about 10 squadrons. For its achievements during the war, the service was awarded the prefix “Royal” in March 1945. The division of assets and manpower of the armed forces at the time of Independence in August 1947 reduced the force level to a little more than half its original size. Two months later, the RIAF went into action in Kashmir, which saw the landing of Dakotas at what was termed “the roof of the world”. On January 26, 1950, India became a Republic and the RIAF dropped the “Royal” prefix. The 1950s witnessed rapid expansion and modernisation of the IAF both in terms of capital assets and infrastructure. The modernisation process was kicked-off in 1948 with the arrival of the Vampire—the first combat jet of the IAF. Subsequently, Ouragan, Mystere, Canberra, Hunter and Gnat entered service during the 1950s. Closer strategic and military cooperation with the USSR resulted in the IAF acquiring the MiG-21 supersonic aircraft in 1963, which then went on to pave the way for subsequent induction of various other combat aircraft and weapon systems of Soviet origin. From this point onwards, the IAF inventory acquired a distinct Soviet orientation, which is still in evidence 46 years

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I N D I A N D E F E N C E

T

he IAF would have to seek greater governmental indulgence to acquire additional aircraft. In addition, the force will have to start working towards development and acquisition of fifth generation fighter aircraft. Manifestations of flight capabilities (the third dimension) in military affairs have witnessed phenomenal changes. The term “air power” is used to denote the flight potential of military services. Air power is in itself an indicator of its undeniable impact on modern warfare. The role of the air force can make or mar the war potential of a modern day state. Recent international conflicts have proved the overwhelming importance of air power. In the Indian context, the contribution of the Indian Air Force (IAF) to the national security effort was emphatically driven home during the Kargil-1999 conflict, when intruding Pakistani soldiers, stunned by the strike potential of the IAF and resolute Indian response, retreated from their positions inside the line of control (LoC) in quick time. However, its current effectiveness notwithstanding, the origin of the IAF was very humble.

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

The 1965 War saw the IAF aggressively using the famous Gnat, demolishing the myth of the F-86 Sabre being the best combat aircraft of that time. The Gnat again played a significant role in the 1971 conflict, scoring a number of kills in the air. In the mid-1980s and towards the end of that decade, the IAF played a key role during the Sri Lankan and Maldives operations, effectively demonstrating its airlift capability for out-of-area operations. The second major phase of modernisation commenced in 1979 with the induction of the Jaguar and subsequently, the MiG-27, Mirage 2000 and MiG-29. The Su-30 MKI long-range multi-role aircraft is the latest addition to the IAF inventory. This new weapon system marks a quantum leap in the operational capability of the IAF.

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Boost to Acquisition & Modernisation

B U S I N E S S

T E C H N O L O G Y

Air Force

C O N T E N T S

The Indian

W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

6

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Indian Defence


 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

Air Chief Marshal Fali Homi Major, PVSM, AVSM, SC, VM, ADC, took over as Chief of the Air Staff (CAS) from Air Chief Marshal S.P. Tyagi on April 1, 2007. Commissioned into the Indian Air Force (IAF) on December 31, 1967, Major holds the distinction of 7,765 hours of flying experience. In an interview to SP Guide Publications on October 27, 2008, the CAS spoke at length on the IAF’s plans to equip itself against the myriad challenges facing the force. SP Guide Publications (SP’s): After having commanded one of the largest battle-tested Air Forces in the world for almost a year and half, what would you reckon as your greatest challenges till now? Chief of the Air Staff (CAS): The Indian Air Force is one of the largest Air Forces in the world and bears an immense responsibility in the region. The IAF is presently undergoing large scale modernisation. Almost every facet of our capability is being systematically addressed. The entire range of equipment which includes aircraft, sensors, weapons, communication systems, air defence weapons, maintenance facilities and airfield infrastructure are being inducted, modernised or upgraded in accordance with our overall plans. My biggest challenge is managing the organisation during this moment of transition. At the present moment a large proportion of our equipment inventory is either being inducted, phased-out, upgraded or replaced. Traditional methods of employment and maintenance of legacy items now have to co-exist with modern practices and structures. These processes work at different speeds creating friction and interference and demand management skills of a high order. The other challenge is to prepare and shape the IAF for the large scale modernisation taking place as well as absorb the new technologies. I am conscious of the fact that the foundations laid down today will have an effect on the state of the IAF in the future. It is my endeavour to ensure that the equipment is inducted properly, personnel are trained, doctrines and tactics updated, and appropriate maintenance facilities and competence developed.

These are very exciting times for the IAF. We will look and operate very differently, ten years hence. SP’s: What other major operational challenges do you foresee and in your opinion how should the IAF cope with them? CAS: The modernisation drive will provide us with enhanced capabilities which will require revision of doctrines, tactics, training and structures. There are a number of accompanying operational challenges that will emerge and we are in the process of addressing them. To enable seamless integration of all combat assets on a suitable network, firstly to exploit them optimally and secondly to reduce our response and decision times, we will have to change our existing SOPs considerably. We have laid great focus on the development of the ‘Integrated Air Command and Control System’ and the ‘AFNET’. It will provide us with huge bandwidth and widespread connectivity, and our command and control systems will ride on this network. Implementing this system and putting it into effective practice, is one of my challenges. We need to harness the potential of space-based assets and put in place structures and mechanisms. New technologies, whilst enhancing our capabilities, also generate some vulnerabilities. Today, the operational environment is dominated by long range sensors and weapons, which are orchestrated by complex networks and fast moving intelligence. This has created new vulnerabilities and targets of a different kind. Space and cyberspace are the new zones of conflict, and we are in

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217 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK 2008-2009 38th Year of Issue

C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES T E C H N O L O G Y B U S I N E S S

‘Non-conventional forms of conflict require imaginative use of options’

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

Air Force

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

Interview: Chief of

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Indian Defence


Construction Wings: Delta planform with a 2° anhedral and 57° sweepback with small boundary layer fences at tips. Large blown plain trailing edge flaps. Fuselage: Circular section all metal semi Tail Unit monocoque structure. Ram air intake in nose with floating centre body controlled by air speed and alpha angle. Large dorsal spine for avionics, and fuel tanks. Air brakes under the leading edge of wing roots. Second air brake forward of the ventral fin. Tail unit of all moving surface type, mass balanced at tips. Conventional fin with large inset rudder. Power Plant: One Tumansky R-13 turbojet rated at 9,400 lb dry and 14,000 lb reheat. Internal fuel capacity 2750 litres Provision for drop tanks under fuselage and inboard wing pylons. The MiG-21Bis is powered by a Tumansky R-25-300 turbojet rated at 15000 lb static thrust with reheat Cockpit: K-13 ejection seat with 0-130 kmph capability. Avionics and Equipment: ALMAZ search and track radar with a 30 km lock on range. ARK radio compass, IFF and Gyro gun sight Armament: One twin-barrel 23 mm GSh-23/2 cannon with 250 rounds carried internally, & up to 2,5001b of ordnance on four wing pylons. Typical loads include 2*1000 lb, RVV-AE, R-73/R-60 AAMs, S-24 and UB80/UB 57 rocket pods. Dimensions Wing span: Length Height Wing area Weights Take-off (combat)

7.15 m : 16.10 m including pitot boom. : 4.5 m : 23.45 m2 : 8,750 kg

: 10,500 kg

: Mach 2.23 : Mach 1.1 : 390 km : 6,500 m/min : + 7/–1.5

Note: While the ‘FL’ version of the MiG-21 is being phased out, a fleet of 125 MiG-21Bis aircraft with adequate residual airframe life have reportedly undergone an avionics and armament upgrade programme which comprises the following: n Fitment of KOPYO multi-mode radar in the nose cone in place of the original ALMAZ radar which, in combination with the active homing RVV-AE, Beyond Visual Range (BVR) air-to-air missile in place of the R-60 has given the aircraft a ‘Fire-and-Forget’ capability. Coupled with a new Russian made Mission Computer, the KOPYO radar has also enhanced the aircraft’s over all air-to-surface capability. n The aircraft has been fitted with a Thales; Monolith Ring Laser Gyro based INS with integral GPS and GLONASS card. The INS has a drift of 0.5 nm per hour which is automatically updated by the integral GPS giving it a highly reliable navigation system. n The aircraft has been given a semi-glass cockpit with the fitment of a Russian made Liquid Crystal Multi-function Display and a Head-up Display. n Additional avionics include a HAL made INCOM jam resistant communications equipment and TARANG, RWR equipment. n An Israeli Video Recording System has been fitted in the cockpit which captures HUD as well as visual parameters during air-to-ground strikes for better post-strike debriefs. The upgraded MiG-21Bis aircraft has been renamed the ‘Bison’ by the Indian Air Force.

Mikoyan MiG-27M NATO reporting name Indian Air Force name Country of origin Type

: : : :

Flogger-J Bahadur Russia Single Seat Variable Geometry Strike Fighter. : 100

Number in service Construction Wings: Shoulder wing mono-plane with variable sweep angles at 16 deg,45 deg and 72 deg. Full span hydraulically actuated trailing edge flaps in three sections. No ailerons. Instead two-section upper surface spoilers/lift dumpers operate differentially in conjunction with horizontal tail surfaces to provide aileron functions Fuselage: Conventional semi-monocoque structure with lateral air intakes. Four forward hinged air brakes above and below horizontal tail planes. All moving horizontal surfaces of the tail unit act differentially and symmetrically to provide aileron and elevator functions.

Conventional fin houses a large inset rudder. Power Plant: One Tumansky R-29 17,500 lb/st dry & 25,350 lb/st reheat turbojet with variable geometry nozzle. Six fuel tanks with a total capacity of 6,700 litres. Cockpit: KM-21 0-130 kmph ejection seat in a pressurized and air-conditioned cockpit. Bullet proof wind screen and small rearward looking mirror on top of canopy. Kevlar plating around cockpit to withstand hits up to 23 mm caliber shells. Avionics and Systems: Duck nose houses Laser ranging/targeting equipment. Doppler nav/attack system with radar altimeter. Some aircraft being retrofitted with new nav/attack systems and air data computers. Most aircraft fitted with deception/ broad band ECM equipment and Flare/chaff dispensers. Armament: One GSh-23/6 Gattling type cannon with 350 rounds underbelly. Seven external pylons capable of carrying up to 5,000 kg of ordnance. Options include Durandal, Beluga, FAB 500/750,

221 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK 2008-2009 38th Year of Issue

C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

Max take-off Performance Max speed Above 10000 m At sea level Combat radius (lo-lo-lo) Max rate of climb ‘g’ Limits

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Fishbed and Mongol (trainer version) USSR Single Seat Multi-Role Fighter. Appx 350 all variants.

T E C H N O L O G Y

: : : :

B U S I N E S S

NATO reporting names Country of origin Type Number in Service

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

Air Defence and Strike Fighters Mikoyan MiG-21FL/MF/Bis

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

Equipment Catalogue Indian Air Force

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Indian Defence


Indian Defence

EQUIPMENT CATALOGUE: INDIAN AIR FORCE

FAE weapons and various types of rockets and gunpods. X-29L/T ASMs are also available. Dimensions Wing span : 16°: 14.30 m; 72°: 8.21 m Length overall : 18.15 m Height overall : 5.55 m Wing area : 27.45 m2 Weights Empty : 8,200 kg Clean : 15,780 kg

Max take-off

: 20,250 kg

Performance Max speed At sea level : Mach 1.3 At 30,000 ft : Mach 1.9 Combat radius (lo-lo-lo) : 750 km Note: 40 MiG-27 aircraft were earmarked for mid-life upgrade, which has been reportedly completed at HAL, Nasik Division.

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Mikoyan MiG-29A/B NATO reporting name : Fulcrum Indian Air Force name : Baaz Country of origin : USSR Type : Single Seat Air Superiority Fighter Number in Service : 65 Construction Wings: Low-wing monoplane. Leading edge swept back at 42°, with large ogival wing roots. Leading and trailing edge flaps without tabs. Fuselage: Semi-monocoque all-metal structure, sharply tapered and downswept aft of flatsided cockpit area with ogival dielectric nose cone. Tail Unit:Twin vertical fins swept back at 40°, and canted outward at 7°, with inset rudders. All moving horizontal tailplanes mounted on slim booms along engine nacelles. Rudder & horizontal tailplanes honeycomb filled. Vortex generators mounted on either side and below cockpit. Almost 15% of construction is believed to be of Carbon-Boron composite materials. Power Plant: Two Tumansky RD-33 turbojets each rated at 11,250 lb dry and 18,500 lb reheat. FOD doors in each air intake duct actuated automatically with raising/lowering of nose-wheel on take-off/landing run. Total internal fuel capacity of 4000 litres with a provision for a single 750 litre drop tank to be carried between engines underbelly. Later versions can carry wing drop tanks. Cockpit: K-36D zero-zero ejection seat in a pressurized and airconditioned cockpit. Cockpit is high set and features a two piece blister design. Avionics: NO-19 Sapfir-29 (NATO ‘Slot Back’) coherent pulse Doppler radar with a 100 km detection and 70 km track range with full look up/ down shoot down and multi-tracking capability. Limited look up/down

shoot down IRST on nose on star-board side. Navattack computers, HUD, helmet mounted sights operable up to 40° off the axis. Advanced 360° passive RWR of unknown type. Comprehensive VHF/UHF communication systems. AoA indicator, radar altimeter, 3-axis autostabilisation system, auto pilot, deception jammer in wing root. Armament: 1 GSh-301 30 mm cannon in port wing root, with 150 rounds. Up to six AAMs including R-73, R-27R, R-27T Alternate loads of ground attack weapons with a total weight of 3,500 kg on six external hard points. Dimensions Wing span : 11.40 m Length overall : 17.34 m Height overall : 4.75 m Wing area : 35.35 m2 Weights Empty : 8,340 kg Normal Interceptor role : 15,750 kg Max take-off : 20,000 kg Performance Max level speed At 30,000 ft : Mach 2.35 At sea level : Mach 1.06 Max combat radius : 650 km ‘g’ Limits : +9.0/ -3 Note: Midlife upgrade of MiG-29s is being undertaken by the OEM and II BRD of the IAF; to be completed by 2011-12. The upgraded aircraft are likely to stay in service till 2025.

Dassault Aviation Mirage 2000H Country of origin : France Indian Air Force name : Vajra Type : Single Seat Multi-role Fighter. Number in Service : 50+ Construction Wings: Low wing delta monoplane with leading edge sweepback of 58°. Full span twin segment leading edge flaps. Two section trailing edge elevons of full length with carbon fiber skin and light alloy honeycomb core. Air brakes above & below each wing. Fuselage: Conventional structure, waisted Tail Unit according to the area rule. Small fixed strakes over each air intake. Cantilever vertical fin with inset rudder only comprises the tail unit. Rudder actuated by flyby-wire system. Sweepback on fin leading edge 45°. Power Plant: One SNECMA M-53 P-2 Turbofan rated at 14,462 lb dry and 21,385 lb reheat. Internal fuel capacity of 3,980 litres with provision for drop fuel tanks underbelly and inboard wing pylons. Detachable inflight refuelling probe forward of cockpit on starboard side.

Avionics: Quadruple redundant fly-by-wire system. Invertors, transformers and battery units. Thomson-CSF RDM multi-mode radar. Sager Uliss-52 inertial platform, ESD Type 2,984 central digital computer and digibus. Comprehensive ECM active/passive suite. VHF/UHF communications suite, HUD, nav attack computer etc. Patric/Litening pods. Armament: Two underbelly 30 mm DEFA cannons with 125 rounds each. Up to 13,890 lb of ordnance on nine external hard points. Options include various AAMs including R-73, Magic II & R-530D. Alternatively various types of ground attack weaponry including laserguided bombs can be carried. Accommodation: F-10Q zero-zero ejection seat in a pressurized and air-conditioned cockpit. Dimensions Wing span : 9.13 m Length : 14.36 m Height : 5.03 m Wing area : 41 m2

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222 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK 2008-2009 38th Year of Issue


n Assisting the Department of Customs and other authorities in anti-

Duties and Functions

Mission Statement

The duties and functions of the Indian Coast Guard are specified in Section 14 of the Coast Guard Act and include: n Ensuring the safety and protection of the artificial islands, offshore terminals, installations and other structures and devices in any maritime zone. n Providing protection and assistance to fishermen in distress while at sea. n Preservation and protection of our maritime environment including prevention and control of maritime pollution.

The mission statement of the Indian Coast Guard is derived from its charter and functional disposition. In the increasing order of intensity they are: n Maritime zone security n Maritime safety n Marine environmental security n Scientific assistance n Offshore security n National defence

smuggling operations. n Enforcement of Maritime Zones of India Act. n Initial measures for the safety of life and property at sea.

Operational Philosophy The operational philosophy of the Indian Coast Guard according to the Act is to perform its duties and functions without prejudice “as it thinks fit” and “in close liaison with others” and “without duplication of efforts.” The philosophy, built into the Act, expects it to take independent decisions within its Command and Control (C2) structure, advocating jointness in operations with a customer base and not duplicating efforts of other agencies involved in the activities, unless it is for resource enhancement or multiplication.

235 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK 2008-2009 38th Year of Issue

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

Ë Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

W

ith the ratification of the United Nations Convention on Laws of the Sea (UNCLOS), the Indian Government decided that the predominantly nonmilitary maritime tasks should be undertaken by a force dedicated exclusively for this purpose. Thus, with the enactment of the Coast Guard Act, 1978, the Indian Coast Guard came into being. The Act provided for the constitution and regulation of the Indian Coast Guard as an armed force of the Union to protect national interests in the maritime zone of India. The Act is very specific on the character, charter, and operational philosophy of the service. Coast guard agencies all over the maritime world are country specific, and to that extent, asymmetrical in their character, duties and functions, though there are many common traits. The Indian Coast Guard, too, has its exclusive characteristics.

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

The Indian Coast Guard is a non-military security service and its duties derive from the Coast Guard Act, 1978. To deter smuggling of arms, ammunition and explosives through the coastal area, the Indian Coast Guard carries out regular surveillance in the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone, especially near the maritime borders. In addition, offshore surveillance is also being carried out off the coast of Gujarat and Maharashtra.

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Promoting Maritime Awareness

B U S I N E S S

T E C H N O L O G Y

Guard

C O N T E N T S

The Indian Coast

W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

7

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Indian Defence


Indian Defence

THE INDIAN COAST GUARD

From the mission statements it can be seen that the duties and functions of the coast guard relate to maritime security and include humanitarian aspects. The coast guard needs force, expertise, authority, infrastructure and enforcement of friendly laws in support of its charter.

Organisation The general superintendence, direction and control of the Indian Coast Guard are exercised by the Director General under the Ministry of Defence. It has three Regional Commands with headquarters at

Mumbai, Chennai and Port Blair. Together they ensure command and control of 11 coast guard districts and 10 coast guard stations spread along the coast of India. New coast guard stations such as at Vizhinjam and Beypore in Kerala, Jhakau in Gujarat, Kakinada in Andhra Pradesh and Puducherry have been recently activated. In addition, there are air stations at Daman and Chennai and independent Air squadrons at Mumbai, Goa, Kochi, Kolkata and Port Blair for maritime air surveillance. The schematic diagram and the map can be seen in the following pages.

Effectiveness of the Indian Coast Guard The effectiveness of the Indian Coast Guard has to be analyzed in the context of the purpose for which it has been designed. A select profile of the Indian Coast Guard as on August 20, 2007, is given below: Foreign fishing vessels apprehended

970

Alien fishermen apprehended for poaching

9,545

Value of fish catch from poachers

Rs 24.0399 crore

Value of poaching vessels apprehended

Rs 602 crore

Contraband vessels interdicted

107

Value of contraband seized

Rs 503,109 crore

Oil spill response incidents involved

54

Lives saved at sea

4,297

Search and rescue incidents

2269 (ships & aircraft)

Marine wild life apprehensions

209 (boats)

Anti-piracy operations

04

Anti-hostage situations

01

Repatriation of refugees to Sri Lanka

48,884

Influx refugees from Sri Lanka

43,087

Disaster relief operations

20

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Force Levels

structure and induction of new ships and aircraft.

The Indian Coast Guard was instituted in 1978 with seven naval ships seconded from the navy and the Central Board of Excise & Customs. The service has made rapid progress since then, through its development plans. The Indian Coast Guard fleet today comprises five Advanced Offshore Patrol Vessels (AOPVs), seven Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs), 15 Fast Patrol Vessels (FPVs), 13 Inshore Patrol Vessels (IPVs), two Seward Defence Boats (SDBs), 12 Interceptor Craft, 24 Dornier aircraft, 17 Chetak helicopters and four Advanced Light Helicopters (ALH). The coast guard has a borne strength of 779 Officers, 5,365 enrolled personnel and 847 civilian staff. More ships, helicopters and medium range surveillance aircraft are expected to be included in the forthcoming plan period. The plan also caters for additional coast guard stations at strategic locations. The coast guard is also planning to induct specialized Pollution Control Vessels in near future.

Coast Guard Five Year Plans The planned growth of the service is being pursued through a five-year Coast Guard Plan in consonance with national plans. This plan envisages replacement of old ships and aircraft, creation of additional infra-

Select Activity Profile: Indian Coast Guard The Indian Coast Guard is a non-military security service and its duties are derived from the Coast Guard Act, 1978. To deter smuggling of arms, ammunition and explosives through the coastal area, the coast guard carries out regular surveillance in the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone, especially near the maritime borders. In addition, offshore surveillance is also being carried out off the coast of Gujarat and Maharashtra. The coast guard is the national authority for maritime search and rescue in the Indian Search and Rescue Region (ISRR) and Director General, Indian Coast Guard is the Chairman of the National Search and Rescue Board (NSARB). A national plan called INDSAR to encourage ship reporting in the Indian SRR is being promoted by the coast guard. The National Search and Rescue (SAR) operations at sea are coordinated by the Maritime Rescue Coordination Centres (MRCC), and Maritime Rescue Sub-Centres (MRSC) of the coast guard. Another area in which total involvement of the coast guard is called for is maritime environment security. It is the national coordinating authority for response operations in the event of a national oil spill disaster at sea. A National Oil Spill disaster Contingency Plan (NOS-DCP) has been

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236 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK 2008-2009 38th Year of Issue


Indian built Light: 1,840, Deep: 2,000 101.95x11.5x3.65 m 2x12.7mm HMG CRN 91 2x12.7mm gun

: : : : :

with Electro-Optical Fire Control (EOFCS) Can operate ALH & Chetak 2xDiesels, 7710 kw each 23.5 6500 nm @ 12 knots 106

Flight deck Main Machinery Speed (knots) Range (miles) Complement (crew)

: : : : :

Optical sight 2x12.7mm HMG Can operate Chetak 2xDiesels, 4707kw each 22 4,000 nm at 14 knots 90

Armament Main Machinery Speed (knots) Range Complement (crew)

: : : : :

40/60 or 30 mm 2A42 Gun, 2x12.7 mm HMG 2xdiesels, 1480 kw each 23 2,400 nm at 14 knots 35

Armament Main Machinery Speed (knots) Range Complement (crew)

: : : : :

30 mm 2A42 Gun, 2x12.7 mm HMG 3xdiesels, 2720 kw each 35 1,500 nm at 12 knots 35

Armament Main Machinery Speed (knots) Range (miles) Complement (crew)

: : : : :

40/60, 2x12.7mm HMG 2xdiesels 1480 kw each 25 2,375 nm at 14 knots 35

Armament Main Machinery Speed (knots) Range (miles) Complement (crew)

: : : : :

30 mm A242 Gun 2xdiesels, 1480 kw each 25.5 2400 nm at 14 knots 35

Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) “Vikram” Class Total no. in service Specifications Make Displacement (in tons) Dimensions (LOAxBxD) Armament

: Nine : : : :

Indian built Light: 1100 Deep: 1220 74.1x11.4x3.2 m 40/60 or 30 mm 2A42 Gun

Fast Patrol Vessels (FPV) “Priyadarshini” class Total no. in service Specifications Make Displacement (in tons) Dimensions (LOAxBxD)

: 8 : Indian built : Light 164, Deep 215 : 48x7.5x2.09 m

Fast Patrol Vessels (FPV) “Sarojini Naidu” Class Total no. in service Specifications Make Displacement (in tons) Dimensions (LOAxBxD)

: 7 : Indian built : Light 235, Deep 260 : 48.14x7.5x2 m

Inshore Patrol Vessels (IPVs) “Jija Bai” Class Total no. in service Specifications Make Displacement (in tons) Dimensions (LOAxBxD)

: 7 : Japanese/Indian built : Light: 165, Deep 181 : 44x7.4x1.5 m

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Inshore Patrol Vessels (IPVs) “Tarabai” Class Total no. in service Specifications Make Displacement (in tons) Dimensions (LOAxBxD)

: 6 : Singapore/Indian : Light: 195, Deep: 273 : 44.9x7x1.99 m

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: : : :

Flight Deck Main Machinery Speed (knots) Range Complement (crew)

T E C H N O L O G Y

: Four

B U S I N E S S

Total no. in service Specifications Make Displacement (in tons) Dimensions (LOAxBxD) Armament

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

Surface Advanced Offshore Patrol Vessels (AOPVs) “Samar” Class

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

Equipment Catalogue Indian Coast Guard

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Indian Defence


COMPILED BY SP GUIDE PUBLICATIONS TEAM AS ON MARCH 31, 2009

President & Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces ................................................................................... Pratibha Devisingh Patil Vice President.................� M. Hamid Ansari Union Government Prime Minister ................� Dr Manmohan Singh Minister of Defence.........� A.K. Antony Minister of State for Defence Production ......................................................................................................... Rao Inderjit Singh Minister of State for Defence........................................................................................................................... M.M. Pallam Raju Ministry of Defence Department Defence Secretary ..........� Vijay Singh Special Secretary (N) ......� Neelam Nath Joint Secretary (Navy/Ordnance) ..................................................................................................................... Binoy Kumar Joint Secretary (Establishment, Public Grievance & Chief Vigilance Officer) ..................................................... Ajay Tirkey Joint Secretary (G/Air) .....� Bimal Julka Joint Secretary (Planning and International Co-operation) ............................................................................... Subhash Chandra Joint Secretary, (Ex-Serviceman Welfare) ......................................................................................................... Sanjeeva Kumar Joint Secretary, (Training & Chief Administrative Officer) ................................................................................. Jatinder Bir Singh

C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

Defence

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Who’s Who in Indian

T E C H N O L O G Y

8

B U S I N E S S

Indian Defence

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Department of Defence Production & Supplies

Secretary (Defence Production) ....................................................................................................................... Pradeep Kumar Additional Secretary (Defence Production) ...................................................................................................... Ajoy Acharya Joint Secretary (Export) ...� Satyajeet Rajan Joint Secretary (Ordnance Factories) ............................................................................................................... V. Soma Sundaram Joint Secretary (Aerospace & Coordination) .................................................................................................... S.N. Mishra Joint Secretary (Supply & CISO (DDP)) ............................................................................................................. T. Ramachandru

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Director General (Acquisition) ......................................................................................................................... Shashikant Sharma Financial Adviser (Acquisition) & AS ............................................................................................................... Shekhar Agarwal Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Land Systems) .................................................................................... Smita Nagraj Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Maritime & Systems) .......................................................................... Preeti Sudan Joint Secretary & Acquisition Manager (Air) ..................................................................................................... R.K. Ghosh Technical Manager (Land Systems) ................................................................................................................. Major General I.S. Chaturvedi Technical Manager (Maritime & Systems) ........................................................................................................ Rear Admiral V.K. Namballa Technical Manager (Air) ..� Air Vice Marshal J.S. Panesar Finance Manager (Land System) ..................................................................................................................... Vishvajit Sahay Finance Manager (Maritime & System) ............................................................................................................ G.S. Sood Finance Manager (Air) .....� Vandana Srivastava

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

Acquisition Wing


Dr Manmohan Singh, the 14th Prime Minister of India, is rightly acclaimed as a thinker and a scholar. Born on September 26, 1932, in a village in Punjab province of British India, Dr Singh completed his matriculation from Punjab University in 1948. His academic career took him to the University of Cambridge in the UK, where he earned a first class Honours degree in Economics in 1957 followed by a D.Phil in Economics from Nuffield College at Oxford University in 1962. Dr Singh’s academic credentials were burnished by the years he spent on the faculty of Punjab University and the Delhi School of Economics. His brief stint at the UNCTAD Secretariat was prior to his appointment as Secretary General of the South Commission in Geneva between 1987 and 1990. In 1971, Dr Singh served as Economic Advisor in Ministry of Commerce and subsequently took over as the Chief Economic Advisor in the Ministry of Finance in 1972. Among the numerous positions held by Dr Singh are Secretary in

the Ministry of Finance, Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission, Governor of the Reserve Bank of India, Advisor to the Prime Minister and Chairman of the University Grants Commission. The turning point in the economic history of independent India was his tenure as the Finance Minister of India from 1991 to 1996. Among the multitude of awards and honours conferred upon Dr Singh in his public career, the most prominent are India’s second highest civilian honour, the Padma Vibhushan (1987); the Jawaharlal Nehru Birth Centenary Award of the Indian Science Congress (1995); the Asia Money Award for Finance Minister of the Year (1993 and 1994); the Euro Money Award for Finance Minister of the Year (1993); the Adam Smith Prize of the University of Cambridge (1956); and the Wright’s Prize for Distinguished Performance at St. John’s College in Cambridge (1955). Dr Singh has been a member of the Rajya Sabha since 1991 and has served as the Leader of the Opposition from 1998 to 2004.

A.K. Antony Minister of Defence A.K. Antony took over as the Union Defence Minister on October 24, 2006, marking a return to the Indian Cabinet after a long hiatus of 12 years. Born on December 28, 1940 in Cherthala of Alappuzha district in Kerala, to Aley Kutty and Arakkaparambil Kurian Pillai, he is a law graduate from the University of Kerala. He was married on March 17, 1985 to Elizabeth Antony and has two sons. His interest in politics and social work dates back to his young days when he headed the students’ unions.

Having been a member of the Congress Party from the beginning, he has held several party posts both at the state and national levels. He has also held numerous positions in the Kerala Legislative Assembly from 1970 onwards and took charge of the portfolio of Union Cabinet Minister of Civil Supplies, Consumer Affairs and Public Distribution from 1993 to 1995. Antony, who has been the Chief Minister of Kerala thrice, is an astute politician with a spotless image.

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Dr Manmohan Singh Prime Minister of India

B U S I N E S S

from the Edlabad (Muktai Nagar) constituency till 1985. Thereafter, she served as a Member of Parliament in the Rajya Sabha from 1985 to 1990 and was later elected a Member of Parliament to the 10th Lok Sabha in the 1991 General Elections from Amravati. Pratibha Patil enjoys the unique distinction of having won every election that she contested. Having represented India at various international fora, she attended the International Council on Social Welfare conference at Nairobi and Puerto Rico. In 1985, she was a member of the AICC (I) delegation to Bulgaria and three years later, she attended the Commonwealth Presiding Officers Conference in London. Patil led the Indian delegation to the Conference on the ‘Status of Women’ in Austria and was a delegate at the World Women’s Conference in Beijing in September 1995.

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

The 12th President of India, Pratibha Devisingh Patil, is the first woman to have been elected to this august office. Born on December 19, 1934 in Nadgaon in the Jalgaon district of Maharashtra, she assumed office of the President of India on July 25, 2007. Her early education was from R.R. Vidyalaya, Jalgaon and her Master’s in Political Science and Economics was completed from the Mooljee Jetha College, Jalgaon. Having studied law from Government Law College in Mumbai, she began her law career in the Jalgaon District Court and simultaneously devoted herself to various social activities especially for the upliftment of women. At the age of 27, she successfully contested her first election to the Maharashtra State Legislature from the constituency of Jalgaon. Subsequently, for the next four years, she was elected MLA

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

Pratibha Devisingh Patil President of India & Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Indian Defence

WHO’S WHO IN INDIAN DEFENCE


Indian Defence

WHO’S WHO IN INDIAN DEFENCE

Mangapati Pallam Raju Minister of State for Defence An alumnus of the Hyderabad Public School, Begumpet, Mangapati Pallam Raju is an Electronics & Communications Engineering graduate from Andhra University, Visakhapatnam and an MBA from Temple University, Philadelphia, USA. He worked in Philadelphia and Boston in the US and in Oslo, Norway, in the field of computers and information technology. He has a political lineage with his grandfather, the late Mallipudi Pallam Raju, being a freedom fighter and his father, M.S. Sanjeevi Rao, being a Union minister in the Government of India from 1982 to 1984.

He was first elected to the Indian Parliament in 1989 and was the youngest MP in the ninth Lok Sabha. He has served as a Director on the boards of Indian Airlines and Air India during 1994-1997. He is a successful entrepreneur in the field of information technology, and was on the boards of a few very successful public limited companies until his induction into the Union Council of Ministers. He has been a very active member of the Indian National Congress and has held several important positions in the state unit and at the national level. At present, he is a Member of Parliament (14th Lok Sabha).

Rao Inderjit Singh Union Minister of State for Defence Production Rao Inderjit Singh, a Bachelor of Arts (Hons) as well as a law graduate from Delhi University, belongs to a family which has been politically active as members of the Indian National Congress. Elected as an MLA in the Haryana Assembly for four terms and as a Cabinet Minister, he has held charge of the portfolios of Environment and Forests, and Medical and Technical Education in the state. A Member of Parliament from Mahendergarh constituency for two terms, he has also served as Minister of State for External Affairs from May

2004 to February 2006, when he took over as the Minister of State of Defence Production. Besides nurturing an active interest in providing education in rural areas, he is fond of sports and has been a member of the Indian shooting team from 1990 to 2003. As a national champion in Skeet shooting for three years, he has secured three gold medals in the SAF Games as well as a bronze in the Commonwealth Shooting Championship. Having travelled extensively, his hobbies are angling and reading.

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Vijay Singh Defence Secretary A post-graduate in history, Vijay Singh joined the IAS in 1970 from the Madhya Pradesh cadre and worked in various capacities there between 1971 and 1982, including the District Magistrate of Gwalior and Bhopal. He served in the Government of India between 1982 and 1987 as Director and Coordinator for Festival of India in the US, France, USSR and Japan. Between 1987 and 1996, he served as Commissioner, Jabalpur Division; Commissioner, Indore Division; and Home Secretary, Madhya Pradesh.

From 1996 to 2004, he was Financial Adviser to the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and Additional Secretary in the Ministries of Chemicals and Fertilizers and Information and Broadcasting. Apart from holding the position of Chief Secretary, Madhya Pradesh from October 2004 to January 2006, he also served as Secretary, Road Transport and Highways in the Ministry of Shipping from August 2006 to July 2007. He assumed charge of Secretary, Ministry of Defence on August 1, 2007.

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Pradeep Kumar Secretary (Defence Production) Pradeep Kumar took over as Secretary (Defence Production) in the Ministry of Defence on January 1, 2008. A Haryana cadre officer of the 1972 batch of the Indian Administrative Service, Kumar is a graduate in Electrical Engineering from Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi and Masters in Economic and Social Studies from the University of Wales, UK. Being a veteran in the field of public administration, he has held many senior positions at the state and national levels. He served as Director of Industries, Principal Secretary, Power Irrigation, Science and Technology, Town and

Country Planning and Urban Estates departments in the Government of Haryana. At the national level, he has held the appointments of Joint Secretary in the Department of Heavy Industry, Additional Secretary in the Ministry of Coal, Chairman, National Highways Authority of India and Secretary (Disinvestment) in the Ministry of Finance. Pradeep Kumar has served on the boards of a number of leading companies including Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd, Maruti Udyog Ltd, Andrew Yule Ltd, Hindustan Paper Corporation Ltd, Coal India Ltd and Nyvelli Lignite Corporation Ltd.

252 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

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Industry Focus on Indigenisation, Development & Production

A total of 16 new ordnance factories have been set up since 1962 and currently there are eight Defence Public Sector Undertakings and 40 ordnance factories. These have a wide range of infrastructure for manufacture and maintenance of aircraft, warships, submarines, heavy vehicles, missiles, electronic devices, alloys and special purpose steel. Their capacities have been augmented and modernised by development and induction of new technology to meet the emerging requirements of the armed forces. to keep pace with rapidly advancing technology. Since Independence, India’s defence industry has shown the potential to grow in step with the evolution and expansion of the armed forces of the country.

C O N T E N T S

Department of Defence Production & Supplies The Department of Defence Production was set up in 1962, in the aftermath

Summary of the output of the defence industry, including ordnance factories and DPSUs, during the previous three years (upto 2007-2008)

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he capacity of a nation to defend itself depends substantially on the capability of its defence industry to meet the requirements of arms, ammunition and equipment of its armed forces. In the changing security environment, weapons and equipment must not only satisfy exacting quality standards but must also be continuously upgraded

W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

Defence

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

9

T E C H N O L O G Y

Indian Defence

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Ordnance Factory, Khamaria Jabalpur-482005 Madhya Pradesh Tel: 0761-2337021-33 Fax: 0761-2337301

Grey Iron Foundry, Jabalpur Jabalpur-482009 Madhya Pradesh Tel: 0761-2330216 Fax: 0761-2330517

Ordnance Factory, Katni Katni-483503 Tel: 07622-221621-25 Fax: 07622-224082

Ordnance Factory, Itarsi Itarsi-461122 Tel: 07572-262510-12 Fax: 07572-262563

Ordnance Factory, Dehu Road Dehu Road -412113 Maharashtra Tel: 020-27671784 Fax: 020-7671616

Ordnance Factory, Ambernath Ambernath-421502 Tel: 0251-2734788 Fax: 0251-2733959

Machine Tool Prototype Factory, Ambernath Ambernath-421502 Tel: 0251-2610884-87 Fax: 0251-2610065

Ordnance Factory, Varangaon Varangaon-425308 Tel: 02582-277812-15 Fax: 02582-277822

Ordnance Factory, Bhusawal Bhusawal-425503 Tel: 02582-222431 Fax: 02582-223309

Ordnance Factory, Ambajhari Ambajhari-440021 Nagpur Tel: 07104-237845-49 Fax: 07104-237705

Ordnance Factory, Chanda Chanda-442501 Tel: 07175-254051-52 Fax: 07175-254043

Ordnance Factory, Bhandara Bhandara-441906 Tel: 07184-275745 Fax: 07184-275242

Ammunition Factory, Khadki Khadki-411003 Tel: 020-25810554 Fax: 020-5813205

High Explosives Factory, Khadki Khadki-411003 Tel: 020-5819566 Fax: 020-5813204

Ordnance Factory, Badmal Badmal-767770 Orissa Tel: 06655-250969-973 Fax: 06655-250271

Heavy Vehicles Factory, Avadi Avadi-600054 Tamilnadu Tel: 044-26840599 Fax: 044-26841824

Engine Factory, Avadi Avadi-600054 Tamilnadu Tel: 044-26841251 Fax: 044-26840437

Ordnance Clothing Factory, Avadi Avadi-600054 Tamilnadu Tel: 044-26365000 Fax: 044-26381701

Cordite Factory, Aruvankadu Aruvankadu-643202 Tel: 0423-2234760 Fax: 0423-2231923

Ordnance Factory, Tiruchirapalli Tiruchirapalli-620016 Tel: 0431-2581291-95 Fax: 0431-2581136

Heavy Alloy Penetrator Project, Tiruchirapalli Tiruchirapalli-620016 Tel: 0431-2581803-09 Fax: 0431-2581891

Ordnance Factory, Dehradun Dehradun-248008 Tel: 0135-2787371-73 Fax: 0135-2787177

Opto Electronics Factory, Dehradun Dehradun-248008 Tel: 0135-2787101-05 Fax: 0135-2787181

Ordnance Factory, Muradnagar Muradnagar-201206 Uttar Pradesh Tel: 01232-228910-13 Fax: 01232-228550

Ordnance Factory, Kanpur Kanpur-208009 Tel: 0512-2295161-68 Fax: 0512-2216040

Field Gun Factory, Kanpur Kanpur-208009 Tel: 0512-2295100-04 Fax: 0512-2219462

Small Arms Factory, Kanpur Kanpur-208009 Tel: 0512-2295042-46 Fax: 0512-2296229

Ordnance Equipment Factory, Kanpur Kanpur-208001 Tel: 0512-2311181-85 Fax: 0512-2311186

Ordnance Parachute Factory, Kanpur Kanpur-208001 Tel: 0512-2327901-04 Fax: 0512-2321436

267 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

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C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

Vehicle Factory, Jabalpur Jabalpur-482009 Madhya Pradesh Tel: 0761-2330520-23 Fax: 0761-2330436

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Gun Carriage Factory, Jabalpur Jabalpur-482001 Madhya Pradesh Tel: 0761-2330016-19 Fax: 0761-2331495

T E C H N O L O G Y

Ordnance Cable Factory, Chandigarh Chandigarh-160002 Tel: 0172-2650577 Fax: 0172-2650369

B U S I N E S S

Ordnance Factory, Medak Yeddumailaram-502205 Andhra Pradesh Tel: 040-23283000 Fax: 08455-23907

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

The 39 ordnance factories are:

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

Ordnance Factories: An Inventory

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Indian Defence

DEFENCE INDUSTRY


Performance Summary of DPSUs (upto 2007-2008) Working Results: Value of Production & Sales (in Rs million)

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269 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue

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Indian Defence

DEFENCE INDUSTRY


10

Defence

Programme Highlights Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) The Indian missile programme was initiated in 1983. In keeping with the threat perceptions on the proliferation of missiles in the region, the IGMDP was a well thought out multi-pronged approach for India to achieve a very high degree of self-reliance in vital missile technology.

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38th Year of Issue

T E C H N O L O G Y B U S I N E S S

The tendency of the American–Western alliance to target India with technology embargo regimes was also a compelling factor for India to launch its indigenous programme. The IGMDP originally consisted of the development of four missile systems:  PRITHVI - Surface-to-Surface Tactical Battlefield Support Missile.  AKASH - Surface-to-Air Medium Range Missile.  TRISHUL - Surface-to-Air Short Range Missile.  NAG - Third Generation Anti-tank Missile. In addition to the above, development of the under-mentioned missile systems has also been taken up:  AGNI I, II, III & IV - Surface-to-Surface Intermediate Range series.  BRAHMOS - Supersonic Cruise Missile.  DHANUSH - Naval version of PRITHVI.  ASTRA - Beyond Visual Range (BVR) Air-to-Air Missile.  LRSAM - Long Range Surface-to-Air Missile.  BMD - Ballistic Missile Defence The Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) instituted by the US alliance in 1987 forced India to accelerate its own missile technology programme. In spite of initial setbacks, the MTCR actually proved to be a boon to the Indian defence industry. All the critical technologies have been developed indigenously. Prithvi: The army version of the surface-to-surface missile Prithvi with a payload of 1,000 kg and range of 150 km along with associated ground systems has already been inducted into the Indian Army. The version with payload of 500 kg and range 250 km has been inducted into the Indian Air Force. Directorate General Ordnance Factories has been tasked with the production of three types of warheads consisting of pre-fragmented, incendiary and blast cum earth shock submunition. Akash: The Akash system is a medium range (25 km) surface-to-air missile with multi-target engagement capability. It uses high energy solid propellant for the booster and ram rocket propulsion for the sustainer phase. The propulsion system provides higher level of energy with minimum mass, compared to conventional solid/liquid rocket motor that has better performance with minimum weight of the missile. It has a dual mode digitally coded command guidance, initially on command mode from a phased array radar and later radar homing guidance with unique software developed for high accuracy. The phased array radar provides capability in each battery for multiple target tracking and simultaneous deployment

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

I

nstituted in 1958 as a fledgling research establishment, the Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO) of India was incorporated as a department under the Central Government in 1980. Today, it is one of the largest science and technology departments of the Indian Government with a network of over 52 laboratories and establishments spread across the country. Several complex defencerelated projects designed to achieve a high degree of self-reliance are currently being undertaken by the DRDO. It is also pursuing R&D in emerging areas such as computational sciences, artificial intelligence and robotics, high-energy physics and systems engineering. Survival and support systems, ranging from food and shelter to psychology and health care for the personnel of the Indian armed forces are also being developed. About 70 academic institutions, 50 national science and technology centres, and 250 public/private industries have supported the efforts of the DRDO in meeting the stringent technological needs of the country. Having developed several advanced defence systems, the DRDO has acquired expertise in a wide spectrum of defence technologies. Areas of core competence include:  System design and integration of complex sensors, weapon systems and platforms  Development of high end software packages  Development of functional materials  Test and evaluation  Technology transfer and absorption In addition, expertise and infrastructure have been built up for carrying out basic/applied research in relevant areas of defence science and technology, quality assurance and safety, project and technology management. These are further established under the core competence of different disciplines and laboratories. The DRDO is thus fully dedicated to progressive enhancement of self reliance in defence systems, in state-of-the-art technologies and R&D infrastructure of the country with a vision to make India independent of foreign technologies in critical spheres.

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

The Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) instituted by the US alliance in 1987 forced India to accelerate its own missile technology programme. Despite initial setbacks, the MTCR actually proved to be a boon to the Indian defence industry. All the critical technologies have been developed indigenously.

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Embracing Emerging Technologies

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

R&D

C O N T E N T S

Indian Defence


Indian Defence

DEFENCE R&D

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Indian Defence R&D Establishments ADVANCED NUMERICAL RESEARCH & ANALYSIS GROUP (ANURAG) Director: Dr KD Nayak Kanchanbagh PO, Hyderabad 500058, Andhra Pradesh Tel: 040-24442461, 24442489 Fax: 040-24442294

CENTRE FOR ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE & ROBOTICS (CAIR) Director: Mr N Sitaram Raj Bhawan Circle, High Grounds, Bangalore 560 001, Karnataka Tel: 080-22255515, 25342646 Fax: 080-22255615, 25243817

DEFENCE ELECTRONICS APPLICATION LABORATORY (DEAL) Director: Mr Ashok Sen PO Box 54, Raipur Road, Dehradun 248001, Uttranchal Tel: 0135-2787224, 2787083 Fax: 0135-2787265

ADVANCED SYSTEM LABORATORY (ASL) Director: Mr Avinash Chander Kanchanbagh P.O., Hyderabad 500 058, Andhra Pradesh Tel: 040-24343780, 24348920 Fax: 040-24340073

CENTRE FOR FIRE, EXPLOSIVE & ENVIRONMENT SAFETY (CFEES) Director: Mr AK Kapoor Metcalfe House, Delhi 110054 Tel: 011-23813239, 23818856 Fax: 011-23819547

DEFENCE ELECTRONICS RESEARCH LABORATORY (DLRL) Director: Mr Kumaraswamy Rao Chandrayangutta Lines, Hyderabad 500005, Andhra Pradesh Tel: 040-24440061, 24306484 Fax: 040-24306466

AERIAL DELIVERY RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT ADRDE) Director: Mr ML Sidhana Station Road, Post Box No. 51, Agra Cantt 282 001, UP Tel: 0562-22600233, 2361192 to 94 Fax: 0562-2251677

CENTRE FOR MILITARY AIRWORTHINESS & CERTIFICATION (CEMILAC) Chief Executive: Mr K Tamilmani Marathalli Colony Post Bangalore 560037, Karnataka Tel: 080-25230680 Fax: 080-25230856

DEFENCE FOOD RESEARCH LABORATORY (DFRL) Director: Dr AS Bawa Siddarth Nagar, Mysore 570011, Karnataka Tel: 0821-2472953 Fax: 0821-2473468

AERONAUTICAL DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (ADE) Director: Dr G Elangovan Suranjan Das Road, CV Raman Nagar, Bangalore 560093, Karnataka Tel: 080-25283556, 25058075 Fax: 080-25283188

COMBAT VEHICLES RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (CVRDE) Director: Mr S Sundaresh Avadi, Chennai 600054, Tamil Nadu Tel: 044-26383722, 26385680 Fax: 044-26385112

DEFENCE INSTITUTE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH (DIPR) Director: Dr MK Mandal DIPAS Complex, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110054 Tel: 011-23910560, Fax:011- 23916980

AERONAUTICAL DEVELOPMENT AGENCY (ADA) DG: Mr M Natrajan Tel : 011-23011519 Director : Mr PS Subramaniam Vibhootipura, Bangalore, 560037 Tel : 080 : 25234170, 25234744 Fax : 080-25238493

DEFENCE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (DARL) Director: Mr SC Das Pithoragarh 252501, UP Tel: 05964-225564, 223386 Fax: 05964-225564

DEFENCE INSTITUTE OF PSYCHOLOGY & APPLIED SCIENCES (DIPAS) Director: Mr PK Banerjee Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110054 Tel: 011-23831053, 23946257 Fax: 011-23914790

ARMAMENT RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (ARDE) Director: Dr BS Sharma Armament PO, Pashan, Pune 411021, Maharashtra Tel: 020-25893274, 25983422 Fax: 020-25893102

DEFENCE AVIONICS RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT (DARE) Director: Mr RP Ramalingam Post Box No. 7537, ADE Campus New Thippasandra, Bangalore 560075, Karnataka Tel: 25057346, 7345, 25057616, Fax: 25057279

DEFENCE LABORATORY (DL) Director: Dr MP Chacharkar Ratanada Palace, Jodhpur 342011, Rajasthan Tel: 0291-2510275, 2510641 Fax: 0291-2511191

CENTRE FOR AIR BORNE SYSTEMS (CABS) Director: Dr S Christopher Belur Yemlur Post, Bangalore 560037, Karnataka Tel: 080-25220685 25225556, 25220107 Fax: 080-25272326

DEFENCE BIO-ENGINEERING AND ELECTRO MEDICAL LABORATORY (DEBEL) Director: Dr VC Padaki Post Box No.9326, CV Raman Nagar, Bangalore 560093, Karnataka Tel: 080-25058427, 25058325 Fax: 080-25282011

DEFENCE METALLURGICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (DMRL) Director: Dr AM Sri rama Murthy Kanchanbagh PO, DMRL, Hyderabad 500058, Andhra Pradesh Tel: 040-24340233, 24340051 Fax: 040-24340683

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E C T I

SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

O N

2008-2009

F

293

38th Year of Issue

I V

As i a n Who’s Who

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

E

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

S I N D I A N D E F E N C E

B U S I N E S S

T E C H N O L O G Y

C O N C E P T S & P E R S P E C T I V E S

W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

C O N T E N T S


A S I A N

W H O ’ S

W H O

Contents AFGHANISTAN

295

MYANMAR

298

ALGERIA

295

NEPAL

298

AUSTRALIA

295

NORTH KOREA

298

BAHRAIN

295

OMAN

298

BANGLADESH

295

PAKISTAN

298

CAMBODIA

296

PHILIPPINES

298

CHINA

296

QATAR

298

EGYPT

296

SAUDI ARABIA

299

INDONESIA

296

SINGAPORE

299

IRAN

296

SOUTH KOREA

299

IRAQ

296

SRI LANKA

299

ISRAEL

296

SYRIA

299

JAPAN

297

TAIWAN

300

JORDAN

297

TAJIKISTAN

300

KAZAKHSTAN

297

THAILAND

300

KUWAIT

297

TURKMENISTAN

300

KYRGYZSTAN

297

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

300

LAOS

297

UZBEKISTAN

300

LEBANON

297

VIETNAM

300

LIBYA

297

YEMEN

300

MALAYSIA

297

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Head of State and Government ...................President Hamid Karzai Vice Presidents............ Ahmad Zia Masood and Abdul Karim Khalili Defence Minister ........................... Gen (Retd) Abdul Rahim Wardak Foreign Minister ..................................... Dr Rangin Dadfar Spantra Chief of General Staff of the Armed Forces ...... Gen Bismillah Khan Commander of the Air Force ........... Lt Gen Abdul Wahab Qahraman Ministry of Defence Kabul (Afghanistan) Tele: 0093 (O) 202300331 Tele: 0093 (O) 700275707

Bahrain Head of State ............................ HM King Hamad I bin isa al Khalifa Prime Minister .................................... Khalifa bin Salman al-Khalifa Crown Prince and C-in-C of the Defence Forces .............................. ............................................... Shaikh Salman bin Hamad al-Khalifa Head of Government (Prime Minister) ............................................. ............................................... Sheikh Khalifa bin Salman al-Khalifa The Deputy Premier ........................................................................ ..................................... Shaikh Mohammed Bin Mubarak al Khalifa Minister of Defence and Deputy C-in-C ........................................... ..................................... Lt Gen Sheikh Khalifa bin Hamad al Khalifa Chief of Staff of the Defence Forces ................................................ .............................. Maj Gen Sheikh Abdullah bin Salman al-Khalifa Commander of the Navy ...........................Col Abdullah Al Mansoori Commander of the Land Forces ....................................................... ...................................................... Brig Daiege bin Salam al-Khalifa Commander of the Air Force .......Col. Hamad bin Abdullah al-kjalifa C-in-C of the National Guard ........................................................... .............................................. Sheikh Mohammed bin Isa al-Khalifa Ministry of Defence P.O. Box 245, HQ Bahrain West Rifa’a, Bahrain Tel: +973665599 Defence Forces HQ c/o Ministry of Defence

Ë Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

Algeria Head of State ................................. President Abdel-aziz Bouteflika Prime Minister and Defence Minister .....................Ahmed Ouyahia Chief of General Staff ..................................Gen Salah Ahmed Gaid Commander of the Army ............................... Maj Gen Ahcene Tafer Commander of the Navy ............................... Gen Mohand Thar Yala Commander of the Gendarmerie.................... Gen Ahmed Bousteila Ministry Of Defence Avenue des Tagarins, Algiers, Algeria Tel: +2132611515 National People’s Army HQ c/o Ministry of National Defence Avenue Ali Khoudja, Algiers, Algeria Tel: +2132634176, 631765, 611515 Australia Head of State ........................ Queen Elizabeth II ( Since 06 Jan 52). Governor General ............................... Maj Gen (Ret) Michael Jeffery Prime Minister ............................................................... Kevin Rudd Defence Minister ......................................................Joel Fitzgibbon Secretary to the Department of Defence ...................... Nick Warner Chief of the Defence Forces ............................. ACM Angus Houston Chief of Army ......................................................... Lt Gen Gillespie Chief of Navy............................................. Vice Adm Russ Shalders Chief of Air Force .................................. Air Mshl Geoffrey Shephard Chief Joint Operations ........................................ Lt Gen Mark Evans Department of Defence Russel Ofices Suite MF149, Parliament House

Bangladesh Head of State and Defence Minister.... President Md. Zillur Rehman Prime Minister .......................................................... Sheikh Hasina Chief of Staff of the Army ........... Lt Gen Moeen U Ahmed, ndc, psc Chief of Staff of the Navy ..............Vice Adm SJ Nijam,(C), ndu, psc Chief of Staff of the Air Force.......................................................... ....................................... Air Mshl SM Ziaur Rahman, ndc, fawx, psc Army HQ Dhaka, Cantt, Dhaka, Bangladesh Tel: 88-02-8750011

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Canberra ACT 2600 Tel: 02 6277 7800, +6162659111 Fax: 02 6273 4118 www.brendannelson.com.au Defence National Telephone Number - 1300 3333623 (Provided on website of Australian Navy).

T E C H N O L O G Y

Afghanistan

B U S I N E S S

Compiled by SP’s research team with inputs from Brigadier (Retd.) Rahul Bhonsle As on March 20, 2009.

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

Asia

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

Who’s Who in

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Asian Who’s Who


Asian Who’s Who

Indonesia

Air Headquarters Dhaka, Cantt, Dhaka, Bangladesh Tel: 880-2-8753420-25 Naval Headquarters Banani, Dhaka, Bangladesh Tel: 880-2-8754041-49

Head of State and Government ....................................................... .............................................President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono Vice President .......................................... Muhammad Yusuf KALLA Minister of Defence ............................................Juwono Sudarsono C-in-C of the Armed Forces ............................... Gen Djoko Santoso Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces ............................... ................................................................. Lt Gen Djamari Chaniago Chief of Staff of the Army ................................. Gen Djoko Santoso Chief of Staff of the Navy .......................... Adm Slamet Soebijanto Chief of Staff of the Air Force..........Air Chief Mshl Herman Prayitno Department of Defence and Security Jl. Medan Merdeka Barat No 13 - 14 Jakarta Pusat KOTAK POS 2005 JAKARTA 10020 Tel: ++6221366184, 374408 e-mail: postmaster@dephan.go.id

Cambodia Head of State .................................... HRH King Norodom Sihamoni Prime Minister ....................................... Samdech Hun Sen premiar Deputy Prime Minister and Defence Minister .................. Bin Chhin Deputy Defence Minister ........................................Gen Neang Paht C-in-C of the Armed Forces .................................... Gen Ke Kim Yan Commander of the Army .................................. Lt Gen Mea Sophea Commander of the Navy ................. Vice Senior General Maung Aye Commander of the Air Force .........................AVM Soeung Samnang Commander of the Royal Gendarmerie ................ Lt Gen Sao Sokha High Command HQ, National Road No.4 Chaom Chao, Dangkor District, Phnom Penh. Tel/Fax : 855-23-390809

Iran Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution (Velat-t-efaqhih) and Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces ..................................... ....................................................... Ayatollah Ali Hoseini-Khamenei Head of Government .................President, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Minister of Defence ...............................Mostafa Mohammad Najjar C-in-C of the Army (Armed Forces) ........... Maj Gen Ata’ollah Salehi Head of the General Command HQ ........ Maj Gen Hasan Firuzabadi Chief of Army Joint General Staff .................................................... ................................................ Brig Gen Sayyid Aborrahim Mousavi Commander of the Land Forces ....................................................... ...............................................Brig Gen Mohammad HosseinDadres C-in-C of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (Pasdaran) .......... ............................................... Maj Gen Seyed Yahya Rahmin Safavi Commander of the Naval Forces ............... RADM Habibollah Sattari Commander of the Air Force .......................Brig Gen Ahmad Miqani C-in-C of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (Pasdaran) .......... ............................................... Maj Gen Seyed Yahya Rahmin Safavi Ministry of Defence and Logistics e-mail: vds@isiran.com

China Head of State, General Secretary of the Central Committee and Chairman of the Central Military Commission ................................. .......................................................................... President Hu Jintao Premier of the State Council ......................................... Wen Jiabao National Defence Minister ................................ Gen Liang Guanglie Chief of the (Army) General Staff .........................Gen Chen Bingde Commander of the Navy ................................... VAdm Zhang Dingfa Commander of the Air Force ..............................Gen Qiao Qingchen Commander of Second Artillery .............................Gen Jing Zhiyuan Commander of the People’s Armed Police ...... Gen Wu Shuangzhan Ministry of National Defence Huangsi Dajie, Andingmenwai Beijing, China Tel: ++861667343

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Egypt

Iraq

Head of State and Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces ....... .................................. President Mohamed Hosni El-Sayed Mubarak Prime Minister ............................................ Ahmed Mohamed Nazif Defence Minister, Minister of Military Production and General Commander of the Armed Forces .................................................... ..................... Field Marshal Mohammed Hussein Tantawi Sulayman Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces .............Lt Gen Sami Hafez Enan Commander of the Navy .................................................................. .................................... VADM Tamer Abd El Aleem Mohamed Ismail Commander of the Air Force .........Air Marshal Magdy Galal Sharawi Commander of the Air Defence Forces............. Gen Abd el-Aziz Seif Ministry of Defence Kobri AlKobba, Cairo, Egypt Tel: +202839933, 837133 Armament Authority Armed Forces Technical Institute Kobri Al-Kobba Cairo, Egypt Tel: +20-2-605460, -835716 e-mail mmc@afmic.gov.eg

Head of State ..............................................President Jalal Talabani Prime Minister .......................................................... Nouri al-Maliki Defence Minister ........................................ Gen. Abel Qader Jassim National Security Advisor ................................. Mowaffek al-Rubaie Commander MNF-I .................................................Gen Ray Odierno Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces ................. Gen Babakir al-Zibari Commander of the Army .......................... Lt Gen Ali Ghaidan Majid Commander of the Navy ...............................Cdr Muhammad Jawad Commander of the Air Force ....................Maj Gen Kamal al-Barzani

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Israel

Head of the State .......................................President Shimon Peres Prime Minister ............................................... Bengamin Netanyahu Defence Minister ........................................................... Amir Peretz Chief of the General Staff ............................Lt Gen Gabi Ashkenazi Commander of the Navy ......................... RADM David Beb Ba’ashat Commander of the Army HQ ..........................Lt Gen Gabi Ashkenzi Commander of the Air Force .......................Maj Gen Elyezer Shkedy Ministry of Defence Kaplan St, Hakirya

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X

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B U S I N E S S

T E C H N O L O G Y

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W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

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Contents O N E

GDP & MILITARY EXPENDITURE

303

T WO

CENTRAL & SOUTH ASIA

307

T H R E E

EAST ASIA, PACIFIC RIM & AUSTRALIA

334

F O U R

WEST ASIA & NORTH AFRICA

375

F I V E

ASIA-PACIFIC: MILITARY BALANCE

411

S I X

EQUIPMENT & HARDWARE SPECIFICATIONS

421

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 Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

GDP Current Prices ($ billion)

GDP based on PPP ($ billion)

GDP Current Prices Per Capita ($)

GDP based on PPP Per Capita ($)

1

Afghanistan, Rep. of.

11.238

21.985

399.381

781.311

2

Algeria

158.699

240.402

4,545.17

6,885.16

3

Australia

1,046.79

800.971

49,271.41

37,700.96

4

Bahrain

24.395

26.531

31,302.11

34,042.66

5

Bangladesh

80.509

222.412

497.228

1,373.64

6

Bhutan

1.479

3.694

2,251.08

5,622.58

7

Cambodia

9.916

28.323

679.998

1,942.29

8

China

3,941.54

7,792.75

2,968.79

5,869.55

9

Egypt

151.258

440.848

2,015.57

5,874.45

10

India

1,232.95

3,289.78

1,081.64

2,886.07

11

Indonesia

488.149

906.664

2,142.30

3,979.00

12

Iran, Islamic Republic of

364.498

812.902

5,042.02

11,244.67

13

Israel

176.928

195.296

24,027.32

26,521.78

14

Japan

4,866.92

4,438.70

38,095.36

34,743.49

15

Jordan

18.508

30.118

3,158.71

5,140.30

16

Kazakhstan

133.726

179.539

17

Korea

999.369

1,275.87

18

Kuwait

145.141

140.721

19

Kyrgyz Republic

4.756

20

Lao People’s Democratic Republic

21 22

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11,862.35

20,582.93

26,277.63

42,159.12

40,875.31

11.455

895.38

2,156.70

4.629

13.919

739.851

2,224.64

Lebanon

26.775

44.414

7,047.03

11,689.56

Libya

78.886

82.972

12,703.18

13,361.20

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Country

T E C H N O L O G Y

Serial No.

B U S I N E S S

GDP Total/Per Capita Based On Current Prices/Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

GDP & Military Expenditure

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

1

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Regional Balance


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2

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been integral components of the cultural zone of which the five former Soviet republics are a part. It also accepts the possibility of a yet wider definition, one that includes at least the Khorasan province of Iran, the northern part of Pakistan, Mongolia, such Russian areas as Tatarstan, and even that part of northern India extending from Rajasthan to Agra. Some analysts describe even West Asia as a part of Greater Central Asia which they say, is not defined in terms of any external power or national ideology. Instead the widened definition focuses on the character of the region itself, its distinctive geographical, cultural, and economic features, and the question of whether those features may be the keys to its future. The concept propounds an open Greater Central Asia that is an economic and transport centre rather than a periphery and a selfdetermined subject of international affairs rather than a pliable object. Analysts say that it stands in contrast to the territorial colonialism that ended in 1991-1992 and to the energy-driven colonialism which threatens the region today. It deserves to be taken seriously because it represents some of the best thinking within the region itself. No less, it arises from two thousand years of history, including eras when Greater Central Asia was indeed central to the world in a political, economic, and civilisational sense. With competent governments within the region and restraint from the external powers, Greater Central Asia can regain some of that glory today. The region spanning Pakistan and Afghanistan in South Asia has been the focus of the global war on terrorism since the catastrophic events of 9/11. Today, international terrorism has come to occupy a prominent position on the security agenda of virtually every state. Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (POK) continues to foment terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir since 1989, and now Pakistan-inspired terrorist activity has spread across India, bedevilling relationship between the two countries. The new political dispensation of coalition politics in Pakistan has not stabilised while the growth of Al Qaeda and Taliban in the western provinces of Pakistan opposite Afghanistan, namely FATA and Baluchistan, has further complicated the governance of the newly formed Government. The war in Afghanistan commenced on October 7, 2001, and marked the beginning of the US-led war on international terrorism in the wake of the 9/11 attacks. The purpose of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) was to capture Osama bin Laden, destroy the Al-Qaeda and dethrone the Taliban regime. While the operation achieved most of its stated objectives, it has failed to establish stability in Afghanistan due to

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

entral and South Asia, which comprise countries that are mostly under-developed and poor, account for about onequarter of the world’s population. At the heart of Eurasia is Central Asia. One of the most unstable regions of the twenty-first century, it encompasses the world’s largest landmass (3,995,800 sq km) and has great potential due to vast natural resources including significant reserves of oil and gas. Central Asia has historically been closely tied to its nomadic peoples and the Silk Road. As a result, it has acted as the crossroads for the movement of people, goods and ideas between Europe, Western Asia, South Asia, and East Asia. South Asia, on the other hand, is strategically important because it lies astride the main sea routes from West Asia to the Far East and also because of India’s economic growth and dynamism which make it an attractive destination for foreign investment. The Indian Economic Survey had predicted a GDP growth rate of nine per cent per annum during the Eleventh Plan period from 2007 to 2012. However, with the global economic downturn in the year 2008, India’s growth rate is expected to be lower than the above figure for the next few years. Central Asia is a region comprising the five states that belonged to the erstwhile Soviet Union – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. It is a region that once used to be called the ‘Centre of the World’. Given its abundant energy resources and by virtue of its geographical location it has consistently been in the limelight. In the nineteenth century it was the theatre of the classic great game which was played out between the Russian and the British empires. Later on, it became a prized possession of the Soviet Union. The collapse of the Soviet Union led to the independence of the Central Asian States. 9/11 attracted global attention to this region, reiterating its geo-strategic relevance. Along with this the presence of hydrocarbons has again made this region important. The key players this time are the US, Russia and China. Strategic analysts have advanced the concept of ‘Greater Central Asia’ in an attempt to break out of the narrow geographical definition of the Central Asian region propounded by the erstwhile USSR. Some analysts had earlier defined Greater Central Asia as the region encompassing South Caucasus, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran, Turkey and the Xinjian province of China due to its geographical contiguity, Islamic identity and ethnic affinity. However the current understanding of the term accepts the reality that for two millennia both Xinjian and Afghanistan have

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Ë Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

CENTRAL & SOUTH ASIA

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C O N T E N T S

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CENTRAL & S ASIA

increased warlord activity and the resurgence of Taliban in Afghanistan. Taliban and Al Qaeda, who had earlier found shelter in neighbouring Pakistan, regrouped themselves and started training new recruits from the Pashtun areas in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Major bases were created in the mountainous tribal areas of Pakistan by the summer of 2003. From the winter of 2003 the Taliban started launching attacks on isolated outposts and convoys of Afghan soldiers, police, or militia in the southern Afghanistan while the Al Qaeda, in the east along the PakistanAfghanistan border, concentrated on American soldiers through elaborately laid ambushes. Today the NATO and the American Commanders have to contend with two Taliban forces, the Afghan Taliban and the Pakistani Taliban located in South Waziristan. The latter is commanded by Baitullah Mehsud, who is known to provide assistance and fighters to the Afghan Taliban and is also suspected to have caused the assassination of Benazir Bhutto. The United States wants Baitullah Mehsud, the head of this extremist group in South Waziristan to be captured and brought to justice as per the statement of Deputy Secretary of State John D. Negroponte in testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee in May 2008. But the Pakistani government, which at times has considered Mehsud an ally, is now fearful of his power and appears reluctant to hunt him down. The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) is the name of the NATO-led security and development mission in Afghanistan which was established by the United Nations Security Council on December 20, 2001, and consists of about 52,913 military and civilian personnel as of June 2008. Forty different nations including Canada, the US, the UK, other European countries, Australia, New Zealand, Azerbaijan, Jordan, Turkey and Singapore contribute troops to this military force. Since 2006, the ISAF has been involved in more intensive combat operations in southern Afghanistan, which continued in 2007. Attacks on the ISAF in other parts of Afghanistan are also mounting. The main headquarters at Afghanistan is located in the capital, Kabul. There are five Regional Command Centers and the Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRT) function under them. A Provincial Reconstruction Team is a special military unit that provides security and helps with reconstruction in unstable nations. PRTs first began in Afghanistan in late 2001 or early 2002 followed by Iraq in 2003. Each PRT consists of a small operating base from which a group of sixty to a thousand or more civilians and military specialists work to deliver aid and perform reconstruction projects as well as provide security for others who are involved in aid and reconstruction activities. The ISAF command is rotated among different nations on a six month basis. Central Asia commonly referred to as the ‘backyard of Russia and China’, is fast emerging as the focal point of rivalry between the US on one hand, and Moscow and Beijing on the other. Post 9/11, Central Asia also emerged as the epicentre of geo-political changes on a global scale. The US became the main economic donor and assumed security responsibility, enabling it to establish military presence in the region and set up military bases in four out of the five Central Asian states. Due to intensely competitive ties among countries of the region as well as the key players, namely the US, Russia and China, the American presence now stands greatly reduced. The major attraction for key players, as also countries like India, Japan and the European Union, is the vast energy reserves of the Caspian basin. Russia, which already enjoys some military presence in the region, has in conjunction with China, sought to counterbalance Washington’s influence in the region through the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO). Russia is also further increasing its troop deployment in the region. It is interesting to note that while each major player tries to accomplish its national interests through ‘grand strategies’, the Central Asian

countries are using their own strategies to balance out the relationships which seem threatening. Three different strategies have been employed to balance out the major players including ‘strategic partnership’, ‘nonalignment’ and a ‘multi-vectored approach’. The key to what became known as Kazakhstan’s ‘multi-vectored’ approach is to build strategic partnerships with all three powers. Today this policy has been somewhat eroded under pressure from Russia’s Eurasec, Gazprom and the SCO but it nonetheless remains in place. Kazakhstan’s successful campaign to gain the OSCE presidency is evidence of a more recent effort to engage the Europeans as a fourth element in the balance. Central Asia is currently relatively stable despite civil unrest and the presence of terrorist and extremist groups. Terrorist groups operating in Central Asia include the Jamaat of Central Asian Mujahedins (JCAM), the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, the Uighur-led Islamic Party of Eastern Turkestan, Hizb ut-Tahrir al- Islami, the Muslim Brotherhood, the KongraGel Kurdish organisation, the right-wing Turkic group, the Boz Qurd and Al-Qaeda. The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) summit in 2007 concluded with the ‘Bishkek Declaration’, pledging to increase co-operation with Afghanistan and to create an ‘anti-drug zone’ around the country. Additionally, the declaration called for increased collaboration on ‘international information security’ to change the Regional AntiTerrorism Structure and to combat terrorism. The geostrategic significance of the Central Asian region has led to an increase in defence expenditure in the region. Both Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan increased their defence budgets, largely to modernise their forces and support existing military personnel. In 2007, most Central Asian states received increases in their Foreign Military Financing (FMF) assistance from the US. The US 2008 Fiscal Year budget proposal offered significant increases in defence funding for the South and Central Asian region, with a total amount of $300 million (Rs 1464 crore) proposed. However, the majority of the FMF funding is earmarked for Pakistan. Central Asian states set to receive FMF in 2008 include Kyrgyzstan with $1.5 million (Rs 732 lakh) which is 20.3 per cent, Tajikistan with $675,000 (Rs 329 lakh) up by 36.4 per cent and Kazakhstan with $2 million (Rs 976 lakh) - an increase of 42.3 per cent. Turkmenistan did not receive any FMF funding for 2008. Overall, the US FMF funding will remain steady under the FY08 proposal, with the International Military Education and Training programme (IMET) witnessing a significant funding increase of 15 per cent. Central Asia’s arms and defence systems do not have a significant presence in the international arms trade, with most Central Asian states relying on Russia for arms and defence systems. However, a well established illegal arms trade route runs through the Central Asian region, with the supply and demand for Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) emanating from the ongoing conflicts in Nepal, Kashmir, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan. It is estimated that approximately 75 million firearms have found their way to conflicts in South Asia via Central Asia. The South Asian scene has been marred by hostility between nuclear-armed India and Pakistan, and even more by internal unrest in most of the countries of this region. India is fighting terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir, in its north eastern states and intermittently, in the rest of the country. Naxalite violence, which has affected 16 states of the Indian Union, is becoming more and more virulent virtually overwhelming state authority in certain places. In the neighbourhood, Nepal has formed a new government with Maoists in the saddle. Sri Lanka is once again embroiled in a vicious confrontation with the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) who are on the verge of defeat. Pakistan, having earlier encouraged, trained and funded terrorist groups, including the Taliban, is now plagued by terrorism, insurgency and sectarian violence within its territory. On its western borders with

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CENTRAL & S ASIA

Afghanistan, the Pakistani Taliban under Baitullah Mehsud is actively supporting Afghanistan Taliban with recruits, armament and other forms of logistics support. Pakistan continues to export terrorism to India via Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (POK), Bangladesh and other areas of Pakistan. These trained, armed and funded Jehadis unleash violence and destruction of life and property in not only Jammu and Kashmir and the Northeast but also in the rest of India. The recent fidayeen attacks in Mumbai by ten terrorists from Lashkar-e-Taiba (LET) in Karachi, Pakistan in November 2008, is a case in point. The new political dispensation, democratically elected, in Pakistan has not stabilised due to internal squabbles among coalition partners and therefore, civil authority has yet to be fully established in military ruled Pakistan. Meanwhile the Pakistani military has been conducting military operations against the Taliban in FATA (Bajaur agency) and in SWAT in the NWFP region. The Taliban forces are using an impressive arsenal which includes machine guns, sniper rifles, anti-aircraft guns and also Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs). They are employing suicide bombers against security forces and pro-government tribals. Their communication systems are superior to that used by the army. They have been fighting around military-style dug up defences and their fighting ability, according to army officers, is much greater than previously encountered. Pakistani Army continues to dominate the management of Islamabad’s Afghan as well as Kashmiri and nuclear-arms policy. Strategic analysts feel that the consequences of failing in Bajaur and North West Frontier Province are grim for Pakistan, the US and the West because they are closely involved in fighting Al Qaeda, and Taliban and in stabilising Afghanistan. In Bangladesh, the new Awami League government of Sheikh Hasina, was swept to power in a landslide election victory on 29 December 2008 signaling Bangladesh’s return to democracy after nearly two years under a military-backed caretaker government. It was a remarkable turn: the coup leaders voluntarily ceded control back to the people. Even more impressive, thanks to a series of electoral reforms the caretaker government put in place, Bangladeshi democracy is arguably in far better shape today than it was in 2007, when it was pushed aside. But Hasina’s government faces a daunting array of challenges. The most pressing of these is inflation, which has hovered above 10 percent for much of the year. Forty percent of the country’s population lives on less than one dollar a day. And recent price hikes have pushed some four million Bangladeshis back below the poverty line, according to the World Bank. Hasina has vowed to lower food costs immediately, and will be helped by slumping global commodity prices. If she can improve food security, that could well convince more of her countrymen to stay

put, instead of emigrating. Then there is the looming energy crisis. Bangladesh currently produces enough power to meet just 60 percent of its demand, and recent gas shortages have shuttered factories, dealing a further blow to the teetering economy. Still, India and Western powers hope the new government will address their other big source of concern: Bangladesh-based terrorism. Analysts argue that the Awami League tilts toward New Delhi and may grant its requests to crack down. And Bangladesh’s main Islamist party saw its parliamentary holdings drop from 17 seats to 2 in the December poll, suggesting the public is disillusioned with Islamic radicalism. Hasina may also have a personal motivation to crack down on extremists: one jihadi group tried to assassinate her in 2004. India, though, is not taking any chances. Earlier this month, New Delhi decided to speed construction of a fence along the two countries’ shared 4,000 km border—a sign of how far Bangladesh still has to come. South Asia remains the least integrated region of the world where intra-regional trade is less than five per cent of the total regional trade. At the 14th SAARC summit in Delhi, on April 2007, all the SAARC members, including newly-admitted Afghanistan, agreed to a vision of a South Asian community that enjoyed a smooth flow of goods, services, peoples, technologies, knowledge, capital, culture and ideas. Considering the current high growth rates of the countries in the region, a window of opportunity has opened to advance together through trade, open borders and economic integration to bring about shared prosperity. Several practical steps were agreed upon such as establishing a South Asian University, a South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation (SAARC) food bank and operationalising the SAARC development fund. Details pertaining to the countries of the region have been given in the following sequence:

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Central & South Asia • • • • • • • • • • • •

Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan India Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka

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EAST ASIA, PACIFIC RIM & AUSTRALIA

Ë Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

E

ast Asia and the Pacific Rim cover all the Asian countries east of Myanmar. Australia, though not strictly a part of the region, has been included because of its strategic location astride the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The three important powers in the region are—the US, China and Japan. China is the largest country in this region and the main concern of the other countries in the region has been how to cope with its growing economic and military might. China, while being apprehensive of US hegemony and assertiveness, is also aware that the latter’s presence in the area prevents an independent military role for Japan, its historical antagonist. Four major issues plague the security environment in East Asia - China-Japan relations, North Korea, Taiwan, and international terrorism. Classification of China as a possible threat in Japan’s official document ‘National Defence Programme Guideline For FY 2005 and After’ had heightened tensions between the two countries. Prior to this, there were indications that Japan would join the US Missile Defence Initiative (MDI) and in November 2004, the US agreed to the Japanese production of PAC-3 interceptor, which was to start in 2006. The deployment of land-based PAC-3 system as part of a layered ballistic system has already commenced and it is likely that a Joint Missile Defence Command Centre will be established in Kadena by 2010. The US has deployed the USS Shiloh (CG67) equipped with standard Missile 3 interceptors, which became the first Aegis vessel with an initial theatre engagement capability. Japan is also developing an independent surveillance system through its intelligence gathering satellites. The National Defence Programme Guideline also indicates a shift in strategic thinking because Article 9 of their constitution restricts the deployment of the Japanese Self Defence Forces in overseas operations and this issue has been at the centre of the defence debate. Sino-Japanese relations were in the doldrums for the past decade because of the repeated visits to the Yasukuni Shrine by former Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi. One consequence was a complete freeze in mutual visits at the highest political levels between 2001 and 2006. Even exchanges at other levels were affected. The ice was broken in 2006 when Japanese Prime Minster Shinzo Abe visited China, and the ice began to thaw when Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visited Japan in 2007. These two Prime Ministerial visits set the stage for President Hu Jintao’s ‘warm-spring’ visit to Japan between May 6 and 11, 2008.

Although political relations have remained frozen during the last several years, bilateral economic ties have flourished greatly. China was Japan’s third largest trading partner in 2007, while Japan was China’s top trading partner in the same year. Two-way trade amounted to US $236 billion (Rs 1,137,349 crore). Japan’s accumulated Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in China has reached $60.7 billion (Rs 292,530 crore), making it China’s second largest source of FDI. Efforts were made in 2007 to improve people-to-people contacts with the two countries sponsoring a two-way tourism exchange programme involving 30,000 people to mark the 35th anniversary of the normalisation of relations. As a result, there was a significant increase in the total number of Chinese and Japanese visitors to each other’s country. 2008 has been set as the year of friendly exchanges between the youths of the two countries. Hu personally extended Olympic invitations to Japanese Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda as well as to his predecessors, Shinzo Abe and Yoshiro Koizumi. Hu also met Emperor Akihito. China is trying to use the 2008 Olympics in the same way that Japan had used the 1964 Games to proclaim its arrival on the world stage. The US has continued to express concern over the growth of China’s influence and military power in the Asia-Pacific region. In its annual report to the Congress in 2007 as well as in 2008, the US Department of Defence notes, “The pace and scope of China’s military transformation has increased in recent years, fuelled by continued high rates of investment in its domestic defence and science and technology industries, acquisition of advanced foreign weapons, and far reaching reforms of the armed forces. The expanding military capabilities of China’s armed forces are a major factor in changing East Asian military balances and improvements in China’s strategic capabilities have ramifications far beyond the Asia-Pacific region.” North Korea (Democratic People’s Republic of Korea), became a major flashpoint in the region after North Korea walked out of the NPT in 2003. North Korea declared that it had developed nuclear weapons in violation of an earlier agreement with US and some other countries. Nuclear-armed DPRK was considered a threat to the security of the countries of the region, particularly to the US and Japan. This led to the initiation of the Six Party Talks whose aim was to find a peaceful resolution to the security concerns as a result of the North Korean nuclear weapons program. While this process was on, North Korea on October 9, 2006, announced a successful nuclear test, verified by the US two days later. In response, the United Nations Security Council, citing Chapter

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C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES T E C H N O L O G Y B U S I N E S S I N D I A N D E F E N C E

and Abdullah Sungkar in Solo, Central Java. The consortium has become an important vehicle for the dissemination of Jihadi thought, getting cheap and attractively printed books into mosques, bookstores and discussion groups. The publishing venture demonstrates JI’s resilience and the extent to which radical ideology has taken root in Indonesia. The Indonesian government needs to monitor these enterprises more closely. Indonesian government could enforce its own laws with respect to publishing, labour, corporate registration and taxation. Such enforcement would not only offer a means of monitoring these enterprises but also yield valuable information about the size and status of the JI organisation. Myanmar witnessed the violent crushing of protests led by Buddhist monks in late 2007, which had caused even allies of the military government to recognise that change is desperately needed. China and the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) have thrown their support behind the efforts by the UN Secretary-General’s special envoy to re-open talks on national reconciliation, while the US and others have stepped up their sanctions. But neither incomplete punitive measures nor intermittent talks are likely to bring about major reforms. Myanmar requires a more sustainable process of national reconciliation. The balance of power is still heavily weighted in favour of the army, whose top leaders continue to insist that only a strongly centralised, military-led state can hold the country together. There may be more hope that a new generation of military leaders can disown the failures of the past and seek new ways forward. But even if the political will for reform improves, Myanmar will still face immense challenges in overcoming the debilitating legacy of decades of conflict, poverty and institutional failure, which fuelled the recent crisis and could well overwhelm future governments as well. When an elected government took office in January 2008, after 16 months of military rule, Thailand looked as if it might be returning to stable democracy. The army chiefs who had removed Thaksin Shinawatra’s government in a coup in September 2006, accepted being overruled by the public, who voted into office a coalition led by Thaksin’s supporters. But political tensions are rising once again. Anti-government protests have returned, raising fears that the army might use street violence, or the supposed threats to the monarchy from Thaksin’s allies, as pretexts for another coup. After the 2006 coup the army and its allies in the bureaucracy ran Thailand dismally, and its economy is now among the region’s slowest growing. Even so, both sides in the conflict are talking up the chances of another coup, which would be the country’s 19th since absolute monarchy came to an end in 1932. Even if it does not go that far, prolonged political strife risks doing further economic damage. Instead of regaining its reputation as an admired, fast-developing tiger, Thailand risks becoming one of those perennially unstable countries such as the Philippines, which the outside world overlooks. The Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) for economic co-operation and development does not have a military dimension. It mainly focuses on economic, social and cultural aspects. The economic growth of ASEAN countries is, however, directly linked to the region’s law and order situation. In view of the security environment in East Asia, it has formed the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) bringing all the major powers into it as dialogue partners. In all there are 24 dialogue partners including the US, Russia, China, Japan, India and the EU. Pakistan is the latest entrant. The charter of the ASEAN may also be amended in the future to lay greater stress on security including terrorism. In pursuance of its declared global war on terror, the US has signed an anti-terror declaration with ASEAN. The document does not make any specific provision for deployment of US troops but leaves it as a choice for individual countries.

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

VII of the UN Charter, unanimously passed Resolution 1718, condemning North Korea and imposing sanctions on certain luxury goods and trade of military units, WMD-related parts, and technology transfers. In the meanwhile, through the aegis of the above talks, a series of meetings was arranged with six participating states - the People’s Republic of China; the Republic of Korea (South Korea); the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea); the United States of America; the Russian Federation and Japan. Five rounds of talks from 2003 to 2007 produced little net progress until the third phase of the fifth round of talks, when North Korea agreed to shut down its nuclear facilities in exchange for fuel aid and steps towards the normalization of relations with the United States and Japan. The sixth round of six-party talks took place between March 19 and 23, 2007. On June 26, 2008, US President George Bush announced the first steps to remove North Korea from America’s blacklist of states that sponsor terrorism and the lifting of key sanctions against the secretive regime. The move followed Pyongyang’s long-awaited declaration of nuclear activities a few hours earlier. US financial sanctions imposed under the ‘Trading with the Enemy Act’ would be lifted within 45 days, on the condition that international inspectors verify the inventory. In December 2008, the DPRK government indicated that it would not allow sampling from the Yongbyon reactor to determine how much weapons-grade plutonium it produced, stalling the implementation of a disarmament agreement reached in February 2007, whereas as per the agreement, the sampling is ‘the core focus’ of efforts to verify North Korea’s disclosures about its atomic work. Taiwan poses the other threat to peace in East Asia. Unification of Taiwan with the mainland is central to Chinese strategy and it has not ruled out the use of force. Most Taiwanese, however, continue to remain opposed to the idea of merger and occasional statements from their leaders emphasising the island’s independent identity further aggravate tensions. The US does not support Taiwanese independence but is committed to supplying it arms for its defence. The US has also promised Taiwan aid if China resorts to the use of force. Encouraging developments on either side of the Taiwan Straits have taken place recently, considerably reducing the tension between the two. The primary determinant driving these developments has been the Kuomintang’s (KMT) coming to power in the legislative elections held in March 2008. To his credit, Ma Ying-jeou, the KMT leader and Taiwan President since May 20, 2008, has not wasted any time implementing his policies of a ‘closer tilt’ towards Beijing. One of the major reasons is to reverse the current economic downturn in Taiwan. The present administration sees closer economic relations with Beijing as a much needed incentive to spur domestic economic growth. Terrorism continues to rear its head in parts of South East Asia. US-backed security operations in the southern Philippines are making progress but are also confusing counter-terrorism and counterinsurgency with dangerous implications of conflict in the region. The ‘Mindanao Model’ – using classic counter-insurgency techniques to achieve counter-terror goals – has been directed against the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) and has helped force its fighters out of their traditional stronghold on Basilan. But it runs the risk of pushing them into the arms of the broader insurgencies in Mindanao, the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF). Analysts are of the opinion that the US and the Philippines need to revive mechanisms to keep these conflicts apart and refocus energies on peace processes with these groups. The Jemaah Islamiyah (JI), Indonesia’s most prominent extremist organisation, has developed a profitable publishing consortium in and around the pesantren (religious school) founded by Abu Bakar Ba’asyir

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Regional Balance

E ASIA, PACIFIC RIM & AUSTRALIA


Regional Balance

E ASIA, PACIFIC RIM & AUSTRALIA

In Australia, terrorist threats have led to a broad spectrum response involving the military, police, immigration, customs, border control and agencies promoting transport security and transparent financial transactions. Since September 2001, the Australian government has implemented dozens of separate measures and committed around AUD$3.3 billion (Rs 11,950 crore) in additional funds to better protect the Australian community from terrorist attacks. Details pertaining to economic review, security environment and the armed forces of the countries of this region have been given in the following sequence:  Australia  Cambodia  China  Indonesia  Japan  North Korea  South Korea  Laos  Malaysia  Myanmar  The Philippines  Singapore  Taiwan  Thailand  Vietnam

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China has embarked on image building throughout the ASEAN region by using soft power and its economic strength, and through multi-lateral and bilateral relations. The primary aim is to convey an image of a responsible power and eliminate the ‘China threat’ perceptions. Moreover, when ASEAN countries were severely hit by the impact of the 1997 financial crises, China stepped in with economic assistance. In 2004, China promoted the so-called early Harvest Programme, giving SE Asian countries advantageous preferential rates for their exports to China. An important reason for China to develop good relations with South East Asian countries is the vital need for transportation of oil and other resources from all over the globe to China’s coastal areas which pass through various choke points dominated by the littoral states. Hence maritime considerations also dictate the promotion of goodwill and a cooperative relationship with all. The dispute over the ownership of Paracel and Spratly Islands, which a number of countries in the region are a party to, is continuing, but is unlikely to flare up into an open conflict. China has astutely cultivated the grouping by signing the ASEAN Treaty of Amity and Cooperation and telling ASEAN that China would like to be the first nuclear power to sign the South East Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty, provided some parts of protocol were amended. In July 2005, ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement (FTA) took effect, with both sides exempting 7,000 commodities from tax, and deciding to exempt all commodities by 2010.

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Abbas suspended his regular bi-weekly meetings with Olmert. The meeting on April 07, 2008 was the first between them since February 19, 2008. According to Israeli government spokesman, both leaders reiterated their commitment to the Annapolis process and to reaching a comprehensive agreement by the end of 2008, and agreed that the negotiations will go on though both sides raised concerns at Monday’s meeting. It seems that PA negotiators are now demanding the formation of a regular army while the Israeli negotiators have made clear that all previous accords specifically spoke of a demilitarized Palestinian state. Negotiations are on. Lebanon has been in political crisis since late 2006, when the opposition left a national unity coalition cabinet, demanding more power and a veto over government decisions. The crisis turned violent when street clashes between armed supporters of the factions left at least 65 dead. The violence was triggered by government attempts to outlaw Hezbollah’s private telephone network and reassign Beirut airport’s security chief, who is close to the opposition. Rival Lebanese leaders have agreed on steps to end the political deadlock that has led to the country’s worst violence since the 1975-1990 Civil War. The Western-backed government and the pro-Syrian opposition arrived at the deal after days of talks in Qatar. Under the deal, the opposition, led by the Hezbollah political and militant group, will have the power of veto in a new cabinet of national unity. It also paves the way for parliament to elect a new President. The post has been vacant since November 2007. The agreement is being seen as a major triumph for Hezbollah in Lebanon whose key demands have been met. In Iraq, after the military surge, three things are becoming increasingly clear. First, the issues at the heart of the political struggle cannot be solved individually or sequentially. Secondly, the current governing structure does not want, nor is it able, to take advantage of the military surge to produce agreement on fundamentals. Thirdly, without cooperation from regional actors, progress will be unsustainable, with dissatisfied groups seeking help from neighbouring states to promote their interests. All this suggests that the current piecemeal approach toward deal making should be replaced with efforts to bring about a broad agreement that deals with federalism, oil and internal boundaries; encourages reconciliation/accommodation; and ensures provincial and national elections as a means of renewing and expanding the political class. It also suggests yet again the need for the US to engage in both genuine negotiations with the insurgency and for vigor-

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

ith the exception of Israel, which is Jewish, all the countries of West Asia and North Africa are Islamic. Ethnically, most of the Islamic states are Arab and predominantly Sunni. The exceptions are Iraq, which is largely Shia and Iran which is both non-Arab and Shia. This region is the birthplace of three of the world’s most widespread religions - Judaism, Christianity and Islam. West Asia is an area of unique historical importance. Huge oil deposits, which were discovered in the early twentieth century, have further enhanced its strategic importance as the economies of a number of developed countries are critically dependent on its oil. Saudi Arabia is geographically the largest country in West Asia. It is also the richest as it has the largest oil reserves. Iran, Iraq and some of the smaller countries like Kuwait and UAE also have huge oil deposits. Politically, most of the states are monarchies, sheikhdoms or single party dictatorships and enjoy very little freedom of choice. The Israel-Palestine conflict, the Lebanon crisis, the Iraq war and insurgency, fundamentalist Islamic militancy, sectarian violence and terrorism, and Iran’s nuclear ambitions pose serious threat to peace in West Asia. The US has been making persistent efforts at resolving conflicts in this region. Discussions involving Israel and the Palestine Authority (PA) have been in progress for a long time. Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert and Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas have resumed peace talks which were formally re-launched at the US-sponsored international peace conference at Annapolis in November 2007 and were supposed to be based on the US-backed ‘Road Map’ which defines stages leading to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state. The first stage of the ‘Road Map’ calls for Israel to halt all settlement activity and for the Palestinians to dismantle militant groups. However, both sides accused each other of failing to meet their obligations. Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas has repeatedly condemned Israel’s plans to build hundreds of new homes in the West Bank and East Jerusalem which Palestinians claim is a part of their future state, while Israel, suffering from the continuous rockets fired into its southern cities from Gaza, has warned that it will not carry out any peace agreement until Abbas regains control of Gaza from Islamic Hamas movement which took over the coastal strip last June. Israel launched a military offensive against Hamas-controlled Gaza in late February in response to especially heavy rocket fire, which killed more than 120 Palestinians.

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Ë Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

WEST ASIA & NORTH AFRICA

W

C O N T E N T S

Regional Balance


W ASIA & NORTH AFRICA

ous regional diplomacy to achieve agreement on rules of the game for outside actors in Iraq. In the US, much of the debate has focused on whether to maintain or withdraw troops. But this puts the question the wrong way, and spawns misguided answers. The issue, rather, should be whether the US is pursuing a policy that, by laying the foundations of legitimate, functional institutions and rules of the game, will minimise the costs to itself, the Iraqi people and regional stability of a withdrawal that sooner or later must occur – or whether it is simply postponing a scenario of Iraq’s collapse into a failed and fragmented state, protracted and multilayered violence, as well as increased foreign meddling. The surge has clearly contributed to a series of notable successes. But the risk today is that, having finally adopted a set of smart, pragmatic tactics, it finds itself devoid of any overarching strategy. Regarding Iran’s nuclear ambitions, it contends that its nuclear programme is purely peaceful but the US and its allies suspect enriched uranium could be used to make atomic bombs. The UN Security Council already has imposed sanctions on Iran since December 2006, over the Islamic republic’s refusal to halt enrichment. In the meanwhile, Iran’s disputed nuclear program has sent a wave of interest in atomic energy across the Middle East. According to the London-based International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), at least 13 Middle Eastern countries either announced new plans to explore atomic energy or revived pre-existing nuclear programs between February 2006 and January 2007. While the flurry of interest in nuclear power is still tentative, the report says that countries such as Saudi Arabia, Algeria or Egypt could soon feel the need to match Iran’s nuclear ambitions. Israel, the United States and others have accused the Islamic republic of Iran of covertly seeking nuclear weapons under the guise of a civilian nuclear program. Iran insists its intentions are peaceful, but its program has helped push nearly all its Middle Eastern neighbors into drawing up their own nuclear plans. Yet another major issue in West Asia is terrorism, promoted by Islamic fundamentalists. The terrorist attacks are targeted at western countries in general and the US and its Arab allies, in particular. There are two basic causes for the fundamentalist terrorist activities. The first is what the Arabs see as unjust US support to Israel, and the second, the continuing US military presence in the region. The presence of US troops has enabled underground militant Islamic organisations to call for Jehad against the US and recruit youth to their cause. Moderate Arabs are of the view that terrorism will die out if the Arab-Israeli problem is resolved and US troops are withdrawn from West Asia. The US, on the other hand, feels that the war against terrorism will only be won after

there are changes, not only in the nature of the regimes but also in the political and social culture of West Asia. It has, therefore, been pushing for democracy in these countries, the first signs of which are already visible. Egypt has now allowed more than one candidate to contest the Presidential elections while Saudi Arabia has agreed to local level elections. In Kuwait, women have won full political rights including the right to vote and stand for Parliamentary elections. Despite the current difficulties and constraints, the US has been and remains by far the most dominant player in West Asia. The reality is that for the foreseeable future no single country on its own or in conjunction with others can challenge US presence and influence in the region. No country or coalition of countries can force the US to withdraw from the region or compel a change of US policies in the region. It is only domestic political opinion that can bring about a change in US policy. If the US loses its pivotal position in this strategically important oil rich region, its global pre-eminence would be very severely compromised and its ability to keep potential challengers at bay, in particular China, greatly weakened. Therefore, even at the risk of its policies contributing to continuing instability in the region over the next five to ten years, the US will maintain an assertive physical presence in region and support its allies. It would be prudent for other countries to bear this in mind in formulating their policies towards the region. Although low-profile, India has enjoyed good relationships with countries of the region. New Delhi, however, needs to be more proactive in nurturing its bilateral relationships. Following is the sequence in which the details of the countries are covered:  Algeria  Egypt  Libya  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Israel  Jordan  Kuwait  Lebanon  Oman  Qatar  Saudi Arabia  Syria  United Arab Emirates  Republic of Yemen

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Regional Balance

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Balance Changing Strategic Landscape

The eastward expansion of NATO and attempts by the United States to make inroads into Russia’s strategic foothold in Eurasia; Australia and Japan’s emerging partnership with NATO and the growing ambitions of the latter to emerge from geo-strategic hibernation; the proposed US missile-defence shield in Eastern Europe and Russia’s stated nuclear response to it; conflict between Russia and Georgia over South Ossetia in August 2008, which many believe is a curtain raiser to the unfolding drama over Central Asian energy resources; the growing Indo-US strategic partnership as a counter-balance to China, Asia’s heavy-weight; Russia’s recent call for the creation of EATO – Euro-Atlantic Treaty Organisation in alliance with European Union to counter NATO’s expanding influence in Asian affairs, are a few examples of the rapidly changing strategic landscape of the Asia-Pacific region. which have the potential of destabilising the region. Among other issues impinging on the security dynamics in the region are Beijing’s continued insistence on keeping its border rift with India unresolved and pursuance of a policy to encircle India strategically, worsening of India-Pakistan relations, and ethnic strife in Sri Lanka. Intensified efforts by trans-regional players to secure regional energy resources together with the simultaneous rise of two prominent regional powers - China and India, who are cutting into each other’s sphere of influence, trans-national migration, proliferation of WMD technologies, ethnic conflicts and socio-economic unrest, present a picture of a region on the boil. In the backdrop of volatility, a number of countries in the Asia-Pacific are competing with each other and modernising their combat capabilities so as to secure their vital economic and national security interests. Riding on the theme of informationalisation, China’s military has leapfrogged in technology in recent years to transform itself into a modern fighting force with significant improvement in rapid reaction capabilities. Compared to the general hype surrounding China’s developing military capabilities in the past decade, India’s military has been undergoing a silent revolution, transforming qualitatively as well as numerically. Pakistan’s military efforts in modernisation as well as in capacity building have largely been supplemented by the US as a reward for being an active partner in its fight against terrorism in Afghanistan. South Korea, Japan, Australia, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Sri Lanka and a host of other nations in the region are on a buying spree to stock up their militaries with state-of-the-art military hardware. According to an industry report, about three-quarters of the $50 billion (Rs 250,000 crore) in proposed foreign military deals announced until July 2008, involved countries in the Middle East. With a number of countries including China, Japan, India and Saudi Arabia among others, being determined to raise their present levels of military expenditure, the region is fast turning out to be a lucrative export

The writer is a Research Assistant at ‘Center for Strategic Studies and Simulation-United Service Institution of India.

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C O N T E N T S A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

B U S I N E S S

KUMAR

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Ë Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

T

he Asia–Pacific region continues to S A N J AY remain, from the security point of view, the most significant region in the world today. The region, if seen through a kaleidoscope of security, presents a picture of complex variables with many different concurrent motivations resulting in a multi-faceted scenario. Besides old security concerns such as estranged relationship between neighbours over contested territories, legacy of past conflicts, state-sponsored terrorism, internal disturbances arising from ethnic and communal divide, emergence of new security dynamics threatens to further compound the already volatile security scenario in the region. The eastward expansion of NATO and attempts by the United States to make inroads into Russia’s strategic foothold in Eurasia; Australia and Japan’s emerging partnership with NATO and the growing ambitions of the latter to emerge from geo-strategic hibernation; the proposed US missile-defence shield in Eastern Europe and Russia’s stated nuclear response to it; conflict between Russia and Georgia over South Ossetia in August 2008, which many believe is a curtain raiser to the unfolding drama over Central Asian energy resources; the growing Indo-US strategic partnership as a counter-balance to China, Asia’s heavyweight; Russia’s recent call for the creation of EATO – Euro-Atlantic Treaty Organisation in alliance with European Union to counter NATO’s expanding influence in Asian affairs, are a few examples of the rapidly changing strategic landscape of the Asia-Pacific region. The Al-Qaeda and its remnants, firmly established within western Pakistan’s tribal region, are operating almost at will to destabilize the legitimate government of Afghanistan and thereby prompting the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan to move closer towards Pakistan’s soil. With Iraq still remaining a security problem, and Israel becoming proactive in its operations against the Hamas, dark clouds of war are gathering again over the horizon in Middle East,

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Asia-Pacific: Military

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

5

T E C H N O L O G Y

Regional Balance


Regional Balance

ASIA-PACIFIC: MILITARY BALANCE

destination for many leading arms manufactures of the world. Citing some hot economies of the region, a Jane’s Defence Industry analyst recently stated that Asia was really the next big prize. The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute recently stated that Asia’s military expenditure outpaced global military expenditure in the past decade. While global military expenditure in the past decade grew by 45 per cent, the Middle East’s military expenditures grew by 62 per cent, South Asia’s by 57 per cent and East Asia’s by 51 per cent. This is due to the number of conflict scenarios in the past. Asian economies have doubled up in size in just a decade growing at an average of 7 per cent, which is also above the world average. China and India have recorded phenomenal economic growth in the past decade leading to higher defence expenditure by both. A study carried out by Jane’s Industry Quarterly shows that collective investment in defence by China, India and Russia in 2007 is almost twice since 2003 and is expected to rise further 62 per cent by 2010. This is particularly significant in the case of China where in terms of percentage growth defence spending has been substantially higher than GDP growth over the past ten years. Military expenditure in the Middle East, on the other hand, has been fuelled by its petro-dollar economies. A Congressional Research Service report, released in September 2007, states that Saudi Arabia alone signed an average of $3.2 billion (Rs 16,000 crore) a year in new arms agreements from 2003 to 2006 with total arms agreement signed by the Southern Gulf states during this period averaged $4.7 billion (Rs 23,500 crore) a year. In South Asia, Pakistan ranked first among all developing nations with total arms transfer agreements valued at $5.1 billion (Rs 25,500 crore) in 2006, while India with $3.5 billion (Rs 17,500 crore) in such agreements came in second. As military power is generally measured in terms of financial resources that a country can bring to bear upon its military as well as deployment of major weapons systems – Main Battle Tanks (MBTs), combat aircraft,

surface and submersible ships being the most visible face of military capabilities of any nation – the present article takes into account data available in open sources to present a rough estimate of military capabilities of select countries in Asia-Pacific region in select weapon categories as well as expenditure being incurred on defence by these countries.

DEFENCE EXPENDITURE BY KEY ASIAN POWERS The military expenditure of China, the fastest growing military power in Asia, has surpassed any other nation with a sustained two-digit growth over the past twenty years. In 2008, China’s military budget recorded a 17.6 per cent increase to reach $58 billion (Rs 290,000 crore). China, whose military budget accounts for 8 per cent of the world’s total, is the third biggest military spender in the world after the United States and Britain, whereas in Asia, it enviously holds the top position. Beijing maintains that additional resources are essential for its military to complete various new tasks and missions as required under defence modernisation plan. Beijing’s official position with regard to its military expenditure being 1.5 per cent of its GDP has routinely been contested by the US Department of Defence, Rand Corp and other agencies. A recent forecast by Jane’s suggests that at its current pace, China’s military expenditure could reach $360 billion (Rs 1,800,000 crore) a year by 2020. Similarly, Pakistan is another nation whose disclosure of defence budget leaves much to be desired. In June 2008, Pakistan announced its defence budget for 2008-2009 would be 7.6 per cent higher than the previous year at $4.45 billion (Rs 22,250 crore). Apart from the officially announced defence budget, Pakistan has received over $5 billion (Rs 25,000 crore) in military aid from the US since 2003, and most of which is believed to have been utilised for buying heavy military hardware, which does not necessarily support counter-terrorism offensives. A

Defence Budget, 2008 (USD Billion) ����

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38th Year of Issue

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Army eqpt is listed below in the following order:

Ë Abbreviations & Index toward rear of yearbook

SP Guns and Hows China Main Battle Tanks (MBTs) : Type-98, Type-90-II Light Tanks (Lt Tks) : Type-62, Type-63 Armoured Personnel Carriers/Infantry Combat Vehicles (APCs), (ICVs) : Type-90 (YW 535), Type-89 (YW 534), Type-85 (531H) Self-Propelled Guns and Howitzers : Type-83 152mm, PLZ45 155mm How (SP Guns and Hows) Towed Anti-Tank (A Tk) Guns, Guns and Hows : Type-59-1 130mm Fd Gun, Type-66 152mm Gun How Multiple Rocket Launchers (MRLs) : Type-90 122mm (40 round) MR System SP Anti-Aircraft Guns and SAMs : Type-80 Twin 57mm SP AA Gun System, PL-9C (SP AA Guns and SAMs) Low Altitude (Alt) SAM System : PL-9C-Low Alt SAM System Towed AA Guns : Chinese Type-56, 14.5mm Gun Czech/Slovak Republics APCs/ICVs

: OT-64 C (SKOT-2A)

France MBTs

: Leclerc, AMX-30

SP AA Guns and SAMs

Germany MBTs APCs/ICVs

: Leopard 2A6 : Condor, Fuchs

India MBTs Towed ATk Guns, Guns and Hows MRLs

: Arjun : IFG Mk.2 105mm : Pinaka MR System

Israel MBTs Reconnaissance Vehicles (Recce Vehs) SP Guns and Hows Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows SP AA Guns and SAMs

Italy SP Guns and Hows

421 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

: AMX -13B : Giat AMX-10P, Giat VAB, Panhard VCR, Panhard M3 : GIAT Mk. F3 155mm SP Gun, GIAT 155mm, GCT SP Gun : Panhard M3 VDA Twin 20mm SP AA Gun System, Crotale Low Alt SAM System, : Shahine Low Alt SAM System

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue

: Merkava Mk3 : RAM family of lt AFVs : Soltam L-33 155mm : Soltam M-71 155mm Gun/How : ADAMS Vertical Launch Low Alt SAM System

: Oto Palmaria 155mm

T E C H N O L O G Y B U S I N E S S

Lt Tks APCs/ICVs

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

ARMY EQUIPMENT

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

the years, a composite unit like a tk, ship or an ac passes through various phases of development and appears in different versions with varied fitments and op parameters. We have listed these variants, but greater details of each version with specific parameters are given in the dedicated publications. We have also relied on such publications in compiling our data. In this volume, specifications have been listed in general terms and spell out common features. Details of sensors and wpn control systems have been omitted, as they may vary from craft to craft, even within the same class.

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

T

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Equipment & Hardware Specifications his chapter contains specifications of all important military hardware being employed by the countries mentioned below. Eqpt having greater commonality within the region and those of comparatively recent origin have been chosen and presented under separate headings for the Army, Navy and Air Force. We have listed each type of hardware under the headings of its countries of origin like Russia, UK and the US. It would be appreciated that the development of weapon systems is a long term process. Over

C O N T E N T S

Regional Balance


Regional Balance

EQUIPMENT & HARDWARE SPECIFICATIONS: ARMY

ARMY EQUIPMENT (Contd.) Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows

Japan MBTs Recce Vehs APCs/ICVs SP Guns and Hows MRLs

Russia MBTs Lt Tks Recce Vehs APCs/ICVs SP Guns and Hows Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows

MRLs

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SP AA Guns and SAMs

Towed AA Guns

Sweden Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows Towed AA Guns

: Oto Melara Model 56 105mm Pack How

Switzerland APCs/ICVs

: Type-74, Type-90 : Type-87 : Type SU 60, Type-73, Type-89 : Type-75 155mm, Type 99 155mm : Type-75 130mm (30 round) MR System

Lt Tks Recce Vehs APCs/ICVs SP Guns and Hows Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows

United States of America MBTs Lt Tks APCs/ICVs SP Guns and Hows

Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows SP AA Guns and SAMs

Towed AA Guns

: Chieftain Mk. 5, Centurion Mk 13, Challenger 2, Khalid : Alvis Scorpion : Alvis Saladin, Daimler Ferret Mk 2/3 : Stormer, GKN Def Desert Warrior, FV432 : SP Abbot 105mm, AS90 (Braveheart) 155mm SP Gun : 105mm Lt Gun (L 118), 155mm Lightweight How (M 777)

: M-1 Abrams, M-48 series, M 60 A3 : M-41, Sting Ray : M-113 A3 : M-107 175mm SP Gun, M-109 Series of 155mm SP How, M-110 Series of 203mm SP How (8 inch) : M-198 155mm How : M-42 Twin 40mm SP AA Gun System, M-163 Vulcan 20 mm SP AA Gun System, M-48 A1 Chaparral Low Alt SP SAM System, Patriot Msl (PAC-1) Single Stage Low to High Altitude SAM System, Hawk Single Stage, Low to Medium Altitude SAM System : M-167 Vulcan 20mm AA Gun

China

South Africa APCs/ICVs

: Casspir Mk. III, Ratel 90

South Korea MBTs Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows

: K1 : 155mm KH179 How

Spain APCs/ICVs

: BMR-600

Max road speed Max range

: SSPH-1 Primus

422 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

: Oerlikon-Contraves GDF-002 and 005 Twin 35mm Auto AA Guns

United Kingdom MBTs

MBTs 1. Type-98 Specifications Crew Weight Power to weight ratio Length gun forward Width Height Engine

Singapore SP Guns and Hows

: Mowag Piranha

Towed AA Guns

: T-54, T-55, T-55 (Upgraded), T62, T-64B, T-72, T-80U, T-90S : PT-76B : BRDM-2, PRP-4 : BMP-1, BMP-2, BMP-3, BTR50, BTR-80, MT-LB : M 1973 (2S3) 152mm, M 1974 (2S1) 122mm : D-30 122mm Fd Gun, M-46 130 mm Fd Gun, 155mm Gun How D-20 : Splav 300mm BM 9A52 (12 round) Smerch MR System : BM-21 122mm (40 round) MR System : ZSU-23-4 Quad 23mm SP AA Gun System, : ZSU-57-2 Twin 57mm SP AA Gun System, 2K22M Tunguska System, SA-6 Gainful Low-to-Med alt SAM System, SA-8 Gecko Low Alt SAM System, SA-8B SAM System, SA- 9 Gaskin SAM, SA- 13 Gopher SAM System, SA-10 Grumble Low to High Alt SAM System : ZU-23-2 Twin 23mm Automatic (Auto) AA Gun : S-60 57mm Auto AA Gun

: Bofors FH-77 B 155mm : Bofors L-40/-70, 40mm Auto AA Gun

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue

: : : : : : :

3 50,000 kg 24 hp/ton 10.92 m 3.372 m 2.805 m Model WD396 V-8 turbocharged diesel developing 1,200 hp : 65 km/h : 500 – 650 km


:

Height Armament

: :

Engine

:

Max road speed Max road range Amn

: : :

Lt Tks 1. Type-62 Specifications Crew Combat (Cbt) weight Power to weight ratio Length gun forward Width Height Engine

Max road speed : Max water speed : Max road range : Armament : Amn : In service with Chinese Army. 2. Type- 89 (YW 534) Crew Cbt weight Power to weight ratio Length Width Height Max speed Max water speed Max range Engine

4 21,000 kg 20.47 hp/ton 7.9 m 2.86 m 2.25 m Liquid-cooled diesel developing 430 hp at 1,800 rpm Max road speed : 60 km/h Max road range : 500 km Armament Amn Main : 1 x 85mm gun 47 x 85mm Co-axial : 1 x 7.62mm MG 1,750 x 7.62mm Bow : 1 x 7.62mm MG AA : 1 x 12.7mm MG 1,250 x 12.7mm In service with Bangladesh, Cambodia, China and Vietnam 2. Type-63 Specifications Crew Cbt weight Power to weight ratio Length gun forward Width Height turret top Engine

Max road speed Max water speed Max range

: : : : : : :

Armament Amn In service with Chinese Army. 3. Type-85 (YW 531 H) Specifications Crew Cbt weight Power to weight ratio Length Width Height Engine

2 + 13 14,500 kg 22 hp/ton 6.744 m 3.148 m 2.376 m KHD BF8L413F, turbocharged, 8-cylinder, inter-cooled diesel developing 320 hp 67 km/h 7 km/h 500 km 1x12.7mm MG 1,120 x 12.7mm

: : : : : : : : : :

2+13 14,500 kg 22 hp/ton 6.634 m 3.148 m 2.556 m 65 km/h 6 km/h 500 km Deutz BF8L413F 4-cycle air-cooled diesel developing 320 hp at 2,500 rpm : 1x12.7 mm type 54 MG : 1,120

2 + 13 13,600 kg 23.5 hp/ton 6.125 m 3.06 m 2.586 m Deutz BF8L413F 4-cycle, air-cooled, diesel developing 320 hp at 2,500 rpm Max road speed : 65 km/h Max water speed : 6 km/h Max road range : 500 km Armament : 1 x 12.7mm MG Amn : 1,120 In service with China, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Thailand.

: : : : : : :

4 18,400 kg 21.74 hp/ton 8.437 m 3.2 m 2.522 m Model 12150 L 12 cylinder watercooled diesel developing 400 hp at 2,000 rpm : 64 km/h : 12 km/h : 370 km (road), 120 km (water)

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: : : : : : :

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: : : : : : :

C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

Width

3 47,000 kg 23.53 hp/ton 9.865 m 9.687 m (gun rear) 3.40 m (without skirt), 3.50 m (with skirt) 2.37 m 125mm SBG, a 12.7mm MG AA gun, a 7.62mm (coaxial) MG Model 6TD-2 6 cylinder turbocharged multifuel engine developing 1200 hp at 2600 rpm 69 km/h 500 km Main 39, co-axial 4,000, AA 750

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

: : : :

APCs/ICVs 1. Standard Type-90 Specifications Crew Cbt weight Power to weight ratio Length Width Height Engine

T E C H N O L O G Y

2. Type-90-II Specifications Crew Weight Power to weight ratio Length gun forward

1 x 125mm SBG 1 x 7.62mm MG 1 x 12.7mm MG 42 x 125mm, 2,000 x 7.62mm, 300 x 12.7mm

B U S I N E S S

: : : :

Amn 47 500 2,000

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

Armament Main Co-axial AA Amn

Armament Main : 1x85mm gun Co-axial : 1x7.62mm MG AA : 1x12.7mm MG In service with China, Myanmar and Vietnam.

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

ARMY EQUIPMENT (Contd.)

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Regional Balance

EQUIPMENT & HARDWARE SPECIFICATIONS: ARMY


Regional Balance

EQUIPMENT & HARDWARE SPECIFICATIONS: ARMY

ARMY EQUIPMENT (Contd.) SP Guns and Hows 1. Type-83 152mm Specifications Crew Cbt weight Power to weight ratio Length gun forward Width Height (turret top) Max road speed Max road range Armament Main AA RL Variants

: : : : : : : : : : : :

Weight : 5,720 kg Length : 8.69 m Height : 2.52 m Elevation/depression : +45o/-5o Traverse : 58o Rate of fire : 6-8 rounds/min Range : 17,230 m Towing Veh : 6x6 truck Max towing speed : 60 km/h In service with Chinese Army and Sri Lanka.

5 30,000 kg 17.33 hp/ton 7.005 m 3.24 m 2.682 m 55 km/h 450 km

MRLs Type-90 122mm (40 round) MR System Specifications Calibre : 122mm Cbt weight : 20,000 kg Configuration : 6x6 No. of barrels : 40 Max range : 30,000 m (40,000 m with long range rocket) Rate of fire : 40 rounds/18-20 sec Reload time : 3 mins (auto) Elevation/depression : +55o/0o Traverse : +/- 102o left and right Engine : Air cooled diesel developing 300 hp In service with Armenia, Sudan and Bangladesh.

Amn 1x152mm 30 rounds 1 x 12.7mm MG 500 rounds 1 x type 40 RL 4 RLs Trench digger and 425mm mineclearing RL are based on chassis of Type 83.

In service with Chinese Army.

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2. PLZ45 155mm Specifications Crew : 5 Cbt weight : 33,000 kg Power to weight ratio : 16.40 hp/ton Length gun forward : 10.52 m Width : 3.3 m Height (turret top) : 2.6 m Max road speed : 55 km/h Max road range : 450 km Armament Amn Main : 1 x 155mm 30 rounds AA : 1 x 12.7mm MG 480 rounds Variant : Enhanced PLZ45. In service with Chinese Army and Kuwait.

SP AA Guns and SAMs 1. Type-80 Twin 57mm SP AA Gun System Specifications Crew : 6 Cbt weight : 31,000 kg Length : 8.42 m Width : 3.27 m Height : 2.748 m Max road speed : 48-50 km/h Engine : Model 12150-7 BW diesel. 580 hp at 2,000 rpm Armament : 2 x 57mm guns Amn : 300 rounds Max gun elevation : +85o/-5o Turret traverse : 360o Rate of fire : 105 to 120 rounds/min Max horizontal range : 12,000 m Max vertical range : 8,000 m In service with Chinese Army.

Towed A Tk Guns, Guns and Hows 1. Type-59-1 130mm Fd Gun Specifications Crew : 8-10 Calibre : 130mm Weight : 6,300 kg Length : 10.8 m Width : 2.42 m Height : 2.75 m Elevation/depression : +45o/-2.5o Traverse : 58o Rate of fire : 8-10 rounds/min Range HE : 27,150 m Towing Veh : 6x6 truck In service with Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Iran, Oman, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand and UAE.

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2. PL-9C Low Alt SAM System (On WZ 551D APC) Specifications Crew : 5 Cbt weight : 16,000 kg Length : 6.65 m Width : 2.8 m Height (cbt state) : 5m Engine : Deutz F8L 4-cycle air-cooled diesel developing 256 hp at 2,500 rpm Armament : 4-rail launcher with PL-9 msls (no reloads) Launch Weight : 120 kg Max Speed : M2 plus

2. Type-66 152mm Gun How Specifications Crew : 10-12 Calibre : 152.4mm Barrel length : 5.195 m

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Regional Balance

EQUIPMENT & HARDWARE SPECIFICATIONS: NAVY

NAVAL EQUIPMENT

Russia Patrol Submarines

Naval equipment is presented in the order as shown below. Destroyers China Strategic Missile Submarines : Jin Class XIA Class : Han Class Shang Class Patrol Submarines : Song Class Kilo Class Ming Class Romeo Class Modified Romeo Class Destroyers : Luda Class Sovremenny Class Luyang Class Luyang II Class Luhai Class Luhu Class Frigates : Jiangkai Class Jiangkai II Class Jiangwei Class Jiangwei II Class Jianghu 1/V Class Jianghu II Class Fast attack Missile Craft : Houku Houxin Class Huangfen/Hola Class Huchuan India Submarines

Air Craft Carrier Destroyers

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Frigates

Israel Submarines Corvettes Patrol forces

North Korea Submarines Frigates Patrol forces

Frigates Corvettes

South Korea Submarines Destroyers Frigates Corvettes

: Chang Bogo Class : KDX-2 Class : Ulsan Class : P O Hang Class

THAILAND Air Craft Carriers Frigates Corvettes

: Chakri Naruebet Class : Naresuan Class : Khamronsin Class

UNITED KINGDOM Frigates

Missile Craft Corvettes

: Leander Class Salisbury Class Alvand (Vosper Mk. 5) Class Lekiu class : Dhofar (Province) Class : Qahir Class

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Guided Missile Destroyers : Gearing Class Frigates : Adelaide Class Amphibious forces : Austin Class

: Shishumar Class Kilo Class Foxtrot Class Scorpene Class : Hermes Class : Delhi Class Kashin Class Godavari Class Bharamputra Class Talwar Class Leander Class

WEST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES Submarines : Agosta Class (France, Spain) Daphne Class (France) Sishumar Class (Germany) Frigates : Al Riyadh Class (France) Madina Class (France) La Fayettes Class (France) Descubierta Class (Spain) Fast Attack Missile Craft : Combattante Class (France) Ratcharit Class (Italy) Air Craft Carriers : Principe De Asturias Class (Spain) China

: Dolphin Class : Eilat (SAAR 5) Class : Hetz (SAAR 4.5) Class Reshef Class Super Dvora Class

Strategic Missile Submarines Jin class (Type 094) (SSBN) Displacement, tons : 8,000 Dimensions, feet (metres) : 449.5 × 36 × 7.5 (137.0 × 11.0 × 2.3) Main machinery : Nuclear: 2 PWR; 150 MW; 2 turbines; 1 shaft Speed, knots : To be announced Complement : 140 Missiles : SLBM; 12 JL-2 (CSS-NX-5); 3-stage solid-fuel rocket; stellar inertial guidance to over 8,000 km (4,320 n miles); single nuclear warhead of 1 MT or 3-8 MIRV of smaller yield. CEP 300 m approx.

: Romeo Class Sang-O Class : Najin Class : SO1 Class Soju Class Hainan Class

444 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

: Kilo Class Lada Class : Kashin Class Sovremenny Class : Krivak Class : Nanuchka Class Taran Tul Class

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue


Attack Submarines Han class (Type 091) (SSN) Displacement, tons : 4,500 surfaced; 5,550 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 321.5; 347.8 (403 onwards) × 32.8 × 24.2 (98; 106 × 10 × 7.4) Main machinery : Nuclear; turbo-electric; 1 PWR; 90 MW; 1 shaft Speed, knots : 25 dived; 12 surfaced Complement : 75 Missiles : SSM: YJ-801Q (C-801); inertial cruise; active radar homing to 40 km (22 n miles) at 0.9 Mach; warhead 165 kg; sea-skimmer may be carried. Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533 mm) bow tubes; combination of Yu-3 (SET-65E); active/passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt; warhead 205 kg and Yu-1 (Type 53-51) to 9.2 km (5 n miles) at 39 kt or 3.7 km (2 n miles) at 51 kt; warhead 400 kg. 20 weapons. Mines : 36 in lieu of torpedoes. Counter measures : ESM: Type 921-A; radar warning. Radars : Surface search: Snoop Tray; I-band. Sonars : Trout Cheek; hull-mounted; active/passive search and attack; medium frequency. DUUX-5; passive ranging and intercept; low frequency. Programmes: First of this class delayed by problems with the power plant. Although completed in 1974 she was not fully operational until the 1980s.

Structure: Details of both the boat and the SLBM are speculative. Likely to be based on the Type 093 SSN design which in turn is believed to be derived from the Russian Victor III design. The dimensions of the hull assume the incorporation of a 30 m ‘missile plug’ of 12 tubes for the 42 ton JL-2 missiles. Operational: Likely to be based at Jianggezhuang. The long range of the missile may prompt a change in operating concept to a ‘bastion’ patrol approach. The first of class had begun sea trials by early 2006. XIA class (Type 092) (SSBN) Displacement, tons : 6,500 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 393.6 × 33 × 26.2 (120 × 10 × 8) Main machinery : Nuclear; turbo-electric; 1 PWR; 90 MW; 1 shaft Speed, knots : 22 dived Complement : 140 Missiles : SLBM: 12 JL-1 (CSS-N-3); inertial guidance to 2,150 km (1,160 n miles); warhead single nuclear 250 kT. Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533 mm) bow tubes. Yu-3 (SET-65E);active/passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt; warhead 205 kg. Countermeasures : ESM: Type 921-A; radar warning. Radars : Surface search: Snoop Tray; I-band. Sonars : Trout Cheek; hull-mounted; active/passive search and attack; medium frequency. Programmes: A second of class was reported launched in 1982 and an unconfirmed report suggests that one of the two was lost in an accident in 1985.

Operational: In North Sea Fleet based at Jianggezhuang, although one reported to have deployed to the new submarine base at Yalang, Hainan Island, in 2005. 403 and 404 started mid-life refits in 1998 which completed in early 2000. 405 started mid-life refit in 2000 and was reported completed in 2002. Torpedoes are a combination of older straight running and more modern Russian homing types. The first of class 401 was reported to have been decommissioned in 2003 and it is expected that others will follow as the Type093 enter service

Structure: Diving depth 300 m (985 ft). Operational: First test launch of the JL-1 missile took place on 30 April 1982 from a submerged pontoon near Huludao(Yellow Sea). Second launched on 12 October 1982, from the Golf class trials submarine. The first firing from Xia was in 1985 and was unsuccessful (delaying final acceptance into service of the submarine) and it was not until 27 September 1988 that a satisfactory launch took place. Based in the North Sea Fleet at Jianggezhuang. Following a

Shang class (Type 093) (SSN) Displacement, tons : 6,000 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 351 × 36 × 24.6 (107 × 11 × 7.5) Main machinery : Nuclear: 2 PWR; 150 MW; 2 turbines; 1 shaft Speed, knots : 30 dived

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C O N T E N T S A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

Structure: From 403 onwards the hull has been extended by some 8 m although this was not to accommodate missile tubes as previously reported. SSMs may be fired from the torpedo tubes. Diving depth 300 m (985 ft).

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

Modernisation: The basic Russian ESM equipment was replaced by a French design. A French intercept sonar set has been fitted.

Modernisation: Started major update in late 1995 at Huludao, thought to include fitting improved JL-1A missile with increased range but this has not been confirmed.

SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

6-21 in (533 mm tubes). Decoys: ESM. Surface search. Hull mounted passive/active; flank and towed arrays. Programmes : The first of class is expected to become operational as a submarine in mid-2007 and as a ballistic-missile submarine in about 2008-09, depending on the successful introduction into service of the JL-2 missile. Three further boats are thought to be under construction and are likely to commission at two year intervals.

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

: : : :

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Torpedoes Countermeasures Radars Sonars

refit which completed in late 1998, was reported to be operational as a submarine in 2003 although firing of a JL-1 missile has not been reported and its status as a ballistic-missile submarine is uncertain.

T E C H N O L O G Y

NAVAL EQUIPMENT (Contd.)

B U S I N E S S

Regional Balance

EQUIPMENT & HARDWARE SPECIFICATIONS: NAVY


Regional Balance

EQUIPMENT & HARDWARE SPECIFICATIONS: NAVY

NAVAL EQUIPMENT (Contd.) Complement Missiles Torpedoes Countermeasures Radars Sonars

planes are mounted below the bridge, which is on a step lower than the part of the fin that contains the masts in earlier boats. The fin is of a different shape (no cutaway) in later boats. Some of the details are speculative and the latest hulls of the class may have benefited from experience gained with the Kilos. The diesel engines are likely to be reverse engineered. Sonars are reported to be of French design.

: : : : : :

100 SLCM; SSM. 6-21 in (533 mm tubes). Decoys: ESM. Surface search. Hull mounted passive/active; flank and towed arrays. Programmes: Designed in conjunction with Russian experts. Prefabrication started in late 1994 and the first launch took place in late 2002. The in-service date of the first of class is expected to be 2007 with a second boat to follow in 2008. Construction of a third boat, possibly to a modified evolutionary design, may have started but has not been confirmed. Five boats of the class are expected.

Operational: The YJ-82 is the submarine launched version of the C801 and is fired from torpedo tubes. Reports of an anti-submarine CY-1 air flight weapon are not confirmed. Kilo class (Project 877EKM/636) (SSG) Displacement, tons : 2,325 surfaced; 3,076 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 238.2; 242.1 (Project 636) × 32.5 × 21.7 (72.6; 73.8 × 9.9 × 6.6) Main machinery : Diesel-electric; 2 diesels; 3,650 hp(m) (2.68 MW); 2 generators; 1 motor; 5,900 hp(m) (4.34 MW); 1 shaft; 2 auxiliary motors; 204 hp(m) (150 kW); 1 economic speed motor; 130 hp(m) (95 kW) Speed, knots : 17 dived; 10 surfaced Complement : 52 (13 officers) Missiles : SLCM: Novator Alfa Klub SS-N-27 (3M-54E1); active radar homing to 180 km (97.2 n miles) at 0.7 Mach (cruise) and 2.5 Mach (attack); warhead 450 kg. Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533 mm) tubes. 18 torpedoes. Combination of TEST 71/96; wire-guided; active/passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt; warhead 205 kg and 53-65; passive wake homing to 19 km (10.3 n miles) at 45 kt; warhead 300 kg. Mines : 24 in lieu of torpedoes. Countermeasures : ESM: Squid Head or Brick Pulp; radar warning. Weapons control : MVU-119 EM Murena TFCS. Radars : Surface search: Snoop Tray; I-band. Sonars : Shark Teeth; hull-mounted; passive/ active search and attack; medium frequency. Mouse Roar; hull-mounted; active attack; high frequency. Programmes: The first four boats were ordered in mid-1993. The first two are Project 877 hulls built for a former Warsaw Pact country and subsequently cancelled.The first one departed the Baltic in December 1994 and arrived by transporter ship in February 1995. The second was delivered by the same method in November 1995. The third and fourth are of the newer Project 636 design. The first of these two left the Baltic by transporter in November 1997 and arrived in January 1998. The second followed in December 1998 arriving on 1 February 1999. A contract for a further eight 636 or 636M variants armed with SS-N-27 was signed on 3 May 2002. The first of these was originally laid down at Nizhny Novgorod for the Russian Navy, but was never completed due to lack of funding. She is likely to be the last submarine to have been built at the shipyard. Five of the boats were built by Admiralty Yard, St Petersburg and the remaining

Structure: Details given are speculative, based on the double-hulled Russian Victor III design from which this submarine is reported to be derived. Operational: Sea trials of the first of class are reported to have started in 2005 and of the second boat in 2006.

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Patrol Submarines Song class (Type 039/039G) Displacement, tons Dimensions, feet (metres) Main machinery

(SSG) : 1,700 surfaced; 2,250 dived : 246 × 24.6 × 17.5 (74.9 × 7.5 × 5.3) : Diesel-electric; 4 MTU 16V 396 SE; 6,092 hp(m) (4.48 MW) diesels; 4 alternators; 1 motor; 1 shaft Speed, knots : 15 surfaced; 22 dived Complement : 60 (10 officers) Missiles : SSM: YJ-801Q (C-801); radar active homing to 40 km (22 n miles) at 0.9 Mach; warhead 165 kg. Torpedoes : 6-21 in (533 mm) tubes. Combination of Yu-4 (SAET-60); passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt; warhead 400 kg and Yu-1 (Type 53-51) to 9.2 km (5 n miles) at 39 kt or 3.7 km (2.1 n miles) at 51 kt; warhead 400 kg. Mines : In lieu of torpedoes. Countermeasures : ESM: Type 921-A; radar warning. Radars : Surface search: I-band. Sonars : Bow-mounted; passive/active search and attack; medium frequency. Flank array; passive search; low frequency. Programmes: First of class (Type 039) started sea trials in August 1995, as a result of which substantial modifications were made. Second of class (Type 039G) trials started in early 2000 and third in early 2001. Fourth commissioned in 2003 while fifth and sixth conducted trials in late 2003. Construction of the seventh hull is understood to have started in 2001 and of the eighth, ninth and tenth hulls in 2002. The twelfth hull is reported to have started construction at Wuhan in 2003. The building programme appears to have been switched to Jiangnan Shipyard, Shanghai, where the eleventh and thirteenth boats were built. Further units of the class are not expected. Structure: Comparable in size to Ming class but with a single skew propeller and an integrated spherical bow sonar. The forward hydro-

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Romeo class (Project 033) (SS) Displacement, tons : 1,475 surfaced; 1,830 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 251.3 × 22 × 17.1 (76.6 × 6.7 × 5.2) Main machinery : Diesel-electric; 2 Type 37-D diesels; 4,000 hp(m) (2.94 MW); 2 motors; 2,700 hp(m) (1.98 MW); 2 creep motors; 2 shafts Speed, knots : 15.2 surfaced; 13 dived; 10 snorting Range, n miles : 9,000 at 9 kt surfaced Complement : 54 (10 officers) Torpedoes : 8-21 in (533 mm) (6 bow, 2 stern) tubes. Combination of Yu-4 (SAET60); passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt; warhead 400 kg and Yu-1 (53-51) to 9.2 km (5 n miles) at 39 kt or 3.7 km (2.1 n miles) at 55 kt; warhead 400 kg. 14 weapons Mines : 28 in lieu of torpedoes Radars : Surface search: Snoop Plate or Snoop Tray; I-band Sonars : Hercules or Tamir 5; hull-mounted; active/passive search and attack; high frequency. Thomson Sintra DUUX 5 intercept in some of the class Programmes: The first boats of this class were built at Jiangnan SY, Shanghai in mid-1962 with Wuhan being used later. The basic Romeo class design has evolved from the Type 031 (ES3B). Construction stopped around 1987 with the resumption of the Ming class programme. A total of 84 was built.

Operational: The first four based at Xiangshan in the East Sea Fleet. Of the remaining eight boats, four are likely to be based in the East Sea Fleet and four in the South Sea Fleet. The pennant numbers of the latest eight boats are likely to be 368-375, although this has not been confirmed. Ming class (Type 035) (SS) Displacement, tons : 1,584 surfaced; 2,113 dived Dimensions, feet (metres) : 249.3 × 24.9 × 16.7 (76 × 7.6 × 5.1) Main machinery : Diesel-electric; 2 diesels; 5,200 hp(m) (3.82 MW); 2 shafts Speed, knots : 15 surfaced; 18 dived; 10 snorting Range, n miles : 8,000 at 8 kt snorting; 330 at 4 kt dived Complement : 57 (10 officers) Torpedoes : 8-21 in (533 mm) (6 fwd, 2 aft) tubes. Combination of Yu-4 (SAET-60); passive homing to 15 km (8.1 n miles) at 40 kt; warhead 400 kg, and Yu-1 (53-51) to 9.2 km (5 n miles) at 39 kt or 3.7 km (2.1 n miles) at 51 kt; warhead 400 kg; 16 weapons. Mines : 32 in lieu of torpedoes. Radars : Surface search: Snoop Tray; I-band. Sonars : Pike Jaw; hull-mounted; active/passive search and attack; medium frequency DUUX 5; passive ranging and intercept; low frequency Programmes: First three completed between 1971 and 1979 one of which was scrapped after a fire and another (232) has been decommissioned. These were Type ES5C/D. Building resumed at Wuhan Shipyard in 1987 at the rate of one per year to a modified design ES5E. The programme was thought to have ended with hull number 14 (363) launched in May 1996, but 305 was launched in June 1997 followed by 306 in September 1997, 307 in May 1998, 308 in October 1998, 310 in June 2000, 311 in September 2000, 312 in May 2001 and 313 in April 2002. The expected launch of a further boat in 2003 did not take place and, in view of the ‘Kilo’ programme, this programme has probably been discontinued.

Modernisation: Battery refits are being done and the more modern boats have French passive ranging sonar. Structure: Diving depth, 300 m (984 ft). There are probably some dimensional variations between newer and older ships of the class. Operational: Operational numbers are declining as these obsolete submarines are being scrapped. There are none in reserve and remaining boats are probably used for training but expected to be decommissioned soon. With the exception of some more modern boats, ASW capability is virtually non-existent. The submarines are split between the three Fleets.

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Sales: Seven to North Korea in 1973-75. Two to Egypt in 1982, two in 1984. All new construction. Modified Romeo class (Project Displacement, tons : Dimensions, feet (metres) : Main machinery :

Structure: Diving depth, 300 m (985 ft). Only the later models have the DUUX 5 sonar. Hull 20 is reported to have a 2 m extension to its

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033G) (SSG) 1,650 surfaced; 2,100 dived 251.3 × 22 × 17.1 (76.6 × 6.7 × 5.2) Diesel-electric; 2 Type 37-D diesels;

C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

Structure: Latest export version of the elderly Kilo design and has better weapon systems co-ordination and improved accommodation than the earlier ships of the class. Double-hull construction with six watertight compartments. Normal diving depth is 240 m with 300 m available in emergency. At least two torpedo tubes can fire wireguided weapons. An SA-N-8 SAM launcher may be fitted on top of the fin. Some modifications have been carried out after arrival in China including a possible new ESM.

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Modernisation: The first four submarines are to be refitted in Russian shipyards. Upgrades are likely to include installation of the Klub (3M54) (SS-N-27) anti-ship missile system.

T E C H N O L O G Y

Operational: Thirteen are based in the North Sea Fleet at Lushun, Qingdao and Xiapingdao. From 305 onwards, based in the South Sea Fleet. Some have moved to Xiachuandao. Fitted with Magnavox SATNAV. All onboard 361 (70 officers and men) killed in an accident in April 2003. The cause of the accident is believed to have been carbon monoxide poisoning. After repairs at Dalian, the submarine became operational again in 2004

B U S I N E S S

two boats at Severodvinsk The programme was completed in 2006.

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

machinery space.

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

NAVAL EQUIPMENT (Contd.)

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Regional Balance

EQUIPMENT & HARDWARE SPECIFICATIONS: NAVY


Transport Aircraft Germany Russia

Spain Ukraine

United Kingdom

Germany India Russia

United Kingdom United States of America

Training Brazil India

United Kingdom

Dornier Do-228 Ilyushin IL-18 Ilyushin IL-76 Tupolev Tu-134 Tupolev Tu-154 Yakovlev Yak-40 EADS CASA C-212 EADS CASA CN-235M Antonov An-12 Antonov An-24 Antonov An-26 Antonov An-32 BAE Systems HS-748

Maritime Reconnaissance France Russia United States of America

Embraer EMB-312 Tucano HAL HJT-16 Kiran HAL HPT-32 Deepak HAL HJT-36 BAE Systems Hawk 100 (Two seat version)

Dassault Aviation Atlantique 2 Ilyushin IL-38 Tupolev Tu-142 Lockheed Martin P-3C Orion MMA P-8 Poseidon

Airborne Early Warning & Control Brazil Embraer AEW Sweaden Saab 2000 United States of Boeing E-3 Sentry America Northrop Grumman E-2C Hawkeye

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C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

Eurocopter AS 332 Super Puma/AS 532 Cougar Eurocopter AS 350 Ecureuil/AS 550/ AS 555 Fennec Eurocopter SA 360/AS 365 Dauphin, SA 365/ 366 Dauphin II, AS 565 Panther Eurocopter SA 316/319 Alouette III Eurocopter SA 330 Puma Eurocopter SA 341/342 Gazelle Eurocopter (MBB) Bo-105 Advance Light Helicopter (ALH) Dhruv Kamov Ka-25 Kamov Ka-25 B SH Kamov Ka-31 Mil Mi-6 Mil Mi-8 Mil Mi-17 Mil Mi-24 Mil Mi-25/-35 Mil Mi-26 Westland Sea King Bell 407 Bell AH-1 Cobra/Super Cobra Boeing AH-64 Apache Boeing CH-47 Chinook Sikorsky UH-60/SH-60/S-70 Blackhawk , S-92

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Helicopters Europe

T E C H N O L O G Y

Brazil

B U S I N E S S

Air equipment is given as under in the following order: Combat Aircraft China Hong - 6 Jian - 7 Jian - 8 Jian Hong - 7 Jianjiao - 7 Qiang – 5 FC-1 J-10 J-11 Europe Eurofighter Typhoon France Dassault Aviation Mirage 2000H Dassault Aviation Mirage III Dassault Aviation Mirage F-1C Dassault Aviation Mirage 5 Dassault Aviation Rafale India LCA Israel IAI Kfir Russia Mikoyan MiG-21 Mikoyan MiG-23 Mikoyan MiG-25 Mikoyan MiG-27M Mikoyan MiG-29 Mikoyan MiG-31 Sukhoi Su-24 Sukhoi Su-25 Sukhoi Su-27 Sukhoi Su-30K Sukhoi Su-30MKI/MKK MiG - 35 Sweden JAS-39 Gripen United Kingdom BAE Systems Hawk 200 Series BAE Systems Sea Harrier United States of Boeing F-15A/B/C/D Eagle America Boeing F/A-18A/B/C/D/E/F Hornet/Super Hornet Lockheed Martin F-16A/B/C/D Fighting Falcon Northrop F-5E Tiger F-22 Raptor Joint Strike Fighter F-35 International Eurofighter

Boeing 737-100/200 (VIP) Boeing 737-300 Boeing Business Jet (VIP) Lockheed Martin C-130 Hercules C-130J/C-130J-30 Embraer Legacy (VIP)

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

United States of America

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

AIR EQUIPMENT

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Regional Balance

EQUIPMENT & HARDWARE SPECIFICATIONS: AIR FORCE


Regional Balance

EQUIPMENT & HARDWARE SPECIFICATIONS: AIR FORCE

AIR EQUIPMENT (Contd.)

Westernised designation Type

Combat Aircraft China

Versions Hong - 6 Westernised designation Type

Design based on Versions Users Jian - 7 Westernised designation Type

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Design based on Other versions

Users

Jian - 8 NATO reporting name

: B-6 : Twin jet strategic bomber, tactical or, maritime strike and reconnaissance aircraft. : Tu-16 Badger (Soviet) : H-6A, H-6D (maritime roles), H-6E, H-6F, H-6H, H-6 tanker, HD-6 (EW) : China.

Armament

Operating speed Combat Radius Max Range User

: F-7 : Single-seat fighter and close support aircraft : MiG-21 F (Soviet) : (i) J-7 I (ii) F-7A (export version of J-7I; exported to Albania, Egypt, Iraq and Tanzania) (iii) J-7 II (modified and improved version of J-7I; also known as J-7B) (iv) F-7 B (upgraded export version based on J-7II with ability to carry air-to-air missiles, exported to Bangladesh, Iran, Jordan, Pakistan, Zimbabwe); F-7BS (Sri Lanka) (v) J-7 IIA (improved version of J-7 II) (vi) J-7 H (improved version of J-7 II with improved ground attack capability) (vii) F-7 M Airguard (export version of J-7 IIA) (viii) J-7 II M (Chinese version of F-7M) (ix) F-7 P Airbolt: (variant of F-7M to meetspecific requirements of Pakistan Air Force including ability to carry 4 X air-to-air missiles; F-7 MP Airbolt (modified version of F-7 P) (x) J-7C (J-7 III) (design based on MiG21 MF) (xi) J-7 D (J-7IIIA; Improved J-7C version) (xii) J-7E (third generationJ-7 version based on J-7II airframe) (xiii) F-7 MG (export variant of J-7E) (xiv) F-7 PG (variant of F-7 MG modified for Pakistan Air Force) (xv) J 7/FT 7 Tandem two-seat operational trainer based on J-7 II : China (J-7 II/ IIA/ H/ IIM/ III/ IIIA/ E), Bangladesh (F-7M), Egypt (F-7A/B), Iran (F-7M), Myanmar (F-7M), North Korea (F-7), Pakistan (F-7P/PG) and Sri Lanka (F-7BS)

Jian Hong - 7 Westernised designation Type

Versions Design

Crew Armament

Loading Max level speed Users Jianjiao - 7 Westernised designation Type Versions

Accommodation

Range Users

Qiang - 5 NATO reporting name Westernised designation Type

: Finback

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: F-8 : Single seat twin engine air superiorityfighter with secondary capability of ground fighter : J-8, J-8I (J-8A, Finback A), JZ-8 (Reconnaissance variant of basic J-8), J-8E (upgraded J-8A) J-8II (J-8B, Finback B) (All weather dual role version), J-8D (air-to-air refueling capable) F-8IIM (proposed export version) : One 23mm twin barrel cannon under fuselage and seven external stations (one centre & 3 either side) for a variety of weapons : Mach 2.2 : 432 nm : 1,187 nm : China.

: B-7 : All-weather interdictor and attack aircraft with secondary air-to-air capability : JH-7 : In same role and configuration classas Russian Sukhoi Su-24 ‘Fencer’ : 2 : Twin barrel 23mm gun in nose, two pylons under each wing plus rail for close range air-to-air missile at each wing tip or sea skimming anti-ship missile : Max take-off weight 27,500 kg : Mach 1.7 : PLA Navy.

: FT-7 : Tandem two-seat fighter/trainer : JJ-7, JJ-7A (FT-7A), J-7 II and MiG-21 US, JJ-7B, JJ-7N, FT-7 (export version of JJ-7) : Second cockpit in tandem. Can carry dual air-to-air missiles, rockets or bombs up to 250 kg. Can also be fitted with 23mm gun in underbelly pack : With internal fuel 545 nm With drop tanks 787 nm : Bangladesh (FT-7B), China (JJ-7), Iran (FT-7), Myanmar (FT-7), Pakistan (FT7P/ PG) and Sri Lanka (FT-7).

: Fantan : A-5 : Single-seat close air support and ground attack aircraft, with air-to-air


Users

FC-1 Export designation Type Design

Accommodation

Range Armament

Users Jianji-10 Westernised designation Type Versions Design

Europe Eurofighter Typhoon Crew Length Wingspan Height Wing area Empty weight Loaded weight Max takeoff weight Powerplant Dry thrust Thrust with afterburner Maximum speed At altitude At sea level Supercruise Range Ferry range Service ceiling Rate of climb Wing loading Thrust/weight Armament Gun Air-to-Air missiles

(i) In Lo-Lo-Lo profile 216 nm (ii) In Hi-Lo-Hi profile 324 nm : Bangladesh (A-5C), China (Q-5), Myanmar (A-5-C/-M) and Pakistan (A-5III).

: Super-7 : Attack Fighter : Agile light fighter. Mid-mounted delta wing with narrow wing root stakes at leading edge; leading edge manoeuvring flaps; single turbofan engine; side mounted twin intakes, with splitter plates; large intake trunks provide space for considerable internal fuel capacity. Large main fin with dorsal fairing; two smaller uncanted ventral fins. : Single seat (Martin-Baker zero/ zero Mk10 in Pakistani aircraft) under one-piece canopy. Two-seat training versions also planned. : With internal fuel 864 nm : Under fuselage centre line station for 23mm GSh-23-2 twin-barrel cannon or other stores; two attachments under each wing and one at each wingtip. Weapons expected to include advanced AAMs, ASMs, bombs, gun and rocket pods, or other stores. : China, Pakistan

Air-to-Ground missiles

Bombs

User : F-10 : Multi-role Fighter : : Tail-less delta wing and close-coupled fore planes; single sweptback vertical tail outward-canted ventral fins; single ventral engine air intake.

1 or 2 15.96 m (52 ft 5 in) 10.95 m (35 ft 11 in) 5.28 m (17 ft 4 in) 50 m_ (540 ft_) 11,000 kg (24,250 lb) 15,550 kg (34,280 lb) 23,000 kg (51,809 lb) 2 Eurojet EJ200 afterburning |turbofans 60 kN (13,500 lbf) each 90 kN (20,250 lbf) each

: : : : : : : : :

Mach 2 Mach 1.2 (1,470 km/h, 915 mph) Mach 1.2 (1,470 km/h, 915 mph) 1390 km (864 mi) 3790 km (2,300 mi) 19,812 m (65,000 ft) >315 m/s (62,007 ft/min) 311 kg/m_ (63.7 lb/ft_) 1.18

: 1x 27 mm Mauser BK-27 cannon : AIM-9 Sidewinder, AIM-132 ASRAAM, AIM-120 AMRAAM, IRIS-T and in thefuture MBDA Meteor : AGM-84 Harpoon, AGM-88 HARM, ALARMs, Storm Shadow (AKA “Scalp EG”), Brimstone, Taurus, Penguin and in the future AGM Armiger : Paveway 2, Paveway 3, Enhanced Paveway, JDAM, HOPE/HOSBO Laser designator, e.g. LITENING pod : Saudi Arabia

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France Dassault Aviation Mirage 2000H See Indian Defence - IAF Equipment Catalogue Users : Egypt, India, Qatar (Mirage 2000-5), Taiwan (Mirage 2000-5) and UAE (Mirage 2000-9).

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C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

J-11 (Su-27SK) For details see Su-27 under Russia User : China

T E C H N O L O G Y

Speed Combat radius burners off

Combat radius Users

B U S I N E S S

Design Armament

combat capability : Q-5, Q-5A, Q-5I, Q-5IA, Q-5II, Q-5B, Q5III (A-5C (export version for Pakistan Air Force with upgraded avionics. Ordered also by Bangladesh), Q-5M, A- 5M, Q-5E/F : 52 1/2º swept back wings : 23mm cannon in each wing root (internal) and ten attachment points each capable of carrying 250 kg bombs and a mix of other desired bombs/missiles. Max capacity 2,000 kg including drop tanks. : 1.5 Mach; level speed 1.12 Mach : With maximum payload with after

: Pilot only, on zero/ zero ejection seat. : 1,000 nm : 11 external stores points, including one on centerline, tandem pairs on fuselage sides and three under each wing, the outboard wing stations each carrying PL-8 or later AAMs. Other potential weapons could include Vympel R-73 and R-77 AAMs; C-801 or C-802 ASMs; and laser guided or free fall bombs. : 250-300 nm : China

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

Versions

Accommodation Range Armament

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

AIR EQUIPMENT (Contd.)

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Regional Balance

EQUIPMENT & HARDWARE SPECIFICATIONS: AIR FORCE


AAPCHC AAW AB ABM Ac/ac ACAS ACCP ACM ACNS ACNS (Submarines) ACOL ACOP ACOP (CP) ACOP (HRD) ACOP (P&C) ACP Acq ACRV ACTD ACV ACWP&A AD ADA ADAMS ADC ADDC Addl Addl FA ADE ADG ADG (FP) ADG (PP) ADG (QA) ADG (W&E) ADGES ADGMI ADGMO adj AEW

Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (Submarines) Assistant Controller of Logistics Assistant Chief of Personnel Assistant Chief of Personnel (Career Planning) Assistant Chief of Personnel (Human Resource Development) Assistant Chief of Personnel (Personnel & Conditions) Assured Career Progression Acquisition Armoured Command and Reconnaissance Vehicle Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrator/Demonstration Air Cushion Vehicle/ Armoured Combat Vehicle Assistant Controller of Warship Production & Acquisition Air Defence Aeronautical Development Agency Air Defence Advanced Mobile System Aide-de-Camp Air Defence Direction Centre Additional Additional Financial Advisor Aeronautical Development Establishment Assistant Director General Assistant Director General (Financial Planning) Assistant Director General (Perspective Planning) Assistant Director General (Quality Assurance) Assistant Director General (Weapons & Equipment) Air Defence Ground Environment System Assistant Director General, Military Intelligence Assistant Director General, Military Operations adjusted Airborne Early Warning

AIFV AIP AJT ALCM ALH AM AMC Amn amph AMRAAM AMS ANC ANURAG ANZAC ANZUS AOA AOC-in-C AOM AON AOP AOPVs APAR APC APCs (T) APCs (W) APEC appx APU AR&DB ARDE AREN ARF ARM armd ARMREB ARTRAC arty Arty ARV AS ASC ASCON ASD ASEAN ASLAV aslt ASM

Airborne Early Warning & Control Air Force/Auxiliary Fleet Air Force Base Air Force Research Laboratory ASEAN Free Trade Area Armoured Fighting Vehicle Adjutant General Air-to-Ground Missile Annual General Meeting Actual Ground Position Line Attack Helicopter Authority Holding Sealed Particulars Adaptable High Speed Under Sea Munition Armoured Infantry Fighting Vehicle Approval In Principle Advanced Jet Trainer Air Launched Cruise Missile Advanced Light Helicopter Acquisition Manager Annual Maintenance Contact Ammunition amphibious/amphibian Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile Aeronautics & Material Sciences Andaman & Nicobar Command Advanced Numerical Research and Analysis Group Australian and New Zealand Army Corps Australia-New Zealand-United States Air Officer-in-Charge, Administration/ Angle of Attack Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief Air Officer In–Charge Maintenance Acceptance of Necessity Air Officer-in-Charge Personnel Advanced Offshore Patrol Vessels Active Phased Array Radar Armoured Personnel Carrier Armoured Personnel Carriers (Tracked) Armoured Personnel Carriers (Wheeled) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation approximately Auxiliary Power Unit Aeronautics Research & Development Board Armament Research and Development Establishment Army Radio Engineering Network ASEAN Regional Forum Anti-Radiation/Radar Missile armoured Armament Research Board Army Training Command artillery Artillery Armoured Recovery Vehicle Additional Secretary Army Supply Corps Automatic Switch and Communications Network Admiral Superintendent Dockyards Association of South East Asian Nations Australian Light Armoured Vehicle assault Air-to-Surface Missile/Anti-Ship Missile

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ASO ASPL ASTE ASuW ASV ASW AT AT/F ATACMS ATC ATE ATGM ATGW atk ATP ATTS ATV Auto AUV AUW avn AVSM AWACS

B

bbr BC BCC BDA bde BDL BE BEL BEML BFE BFSR-MR BFSR-SR BG bhp BIMSTEC

BIS BM BMC2 BMCS BMD BMU bn Bn (bn) BOP BROs BSF BSNL BT bty BUVIK BW

C

C&R C2

Air Staff Office Akash Self-Propelled Launcher Aircraft and Systems Testing Establishment Anti Surface Warfare Anti Surface Vessel Anti-Submarine Warfare Tug Tug/Ocean going Army Tactical Missile System Air Traffic Control Advanced Technologies and Engineering Anti-Tank Guided Missile Anti-Tank Guided Weapon attack/anti-tank Acceptance Test Procedure Air-Transportable Towed System Advanced Technology Vessel Automatic Autonomous Underwater Vehicles All Up Weight aviation Ati Vishist Seva Medal Airborne Warning and Control System

bomber Bank Commission Battery Control Centre Beam Director Assembly brigade Bharat Dynamics Ltd Budget Estimate Bharat Electronics Ltd Bharat Earth Movers Ltd Buyer Furnished Equipment Battlefield Surveillance Radar-Medium Range Battlefield Surveillance Radar-Short Range Bank Guarantee brake horsepower Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand Economic Cooperation Bureau of Indian Standard Border Management Battle Management Command and Control Bi-Modular Charge System Ballistic Missile Defence Base Maintenance Unit battalion/billion Battalion Border Outpost Base Repair Organisation Border Security Force Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited Bank Transfer battery Bureau of Naviks Biological Warfare

Control and Reporting Command and Control

C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

AEW&C AF AFB AFRL AFTA AFV AG AGM AGM AGPL AH AHSP AHSUM

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

AA AA AAA AAM AAP AAPCC

Anti Submarine Anti Submarine Mortars Army Airborne Command and Control Systems Anti-Aircraft Air Attache Anti-Aircraft Artillery Air-to-Air Missile Annual Acquisition Plan Annual Acquisition Plan Categorisation Committee Annual Acquisition Plan Categorisation Higher Committee Anti-Air Warfare Airborne/Air Base Anti-Ballistic Missile aircraft Assistant Chief of the Air Staff Assistant Controller of Carrier Project Advanced Cruise Missile/Air Chief Marshal Assistant Chief of Naval Staff

T E C H N O L O G Y

A/S A/S Mortars A2C2S

B U S I N E S S

A

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

ABBREVIATIONS

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

Glossary of

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Abbreviations


Abbreviations

C2RP C2W C3 C3CM C3I C4I C4I2SR

CA CAE cal CAM capt CARAT CAS casevac Casevac cat cav CAW CBMs cbt CBT CBU CC CC(R&D)

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CCD CCS CCT CCTV CDA CDEC CDF CDISS CDO CDP Cdr CDS CENTO CFA CFC CFD CFR CFT CG CGAIS CGAS CGDA CGE CGHQ CGRPT CGS CIA CICP CIDS CIF CII C-in-C CINCAN CIP CIR CIS CISC

Command and Control Reconnaissance Post Command and Control Warfare Command, Control & Communications Command, Control & Communications Countermeasures Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Information management, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Combat Aircraft Computer Aided Engineering calibration Computer Aided Machining captain Co-operation Afloat Readiness and Training Chief of the Air Staff/Close Air Support casualty evacuation Casualty Evacuation category cavalry College of Air Warfare Confidence Building Measures combat Computer Based Training Cluster Bomb Unit Central Committee Chief Controller (Research & Development) Charge Coupled Device Cabinet Committee on Security Combat Capable Trainer Closed Circuit Television Controller of Defence Accounts Custom Duty Exemption Certificate Chief of Defence Force Centre for Defence and International Security Studies Command Diving Officer Committee for Defence Planning Commander Chief of Defence Staff Central Treaty Organisation Competent Finanial Authority Combined Forces Commander Computational Fluid Dynamics Cost and Freight Cockpit Familiarisation Trainer Commanding General/Combined Group/Coast Guard Coast Guard Air Inspection Superintendent Coast Guard Air Station Controller General Defence Accounts Central Government Expenditure Coast Guard Headquarters Coast Guard Refit Production Team Chief of the General Staff/Coast Guard Ship Central Intelligence Agency Computerised Inventory Control Procedure Chief of Integrated Defence Staff Cost Insurance and Freight Confederation of Indian Industry Commander-in-Chief Commander-in-Chief of the Andaman and Nicobar Command Carriage and Insurance Paid To Cargo Integration Review Commonwealth of Independent States Chief of Integrated Defence Staff to Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee

CISF CISO CIWS CJCS CKD CLGP CLO CM cm CMD CMDS CMM CMT CNC CNC CNO CNS CO CGS Delhi COAS COD CODAD CODOG COGAG COGS COIN COL COM comb comd COMINT comns Comp COP COS COSC COTS coy CP CPB CPI CPOs CPT CPWD CRC CRPF CRT CRZ CS CSAR CSE CSFO CSM CST CTK FLT CTOT CVC CVRDE CW CWP&A CYBERINT

D

D(Admin) D(AS&NC) / D(INT) D(AV) D(FE) D(FM) D(Log) D(MAT) D(Med) D(MPRT)

Central Industrial Security Force Chief Information and Security Officer Close-in Weapon System Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff Complete Knocked Down Cannon-Launched Guided Projectile Chief Law Officer Cruise Missile Centi-meter Chairman & Managing Director Counter Measure Dispensing Systems Common Modular Missile Carrier Mortar Tracked/ Continuous Moldline Technology Computer Numerical Control/Cost Negotiations Committee Contracts Negotiation Committee Chief of Naval Operations Chief of the Naval Staff Commanding Officer Coast Guard Ship Delhi Chief of the Army Staff Central Ordinance Depot Combined diesel and diesel Combined diesel or gas turbine Combined gas or gas Chief of General Staff Counter-Insurgency Controller of Logistics Chief of Material combined/combination command Communications Intelligence communications Composite Chief of Personnel Chief of Staff Chiefs of Staff Committee Commercial off the shelf company Central Purchase Charged Particle Beams Consumer Price Index Central Police Organisations Carriage Paid To Central Public Works Department Control and Reporting Centre Central Reserve Police Force Cathode-Ray Tube Compact Revolutionary Zone Centre State Combat Search and Rescue Core System Evaluation Counter Surface Force Operations Communications Support Measures Comparative Statement of Tenders Chetak Flight Complete Transfer of Technology Central Vigilance Commission Combat Vehicles Research and Development Establishment Continuous Wave Controller of Warship Production & Acquisition Cyber Intelligence

Director (Administration) Director (Anti Smuggling & Narcotic Controls) / Director (Intelligence) Director (Aviation) Director (Fisheries and Environment) Director (Fleet Maintenance) Director (Logistics) Director (Materials) Director (Medical) Director (Manpower Planning,

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D(Ops) D(Pers) DA DAC DADCs DAF DAI DAS DASE DASI DASR DCAS DCF DCMG DCNS DCOAS DCP DD DDG DDG DDH DDOs DDP DDP DDP&S DDU DE DEE def defn DEO dept DEQ DES DES DESA det DEW DF DFM DFPR DFS DG DG DG DG (I&S) DG, OS DG, SP DGAFMS DGAQA DGAS DGCA DGDIA DGDPS DGFT DGMI DGMO DGMS DGNAI DGNCC DGND DGOF DGQA DGR DGS&D DHQ

Recruitment & Training) Director (Operations) Director (Personnel) Defence Attache Defence Acquisition Council Division Air Defence Centres Delivered At Frontier Director of Administration Inspection Director of Air Staff Director of Armament System Equipment Directorate of Air Staff Inspection Directorate of Air Staff Requirements Deputy Chief of the Air Staff Discounted Cash Flow Defence Crisis Management Group Deputy Chief of the Naval Staff Deputy Chief of the Army Staff Directorate of Civilian Personnel Demand Draft Destroyer, Guided Missile/Deputy Director General Deputy Director General Destroyer, Helicopter Direct Demanding Officers Directorate of Data Processing Department Of Defence Production Department of Defence Production & Supplies Delivered Duty Unpaid Directorate of Education Directorate of Electrical Engineering defence definition Defence Exhibition Organisation department Delivered Ex Quay Directorate of Engineering Support Delivered Ex-Ship Director Ex-Serviceman’s Affairs detachment Directorate of Electronic Warfare/ Directed Energy Weapons Deuterium Floride Directorate of Fleet Maintenance Delegation Of Financial Power Regulations Directorate of Flight Safety Director General Diesel Generator Director General Director General (Inspection and Safety) Director General, Ordnance Services Director General, Seabird Project Directorate General Armed Forces Medical Services Director General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance Director General Armament Supplies Directorate General of Civil Aviation Director General Defence Intelligence Agency Director General Defence Planning Staff Directorate General Of Foreign Trade Director General Military Intelligence Director General Military Operations Director General Medical Services Director General Naval Armament Inspection Director General National Cadets Corps Director General of Naval Design Director General Ordnance Factories Director General of Quality Assurance Director General Resettlement Director General Supplies & Disposal District Headquarters / Defence Headquarters


DODY DOE DOP DOT DP DPA DPB DPC DPM DPP DPRK DPS DPS DPSU DRDO DSA DSE DSIR DSP DSR DSSC DTI DVE DW DWE

E

EA EAC EADS ECCM ECHS ECM ECS EDB EEZ EFC EIC E-in-C ELINT El-Op

Electronic Attack Eastern Air Command/Expenditure Angle Clearance European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company Electronic Counter Counter Measures Ex-Servicemen Central Health Scheme Electronic Counter Measures Electronics & Computer Sciences Extruded Double Base Exclusive Economic Zone Expenditure Finance Committee Equipment Induction Cell Engineer-in-Chief Electronic Intelligence Electro-Optic Industries Ltd

F

FA FA(DS) FAA FAC FAS FAS FATA FB FBW FCA FCS FCU fd FDI FE FEBA FF FFG FGA Fin FIPB FIS Flg Offr FLIR flt FM FMC FMCW FMECA FMS FMUs FOB FOC-in-C FOGA FOMAG FONA FOSM FOST FP FPDA FPGA FPQ FPVs FR FRA FRP FSA FSU ft FTA

GSB GSD GSL GSLV

495 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue

GA GAETEC GCC GDP GED Gen GFR GGA GOC-in-C GOI GOM GOST gp GPS GRP GRSE

GSO GSQR GSR GTD

H

HAA HAF HAL HARM HDW HE HEAT helo/hel HFSWR HM HMMWV HOBOS hp hp/ton HQ hrs HS HUD HUMINT HUMSA HVAC hy

I

IA IACCS IAEA IAF IAI IBs ICBM ICG ICV ID/IQ IDF IDS IDSN IED

Group Army/Ground Attack Gallium Arsenide Enabling Technology Centre Gulf Cooperation Council Gross Domestic Product General Engineering Department General General Financial Regulations Gain Generator Assembly General Officer Commanding-in-Chief Govt Of India Group of Ministers Gost Specifications (Russian) group Global Positioning System Glass Reinforced Plastic Garden Reach Ship-builders & Engineers Ltd General Staff Branch General Staff Department Goa Shipyard Ltd Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Ground Staff Office General Staff Qualitative Requirements General Service Regulations General Trade Department

High Altitude Airship Hellenic Air Force Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd High-speed Anti Radiation Missile Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG High Explosive High Explosive Anti-tank helicopter High Frequency Surface Wave Radar Home Minister High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle Homing and Bombing System horsepower Horse Power per ton Headquarters hours Home Secretary Head-Up Display Human Intelligence Hull Mounted Sonar Advanced Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning System heavy

Indian Army Integrated Air Command & Control Systems International Atomic Energy Agency Indian Air Force/Israeli Air Force Israel Aircraft Industries Interceptor Boats Inter Continental Ballistic Missile Indian Coast Guard Infantry Combat Vehicle Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity Indigenous Design Fighter/Israel Defence Forces Integrated Defence Staff Integrated Service Digintal Network Indigenous Explosive Devices

C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

Financial Advisor Financial Adviser (Defence Services) Federal Aviation Administration Fast Attack Craft/Forward Air Controller Favourable Air Situation Free Alongside Ship Federally Administrated Tribal Areas Fast Boat Fly-by-Wire Free Carrier Fire Control System Fire Control Unit field Foreign Direct Investment Foreign Exchange Forward Edge of the Battle Area Frigate Frigate, Guided Missile Fighter, Ground-Attack Finance Foreign Investment Promotion Board Flying Instructors’ School Flying Officer Forward Looking Infra Red flight/fleet Financial Manager Financial Management Cell Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave Failure Mode, Effect and Criticality Analysis Foreign Military Sales Fleet Maintenance Units Free On Board Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief Flag Officer Goa Area Flag Officer Commanding Maharashtra & Gujrat Area Flag Officer Naval Aviation Flag Officer Submarines Flag Officer Sea Training Financial Planning Five Power Defence Arrangement Field Programmable Gate Array Fixed Price Quotation Fast Patrol Vessels Financial Regulation Flight Refuelling Aircraft Fibre Reinforced Polymer Fluid Supply Assembly Former Soviet Union feet Free Trade Agreement

G

Fast Torpedo Craft fighter/fighters

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

DNAS DNE DNI DNO DNP DNPF DNS DNT DOA DOC DOD

FTC ftr/ftrs

T E C H N O L O G Y

DMZ DNA DNAI

Electro Magnetic Compatibility Emissions Control Earnest Money Deposit Electro Magnetic Interference Electromagnetic spectrum engineer Electro-Optic Fire Control System Electronic Protection equipment Extended Range Full Bore Exchange Rate Variation Electronic Warfare Support Electronic Support Measures Engineering Support Package estimate establishment Electro Thermal European Union Electronic Warfare excludes/excluding Ex Works

B U S I N E S S

DMI DMPR

EMC EMCON EMD EMI EMS engr EOFCS EP eqpt ERFB ERV ES ESM ESP est estt ET EU EW excl EXW

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

Dir DIR(MM) div DLS DMA

Defence Intelligence Agency Dense Inertial Metal Explosive Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion Director Director (Material Management) division Director Logistic Support Director of Maintenance Administration Director of Maintenance Inspection Directorate of Manpower Planning & Recruitment Demilitarised Zone Directorate of Naval Architecture Directorate of Naval Armament Inspection Directorate of Naval Air Staff Director of Naval Education Directorate of Naval Intelligence Director of Naval Operations Director Naval Plans Director Non Public Funds Director Naval Signals Directorate of Naval Training Director of Administration Director of Contracts Department of Defence/ Director of Diving Directorate of Dockyards Director of Education Directorate of Personnel Directorate of Tactics/ Doctrine, Organisation and Training Delivery Period Directorate of Pay and Allowances Defence Procurement Board Digital Pulse Compression / Deparmental Promotion Committee Defence Procurement Manual Defence Procurement Procedure Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Director of Personnel Services Defence Planning Staff Defence Public Sector Undertaking Defence Research and Development Organisation Director of Systems Application / Draft Supplementary Agreement Director of System Evaluation Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Directorate of Ship Production Directorate Staff Requirement Defence Services Staff College Department of Trade and Industry Directorate of Value Engineering Directorate of Works Directorate of Weapons Equipment

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

DIA DIME DIPP

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Abbreviations


Abbreviations

IEDs IFA IFF IFG IFS IFV IGA IGMDP IIR IISc IIT IJT ILMS ILT IM IMA IMDP IMF IMI IMINT IMO IMOLS IN incl INCOTERM indep Indep inf INS INSAS int IOC

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IORB IP IP IPC IPKF IPL IPVs IR IRBM IRGC IRIAF IS ISGA ISI ISPL ISR ISRO ISRR ISRT IT ITBP ITJ IW

J

J&K JADC JAG JASDF JASSM JDAM JIC JOCOM JPC JRI JS JSF

Improvised Explosive Devices Integrated Financial Advisor Identification Friend or Foe Indian Field Gun Indian Foreign Service Infantry Fighting Vehicle Inter Governmental Agreement Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme Imaging Infra Red Indian Institute of Science Image Intensifier Tubes/ Indian Institute of Technology Intermediate Jet Trainer Integrated Logistics Management System Instructor Led Training Indigenously Manufactured Indian Military Academy Integrated Missile Development Programme International Monetary Fund Israel Military Industries Imagery Intelligence International Maritime Organisation Integrated Maintenance and Logistics System Indian Navy includes/including International Commercial Terms independent Independent infantry Inertial Navigation System/ Indian Naval Ship Indian Small Arms System intelligence Initial Operational Capability/ Clearance Indian Ocean Rim Block Industrial Policy Intellectual Property Inshore Patrol Craft Indian Peace Keeping Force Itemised Price List Inshore Patrol Vessels Infra-Red Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile Iranian Revolutionary Guards Corps/Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force Indian Standard/ Internal Secretary Interim Self-Governing Authority Inter-Services Intelligence Illustrated Spare Part List Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Indian Space Research Organisation Indian Search and Rescue Region Infra Red Search & Tracking System Information Technology Indo-Tibetan Border Police Indian Trade Journal Information Warfare

Jammu & Kashmir Joint Air Defence Centre Judge Advocate General Japan Air Self-Defence Force Joint Ait to Surface Stand off Missile Joint Direct Attack Munition Joint Intelligence Committee Joint Operations Committee Joint Planning Committee Joint Receipt Inspection Joint Secretary Joint Strike Fighter

JSIC JSOW JSQR JSSC JSTARS Jt. JTC J-UCAS JV

K

kg KIFV km km/h km/h kt kt kw

L

L&D L&T L1 LADAR LAV LAW LC LCA LCAC LCD LCM LCP LCPA LCT LCU LCVP LD LED LEO LGB LIC LICO LLTR LNG LOA LOC log LOI LORADS LOS LP LPC LPD LPH LPI LPP LRDE LRF LRIP LRU LS & HR LSD LSL LSM LSP LSRB LSRVs LSS LST (L/M) LSV lt LTE

Joint Service Intelligence Committee Joint Stand Off Weapon Joint Service Qualitative Requirements Joint Services Staff College Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System Joint Joint Training Committee Joint Unmanned Combat Air System Joint Venture

kilogramme Korean Infantry Fighting Vehicle Kilo-meter kilometres per hour Kilo meter per hour kiloton Kilo ton Kilo Watt

Learning & Development Larsen & Toubro Lowest Bidder Laser Detection and Ranging Light Armoured Vehicle Light Anti-tank Weapon Landing Craft/Letter Of Credit Landing Craft, Assault/ Light Combat Aircraft Landing Craft, Air Cushion Liquid Crystal Display Landing Craft, Mechanised Landing Craft, Personnel Landing Craft, Personnel Aircushion Landing Craft, Tank Landing Craft, Utility Landing Craft, Vehicles and Personnel Liquidated Damages Light-emitting diodes Low Earth Orbit Laser Guided Bomb Low Intensity Conflict Low Intensity Conflict Operations Low Level Tactical Radar Liquefied Natural Gas Laser Optics Assembly Line of Control logistics Letter of Intent Long Range Radar & Display System Line of Sight Local Purchase Large Patrol Craft Landing Platform, Dock Landing Platform, Helicopter Low Probability of Intercept Radar Last Purchase Price Electronics and Radar Development Establishment Laser Range Finder Low Rate Initial Production Line Replaceable Unit Life Sciences & Human Resources Landing Ship, Dock Landing Ship, Logistics Landing Ship, Medium Limited Series Production Life Sciences Research Board Light Surveillance & Reconnaissance Vehicles Logistic Support Ships Landing Ship Tank (Large/ Medium) Landing Ship Vehicles light Limited Tender Enquiry

496 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue

LTIPP LTPP LTPPFC ltr/ltrs LTTE LWE LWT

M

M&S m/sec MA MA MAC maint max MBAT MBFSR MBRLS MBT MC MCM MCMV MDL MDSR mech med MEMs MET MF MFO MG MGO MGSIS MHC MHI MHPV MHR MIDHANI mil/mily MILSPECS MINDER MIRACL misc MLRS mm MMG MMRCA MND MNLF mob mod MoD MOD/D (MC) MODA MODte MOFTU MOP MOQ mor Mor MoS mot MOU MP MPA MPAT MPVs MR MRBM

Long Term Integrated Perspective Plan Long Term Perspective Plan Long Term Perspective Plan Formulation Committee litre/litres Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Left Wing Extremists Light Weight Torpedo / Local Wor-up Team

Modelling & Simulation metres per second Military Assistant Military Attache Metal Augmented Charge maintenance Maximum Multi-beam array tracking Mobile Battle Field Surveillance Radar Multi Barrel Rocket Launcher System Main Battle Tank Maintenance Command Mine Counter Measures Mine Counter Measures Vessel Mazagon Dock Ltd Movement Detection and Security Radar mechanised medium Micro-Electro Mechanical Maintainability Evaluation Trial Main File Multinational Force and Observers Machine Gun Master General Of Ordnance Military Geo-Spatial Information System Mine Hunter Coastal Mine Hunter, Inshore Mine-Hardened Patrol Vehicle Man Hour Rate Mishra Dhatu Nigam Ltd military Military specifications Miniature Detection Radar Mid Infra-Red Advanced Chemical Laser miscellaneous Multiple Launch Rocket System millimetre Medium Machine Gun Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft Ministry of National Defence Muslim National Liberation Front mobilisation/mobile modified/modification Ministry of Defence Ministry Of Defence/D (Monitoring of Contracts) Ministry of Defence & Aviation Military Operations Directorate MiG Operational Flying Training Unit Mobile Observation Posts/ Massive Ordnance Penetrator Minimum Order Quantity mortar Mortar Minister of State motorised/motor Memorandum of Understanding Military Police/Member of Parliament Maritime Patrol Aircraft Multi-purpose Anti Tank Mine-Protected Vehicles Maritime Reconnaissance/ MotorRifle/ Multiple Rocket Medium Range Ballistic Missile


MTHEL MTI mtn MTOW MTTR MW mw MWR

N

n miles NA NATO NDU NE NHQ NLC NM NMS NPV NS & ACE

O

O&S O, I, D LEVEL obs OCU ODF OEM OF OFB OFT OM ONGC op OPEC Ops Opsec OPV org ORP ORSA ORV OSCE OSD

Nautical Miles Naval Attache/ Not Available North Atlantic Treaty Organisation National Defence University North East Naval Headquarters Naval Logistics Committee Nao Sena Medal/ Naxalite Management New Management Strategy Net Present Value Naval Systems & Armament & Combat Engineering

Operating and Support Operator, Intermediate, Depot Level observation Operational Conversion Unit Operational Deployment Force Original Equipment Manufacturer Ordnance Factory Ordnance Factory Board Operational Flight Trainer Office Memorandum Oil and Natural Gas Corporation operational Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries operations Operations Security Offshore Patrol Vessel organised/organization Operational Readiness Platform Operational Research and Systems Analysis Oceanographic Research Vessel Organisation and Security cooperation in Europe Officer on Special Duty

Personnel and Conditions Planning & Material Management Pratt and Whitney Price Agreement Production Agency Proprietary Article Certificate People’s Armed Police parachute/paratroop Permanent Bank Guarantee Performance Bank Guarantee Performance Based Logistics Patrol Boats Personal Computer Printed Circuit Board Patrol Craft, Coastal Principal Controller Defence Accounts Patrol Craft, Inshore Patrol Craft, Ocean Patrol Craft, Riverine Pricipal Director (Aviation) Principal Director (Fleet Maintenance) Principal Director (Human Resource Development) PD(MAT) Principal Director (Materials) PD(Ops) Principal Director (Operations) PD(Policy & Plans) Principal Director (Policy and Plans) PDI Pre Dispatch/Delivery Inspection PDMS Point Defence Missile Systems pdr pounder pers personnel PFC Fast Patrol Craft Coastal PFI Fast Patrol Craft Inshore/ Private Finance Initiative PFM Fast Patrol Craft (SSM) PGCD Provisional General Committee for Defence PGM Precision Guided Munitions PHM Patrol Hydrofoil (with SSM) PHT Patrol Hydrofoil (with torpedo) PIB Public Investment Board PIVADS Product Improved Vulcan Air Defence System pl platoon PLA People’s Liberation Army PLAAF People’s Liberation Army Air Force PLANAF People’s Liberation Army, Navy, Air Force PM Provost Marshal PMOC Principal Maintenance Officers Committee PNC Price Negotiation Committee PNVS Pilot Night Vision Systems POL Petrol, Oil and Lubricants POV Professional Officers Valuation PP&FD Policy, Plans and Force Development PPOC Principal Personal Officers Committee PPS Principal Private Secretary PQ Procurement Quantity PRA Pressure Recovery Assembly PRC People’s Republic of China Proc Procurement PROM Programmable Read Only Memory PRT Pollution Response Team PS Private Secretary PSEs Public Sector Enterprises PSI Proliferation Security Initiative PSLV Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle PSO Principal Staff Officer PSOC Principal Supply Officers Committee PSR Preliminary Staff Requirements PSU Public Sector Undertaking Psyops Psychological Operations PTA Pilotless Target Aircraft PTS Point Tracker Subsystem PTTs Post Task Trainers

497 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue

Q

QA QFI QMG QRM QRs QSR

R

R&D RAAF RAF RAM RAM RAMICS RAS RC RC RCC RCIED RCL RCS RE recce regt Retd RF RFI RFP RHQ RL RM RMA RMN RNA ROC ROE ROE ROK ro-ro RPG RPG rpm RPV RUF RVZ RWR

S

SA SA SA TO RM SAAM SAARC SAC SAM SAM Bdes SAPTA SAR SARS SASO SATCOM SBG SBI SCAP SCAPCC

Quality Assurance Qualified Flying Instructor Quarter Master General Quick Reaction Missile Quantitative Requirements Qualitative Staff Requirements

Research and Development Royal Australian Air Force Royal Air Force Rolling Airframe Missile Radar Absorbing Material Rapid Airborne Mine Cleance System Replenishment at Sea Regional Command Rate Contract Revolutionary Command Council/ Regional Communication Centres Remotely Controlled Improvised Explosive Devices Recoilless Launcher Radar Cross Section Revised Estimate reconnaissance regiment Retired Radio Frequency Request For Information Request for Proposal Regimental/Regional Headquarters Rocket Launcher Resources & Management, Raksha Mantri (Minister of Defence) Revolution in Military Affairs Royal Malaysian Navy Royal Nepal Army Republic of China Rules of Engagement Rosoboron Export Republic of Korea roll-on, roll-off Rocket-Propelled Grenade Riffle Propelled Grenade Revolutions per Minute Remotely Piloted Vehicle Revolutionary United Front Roosvourouzhenie Radar Warning Receiver

Scientific Advisor/ South Africa Supplementary Agreement Scientific Advisor To Raksha Mantri Surface-to-Air Anti-Missile South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation Southern Area Command Surface-to-Air Missile Surface to Air Missile Brigades South Asian Preferential Trade Agreement Search and Rescue/ Synthetic Aperture Radar Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Senior Air Staff Officer Satellite Communications Smooth Bore Gun State Bank Of India Services Capital Acquisition Plan Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Committee

C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

P&C P&MM P&W PA PA PAC PAP para PBG PBG PBL PBs PC PCB PCC PCDA PCI PCO PCR PD(AV) PD(FM) PD(HRD)

Prototype Vehicle Param Vishist Seva Medal People’s War Group

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

P

PV PVSM PWG

T E C H N O L O G Y

MTCR

Office of Strategic Services Open Tender Enquiry

B U S I N E S S

MSS mt mt/mts MTBF MTBO MTBUR

OSS OTE

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

MRSC MS MSA M-SAR MSC MSDFs MSI msl MSO MSQAA

Multi-role Combat Aircraft Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre Multiple Rocket Launcher Multiple Rocket Launcher System Manufacturer Recommended List of Spares Maritime Rescue Sub-Centre Military Secretary/Mild steel Mine Sweeper, Auxiliary Maritime Search and Rescue Mine Sweeper, Coastal Maritime Self Defence Forces Mine Sweeper, inshore missile Mine Sweeper, Ocean Missile System Quality Assurance Agency Missiles & Material Sciences Mega ton minute/minutes Meantime between failures Minimum Time Before Overhaul Mean Time Between Unit Replacement Missile Technology Control Regime Mobile Tactical High-Energy Laser Moving Target Indicator mountain Maximum Take off Weight Mean Time To Repair Megawatt Mega Watt Millimeter Wave Radar

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

MRCA MRCC MRL MRLS MRLS

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Abbreviations


Abbreviations

SCAPHCC SCO SCOC SDB SDBs SDC SDF SDR SEAD Secy SES SF SFC SFW SHBO SHQ SI SIDs SIGINT sigs SKD SLAM SLBD SLBM SLBM SLCM SM SM SMD SMH SMSO SMT SO SOP SP SP Arty Sp Hels sp/sup SPA SPAAG SPC SPG SPS sqn SQR

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www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

SR SRAM SRBM SRR SRU SS SS SSB SSBN SSC SSHC SSI SSK SSM SSN

Services Capital Acquisition Plan Higher Categorisation Committee Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Standard Conditions Of Contract Small Diameter Bomb Seaward Defence Boats Supreme Defence Council Self Defence Forces Strategic Defence Review Suppression of Enemy Air Defence Secretary Surface Effects Ship Special Forces Strategic Forces Command Sensor Fused Weapon Special Helicopter Borne Operations Service Headquarters Services Interaction Signal Intelligence Directorates Signals Intelligence signals Semi Knocked Down Stand-Off Land Attack Missile Sea Lite Beam Director Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile Surface Launcher Ballistic Missile Surface Launcher Cruise Missile Submarines Sena Medal Storage Module Device Standard Manhour Senior Maintenance Staff Officer Special Maintenance Tools Supply Order Standard Operating Procedures Self-Propelled Self Propelled Artillery Support Helicopters support/supply Supreme People’s Assembly Self-Propelled Anti Aircraft Gun Stores Procurement Committee Self-Propelled Gun Stratospheric Platform System squadron Services Qualitative Requirements Short Refit Sideways Random Access Memory Short Range Ballistic Missile Search and Rescue Region Shop Replaceable Unit diesel submarine Special Secretary Special Service Bureau ballistic missile submarine nuclear fuelled diesel submarine, coastal Solid State Heat Capacity Small Scale Industries diesel submarine, ASW Surface-to-Surface Missile Nuclear-Fuelled Submarine

STARS STE STEA stk STO STOL surv SWAC sy SYSM

T

t TA tac Tac C3I TACDE TC TCA TCDL TD TE TEC temp THEL TIALD tk tkr TM TNC TNC TOC TOOC TOT TOTE TOW TPC tps tpt/tptn tr TR Bdes trg TRV TS TST TT TTL TU TUAV TVC TWT TWT

U

UAE UAV UCAR UCAV UCPDC

Surveillance Target Attack Radar System Single Tender Enquiry/ Special Test Equipment Strategic & Technical Environment Assessment strike Short Take-Off Short Take-Off and Landing surveillance South Western Air Command security Sarvottam Yudh Seva Medal

ton Territorial Army/Transport Aircraft tactical Tactical Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence Tactics and Air Combat Development Establishment Technical Committee Technical Collaboration Agreement Tactical Common Datalink Technology Demonstrator Tender Enquiry Technical Evaluation Committee temporary Tactical High Energy Laser Thermal Imaging Airborne Laser Designator tank tanker Technical Manager Tender Negotiation Committee Technical Negotiations Committee Technical Oversight Committee Technical Offer Opening Committee Transfer of Technology Table Of Tools And Equipment Tube-launched Optically-tracked Wire-guided missile Tender Purchase Committee troops transport/transportation trillion Tank Brigades training torpedo recovery vehicle Training Ship/ Thermal sight Time Sensitive Targets Target towing Total Technical Life Transport Unit Tactical Unmanned Air Vehicle Thrust Vector Control Travelling Wave Tube Travelling Wave Tube

United Arab Emirates Unmanned Aerial Vehicle/Unmanned Air Vehicle Unmanned Combat Armed Rotorcraft Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle Uniform Customs & Practices For

498 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue

UGS UGV ULFA UN UNDOF UNIFIL UNIKOM UNMEE UNMOGIP UNMONUC UNPAs UNPROFOR UNTSO USAF USD USMC USN USSR UTD utl UUVs UW UWB UYSM

V

V/STOL VCAS VCNS VCOAS veh VFM VHF VM VR VSM VSSC VTO VTUAV

W

WAC WCMD WE wg WLR WMD WPI wpn WSOI WTO WTT WWR

Y

YSM

Documentary Credits Unattended Ground Sensors Unmanned Ground Vehicle United Liberation Front of Assam United Nations United Nations Disengagement Observer Force United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission UN Mission in Ethiopia-Eritrea United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan UN Mission in Congo United Nations Protection Areas United Nations Protection Force United Nations Truce Supervision Organisation United States Air Force United States Dollars United States Marine Corps United States Navy Union Of Soviet Socialist Republic Unit Training Device utility Unarmed Underwater Vehicles Under Water Ultra wideband Uttam Yudh Seva Medal

Vertical/ Short Take Off and Landing Vice Chief of the Air Staff Vice Chief of the Naval Staff Vice Chief of the Army Staff vehicle Value For Money Very High Frequency Vayusena Medal Virtual Reality Vishist Seva Medal Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre Vertical Take-Off Vertical Take-off UAV

Western Air Command/ Western Area Command Wind Corrected Munitions Dispenser War Establishment wing Weapon Locating Radar Weapons of Mass Destruction Wholesale Price Index weapon Weapons Systems, ORSA & Infrastructure World Trade Organisation Weapons and Tactics Trainer War Wastage Reserves

Yudh Seva Medal


4B Block 301 Global Hawk 6-pdr Guns 75/24 Mtn Towed Arty 9/11 9M119M Refleks Anti-Tank Guided Missiles 9P140 MRL

A

A.K. Antony A.Q. Khan A.S. Gill A320 A330 MRTT Mid-Air Refuelling Aircraft A36 Towed Arty A-5C (Q-5III) Fantan FGA/Ftr AA-10 Alamo Air-to-Air Missile AA-11 Archer Air-to-Air Missile AA-12 Air-to-Air Missile AA-2 Atoll Air-to-Air Missile AA-6 Acrid Air-to-Air Missile AA-7 Apex Air-to-Air Missile AA-8 Aphid Air-to-Air Missile AAI Corporation AAM-4 Air-to-Air Missile AB-206 Helicopter A-band radar

Abdelaziz Bouteflika Abdullah Ahmad Badawi Abeetha (PRC mod Shanghai) Abhisit Vejjajiva Abhkazia Abu Dhabi Ship Building Abu Qir Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) Abu Sayyif Abukuma FFG AC-130 Spectre Accelerometer

73 319, 321 91, 106, 108, 245, 248, 251 25 145 271 420 319 322, 332 327, 353, 379, 374 327, 353, 359 345, 374 322, 353, 357, 374, 382, 384, 407, 410 312, 384, 407 312, 327, 353, 384, 407 312, 319, 327, 353, 374, 384, 407 129 351 384, 388, 389, 400, 404 448, 450, 451, 453, 454, 466 295, 378 298, 358 369 17 133 381 335, 363 9 350 64 78

Adm Nguyen Van Hien Adm Slamet Soebijanto Adm Takashi Saito Adm Tan Sri Dato’ Ilyas bin Hj Din Adm Wang Li-Shen Admiral Arun Prakash Admiral Gorshkov Admiral Song Young Moo Admiral Sureesh Mehta Adnan APC Adour Mk 871 engine Advance Light Helicopter (ALH)

Advance Tactical Trainer Ship Advanced Anti-Radiation Guided Missile (AARGM) Advanced Image Processing Advanced Integrated Defensive Electronic Warfare Suite (AIDEWS) Advanced Numerical Research & Analysis Group (ANURAG) Advanced Offshore Patrol Vessel

61 71 419

287, 290 236, 243, 278, 280 Advanced Panoramic Sonar Hull (APSOH) 111 Advanced System Laboratory (ASL) 287, 290 Advanced Tactical Laser (ATL) 64 Advanced Technology Vessel (ATV) 10 Aegis-type phased array 417 Aerial Delivery Research & Development Establishment (ADRDE) 287, 290 Aero India 270, 271, 284 Aerojet M22E8 443 Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) 270, 271, 281, 290 Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE) 287, 289, 290 Aeronautics Research & Development Board (AR&DB) 289 Aerospatiale 281, 464, 467, 468, 469, 472, 473, 474, 475 Aerospatiale SA-321 Super Frelon Helicopter 348 AeroVironment 122 AESA Radar 271, 130 Afghan Transitional Administration 320 Afghan War 42, 43 Afghanistan 4, 5, 15, 16, 18, 23, 24, 26, 42, 43, 44, 45, 295, 303, 305, 307, 308, 310, 313, 315, 320, 321, 325, 330, 331, 407, 411, 431, 432, 433, 434, 435, 436, 480, 486, 488,

499 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue

489 Africa 8, 35 Agent-Based Computing for Autonomous Intelligent Software 75 AGM-114M Hellfire missile 122 AGM-119 Air-to-Surface Missile 382 AGM-130 Air-to-Surface Missile 356 AGM-142 Popeye Air-to-Surface Missile 340, 356 AGM-154A-1 Joint Standoff Weapons 58, 123 AGM-154C Joint Standoff Weapon missile 123, 126 AGM-65A Maverick Air-to-Surface Missile 332, 356, 369, 382, 480, 483 AGM-84 Harpoon Air-to-Surface Missile 59, 356, 366, 369, 371, 382, 479, 483 AGM-84E SLAM 483 AGM-84-H SLAMMER Air-to-Surface Missile 356 AGM-84L HARPOON Block II Missile 126, 129 AGM-88 HARM 356, 479, 483 AGM-88E Advanced Anti-Radiation Guided Missile 61 Agni I/II/III/IV Missile 22, 167, 180, 281, 285, 286 Agosta 70 diesel electric Submarine 417 Agosta 90B diesel electric Submarine 417 Agosta Class Submarine 444, 471 Agradoot (Svy) Sp and Misc 322 Aguinaldo PCC 363 AH-1F/-J Helicopter 331, 355, 370 AH-1S Helicopter 350 AH-1Z Aircraft 127 AH-6 Helicopters 122 AH-64 Apache Helicopter 477, 489 AH-64A Helicopter 382, 393, 409 Ahmad Yani Frigate 347 Ahmad Zia Masood and Abdul Karim Khalili 295 Ahmed Mohamed Nazif 296 Ahmed Nazif 380 Ahmed Ouyahia 295 AIM-120 Air-to-Air Missile 340, 371, 479, 483, 484 AIM-120C-5 Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missiles 123 AIM-120C-7 Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missiles 122, 123, 127, 128 AIM-132 ASRAAM 479, 484 AIM-7 Sparrow Air-to-Air Missile 351, 356, 359, 382, 386, 389, 393, 395, 396, 404, 483 AIM-9 Sidewinder Air-to-Air Missile 351, 356, 359, 366, 382, 386, 389, 393, 395, 396, 400, 404, 410, 479, 480, 484, 490 AIM-9L/P/X Sidewinder AAM 62, 123, 332, 482, 483 Air Chief Marshal Donald Perera 299 Air Chief Marshal F.H. Major, CAS 114, 214, 217, 246, 253 Air Chief Marshal Itthaporn Subhawong 300 Air Chief Marshal Rao Qamar Suleman 298 Air Chief Mshl Herman Prayitno 296 Air Command & Control Systems (IACCS) 233 Air Defence Control and Reporting System (AD C&R) 168 Air Defence Direction Centres (ADDCs) 233 Air Force Academy 213

C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

81, 91, 92, 151 295 65 68, 288 20 421, 429 418, 444, 469, 470 300 296 297 298 300 108 99, 109 299 108, 110, 185, 191, 246, 253 359 271 110, 116, 187, 197, 198, 199, 202, 206, 212, 229, 236, 243, 244 38

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

ACM Angus Houston Active Denial System Active Sonar Acupuncture Warfare Adams SAM Adelaide Class Frigate

T E C H N O L O G Y

2S6 SP AD Guns 2S9 Combined Gun/Mor

Acceptance of Necessity (AON)

B U S I N E S S

2S12 Mors 2S19 Farm Catapult 2S3 SP Arty

325 81 7 73 322 122 333 33, 34, 45 73 312, 319 312, 314, 317, 319, 326, 379, 384, 388, 406, 410 314, 319 326 312, 319, 379, 384, 406 326 312, 314, 317, 319, 312 124 322 326 8, 16, 17, 24, 42, 46, 349

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

123 Agreement 187th Report (1989) of the Public Accounts Committee 1971 Bangladesh War 1A45T Integrated Fire Control System 2-337F (Skymaster) AC 250-C-30 Engines 25-Pdr Towed Arty 26/11 terrorist strikes 2A46M 125 mm Smoothbore Gun 2B11 Mors 2S1 SP Arty

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

INDEX

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Index


Index

Air Force Administrative College (AFAC) Air Force Technical College (AFTC) Air India Air Launched Subsonic Cruise Missile (ALCM) Air Marshal Dheeraj Kukreja Air Marshal G. Nayyar Air Marshal J.N. Burma Air Marshal K. M. Rama Sundara Air Marshal K.D. Singh Air Marshal Magdy Galal Sharawi Air Marshal N.A.K. Browne Air Marshal P.K. Barbora Air Marshal P.P. Rajkumar Air Marshal P.V. Naik Air Marshal Roshan Goonetilleke Air Marshal S. Mukherji Air Marshal S. Radhakrishnan Air Marshal S.C. Mukul Air Marshal S.K. Bhan Air Marshal S.K. Mukul Air Marshal T.S. Randhawa Air Marshal V.R. Iyer Air Mshl Geoffrey Shephard Air Mshl SM Ziaur Rahman Air to Surface Weapons Air Traffic Controllers’ Training Establishment Air Vice Marshal J.S. Panesar Airborne Early Warning and Control system (AWACS)

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Airborne laser systems Air-borne Sonars Airbus Aircraft and System Testing Established (ASTE) Airport Surveillance Radars Ajai Vikram Singh Committee (AVSC) Ajay Tirkey Ajeya MBT Ajmal Kasab Ajoy Acharya Akash Surface-to-Air Medium Range Missile Akatsiya How Akihito AKS-74 Assault ifle Akshay PCC Akula Class nuclear Submarine Al Jazeera Al Khalid Tanks Al Medinah Class Frigates Al Riyadh Class Multipurpose Anti-Air Warfare Frigates Al-Baghdadi Ali al-Mahmudi Albert Keidel Alcock Ashdown Gujarat Limited Alenia Aeronautica Algeria

Algiers ALH Transport Aircraft Ali Abdullah Salih Ali Muhammad Mujawar Alion Science and Technology Al-Khalid MBT Alliant Techsystems Alligator LST All-weather tri-mode seeker Almaz S-300

213 213 252

Alouette III Helicopter

59 246 247, 262 247 247 247, 260 296 214, 247, 256 247, 260 247, 260 214, 247, 255 299 247 247, 261 246, 254 247, 261 148 247 247, 261 295 295 57, 60 213 245, 249 13, 21, 116, 213, 392, 419 60 69 271, 383, 395 213 274 168 245, 248 104, 288 42, 46 245, 248 106, 116, 167, 219, 280, 285, 286 434 297 73 322 196, 417 401 104 418 404, 418, 444, 472 297 18 194 130 295, 303, 305, 376, 378, 379, 384, 425, 431, 432, 433, 434, 435, 436, 439, 461, 480, 481, 485, 486, 487, 488, 489 378 327 300 300 133 331 62, 121 356 59 20

331, 332, 384, 404, 408 Alpha Jet Combat Aircraft 382, 402 Al-Qaeda 9, 16, 23, 25, 42, 106, 307, 308, 310, 315, 320, 322, 330, 338, 363, 370, 378, 390, 394, 396, 410, 411 Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) 378 Alvand (Vosper Mk. 5) Class Frigate 444, 467 Alvis Saladin Recce Vehs 422, 439 Alvis Scorpion Lt Tks 422, 439 AM General 119, 126, 129, 131, 132 AM-39 Exocet AAM 332, 327 AM-50 Mors 326, 331 Amani PSO 351 Amazon Class Destroyer 417 Amir Peretz 296 AML-90 Recce Vehicle 386, 408, 410 Amman 393, 394 AMX-10 AIFV 348, 365 AMX-10P APC 421, 426 AMX-13 Lt Tks 347, 365, 421, 425, 426 AMX-30 MBT 421, 425, 427 AMX-VCI APC 347 AN/AAQ-13 LANTIRN Extended Range Navigation Pods 129 AN/AAQ-33 SNIPER Extended Range Targeting Pods 129 AN/APS-145 Airborne Radar 492 AN/AVS-9 (V) Night Vision Goggles 123 AN/SPQ-9B Horizon Search Radars 119 AN/TPQ-36 Surv 331, 333, 381, 403 AN/TPQ-37 Firefinder Radars 167, 326, 381, 392 AN/VRC-92 Vehicular Receiver Transmitters 124 An-12/An-12PP Transport Aircraft/Elint 115, 314, 319, 345, 362, 477, 485 An-124 Transport Aircraft 384, 409 An-2/Y-5 Transport Aircraft 353 An-24 Transport Aircraft 319, 321, 353, 357, 477, 486 An-26/An-26RKR Transport/Elint 314, 317, 319, 332, 384, 407, 410, 477, 486 An-32/B Transport Aircraft 115, 321, 322, 327, 333, 477, 486 An-74TK Transport Aircraft 382 Andaman & Nicobar Command (ANC) 147, 149 Andaman and Nicobar 260, 261, 262, 361 Andijan 318 Andy Marshall 21 Annapolis 375, 403, 405 Annual Acquisition Plan (AAP) 81, 91, 157 Anti Missile Defence (AMD) 108 Anti-material rifles (AMR) 104, 105 Anti-Personnel Non Lethal EM Weapons 65 Anti-Radar Missiles 232 Anti-Satellite (ASAT) 153 Anti-Ship Missile (AMD) Defence 69 Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) 108, 109, 110, 111, 187, 197, 201, 206, 256 Anti-Submarine Warfare School 187 Anti-Tank Guided Missile (ATGM) 105, 106 Antonov 477, 485, 486 AN-TPQ 37 Firefinder 104 ANZAC Class guided missile Frigates 418 AO Ships 331 AOT Ships 322, 326, 331 APKWS 61, 62

500 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

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38th Year of Issue

Arab

Arab Gulf Arabian Peninsula Arabian Sea Arakkonam (Naval Avn) Arch of Europe Award AREN tactical communications Argentina Arjun Main Battle Tank

Armament Research & Development Establishment (ARDE) Armament Research Board (ARMREB) Armored Security Vehicles (AVS) Armoured Corps Centre and School Armoured Fighting Vehicles (AFV) Army Air Defence College Army Manpower, 2008 Army Training Command (ARTRAC) Army War College Army Wide Area Network (AWAN) Arrow-II missile defence system Artificial Intelligence (AI) Artillery Combat Command Control System (ACCCS) Arun Singh AS 332 Super Puma Helicopter AS 350 Ecureuil/AS 550/AS 555 Fennec Helicopter AS 532 Cougar Helicopter AS 565MA Panther Helicopter AS-10 ASM AS-11 Air-to-Surface Missile AS-12 Air-to-Surface Missile AS-14 Air-to-Surface Missile AS-17 Air-to-Surface Missile AS-18 Air-to-Surface Missile AS-202 Training Aircraft AS-30 AAM AS-30L Air-to-Surface Missile AS-332 Utility Transport Aircraft AS-332L Helicopter AS-350 (Ecureuil) Helicopters AS-365 Helicopter AS-61 Helicopter AS-665 Tiger Helicopter AS-7 Kerry Air-to-Surface Missile AS-9 Kyle Air-to-Surface Missile AS90 SP gun Asanbek Alymkojoev ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) Asfandyar Wali Khan Asia Economic Monitor (AEM) Asia Pacific Asian Development Bank (ADB) Asif Ali Zardari ASM ASR-11 Systems Assam Rifles Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) Astana Astra Beyond Visual Range

16, 375, 376, 380, 383, 385, 386, 389, 390, 391, 393, 395, 397, 399, 401, 402, 405, 406, 407, 408, 409, 411 16 16 8, 21, 417 326 272 106 427, 428 73, 104, 167, 176, 283, 288, 326, 414, 421, 428 287, 290 289 121, 128 166 71 166 415 38 166, 253, 255, 257, 258, 260 168 106 75, 76 105, 289 147 477, 487 477, 487 477, 487 474 312, 319 312, 319, 327, 384, 389 382, 386 345, 374 327, 374 374 348 327 382 348 329, 350 329, 340, 341, 344 341, 344, 379 382, 404 339 312, 319, 327, 384, 407 312, 319, 374, 384 422, 440 297 335, 365 24 362 334, 365 362 23, 298, 325 312, 319, 326, 327, 332 128 105, 142, 143, 144, 324 18, 22, 325, 335, 365 311


B

B.G. Verghese B-10 RCL B-11 RCL B-2 bomber B-52/-52H B-707 Aircraft B-737 Aircraft

B-747 Aircraft B757 B-777

47 379, 388, 410 379, 381, 388, 410 59 59 332, 327, 340, 348, 382, 388, 393, 402 107,327, 340, 345, 348, 356, 359, 369, 371, 382, 404, 420, 477, 486 59,351 271 271

501 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

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38th Year of Issue

C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

276 319, 434, 435, 436 Bell 122, 126, 127, 449, 462, 477, 478, 489 Bell 205/205A Helicopter 331, 347, 362 Bell 206/206B/206L Helicopter 322, 329, 331, 333, 339, 362, 371 Bell 212 Helicopter 322, 333, 356, 371 Bell 214 Helicopter 345, 371 Bell 407 Helicopter 122, 477, 489 Bell 412 Helicopter 333, 347, 348, 364, 371 Bell 47G Helicopter 331, 347 Bell AH-1 Cobra/Super Cobra Helicopter 477, 489 Bell Helicopter 271 BEL-Multitone Ltd 276 Benazir Bhutto 23, 43 Bengamin Netanyahu 296 Berlin Donors Conference 320 Beyond Visual Range Air-to-Air Missile 109 Bharamputra Class Frigate 444 Bharani Low Level Light Weight Radar 289 Bharat Dynamics Ltd. (BDL) 264, 268, 280, 281 Bharat Earth Movers Ltd.(BEML) 264, 268, 276, 277 Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) 110, 264, 268, 274, 275, 276, 288, 289, 291 Bhishma (T-90 tank) 110, 111 Bhutan 5, 303, 305 Bidar 213, 220, 255 Bishkek 308, 313 Bishkek Declaration 308 BM-11 MRL 381, 384, 388 BM-14 MRL 321, 341, 348, 373, 379, 381, 410 BM19P140 Uragan MRLs 321 BM-21 MRL 167, 314, 315, 317, 319, 321, 326, 341, 353, 361, 373, 379, 381, 384, 388, 392, 398, 406, 410, 422, 435 BM-24 MRL 379, 381, 392 BMD-1AIFVs 319 BMP-1 AIFV 312, 314, 315, 317, 319, 326, 333, 341, 373, 379, 381, 384, 388, 390, 406, 410, 422, 433 BMP-1/-2 AIFV 312, 321, 326 BMP-2 AIFV 314, 315, 317, 319, 333, 347, 379, 388, 394, 396, 406, 422, 433 BMP-3 AIFV 379, 396, 406, 408, 422, 433 BMR-600 APC 381, 422, 437 BN-2 Defender Tpt 326 Bo-105 Helicopter 347, 355, 363, 477, 488 Bodo militants 323 Bodos 30 Boeing 107, 115, 120, 122, 125, 126, 129, 130, 133, 134, 271, 274, 420, 477, 483, 486, 489, 490, 492 Boeing Business Jet (BBJ) 212, 216, 227,

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

ATM-84L Harpoon Block II Exercise missiles 126, 129 ATTF (All Tripura Tiger Force) 29, 30 Attock 331 Aung San Suu Kyi 360, 361 Austin Class Amphibious transport dock 444, 470 Australia 19, 18, 39, 119, 169, 295, 303, 305, 334, 336, 337, 338, 339, 350, 365, 390, 411, 413, 420, 428, 438, 440, 442, 469, 483, 484, 486, 487, 489, 490, 491 Australia’s Defence Science and Technology Organisation 111 Australian Air Force 420 Australian Army 339, 414, 415 Australian Minesweeping System (AMAS) 111 Australian Navy 418 Autonomous Intelligent Network and Systems (AINS) 76 AVDS 1790-9ARV 428 AVDS-1790-2A 441 Avenger SAM 381, 404 AVM Soeung Samnang 296 AVM Yahya Bin Rasheed Bin Rashid Al Juma 298 Avro-748 115, 116 Awami League government 310, 322 Awami National Party (ANP) 23, 331 Ayatollah Ali Hoseini-Khamenei 296 Ayesha Siddiqa 25, 26 Ayni Air Base 315 Azerbaijan 308, 317, 320, 433, 434

BEL Optronic Devices Ltd Belarus

T E C H N O L O G Y

AT-6 Spiral ATGW AT-7 Saxhorn ATGW Atal Bihari Vajpayee Atlantique 2 Atlas Elektronik

133, 134 105 120 62, 104, 117, 118, 120, 121, 122, 127, 131, 213, 220, 224, 271, 420, 477, 482, 486, 490 BAe-748 Transport Aircraft 329, 356, 371 BAeHAL Software Ltd 271 BAeSema 463, 469 Baghdad 389, 392 Baglietto Class PCC 379 Bahawalpur 24 Bahrain 295, 303, 305, 376, 385, 386, 401, 426, 427, 437, 439, 441, 442, 483, 484, 488, 489, 490, 491 Baitullah Mehsud 308, 310, 330 Bakarat PCI 322 Baktar-Shikan ATGMs 322 Baku-Supsa oil pipeline 17 Balance of Power–Concept 4 Bali bombing 46 Ballistic missile 8, 59, 60, 64, 66 Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) 13, 106, 285, 288 Baluchistan 307 Bangladesh 5, 6, 7, 8, 22, 30, 31, 295, 303, 305, 310, 321, 322, 324, 325, 423, 424, 429, 431, 434, 454, 455, 456, 467, 478, 479, 481, 486, 488, 489 Bangladesh Rifles (BDR) 322 Bangladesh War 7 Barak Short Range SAM 111, 457, 458 Base Air Defence Zone (BADZ) 233 Bashar Hafez Al-Assad 299 Basilan Patrol Craft 364 Bath Iron Works 129 Battle Management System 71, 73 Battlefield Surveillance Radars (BFSR) 168 Battlefield Surveillance System (BSS) 168 Bay of Bengal 9, 21, 22, 361 Bazán Merok Gun 475 BBC 341 BD-700 Global Express Transport Aircraft 359 Bean Sticks Radar 448 Bedok Class Mine Hunter 365 Beech 1900 Transport Aircraft 369, 370 Beech 1900C Surv Aircraft 382 Beech 200 Super King Air Transport Aircraft 332, 339 Beech 80 Queen Air 363 Beech F-33 Bonanza 332 Beech Super King Air 200 Transport 333 Beech-200T 359 Beech-300 Aircraft 340 Behr Paima AGHS 331 Beijing 5, 20, 21, 22, 44, 137, 308, 317, 323, 329, 335, 342, 343, 344, 349, 352, 355, 367, 411, 412, 416 Beijing Military Region (MR) 20 Beirut 375, 397, 398 Bekaa Valley 397

B U S I N E S S

AT-5 Spandrel ATGW

Babcock & Wilcox Nuclear Operations Group Babur missile BAE Land Systems BAE Systems

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

AT-4 Spigot ATGW

285, 288 34 353 384 314, 317, 319, 326, 353, 373, 379, 381, 384, 388, 392, 406, 410 312, 314, 317, 319, 326, 353, 379, 384, 388, 406 312, 314, 317, 326, 353, 379, 384, 388, 406 312, 317 355, 359 108 477, 491 457, 463, 466, 471

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

Air-to-Air Missile Asymmetric War AT-1 Snapper ATGW AT-2 Swatter Air-to-Surface Missile AT-3 Sagger ATGW

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Index


Index

Bofors

Bofors Bonus PGM Bofors FH-77 towed AA gun Bofors Howitzer Bofors L-40/-70 AA Gun Boin-Gnang Volachit Bomb Royal Ordnance Augmented Charge warhead Boragh APC Border Out Posts (BOP) Border Security Force Border Security Program (JBSP) Botswana Bousone Bouphavanh Bradley Combat System vehicles BrahMos supersonic cruise missile Bravo UAV Brazil BRDM-2 Amph Scout Car

Brick Pulp ESM Brig Daiege bin Salam al-Khalifa Brig Gen Afmad Abdallah Awn Brig Gen Ahmad Miqani Brig Gen Dari Rajeb Nofal Al Zaben Brig Gen Mohammad Hossein Dadres Brig Gen Nohuad Zebyan Brig Gen Sayyid Aborrahim Mousavi Brig. K.P. Singh Deo Brigadier General Myint Hiaing British Aerospace British Army BRM AIFV Broad Area Maritime Surveillance Unmanned Aircraft System (BAMS UAS) BTR-40 APC BTR-50 APC BTR-60 AIFV

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BTR-70 APC BTR-80 APC

BTR-D APC s(T) Bucha Effect BuckEye Buffel APCs Bull Horn sonar Burma Bush-Rice policy of de-hyphenation Bussing D 3256 BVT Surface Fleet

C

C-130 Hercules Transport Aircraft C-130B/H/H/K Aircraft

C130J Super Hercules military

477, 486 103, 104, 106, 422, 437, 457, 466, 467, 469, 474, 475 106 422, 437 103, 104, 106 422, 437 297 58 388 143 50, 142, 270, 324 127 266 297 117, 121, 127 105, 110, 111, 167, 281, 285, 286 331 18, 127 314, 317, 319, 326, 379, 381, 384, 410, 422, 432 446 295 297 296 297 296 297 296 170 298 466, 467 171 312, 317, 319 119 347, 353, 357, 373 347, 348, 379, 381, 384, 388, 406, 422, 433 315, 317, 319, 341, 379, 381 312, 314, 315, 317, 319, 322, 331 314, 315, 317, 319, 322, 333, 353, 355, 379, 390, 394, 422, 433 319 65 77 333 449 57, 357, 370 42 437 122 59, 322, 332, 333, 477, 486 322, 332, 33, 340, 348, 351, 356, 359, 364, 366, 368, 369, 371, 379, 382, 384, 395, 400, 409, 410

Transport Aircraft

115, 117, 123, 414 C-160 Transport Ac 315 C17 Globemaster Transport Aircraft 120, 133, 420 C-212 Transport Aircraft 477, 485 C-27J 130 C3I systems 39 C4I Systems 274 C4I2SR system 64, 106, 343 C4ISR systems 64343 C-5 Galaxy strategic airlifter 120, 134 C-803 SSM 449, 450, 451, 452, 453 Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) 149, 150, 175, 216 Cairo 380 Cakra Submarine 347 Caliphate 311, 313 Cambodia 296, 303, 305, 336, 340, 341, 357, 369, 370, 372, 373, 423, 424, 425, 431, 432, 433, 434, 435, 436, 442, 480, 486, 487, 488, 489 Canada 117, 120, 121, 122, 126 Canadian Submarine Management Group 121 Candid (IL-76) 485 Capital Budget- Services Share 100 Capital Expenditure: Share of Services 1997-2008 100 Careless (Tu-154) 485 Carl Gustaf RCL 350, 384, 408 Carl von Clausewitz 33 Carrier Mortar Tracked Vehicle (CMTV) 105 CASA 235-MPA 348 Caspian Sea 17, 316, 317, 325 Casspir MBT 326, 329, 422, 436 Category ‘Buy’ 96 Category ‘Make’ 96 Central Asia 4, 17, 18, 43, 307, 308, 311, 313, 315, 317, 318, 319, 325 Central Asian Republics 17, 43 Central Coordinating Authority (CCA) 241 Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) 50, 142, 145, 324 Central Mission Computer (CMC) 74 Central Research Laboratories (CRL) 274 Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) 50, 142, 144, 143, 145, 324 Centre for Air Borne Systems (CABS) 287, 290 Centre for Artificial Intelligence & Robotics (CAIR) 287, 289, 290 Centre for Fire, Explosive & Environment Safety (CFEES) 287, 290 Centre for Military Airworthiness & Certification (CEMILAC) 287, 290 Centre for Strategic Studies and Simulation (CS3) 39 Centre for UN Peacekeeping (CUNPK) 166 Centurion MBT 365, 422, 438 Cessna 341, 347, 348, 359, 362, 363, 364, 371, 388, 393, 404 Cessna 150 Aircraft 333 Cessna 172 Aircraft 348 Cessna 180 Aircraft 362 Cessna 185 Aircraft 347 Cessna 207 Aircraft 347, 348 Cessna 310P Aircraft 347 Cessna 402B Aircraft 359 Cessna 4-152 AC Aircraft 322

502 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue

Cessna 421 Aircraft Cessna Citation II Aircraft Cessna O-1E Recce CH 47C Helicopter CH-47/SD/D/J Helicopter

CH-47F Chinook Helicopters Chahar Aimaks Chaho Patrol Craft Chaimite APC Chakri Naruebet Class Aircraft carrier Challenger 2 MBT Challenger Submarine Challenges Facing The Indian Army Chang Bogo Class Submarine Chang Chun-hsiung Chang Hong UAV Chang Mengxiong Changing Nature of War Chao Phraya Frigate Chaparral SAM Charged Couple Device (CCD) Chaudhry Ahmed Mukhtar Cheetah Helicopter Chelomey SS-N-9 Siren SSM Chemical oxygen iodine laser Cheng Kung Class Frigate Chengdu Chengdu F7 Aircraft Chengdu J7 Aircraft Chetak 25 SA-319 Alouette Hels Chetak helicpoter

Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) Chiefs of Integrated Staff Committee (CISC) Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC) Chieftain Mk. 5 MBT Chien Yang Destroyer Chile Chilean Air Force Chilka Lake Chin Yang Class Frigate China

331, 333 362 331 382, 384, 388, 409 339, 350, 351, 355, 356, 366, 368, 369, 370, 382, 477, 490 125 320 353 363 370, 444, 465 422, 438 365 4, 5 355, 444, 462 300 345 21 4, 6 370 381, 382, 393 71 298 38, 116, 271, 326, 327 462 59, 60, 64 368 419, 420 419 420 326 110, 116, 187, 197, 199, 200, 201, 202, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 212, 229, 236, 243, 244, 271, 326, 327 147, 149, 151, 154, 175 148, 149, 151, 153 147, 149, 150, 151, 153 422, 438 368 105 125 187 368 97, 98, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 108, 113, 137, 143, 144, 153, 155, 156, 157, 158, 166, 170, 173, 174, 184, 192, 195, 207, 220, 233, 264, 276, 296, 303, 305, 334, 335, 336, 338, 340, 342, 343, 344, 349, 350, 352, 354, 355, 357, 358, 359, 360, 307, 308, 311, 313, 316, 317, 318, 319, 323, 324, 325, 328, 329, 331, 361, 365, 367, 368, 370, 372, 373, 376, 387, 388, 392,


69 235 168 347 347, 359, 365, 368, 370, 371 381 85 89, 90 218, 200 21 313 251 187 328 30

503 38th Year of Issue

D-44 Assault Guns D-48 AD D-74 Towed Arty Da-20 DAE Daimler Ferret Recce Vehs Dalai Lama Daman Damascus Damyat Frigate Dana SP arty Daniyal K Akhmetov Daphne Class Submarine DARIN-II avionics Dassault Aviation Dato’ Seri Anwar Ibrahim Dato’ Seri Mohd Najib Bin Tun Hj Abdul Razak Datong missile base Day/night and all weather observations DCN DCN Marlin DCNS De Havilland Patrol Craft Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) Defence Acquisition Structures Defence Agricultural Research Laboratory (DARL) Defence Avionics Research Establishment (DARE) Defence Bio-Engineering And Electro Medical Laboratory (DEBEL) Defence Budget Allocations Defence Budget as percentage of GDP Defence Budget, 2008 Defence Capability Plan Defence Crisis Management Group (DCMG) Defence Electronics Application Laboratory (DEAL) Defence Electronics Research Laboratory (DLRL) Defence Exhibition Organisation (DEO) Defence Expenditure & Central Government Expenditure Defence Food Research Laboratory (DFRL) Defence Information Technology Consultative Committee (DITCC) Defence Institute of Psychological Research (DIPR) Defence Institute of Psychology & Applied Sciences (DIPAS) Defence Institute of Works Study Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA) Defence Laboratory (DL) Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL) Defence Offset Facilitation Agency (DOFA) Defence Planning and Budgeting Game Defence Planning Staff (DPS) Defence Policy Guidance (DPG) Defence Procurement Board (DPB) Defence Procurement Management

298 21 71 106 417 109 364 149, 150, 151, 283 82 287, 290 287, 290 287, 290 156 413 412 157

C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

314, 317 317, 422, 434 312, 314, 315, 317, 319, 321, 326, 331, 379, 381, 384, 388, 392, 398, 400, 406, 410, 422, 434 379, 410 321 379, 384 332 10 422, 439 143 236, 239 397, 405, 406 381 384 297 444, 471 271 115, 477, 479, 480, 491 358

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

384, 444, 474 58 354

86 41, 42, 43 359, 370, 421, 428, 438 Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) 219 Conrodo Yap Patrol Craft 363 Contemporary Fire Control Systems 73 Continental AOS-895-3 engine 441 Contract Negotiating Committee (CNC) 89 Controller of Warship Production & Acquisition (CWP&A) 184 Conventional bombs 57 Co-operation Afloat Readiness and Training(CARAT) 365 Co-operative Engagement Capability (CEC) 69 Coot (IL-18) 485 Cordite Factory 267 Counter Active Protection System (CAPS) 61 CPI (Maoists) 30 CPN (Maoists) 30 Crestitalia costal patrol 381 Creusot-Loire Gun 454, 473 Crossed Swords 26 Crotale SAM 332, 382, 384, 386, 403, 404 Cruise missiles 64, 69 Crusty (Tu-134) 485 CSA-5 Air Defence System 20 CSS-6 Short-Range Ballistic Missile Launcher 21 CSS-7 Short-Range Ballistic Missile Launcher 21 CT-4 Airtrainer 371 Cub (An-12) 485 Cuba 434 Curl (An-26) 486 Curtiss-Wright Corporation 120 CV-22 Tiltrotor Aircraft 126 CVG, Inc 119 Cyber Command 13 Cyber warfare 13, 20 Cyclone Patrol Craft 363 Cyprus 433

2008-2009

D-1Towed Arty D-20 Towed Arty D-30 Towed Arty

287, 288, 290

Commando Scout Recce Vehicle Commercial Negotiations Committee (CNC) Commercial Offset Offer (COO) Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) Commission of Science Technology and Industry for National Defence (COSTIND) Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Commonwealth Presiding Officers Conference Communications School Communist Party of Nepal (United Marxist Leninist) Compact Revolutionary Zone Composition of a Standard Commercial Negotiation Committee Condoleezza Rice Condor APC

SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

D

421, 425

T E C H N O L O G Y

466 329 350, 418, 419 423, 424 77 416, 417 381 368 322 371 353 353 356 375, 378, 380, 386, 389, 391, 393, 395, 397, 405, 407, 409 Christian West 42 Chui-E PCC 379 Chumbi Valley 323 Civilian nuclear agreement 325 CJ-5/6 Trainer 353 CL-601 Transport Aircraft 345 CL-604 Transport Aircraft 340 Clash of Civilisations 4, 42 Cline (An-32) 486 Close in Weapon System (CIWS) Guns 69, CM-170 Trainer 322 CN-212 Aircraft 348 CN-212200 Transport Aircraft 347 CN-235 Transport Aircraft 332.348, 356 Coalition of the willing 4 Coast Guard 33, 317, 324, 326, 327, 330 Cochin Shipyard 417 Coco Islands 183, 192 Codling (Yak-40) 485 Coke (An-24) 486 Col Abdullah Al Mansoori 295 Col Abu-Bakr Yunis Jaber 297 Col Gen Agageldi Mametgeldiyev 300 Col Gen Phung Quang Thanh 300 Col Gen Sherali Khairulloevich Khairulloev 300 Col Mashat Orazgeldyev 300 Col Muammar Abu Minyar al-Qadhafi 297 Col. Hamad bin Abdullah al-kjalifa 295 Cold War 8, 9, 13, 17, 18, 24, 41, 42, 43, 44, 57, 59, 97 Collaborative agreement 61 Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) 318 College of Air Warfare (CAW) 213 College of Defence Management (CDM) 37, 38, 166 College of Material Management 166 College of Military Engineering 166 College of Naval Warfare 187 Collins Class Submarine 340, 418 Colombo 332, 333 Colombo Patrol Inshore 332, 333 Colonel Daniel Lucero 298

168 110

Czech/Slovak Republics

149, 151 287, 290 287, 290 264, 283, 284 98 287, 290

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

20

383 17 419

152 287, 290 287, 290 166 147 290 287, 290 88 38 147 151 81, 91, 95, 101, 147, 149, 151

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

China National Precision Machinery Import and Export Corporation (CPMIEC) China State Shipbuilding Corporation (CSSC) China Study Centres (CSC) Chinese Air Force Chinese Army Chinese COMPASS navigation system Chinese Navy Chinese Romeo Destroyer Ching Feng SSM Chittagong Hill Chon Buri Patrol Craft Chong Jin Patrol Craft Chong-Ju Patrol Craft Choongmugong Destroyer Christian

Colonel Muammar Qadhafi Colour revolutions Combat Aircraft, 2008 Combat Command and Control System (ACCCS) Combat Management System Combat Vehicles Research and Development Establishment (CVRDE) Combattante Class Fast Attack Missile Craft Combined Effects Bomblets Combined Forces Commander (CFC) Command Activated Active Sono-buoys (CAAS) Command and Control (C2) Command Information Decision Support System (CIDSS)-Indian Army Commander 680 Aircraft Commando APC

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

399, 411, 412, 413, 414, 416, 417, 418, 419, 420, 421, 422, 423, 424, 425, 427, 431, 433, 434, 435, 436, 444, 447, 448, 449, 453, 454, 455, 456, 459, 460, 461, 465, 466, 467, 477, 478, 479, 482, 485, 486, 487, 488, 489, 490

B U S I N E S S

Index


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Index

Structures and Systems 91, 94 Defence Procurement Manual & Defence 101 Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) 81, 86, 87, 91, 94, 101, 153, 158, 175, 194, 218 Defence Public Sector Undertaking 281 Defence Public Sector Undertakings (DPSU) 158, 213 Defence Research & Development Establishment (DRDE) 287, 290 Defence Research & Development Laboratory (DRDL) 287, 290 Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) 9, 10, 13, 38, 39, 82, 83, 84, 89, 96, 104, 105, 106, 111, 151, 213, 265, 270, 280, 282, 284, 285, 286, 288, 289, 291 Defence Research Laboratory (DRL) 287, 290 Defence Scientific Information & Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) 287, 291 Defence Service Corps 324 Defence Service Estimates (DSE) 99 Defence Services Staff College 166 Defence Technological and Industrial Base (DTIB) 9 Defence Terrain Research Laboratory (DTRL) 291 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) 75 Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA) 111 Defexpo India 284 Delhi Class Destroyer 111, 444 Delhi/NewDelhi 19, 23, 27, 37, 41, 43, 46, 49, 53, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 166, 184, 185, 186, 189, 191, 198, 212, 239, 268, 273, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 282, 283, 290, 291, 292 Denel 104 Denmark 390 Deolali 166 Department of Defence Production 9, 82 Department of Defence Production & Supplies (DDP&S) 152, 158, 167, 188, 213, 219, 264, 265, 282, 283, 284, 286 Department of Telecommunications 274 Derby 109, 116 Descubierta Class Frigate 444, 474 Desert Warrior APC 422, 339 Destroyers & Frigates, 2008 417 Detroit 6V-53 Engine 442, 443 Detroit 8V-71T Engine 442 Detroit 8V-92TA Engine 441 Deutz BF8L413F 423 Deutz F8L 424 Developments of Air Forces 418 Developments of Naval Forces 416 DF-2/-3/-4/-5 Missile 21 DF-31A ICBM 21 Dhafra Air Base 408 Dhaka-Chittagong Transport Corridor 322 Dhanush the naval version of the Prithvi 281, 285, 288 DHC-4 Caribou Transport Aircraft 340 DHC-5 Aircraft 347, 348 DHC-5/5D Aircraft 382, 400 Dhofar (Province) Class Fast Attack

Missile Craft Dhruv Advance Light Helicopter

444, 468 116, 270, 477, 488 206, 212, 229 120

Dhruv ALH DHS Systems Diagrammatic Layout of the Army’s Chain of Command 161 Digital Age Spies 76 Direct Attack Guided Rocket (DAGR) 62 Directed Energy Weapons (DEW) 69, 70 Directorate General Aeronautical Quality Assurance (DGAQA) 264, 282 Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) 270 Directorate General of Quality Assurance (DGQA) 264, 282, 283, 284 Directorate of Indigenisation 111 Directorate of Planning & Coordination 264 Directorate of Standardisation 264, 282, 283 Disaster Management 138, 139, 141, 149, 168, 174 Disaster Management Act 2005 50, 51 Districts Having Substantial Multi-hazard Disaster Risk Areas 53 Djebel Chinoise Class FS Corvettes 379 Do-228 Transport Aircraft 187, 205, 225, 236, 241, 244, 271, 326, 327, 477, 484 Do-228-201 MR 326 Doctrine, Operations and Training (DOT) 152, 239 Doha 401 Dolgorae Submarine 356 Dolphin Class Submarine 355, 444, 456, 457 Don 2 navigation radar 454, 460, 462 Don Kay radar 462 Donald Rumsfeld 22, 46 Dong Hae Corvettes 356 Doosan AIFV 355, 359 Dornier 477, 484 Dornier Maritime Surveillance Aircraft 110, 116 Douangchai Phichit. 297 DPP-2008 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 89, 91, 94 DPSA (Deep Penetration Strike Aircraft) 113 DPSU 9 Dr A.P.J Abdul Kalam 168 Dr A.S. Pillai 246, 287 Dr D. Banerjee 246, 287 Dr Mahathir 358 Dr Manmohan Singh 25, 41, 43, 137, 168, 245, 251, 325, 373 Dr R. Sreehari Rao 246 Dr Rangin Dadfar Spantra 295 Dr Shakeel Ahmad 138, 140 Dr V.K. Saraswat 106, 287 Dr. Nasser Al Belooshi 385 Dr. Prahalada 287 Dr. R. Sreehari Rao 287 Dr. Sherifa Zuhur 380 Dr. W. Selvamurthy 246, 287 Dragon 392, 394, 396, 403, 410 Dramana and Shakhtoe 323 DRS Corporation 127 Dumb warheads 58 Durand Line 24 Durbar PFM 322 Durdarsha PFM 322 DURGA (Directionally Unrestricted Ray-Gun Array) 66 Durjoy PCO 322 Dushanbe 314, 315 Dvora PFI Patrol Inshore 333 Dy Senior Gen Maung Aye 298

504 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue

E

E-2C Hawkeye Airborne Early Warning & Control E-3 Sentry Airborne Early Warning & Control E-767 (AWACS) E-8C JSTARS EA-18G Growlers EA-6B EADS

351, 382, 408, 420, 477, 492

477, 492 351 58 119, 126, 128 61 117, 121, 131, 271, 274, 420 EADS CASA 477, 485 Eagle 150 UAV 359 East Asia 307 321, 325, 334, 335, 337, 343 East Asian Summit 18 East Timor 339, 365 East Turkistan 344 Easy Man Machine Interface (MMI) 72 E-Bombs 64 EC-120 Helicopter 348, 366 Echo Type 5 sonar 453, 454, 455 Ecuador 270 EE-11 Urutu 384, 408 EE9 Cascavel Recce Vehicle 384, 388, 401 Effectiveness of the Indian Coast Guard 236 Egypt 17, 266, 296, 303, 305, 376, 380, 381, 383, 384, 427, 431, 432, 433, 434, 435, 436, 437, 441, 442, 443, 447, 454, 455, 474, 478, 479, 480, 483, 486, 487, 488, 489, 490 EH101 Helicopter 350 Ehud Barak 299 Ehud Olmert 375, 387 Ehud Yaari 16 Eid-Al-Fayez 297 Eilat (SAAR 5) Class covettes 444, 457, 458, 459 EKM Class Submarines 111, 288 El Fateh Ex-British Z class 381 El Idrissi AGHS 379 EL/M-2140 326 Elbit 105, 271, 457, 458, 470 Elbit Timnex 4CH(V)2 ESM 457 Electric Boat 131 Electrical Engineering School 187 Electro-Magnetic (EM) Weapons 63, 64, 65, 66, 70 Electro-magnetic Pulse (EMP) 64 Electronic Chart Display Information System (ECDIS) 111 Electronic Counter Measure (ECM) 20, 21, 213 Electronic Warfare (EW) 105, 259 Electronics & Radar Development Establishment (LRDE) 287, 288, 289, 291 Electro-Optical Fibre Control System 288 Electro-Optical Pod 270 Electro-Optically Guided Bomb (EOGB) 58 Elektropribor 461 Elettronica 465, 474, 475 Elias El Murr 297 ELINT 13, 332 Elisra 274, 457, 458, 459 Elop 457, 458, 459 ELTA 111, 213, 271 EM Rail Gun 70 EMB 145 AEW&C 121


F.W. Lanchester F/A-18A/B/C/D/E/F Hornet/ Super Hornet F-10 (Jianji-10) F107–WR-105 turbofan F111 Ardvark Aircraft F14 Tomcat Fighters F-15A/B/C/D Eagle F-16A/B/C/D Fighting Falcon

F-2 Strike Aircraft F-22 Raptor Fighter F-22P Zulfiqar Class Frigate F-27 Aircraft F-27-200 F-27-400M Transport Aircraft F-27Mk Aircraft F-28-1000 Transport Aircraft F-28-3000 Transport Aircraft F-2B Trainer F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Aircraft

37 59, 61, 115, 126, 340, 359, 420, 477, 483 479 59 420 420 351, 356, 420, 477, 483 59, 115, 120, 134, 332, 157, 348, 366, 368, 371, 419, 420, 477, 483 351, 420 62, 119, 350, 420, 477, 483 418 379, 388 332 348, 371 364, 371 348 348 351 59, 61, 62, 119, 120, 128, 420, 477, 484

Falcon 900 Transport Aircraft Fantan (Qiang - 5) Fast and accurate target identification and designation Fast Attack Craft (FAC) Fast Patrol Vessels (FPV) Fast Track Procedure

71 187 236 82, 88, 94, 101 FATA 307, 310, 330 Fatahillah Frigate 347 FC-1 Combat Aircraft 477, 479 Fearless Class PCO 365 Federally Administered Tribal Area (FATA) 23, 25 FELIN integrated infantry soldier equipment suites 118 Ferghana Valley 315 Ferret Recce Vehicle 347, 359, 361, 386, 401, 408 FH-2000 Towed Arty 347, 365 FH-70 Towed Arty 350, 359 FH-77B Howitzer 104, 326 Field Gun Factory 267 Field Marshal Mohammed Hussein Tantawi Sulayman 296 Field Research Laboratory (FRL) 287, 291 Fiji 339 FIM-92A Stinger Surface-to-Air Missile 351, 368 Fin Curve navigation radar 448, 454 Finback (Jian-8) 478 Fincantieri 109, 120, 131 Finland 122 Finnish Air Force 126 Fire Control Computers (FCC) 73 Fire-and-forget weapons 58 Fishbed (MiG-21) 480 Five Power Defence Agreement (FPDA). 339 Five Year Services Capital Acquisition Plan157 FLAME Launcher 280 Flight Refueller Aircraft (FRA) 116 FLIR Systems 119 Flogger J (MiG-27 M) 481 Flying Instructor’s School (FIS) 213 Focul Plane Arrays (FPA) 72 Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) 5, 334 Foreign Military Financing (FMF) 308 Foreign Military Sales (FMS) 90, 118, 119, 120, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 131, 134, 403 Foxbat FTR 312 Foxhound (MiG-31) 481 Foxtrot Class Submarine 196, 384, 417, 444 France 9, 98, 104, 109, 110, 113, 115, 116, 252, 278, 280, 288, 421, 425, 427, 444, 471, 473, 475, 477, 479,

505 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue

Fulcrum (MiG-29) Fuqing Ships FV432 ICV FV-4333 Stormer APC

G

G. Elangovan G.S. Sood G-2 Galeb Training Aircraft G-222 Training Aircraft Gabriel II Galileo Gallelio Avionica Gamel ABdel Nasser Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Ltd. (GRSE) Garden Reach Workshop Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE) GAZ-41 Engine Gaza Gaza Strip Gazprom G-band radar

107 340 418 426 118 274 321, 353, 481, 484, 404, 410 481 322, 332, 333 297 390, 392, 396, 408, 421, 428 481 331 422, 440 347 246, 287 245 384 384 458 458 287 380 264, 268, 278, 279 278

287, 288, 291 432, 436 375.391, 392 16, 391 308 448, 450, 452, 454, 458, 459, 462, 463, 468, 469, 470, 475 GBU 37/ BLU 113 59 GBU-12 Bombs 123 GBU-15(V)1/B 58 GBU-15(V)2/B 58 GBU-39B 58 GBU-8 58 GCC Summit 18 GDF-002/-005 AA Guns 331, 422, 438 GDF-003 AD Gun 355 GDP & Military Expenditure 303-306 GDP based on PPP 303, 304 GDP Current Prices 303, 304 GE 414 Engine 271 GE Aviation 126 GE F110 Engines 126, 127 Gearing Class Guided Missile Destroyers 444, 469 GE-BE Private Ltd 276 Gel Kurdish 308 Gen (Retd) Abdul Rahim Wardak 295 Gen Abd el-Aziz Seif 296 Gen Abel Qader Jassim 296 Gen Ahmed Ali Al-Ashwal 300 Gen Ahmed Bousteila 295 Gen Alexander B Yano 298 Gen Ashfaq Pervez Kayani 298 Gen Babakir al-Zibari 296 Gen Bismillah Khan 295 Gen Chen Bingde 296 Gen Djoko Santoso 296 Gen Hermogenes C Esperon Jr 298 Gen Hu Chen-Pu 300 Gen Jing Zhiyuan 296 Gen Ke Kim Yan 296 Gen Kim Eun Gi 299 Gen Kim Tae-young 299 Gen Kim Yong-chun 298

C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

Frogfoot (Su-25) FT-5/-6/-7 Training Aircraft Fuad Siniora Fuchs APC

491 336, 385

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Fakhruddin Ahmed Falcon Falcon 20 Transport Aircraft

Free Trade Agreement (FTA) Freedom of the Seas: India’s Maritime Military Strategy Fremantle Class Patrol Boat FREMM multipurpose Frigates French Army French Defense Procurement Agency Frequency Hopping Radios FROG -3/-5/-7 surface-to-surface missile

T E C H N O L O G Y

F-5E Tiger F-7M Combat Aircraft F-7PG Fahd APC

351, 356 134 382, 388 420 345, 348, 356, 366, 368, 371, 386, 388, 389, 395, 404, 410, 420 348, 477, 484 322, 333 332 379, 381, 385, 396, 403 322 332 332, 382, 388, 404, 407 359, 379, 402, 407 478

B U S I N E S S

F

F-4 Aircraft F414-GE-400 engines F-4E Recce Aircraft F4EJ Kais Fighter F-5/-5B/-5T Aircraft

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

327 382, 389, 477, 490 Embraer 115, 121, 125, 477, 487, 490, 491 Embraer AEW 477, 491 Embraer Legacy 115, 226, 477, 487 Emilio Jacinto Combatant 363 Emir Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani 401 Emomali Rahmon 300, 315 Equipment Catalogue Indian Air Force 221 Equipment Catalogue Indian Army 176 Equipment Catalogue Indian Coast Guard 243 Equipment Catalogue Indian Navy 195 Ericsson Sea Giraffe 468 Ethnic separatism 5 Eurasia 307, 318, 319, 411 Eurasian Economic Community (EurASEC) 318 Euro-Atlantic Treaty Organisation 411 Eurocopter 110, 393, 477, 487, 488 Eurocopter EC 725 110 Eurocopter NH 90 110 EuroFighter 115, 477, 479 EuroFighter Typhoon Combat Aircraft 115, 420, 477, 479 Eurojet EJ 200 271 Euromissile 280 Europe 17, 18, 35 European Galileo positioning system 77 European Union (EU) 17, 35, 42, 399, 411 Eurosam 472 Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) 5, 183, 192, 202, 205 Exocet AM-39 Air-to-Surface Missile 331, 382, 402 Exocet MM40 Block II Surface-to-Surface Missiles 402, 418 Experimental Tank 288 Explosive Reactive Armour (ERA) 167 Extended Air Defence Simulation (EADSIM) 39 Extended Range Guided Munition (ERGM) 69 External Functional Linkage 265 Eye Bowl Radar 462 Eye Shield Radar 448, 454

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

EMB-135BJ VIP EMB-312 Tucano

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Index


Index

Gen Liang Guanglie Gen Mohand Thar Yala Gen Neang Paht Gen Nguyen Khac Nghien Gen Park Heung Ryul Gen Pavel P. Tarasenko Gen Peng Sheng-Chu Gen Qiao Qingchen Gen Ray Odierno Gen Ryoichi Oriki Gen Salah Ahmed Gaid Gen Serdar Charyiarov Gen Tan Sri Abdul Aziz Hj Zainal Gen Tan Sri Muhammad Ismail Bin Hj Jamaluddin Gen Tariq Majid Gen Toshio Tamogami Gen Wu Shuangzhan General Anupong Paojinda General Ashfaq Kayani General Ayub General David H. Petraeus General Deepak Kapoor General Dynamics

www.spguidepublications.com

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

General Dynamics Land Systems General Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical Systems General Electric

296 295 296 300 299 300 300 296 296 297 295 300 298

Goa Shipyard Ltd. (GSL)

298 298 297 296 300 24, 26 24 389 246, 253 62, 104, 117, 118, 120, 121, 122, 125, 126, 129, 162, 173, 428, 458, 469, 470, 483 124

120 119, 120, 134, 458, 469, 470, 480, 484, 487, 490 General Electric Medical Systems 274 General Jean Kahwaji 297 General Lee Tien-yu 300 General Motors 124 General Musharraf 16, 23, 24, 25, 43 General Petraeus 43 General Prawit Wongsuwan 300 General Rookmangud Katawal 298 General Yahya 24 General Zia-ul-Haq 24, 25, 26 Geographical Information System (GIS) 32, 77, 152 Geological Survey of India 270 George Bush 15, 17, 335, 385 Georgia 4, 17, 18, 390, 411 George W. Bush 335, 343, 352, 367, 373 Geospatial Technology 77 German Federal Office of Defence Technology and Procurement 121 Germany 98, 104, 109, 421, 427, 444, 457, 463, 472, 477, 484, 488 Ghadir Class Midget 418 Giat 421, 426, 427, 472, 473 Gilberto C. Teoboro, Jr 298 Gilgit 25 Global and Regional Security Scenario 3, 4 Global Navigation Satellite System 77 Global Positioning System (GPS) 58, 77, 105 Global Security Challenges 4 Global Strategic Architecture 4 Global War on Terror (GWOT) 315, 331 GLONASS 77 Gloria Macapagal Arroya 298, 363 GMU 38 JDAM 58 Goa 186, 187, 191, 202, 204, 205, 208, 212, 231, 236, 239, 242,

Godavari Class Frigates Golden Peacock Innovation Award Golok Class PCI SAR craft Gomhouria Training Aircraft Goodrich Corporation Gorbachev Gorshkov Goshawk Gotabhaya Rajapakse GPS III Space System GPS-INS guidance Grad MBRL Great Manmade River Project Greater Central Asia Greenpine radar Grob 115EG Training Aircraft Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

Group of Ministers (GOM) Guangzhou Guidance Integrated Fuzing (GIF) Gujranwala Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tonkin Gulf War Gulf War of 1991 Gulfstream (Elint) Gulfstream III Gulfstream IV Gulfstream V Gun & Shell Factory Gun Carriage Factory Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov Gvozdika SP Gun How Gwadar Ship Gwalior Gyro stabilized camera systems Gyrocam Systems

H

H.E Mahinda Rajapakse. H.H.Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum H.M. Sultan Qaboos Bin Said al Said H-5 (IL-28) Bomber H-6/-6D/-6E/-6F/-6H Habibgang Hill Hai Lung Class Submarine Hai Ou FAC Hai Shih Class Submarine Haifa Haijui Patrol Craft Hainan Class large Patrol Craft Haiqing Patrol Craft Haizhui inshore Patrol Craft Hajar Dewantara Frigate Hakimpet HAL Hala’ib Triangle HALBIT Avionics Pvt Ltd HAL-Edgewood Technologies Pvt Ltd Halo (Mi-26) Hamas Hamid Karzai Hamitic Stock

279, 280 264, 268, 279, 280 278, 444 281 348 382 120 17 417 109, 490 299 120 59 104 383 307 106 382 5, 8, 24, 378, 380, 383, 385, 391, 394, 395, 399, 401, 402, 405, 407, 410, 412, 413 81, 94, 101, 147 367, 368 62 24 399, 401 33, 35 372 59, 60, 76, 106, 153, 457 19, 20 393 382, 404 379, 382, 395 379 268 267 300, 317 434 8, 331 144, 213 120 120 299 300 298 353 345 322 368 368 368 274 345 345, 353, 362, 381, 444, 455, 456, 461 345 345 347 213 110, 113, 115, 116, 477, 488, 490 380 272 272 489 16, 17, 18, 375, 392, 411 16, 295, 320 380

506 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue

Han Class Strategic Missile Submarine Han Seung Soo Hand Held Beam Weapons Hand Held Thermal Imagers (HHTI) Handalan PFM Hang Tuah Frigate Hantae LSM Amph Ship Harbin Z-9C Helicopter Harbin Zhi-9A Helicopter Harbin Zhi-9C Helicopter Harrier GR9 Aircraft Haruna Class Destroyer Harushio Class Submarine HAS-315B Helicopters Hatakaze DDG Hatf 1SSM Hatf 3 (PRC M-11) SSM Hatf 5 SSM Hatsushima Mine Warfare Hatsuyuki DDG Hawai Sepoys Hawk 100 Trainer Hawk 103 Hawk 108 Aircraft Hawk 132 Trainer Hawk 200 Combat Aircraft Hawk Advanced Jet Trainer Hawk MK102 Hawk MK127 Trainer Hawk Mk129 Hawk Mk53 Trainer Hawk Mk61 Hawk MK63 Hawk MK64 Hawk Mk-67 Trainer Hawk SAM System Hawker 800RA Hawker 800XP Hawks Hayabusa PFM Hazara Hazratpur HDW HDW Submarine HE Nong Duc Manh Head Net C Radar Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Heavy Alloy Penetrator Project Heavy Vehicles Factory (HVF) Hegu Class FAC Helicopter Fire Control System (HFCS) Helicopter Training School Hellfire II precision-strike laser-guided Air-to-Ground Missiles Hellfire SSM Hema class Hercules sonar Hermes Class Aircraft carrier Heron UAV

444, 445 299 64 105, 168 359 359 353 448, 453, 455 450, 452 449, 451, 452 117 350, 418 350, 418 329 350 331 331 331 350 350 211 477, 490 400 359 224, 327 477, 482 109, 213, 271 409 340 386 348 409 409 396 356 422, 443 356 356 419, 420 350 320 268 109 417 300 462 313 267 167 381 288 213

125, 126 459, 489, 490 455 447, 448 444 116, 167, 187, 230, 289 Hetz (SAAR 4.5) Class fast attack craft 444, 458 Hezbollah/Hizbullah 16, 375, 387, 397, 398, 405, 406 HH Gen Mohammed Bin Zayed Al-Nahyan 300 HH Sheikh Hamad Bin Khalifa Al Thani 299 HH Sheikh Khalifa bin-Zayed al-Nahyan 300 HH Sheikh Sabah al-Ahmad al-Jabir al-Sabah 297 HHQ-16 SAM 452 High Core Technology Group 66 High Energy Lasers 64, 70 High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL) 287, 291 High Energy Radio Frequency (HERF) weapons 64 High Frequency Surface Wave Radar (HFSWR) 68 High Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicles (HMMWV) 124, 132


Hydra 70/2.75” rockets Hydrographic School HZ-5 Recce

Ibrahim Gambari ICBM ICGS Samar ICGS Sankalp ICGS Vikram Ichi-Go PHM ICx Technologies IFG Mk 1/2/3 Towed Arty IFG Mk.2 gun Igla-1 Igor Chudinov I-Hawk SAM IJT-36 IL-18 Transport Aircraft IL-38 Aircraft IL-38 MR IL-62M Transport Aircraft IL-76 Transport Aircraft IL-76MD/TD/FRA IL78 Midas mid-air refuelling tanker ILS Amph Ilyushin Ilyushin IL-76MD Aircraft IM-924 Stinge SAM Imaging Infra Red (IIR) IMINT Impact Avoidance Zones (IAZ) Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) IN/GPS receiver INCAT – HAL Aerostructures Ltd INDAIR-08 Indaw class PCO Independent International Investigation Commission India

62 187 345

405 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 121, 126, 129, 132, 270, 271, 274, 278, 280, 281, 283, 284, 285, 288, 303, 305, 421, 428, 429, 431, 432, 433, 434, 435, 436, 437, 439, 440, 444, 456, 459, 461, 462, 466, 471, 477, 479, 480, 481, 482, 483, 485, 486,

507 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue

India’s economic growth India’s National Defence University (INDU) India-China boundary Indian Aerospace Power Indian Air Force (IAF)

Indian Air Force: Anticipated Combat Force Levels 2020 Indian Air Force: Combat Force Levels Indian Army

Indian Army Chief Indian Coast Guard

Indian Coast Guard Locations Indian Coast Guard Maritime Rescue Coordination Centres and Sub-centres Indian Coast Guard SAR Organisation Indian Economic Survey Indian External Affairs Minister Pranab Mukherjee Indian Field Gun (IFG) Indian Institutes of Management (IIM) Indian Military Academy

153, 154 325 13 11, 12, 13, 14, 106, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 152, 153, 155, 157, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 226, 229, 232, 233, 239, 253, 254, 255, 259, 260, 262, 270, 271, 280, 282, 285, 288, 365, 393, 394, 419 115 114 3, 4, 5, 6, 38, 103, 105, 142, 143, 153, 159, 160, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 173, 174, 175, 176, 220, 265, 270, 282, 283, 285, 288, 289 322 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 246, 250, 253, 262, 270, 279 238 239, 240 242 307

325 104 168 166, 255, 257, 258 Indian Mountain Gun 104 Indian Naval Work-up Team (INWT) 187 Indian Navy (IN) 7, 8, 9, 10, 33, 38, 67, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 191, 192, 195, 205, 207, 208, 253, 254, 259, 262, 270, 271, 278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 283, 286, 288, 417 Indian Ocean 5, 8, 9, 21, 35, 49, 52, 108, 110 Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS) 191, 192 Indian Ocean Region (IOR) 7 Indian Ordnance Factories Organisation 265 Indian Register of Quality System (IRQS) 280 Indian Search and Rescue Region (ISRR) 153, 236, 239 Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) 153, 239 Indigenous Aircraft Carrier (IAC) 187 Indigenous Defence Fighters (IDF) 392, 420 Indo Tibetan Border Police 324 Indo-Bhutan border 144

C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

458, 459, 477, 480 274 445, 446, 447, 448, 449, 450, 451, 452, 453, 454, 455, 456, 457, 459, 460, 461, 462, 463, 464, 465, 466, 467, 468, 469, 470, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475 361 10, 21, 22 35 34 36 350 131 326 421, 428 20 297 350, 355, 382, 386, 389, 404, 409 271 109, 345, 353, 477, 485, 491 281, 326, 477, 491 326 353 115, 327, 384, 388, 407, 409, 410, 477, 485 116,379 327, 419 322 477, 485, 491 226 331 58 13 61 168, 310 57, 58 272 219 362

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

IAI-Malat I-band radar

T E C H N O L O G Y

IAI

487, 488, 489, 490, 491, 492 307

B U S I N E S S

I

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

64, 70 61 58 70 41 144 489 395, 399, 407, 409, 419 Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL) 117, 264, 268, 270, 271, 272, 273, 288, 289, 419 Hindustan Times 26 Hino APC 361 Hip (Mi-8) 488 Hip-H (Mi-17) 489 His Majesty King Abdullah II 297 Hispano Suiza HS 110 425, 427 Hispano-Suiza HS 115 426 Hizb ut-Tahrir 308, 311, 313 Hizb ut-Tahrir al- Islami 308 HJ-73 ATGW 344, 345 HJ-8 ATGW 344, 345, 359 HJ-8/TOW ATGW 331 HJT-16 Kiran Mk1 Trg 326 HJT-16 Kiran trainer 205, 224, 326, 327, 477, 490 HM King Abdullah Bin Abd Al-Aziz Al Saud 299 HM King Hamad I bin isa al Khalifa 295 HMS Vigilant Submarine 134 HN-5 Surface-to-Air Missile 322, 331, 344, 345, 361, 370 HN-5A SAM 322, 331 Honeywell 124, 271 Hong - 6 Combat Aircraft 477, 478 Hong Kong 417 Hong Qi-7 (HQ-7) air defence system 20 Hook (Mi-6) 488 Horizon Core Technology Group (HCTG) 152 Hormone (Ka-25) 488 Horn of Africa 8, 9, 35 Houbei PFM 345 Houku Fast Attack Missile Craft 444, 455, 456 House of Commons 54 Houxin Class Fast Attack Missile Craft 362, 444, 455 HPT-32 Deepak trainer 224, 326, 327, 477, 490 HQ-16 Sino-Russian joint project 21 HQ-2/2A/2B SAM 345 HQ-7 SAM 344, 345 HQ-9 SAM 21, 345 HRH King Norodom Sihamoni 296 HRH Prince Sultan Bin Abdul Al-Aziz Al Saud 299 HS-748/-748M Transport Aircraft 225, 271, 326, 327, 477, 486 Hu Jintao 296, 325, 334, 349 Huang PFM 345 Huangfen/Hola Class Fast Attack Missile Craft 345, 353, 444, 455, 456 Huchuan Fast Attack Missile Craft 322, 444, 456 Hughes 300C Helicopter 347, 370 Hughes 500C Helicopter 347 Hughes 500D Helicopter 353, 355 Hughes SPS-39A Radar 448 Hull Mounted Panoramic Sonar (HUMSA) 111 Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) 192 Hunter Killer Approach 71 Hurricane Katrina 12 Hussein Badruddin al-Houthi 410 HY-2 SSM 448, 454, 456 HY-6 Tanker 345

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

High Power Microwave High Speed Anti-Radiation (HARM) missile High-contrast targets High-power Microwave (HPM) Weapons Hillary Clinton Himachal Pradesh Hind (Mi-24) Hindu

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Index


Index

www.spguidepublications.com

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

Indo-Nepal border Indonesia

144 18, 52, 184, 266, 296, 303, 305, 426, 432, 433, 436, 437, 439, 482, 483, 484, 485, 486, 487, 488, 491 Indonesian Navy 347 Indo-Pak war 152, 171, 212, 258 Indo-Russian Aviation Limited 271 Indo-Tibetan Border Police Force (ITBP) 50, 142, 143 Indo-US civil nuclear cooperation 41 Indo-US nuclear deal 325 Infantry Combat Vehicle (ICV) 167, 288 Information Communication Technology (ICT) 152 Information Warfare (IW) 13, 19, 20, 21, 149 INFOTECH HAL Ltd 272 Infrared sensors 58 Ingalls Shipbuilding 457 Initial Operational Clearance (IOC) 218, 216 INS Amba 187 INS Bangaram Fast Attack Craft 187, 190 INS Beas 253 INS Bitra Fast Attack Craft 187, 190 INS Chapal, Chatak and Chamak, Osa Class Missile boats 187 INS Garuda 253 INS Godavari 253 INS Gomati 259 INS Hansa 259 INS Himgiri 187, 200 INS Hosdurg 259 INS Kavaratti 254 INS Kesari - Landing Ship Tank 279 INS Kuthar 262 INS Mandovi 259 INS Mysore 36 INS Nistar 187 INS Ranvir 259 INS Satavahana 187 INS Subhadra 288 INS Tabar 36 INS Udaygiri 259 INS Viraat 111, 152, 197 INSAS 5.56mm Aassault Rifle 105 Inshore Patrol Vessels (IPV) 236, 243 Institute for System Studies and Analyses (ISSA) 38, 39 Institute of Armament Technology (IAT) 291 Institute of National Integration 166 Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS) 291 Institute of Systems Studies & Analysis (ISSA) 287, 291 Institute of Technology Management (ITM) 291 Instruments Research & Development Establishment (IRDE) 287, 291 Integrated Combat Management System 73 Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) 38, 81, 83, 86, 89, 95, 96, 101, 147, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 246, 253, 254, 262 Integrated Fire Control System (IFCS) 71 Integrated Guided Missile 280, 285 Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) 280, 285 Integrated material management on-line system (IMMOLS) 213 Integrated Project Management Team (IPMT) 83 Integrated Test Range (ITR) 287, 291 Integrated Theatre Level Engagement model (ITEM) 39

Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) Inter Services Intelligence (ISI) Intercept Sonar Intermediate Jet Trainer (IJT) International Collaboration in Defence Production International Council on Social Welfare conference International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) International MilitaryEducation and Training programme (IMET) International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) Internet Protocol (IP) Invertix Corporation Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA) Iran

20 343 5, 24, 25, 26, 30, 31, 34, 36, 42, 43 288 216, 271 264 251 376 308 24, 43, 380, 389, 393 308, 320 61 121

508 2008-2009

ITT Corporation IVECO Engine

J

J-10 Combat Aircraft J-11 Combat Aircraft

341 8, 16, 17, 18, 44, 296, 303, 305, 307, 317, 375, 376, 386, 387, 388, 396, 397, 399, 403, 405, 406, 408, 416, 418, 420, 424, 431, 432, 433, 434, 435, 436, 438, 439, 441, 442, 456, 461, 478, 481, 484, 485, 486, 488, 489, 490, 491 Iraq 4, 5, 8, 16, 43, 49, 296, 106, 122, 124, 338, 339, 354, 375, 376, 385, 387, 388, 389, 390, 394, 395, 396, 401, 403, 405, 407, 408, 409, 411 Iraq war 375, 390, 405 iRobot 126 Ishikari FFG 350 Islam Abduganievich Karimov 300 Islamabad 42, 43, 137, 310, 330 Islamic Action Front (IAF) 394 Islamic group Akromiya 313 Islamic militant organisation 313 Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) 313, 315 Islamic radicalism 311, 310 Islamic Revolution in 1979 16 Islander 205 Isotropic and Directional Radiators 65 Israel 7, 9, 16, 17, 18, 44, 104, 106, 111, 116, 123, 124, 127, 128, 256, 270, 271, 274, 280, 288, 296, 303, 305, 375, 376, 380, 387, 391, 392, 393, 394, 397, 398, 405, 406, 411, 421, 428, 429, 431, 432, 434, 435, 436, 437, 441,

SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

Israel Army Israeli Aircraft Industries (IAI) Israel-Palestine conflict ISU SP Arty Isuzu 10PBI Engine Italian Navy Italy

38th Year of Issue

J-5 (MiG-17) strike Aircraft J-6 (MiG-19S) strike Aircraft J-7 (MiG-21F) strike Aircraft J-7II/-7IIA Fighter J-8/B/D/F Fighter J-8II/A/B/D Fighter Jaguar Combat Aircraft Jaguar J60 engine Jakarta Jalal Talabani Jalalat II Missile Craft Jalashva Jamaat of Central Asian Mujahedins (JCAM) Jamiat-ul-Ulama-i-Islam (JUI) Jammu & Kashmir

442, 443, 444, 456, 457, 458, 459, 477, 480, 483, 486, 487, 489, 490 428, 429 271, 274, 288 375 379 430 120, 131 109, 390, 397, 421, 429, 444 125 426 345, 477, 419, 420 21, 345, 419, 477, 479 353 345, 353, 382 345, 353 345 345 345 187, 212, 213, 223, 256, 261, 266, 271, 327 439 346 296 331 110

308 24 4, 5, 23, 24, 25, 26, 30, 34, 47, 137, 139, 142, 144, 145, 165, 170, 212, 253, 255, 256, 257, 307, 308, 310, 325 Jane’s Defence Weekly 417 Japan 4, 17, 18, 128, 252, 297, 303, 305, 334, 335, 336, 338, 343, 348, 349, 350, 352, 354, 355, 357, 361, 365, 367, 399, 411, 413, 415, 416, 418, 420, 422, 429, 430, 438, 442, 443, 459, 483, 484, 486, 487, 488, 490, 491, 492 Japan Ground Self-Defence Force (GSDF) 415 Japanese Ground Self-Defence Force 430 JAS-39 Gripen 115, 477 Jasoos UAV 331 Jaswant Singh 365 Jatinder Bir Singh 245 Javelin SAM 339, 355 JCM contract 61 JDRADM 61 Jehad/Jihad 4, 15, 24, 25, 26, 31, 41, 42, 43, 44, 310 Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) 9, 335, 347, 363 Jerong PFC 359 Jerusalem 375, 391 Jetstream 370 Jews 375, 378,


K

K Narayanan K. Subrahmanyam K.R. Narayanan K1 MBT K-8 Training Aircraft Ka-25 B SH Helicopter Ka-31 Helicopter KA-32 Helicopter Kabul Kagitingan PCC KAI A-5 Combat Aircraft Kairbek Suleimenov

325 34, 41, 45, 147 169 422, 437 332, 333, 382 477, 488 326, 477, 488 356, 357, 373 16, 25, 41, 42, 308, 320 363 420 297

Kargil Review Committee (KRC) Kargil war/conflict/crisis Karim Masimov Karnaphuli PCC Karshi-Khanabad (K2) Kashin Class Destroyer Kasturi Corvettes Kathmandu Katni Kaveri Maritime Gas Turbine Engine (KMGT) Kazakhstan

KC-130B/H KC30B Refueller KC-45A Aerial Refueling Tanker KC767 Aircraft KDX-2 Class Destroyer KDX-III Aegis Destroyers Kebir Class PFC Kedah Corvettes Keelung Destroyer Keiretsu Keltron Kelvin Hughes navigation radar Kevin Rudd KF-16C/D strike Aircraft Kfir C-2 Combat Aircraft Kfir C-7 Combat Aircraft Kfir Combat Aircraft Kfir TC-2 Training Aircraft KH179 How KH-35/ Sea Skua ASCM Msls Khadakvasla Khadki Khagrachari Hill Khalid MBT Khalid Sheikh Mohammed Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani Khalifa bin Salman al-Khalifa Khamaria Khamronsin Class Corvettes KHD BF8L413F engine Kidd Class Destroyers KIFV SPAAG AD gun

417 25, 33, 34, 45, 46, 81, 91, 94, 95, 101, 103, 104, 113, 114, 116, 142, 144, 147, 175, 211, 212 34, 46 45, 46, 81, 101, 103, 104, 113, 116, 253 297 322 318 256, 444, 461 359 257, 328 267 271, 288, 289 297, 303, 305, 307, 308, 310, 311, 312, 313, 317, 319, 325, 432, 433, 434, 435, 481, 482, 485, 488, 489 348, 359, 366 420 117 420 444, 463 418 379 359 368 349 111 465, 468 295 356 333 333 477, 480 333 422, 437 326 166 267 322 422, 438 42 401 295 267, 268 370, 444, 466 426 418 355

509 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue

419 450, 451, 453, 454 Knox Class Frigates 418 Kolar Gold Fields 276, 277 Kolkata Class guided missile Destroyers 417 Kongou DDG 350 Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace 121 Kooryong MRL 355, 381 Korea 118, 128, 303, 305 Kornet-E Anti-Tank Guided Missiles (ATGM) 105 Korwa 273 Kosovo 20, 106 Kraburi Frigate 370 Krasnopol PGM 106 Krivak Class Corvettes 417, 444 KS-12 AD gun 321, 379, 382, 410 KS-19 AD gun 321, 379, 382, 406 KS-30 AD gun 379 KT-1B trainer 348 Ku Song Fast Torpedo Cr 353 Kuala Lumpur 358, 359 Kujang Class SAR craft 348 Kulevi Black Sea port 17 Kulyabi-led Tajik Government 315 Kung fu 20 Kunming missile base 21 Kuomintang China 44 Kurile Islands 350 Kurmanbek Bakiyev 297, 313 Kuwait 127, 128, 297, 303, 305, 375, 376, 385, 395, 396, 401, 409, 424, 427, 428, 433, 435, 440, 441, 442, 480, 483, 486, 487, 488, 490, 491 KV-107 Aircraft 351 Kvadrat medium range missile 167 Kwang Hua FAC 368 Kyaikkami 361 Kyrgyz Republic 303, 305 Kyrgyzstan 297, 307, 308, 310, 313, 315, 318, 319, 325, 432, 433, 434, 435, 436, 480, 486, 488, 489

L

L.K. Advani L/60 AD guns L/70 AD gun L-100-20 Transport Aircraft L-100-30 Transport Aircraft

34 329, 331 347, 368, 370 384 348, 379, 384, 396, 404, 409

C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

341 347

Kim Dae-Jung Kim Il-Chol Kim Jangsoo Kim Yong Il Kinetic Energy Weapons King Air 200 King Air E90 King Fahd Causeway King Kwanggaeto Destroyer King Phumiphon Adunyadet Kiran trainer Aircraft Kirti Chakras Kisamayu Kite Screech radar KJ-2000 Airborne Early Warning and Control system (AWACS) Knife Rest Radar

66 109, 111, 379, 388, 417, 418, 444, 446, 461 354 298 299 298 70 371 371 385 356 300 271, 315 144 35 449, 462

T E C H N O L O G Y

Kaoh Chhlam Patrol Craft Kapitan Patimura Corvettes Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works (KSEW) Kargil

Kilo Ampere Linear Injector (KALI) Kilo-Class attack Submarines

B U S I N E S S

347 347 379 111 46 288 449, 450, 451, 477, 488 Kamov KA-25/KA-28/KA-31 Helicopter 206, 326, 477, 488 Kamov KA-28 Helix Helicopter 326, 449, 450, 451 Kampuchea 184 Kan Kyeong Mine warfare force 356 Kandhamal 31 Kang Ding Class Frigate 368

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

Kakap Missile Craft KAL-35 Missile Craft Kalaat beni Hammad LST Kaliningrad Kaluchak Army camp KAM 500 system Kamov

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

386, 391 JF17 Fighter 419 JH-7A Strike Aircrat 345 Jian - 7 Combat Aircraft 477, 478 Jian - 8 Combat Aircraft 477, 478 Jian Hong - 7 Combat Aircraft 477, 478 Jiang Zemin 20 Jianghu 1/V Class Frigate 444, 454, 455 Jianghu II Class Frigate 444, 454 Jiangkai Class Frigate 444, 452 Jiangkai II Class Frigate 444, 452 Jiangwei Class Frigate 444, 452 Jiangwei II Class Frigate 444, 452, 453 Jianjiao - 7 Combat Aircraft 477, 478 Jija Bai Inshore Patrol Vessel 243 Jin Class Strategic Missile Submarine 444 Jinan military region 367, 368 Jinn Chiang FAC 368 JJ-6 Training Aircraft 345, 382 Joe Biden 41, 43 Joel Fitzgibbon 295 Joint Air to Surface Standoff Missile 59 Joint Air-Land doctrine 152 Joint and Multi–dimensional Operations 5 Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation (JCATS) 39 Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) 479, 484 Joint Dual-Role Air Dominance Missile System (JD-RADM) 62 Joint Operations Committee (JOCOM) 149 Joint Planning Committee (JPC) 149 Joint Psychological Operations Doctrine 152 Joint Service Intelligence Committee (JSIC) 149 Joint Space Doctrine 152 Joint Special Forces Doctrine 152 Joint Standoff Weapon (JSOW) 58 Joint Statements at the Presidential level 15, 17 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) 420 Joint Sub-conventional Warfare Doctrine 152 Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) 122 Joint Theatre Level Simulation (JTLS) 39 Joint Training Committee (JTC) 149 Joint Warfare System (JWARS) 39 Joint Working Group (JWG) 347 Jordan 127, 297, 303, 305, 376, 393, 394, 433, 435, 436, 437, 438, 439, 441, 442, 443, 478, 480, 483, 484, 485, 486, 487, 488, 489, 490376, 393, 394 Jordanian Air Force 394 Jose Andrada PCI 363 JSOW-ER (Extended Range) 58 Judaism 375, 391 Jug Pair ESM 454, 460 Junichiro Koizumi 334, 349 Justice Iftikhar Chaudhry 24 Juwono Sudarsono 296 JZ-6/-7/-8 Recce 345

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Index


Index

L-29 Training Aircraft L-3 Communications L-33 SP Guns L-39 Albatross Trainer

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www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

L-39/L-39ZA/7L-39C/L-39ZO Training Aircraft

382 131 421, 429 312, 314, 317, 321, 319, 322

312, 379, 382, 384, 407, 410 L-40 AD Guns 333, 326 L-410 Transport Aircraft 384 L-59E Training Aircraft 382 L60 AD Gun 348 L70 AD Gun 326, 348 L-714 Engines 490 La Fayette Class Frigates 418, 444 Lada Class patrol Submarine 444, 461 Ladakh 143, 144, 166, 212, 253, 256 Laksamana Corvettes 359 Lakshadweep 8, 183, 212 Lakshya Pilotless Target Aircraft (PTA) 289 Lal Masjid 23 Lancer Helicopter 256, 271, 326 Land Attack Cruise Missile (LACM) 105, 419 Land Forces Developments in Asia-Pacific 413 Land Warfare 4, 19 Landing Ships Tank (LST) 187, 202 Lanzhou-Chengdu region 21 Laos 297, 303, 305, 336, 356, 357, 369, 370, 373, 431, 432, 434, 435, 436, 480, 485, 486, 487, 488, 489 LAR-160 MRL 392 LAR-290 MRL 392 Larsen and Toubro 104, 108, 111 Larzac 04-H20 Turbofan engine 271 Laser Dazzlers (Low Energy Laser Weapons) 65 Laser Detection and Ranging (LADAR) 73 Laser Guided Bomb (LGB) 116 Laser Range Finder (LRF) 71 Laser Science & Technology Centre (LASTEC) 287, 291 Laser Weapons 64, 65, 70 Laser-Guided Bomb (LGB) 57 Lashkar-e-Toiba (LeT) 42, 310, 331 Latin America Aero and Defence (LAAD) 284 Launch and leave weapon 58 LAV-100/-150 Commando APC 359 LCU Yunan Amph 333 Lead Iintelligence Agency (LIA) 144 League of Arab States 380 Leander Class Frigate 259, 278, 444, 466 Learjet 35 404, 408 Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) 397 Lebanon 16, 17, 297, 303, 305, 375, 376, 387, 392, 397, 398, 405, 406, 426, 431, 434, 435, 436, 439, 441, 442, 458, 487, 488 Lebanon crisis 375 Leclerc MBT 421, 425 Lee Myung Bak 299 Lekiu class Frigate 359, 444, 467 Leopard 1A3 MBT 339 Leopard 2A6 MBT 421, 427 Leopard tank 415 Leyland L 60 engine 438 LFG Towed Arty 326 LG-1 MkII Towed Arty 348 Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) 8, 30, 308, 333 Libya 297, 303, 305,

376, 383, 384, 425, 427, 429, 431, 432, 433, 434, 435, 436, 442, 480, 481, 485, 486, 487, 488, 489, 490 Lieutenant General B.S. Jaswal 246, 257 Lieutenant General C.K. Suchindra Sabu 245, 258 Lieutenant General J.K. Mohanty 246, 257 Lieutenant General Manbir Singh Dadwal 246, 255 Lieutenant General Noble Thamburaj 246, 254 Lieutenant General P.C. Bhardwaj 246, 256 Lieutenant General Pradeep Khanna 246, 258 Lieutenant General S.P.S. Dhillon 246, 255 Lieutenant General Tej Kumar Sapru 246, 257 Lieutenant General V.K. Singh 246, 258 Life Sciences Research Board (LSRB) 289 Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) 109, 115, 216, 218, 270, 477, 480 Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) 76 Light-weight towed howitzer (LTH) 104 Limited/Local war 19 Line of Actual Control (LAC) 255, 166, 174 Line of Control (LoC) 103, 105, 142, 166, 211, 212, 253, 257 Line-Of-Sight (LOS) 71 Litton Corporation 457 Littoral Combat Ships 124 LOAL missile 62 Lockheed Martin 110, 115, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 125, 126, 128, 129, 132, 134, 274, 408, 420, 469, 470, 475, 477, 483, 486, 491 Lockheed Martin Maritime Systems 119 Lockheed Martin MH 60R 110 Lockheed Martin Missile and Fire Control 129 Lockheed Martin Space Systems 132 Lockheed Martin Systems Integration 131 Lockheed SPS-40 469 Logistics & Management School 187 Lok Sabha 251, 252 Lok Sabha elections 145 London 467 London Club debt 378 Long Range Surface-to-Air Missile (LRSAM) 285, 288 Long Range Tracking Radar (LRTR) 110 Long Term Integrated Perspective Plan (LTIPP) 150, 151, 152, 154, 157 Long Term Perspective Plan (LTPP) 101, 102, 150 Lorentz Force 70 LOS Stabilization 71, 72 Low Cost Guided Imaging Rocket (LOGIR) 62 Low Intensity Maritime Operations 8 Low level tactical radars (LLTR) 233 Low Probability of Intercept Radar 68 Low-frequency Active 68 Low-intensity limited war 103 Low-Level Transportable Radars (LLTR) 116 LR-1 Aircraft 350, 351 LR-2 Aircraft 350 LSL Amph 322 Lt Gen Abd A-Rahman Ibn Fahd Al-Faisal 299 Lt Gen Abdul Wahab Qahraman 295 Lt Gen Ahmed Bin Harith Al Nabhani 298 Lt Gen Ali Ghaidan Majid 296 Lt Gen Avadhesh Prakash 163 Lt Gen Dato’ Seri Azizan Ariffin 298 Lt Gen Djamari Chaniago 296 Lt Gen Fahad Ahmad al-Amir 297 Lt Gen Gabi Ashkenazi 296

510 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue

Lt Gen Gillespie Lt Gen Hassan al-Turkmani Lt Gen Khaled Jamil al-Sarayreh Lt Gen Kopen Akhmadiyev Lt Gen Le Huu Duc Lt Gen M.S. Dadwal Lt Gen Mark Evans Lt Gen Mea Sophea Lt Gen Moeen U Ahmed, ndc, psc Lt Gen Mukesh Subharwal Lt Gen Myat Hein Lt Gen Noble Thamburaj Lt Gen S.P.S. Dhillon Lt Gen S.S. Kumar Lt Gen Saleh Ibn Ali Al-Muhaya Lt Gen Sallah Ud Din Lt Gen Sami Hafez Enan Lt Gen Sao Sokha Lt Gen Sarath Fonseska Lt Gen Sheikh Ahmad Al-Khalid Al-Sabah Lt Gen Sheikh Khalifa bin Hamad al Khalifa Lt Gen Sultan Ibn Ali Al-Mutayri Lt Gen Syed Absar Hussain Lt Gen Tulkun Yuldashevich Kasimov Lt Gen Vinay Sharma Lt Gen Yousif Dawyan al-Otaibi Lt Gen. Choummaly Saignason Lt General A.S. Sekhon Lt General Avadhesh Prakash Lt General B.S. Nagal Lt General D. Bhardwaj Lt General Gautam Dutt Lt General I.J. Koshy Lt General Jasbir Singh Lt General K.S. Yadava Lt General Mukesh Subharwal Lt General N.S. Brar Lt General P. Mohapatra Lt General Prakash Menon Lt General R.K. Karwal Lt General Ram Pratap Lt General S.S. Kumar Lt General Tejinder Singh Lt General Vinay Sharma Lt General Yogendra Singh Lt. Gen Ahmed Shujaa Pasha Lt. Gen Thein Sein Lt. Gen. Pedrito Lt. Gen. Romil Khalilovich Nadirov Lt.Gen. Sarath Fonseka LTPP Formulation Committee (LTPPFC) Luda Class Destroyer Luhai Class Destroyer Luhu Class Destroyer Lung Chiang FAC Luyang Class Destroyer Luyang II Class Destroyer LVTP-5 AAV LVTP-7 AAV Lynx HAS Mk3 Lynx Mk-99/99A Helicopter

M

M 120 Mors M 1973 How M 1974 SP Gun How M 60 A3 MBT M. Hamid Ansari M. Natarajan M.L. Kumawat M.M. Pallam Raju M.V. Krishna Rao M-1 Abrams MBT M-101 Towed Arty

M-106A2 Mors

295 299 297 297 300 163 295 296 295 163 298 162 162 164 299 298 296 296 299 297 295 299 298 300 164 297 297 246 246 246 246 246 246 246 144 246 246 246 246 246 246 246 246 246 246 24, 26 298 298 300 332, 333 150 444, 448 444, 450 444, 451, 455 363 444, 449 444, 450 363, 368 356, 363, 371 331 356 312, 314, 319 422, 434 422, 434 422, 441 245 246, 248, 287 142 245, 248 144 422, 440 331, 322, 347, 355, 357, 361, 363, 368, 370, 373, 384, 392, 403 381


M-167 Vulcan AD gun M-1931 Towed Arty M-1937 Towed Arty M-1938 Towed Arty

M-1939 AD Gun M-1942 Towed Arty M-1943 Mors M-1943 Towed Arty M-1944 Assault Gun M-1948 Towed Arty M-198 How M-1985 Towed Arty M1A1/M1A2 Abrams MBT M-20 RCL M252 81mm Mortar M299 Hellfire Guided Missile Launchers M-3 Panhard M-30 Towed Arty M-30/D-30 Towed Arty M36 Hellfire Training Missiles M-36 SP Atk gun M-37 Mors M-37 MRL M-38 Towed Arty M-40 A1 M-40/M-40A1 RCL

M-41 Sting Ray Lt Tk M-42 Twin SP AA Gun M-43 Mors M-43 MRL

M-48 Chaparral SP SAM System M-48 Towed Arty M-53/-59 AD Gun M-54 SP Chaparral M548A1 Tracked Logistics Vehicles M-56 Towed Arty M-577 APC M577A2 Command Post Carriers M-58 Mors M-60A1 MBT M-60A3 MBT M-61 Mors M-65 RCL M-67 RCL M-71 Towed ATk Guns M-72 LAW Rocket Launcher M777 155mm Light-Weight Towed Howitzers M-8 Lt Tk M88A2 HERCULES recovery vehicles M-901 ATGW Ma Ying-Jeou Macapagal-Arroyo Machine Tool Prototype Factory MACMET Madhesi Janadhikar Forum (MJF) Madhukar Gupta Madhumati Coast Guard Patrol Craft Madina Class Frigate Madrasa Madrid Magic bomb Magic R-530/-550 Air-to-Air Missile

104, 118, 120 357 118, 124 381, 394, 396 300 362 267 38 328 140 322 444, 472 23, 30, 31 46 480, 491 382, 384, 385, 409 Magnetic Anamoly Detection (MAD) 69 Mahamiru mine hunter 359 Mahmoud Abbas 375, 391 Mahmoud Ahmadinejad 296, 387 Main Battle Tanks, 2008 415 Maj Gen (Ret) Michael Jeffery 295 Maj Gen Ahcene Tafer 295 Maj Gen Ahmad Yousif al-Mullah 297 Maj Gen Ali Alrifi 297 Maj Gen Ali Mohammad Habib Mahmood 299 Maj Gen Ata’ollah Salehi 296 Maj Gen Chawki El Masri 297 Maj Gen Elyezer Shkedy 296 Maj Gen Hamad Bin Ali Al-Attiyah 299 Maj Gen Hamad Mohammed Thani al-Rumaithi 300 Maj Gen Hasan Firuzabadi 296 Maj Gen Ibrahin Mohammed al-Wasmi 297 Maj Gen Kamal al-Barzani 296 Maj Gen Kamal Mukhafut 299 Maj Gen Khalifa Bin Abdullah Bin Said Al Junaibi 298 Maj Gen Majid Ibn Talhab Al-Qutaibi 299 Maj Gen Mohammad bin Rashed al-Mualla 300 Maj Gen Mohammad Bin Suweidan Saeed al-Qamzi 300 Maj Gen Mohammed Subaith al-Kaabi 300 Maj Gen Nurlan Dzhulamanov 297

511 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue

Maldives Malpa Landslide Man Nok Amph Force Mandau Missile Craft Maneuvering Ballistic Missile Mangapati Pallam Raju MANPAD Surface-to-Air Missile ManTech International Marconi Stingray Torpedo Mare Tail Sonar Maritime Capability Perspective Plan Maritime Doctrine Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA) Maritime Kargil Maritime Reconnaissance (MR) Maritime Rescue Coordination Centres (MRCC) Maritime Rescue Sub-Centres (MRSC) Maritime surveillance radar Maritime Warfare Training School Marshal Kim II Chol Mary C. FitzGerald Massive Ordnance Air Blast Bomb Mastiff III UAV Matra Otomat Matra R-530 bomb Matra Sadral SAM Maulvi bazaar Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) Mazda Recce Vehicle MB-339A Trainer MBDA MBDA Meteor Air-to-Air Missile McDonnell Douglas Corporation McDonnell Douglas Harpoon missile Md. Zillur Rehman MD3-160 Trainer MD-500 Helicopter Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) UAV Medium Power Radar (MPR) Medvedev Doctrine Meghna Coastal Patrol Craft MEMS Ultra-Sensitive Accelerometer (MEMSUSA) Mercedes-Benz Mercedes-Benz OM 352A engine Mercury Flash Merkava Mk3 MBT Merkava–IV Metal & Steel Factory Meteorological sensors

295 300 300 98 245 170 300 8 370 9, 417 39, 52, 105, 266, 297, 303, 305, 336, 339, 358, 360, 365, 368, 370, 372, 373 7, 8, 12, 52, 114 49 371 347 66 245, 248, 252 321, 322, 331, 379, 402 125, 133 468 462 107, 108 108 108 34 108, 187, 198 236, 239, 240 236, 239, 240 109 187 298 21 59 368 473, 474 480 465 322 108, 109, 187, 196, 198, 264, 268, 278 361 359 122, 123, 281, 418, 479, 484 479, 484 128, 133 457, 458, 463, 464, 465, 469, 474 295 359 350, 355 289 233 17 322 78 130 428 168 421, 428 73 268 72

C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

297 298 296

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

M-47 Dragon ATGW M-47 MBT M-48 A5 MBT

Maj Gen Prince Faisal bin al-Hussein al-Hashemi Maj Gen Said Bin Nasser Al Salmi Maj Gen Seyed Yahya Rahmin Safavi Maj Gen Sheikh Abdullah bin Salman al-Khalifa Maj Gen Tokhir M Usoupov Maj Gen Vyacheslav M. Groudyna Major Defence Spenders in 2007 Major General I.S. Chaturvedi Major General Rajindra Singh Major General Sanan Kajornprasart Makaran coast Makut Rajakumarn class FF Malacca Straits Malaysia

T E C H N O L O G Y

M-115 Towed Arty M1151A1B1 Armored HMMWV M1152 Shelter Carriers M-116 Towed Atry M-120 Mors M-125A2 Mors M-139 Towed M151 Warhead M-160 Mors M-163 Vulcan AD Gun

M-46 Towed Arty

104, 167, 177, 321, 322, 326, 422, 434 321, 322, 326, 353, 357, 361, 373, 379, 381, 384, 388, 392, 398, 400, 406, 410 370, 371 355, 356 331, 355, 368, 370, 422, 440 422, 443 326 384 381, 382, 393 124 321, 326, 331, 347, 363 355 124 326 381, 388, 394, 400, 410 368, 381, 400, 403 331 333 347, 355, 363, 368 421, 429 410

B U S I N E S S

M-114 Towed Atry

M-46 Fd Gun

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

M-109/A2 SP Arty M-110 SP How M-110/A2 SP Arty M-113 APC M-113 Green Archer (mor) M-113/A1/A2/A3 APC

422, 442 355, 368, 370, 381, 384, 388, 392, 394, 396, 403, 408, 422, 442 331 422, 442 331, 350 331, 326 326 339, 341, 355, 363, 365, 368, 370, 373, 381, 384, 386, 388, 390, 392, 394, 396, 398, 403, 410, 422, 442 331, 355, 357, 363, 365, 368, 370, 373 331 124 124 357 122, 314, 319 381 321 62 381, 384, 406 370, 393, 394, 404, 410, 422, 443 351, 355, 370, 422, 443 379, 381, 410 353, 379, 384 321, 322, 344, 353, 357, 379, 381, 398, 406, 410 321, 379, 406, 410 321 379, 381, 406 353 314, 410 361 331, 422, 442 361 73, 124, 126, 381, 403, 415, 416 331, 388, 410 122 122 359 314, 321, 322, 388, 394, 396, 400, 403 321 122 355 379 321 348 322, 326, 331, 333 331, 333, 322, 326, 339, 347, 361, 365, 368, 384, 386, 388, 398, 403, 404, 408 422, 441 422, 442 321, 329, 333, 384, 410 319, 321, 329, 333

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

M-107 SP Gun M-109/A1/A1B/A2/A3 SP Arty

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Index


Index

www.spguidepublications.com

www.spsmilitaryyearbook.com

MFI-17B Mushaq MF-STAR Naval AESA radar MGK-4000 MH-47 Helicopter MH-60S Sea Hawk Helicopter Mi-17 Hip-H Multi-Role Helicopters

332 111 111 355 62, 132 116, 227,253, 312, 315, 316, 321, 322, 327, 329, 331, 333, 341, 357, 362, 374, 379, 390, 419,477,489 Mi-171 Helicopter 322, 344 Mi-171V5 Helicopters 132, 312 Mi-2 Helicopter 362, 379, 384 Mi-24 Attack Helicopters 312, 314, 315, 316, 317, 319, 331, 333, 353, 374, 379 Mi-24 Helicopter 477, 489 Mi-24V Attack Helicopters 312, 333 Mi-25 Helicopter 327, 384, 407 Mi-25/-35 Helicopter 228, 477, 489 Mi-26 Attack Helicopters 319, 327, 341, 357 Mi-26 Helicopter 228, 477, 489 Mi-35 Helicopter 270, 347, 384, 410 Mi-35P 333 MI-5 47 Mi-6 Helicopter 319, 344, 357, 374, 382, 477, 488 Mi-8/P/T Helicopter 227, 312, 314, 315, 316, 317, 319, 322, 327, 331, 341, 344, 345, 353, 357, 374, 379, 382, 384, 388, 407, 410 Michael Pillsbury 21 Michel Sulayman 297 Micro Shutters 78 Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) 67, 77 Micro-satellite thermal-control solution 78 Microwave Tube R&D Centre (MTRDC) 287, 291 Middle East Peace Process 380 MiG Operational Flying Training Unit (MOFTU) 213 MiG-17 U Training Aircraft 333 MiG-19 345, 353 MiG-21 Fighters 314, 327 MiG-21 FL Combat Aircraft 327 MiG-21/UM/F/bis 114, 115, 211, 212, 221, 231, 255, 260, 261, 341, 353, 357, 373, 374, 379, 382, 384, 407, 410, 477, 480 MiG-21bis Combat Aircraft 327 MiG-21M ECM 327 MiG-21MF Combat Aircraft 327, 379 MiG-21R 382 MiG-21U Training Aircraft 327, 382, 407, 410 MiG-23 UB Training Aircraft 333 MiG-23/-23B/23E Combat Aircraft 114, 115, 261, 353, 379, 384, 406, 477 MiG-23BN Combat Aircraft 113, 255, 327, 384, 407 MiG-23F 379 MiG-23MF Combat Aircraft 327 MiG-23U 384 MiG-25 Combat Aircraft 113, 116, 379, 384, 406, 477, 480 MiG-25R 379, 384, 407

MiG-25U MiG-27

MiG-27M Combat Aircraft MiG-27UM Training ac MiG-29 Fulcrum FTR MiG-29/C/N/NUB Combat Aircraft

MiG-29B Combat Aircraft MIG-29K Shipborne Aircraft MiG-29UB Fulcrum FGA MiG-31 Combat Aircraft MiG-35 Combat Aircraft Miguel Malvar offshore PCO Mihir Dunking Sonar MIHIR Helicopter Milan Anti-Tank Guided Missile

Milan RCL Military Budget: China Military Budget: Pakistan Military College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering Military College of Telecommunication Engineering Military Inc Military Training and Intelligence School and Depot Millimeter Wave (MMW) MIL-Standard-1760 MIM-104 Patriot Mindanao Mine & Obstacle Avoidance Sonar Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) vehicles Ming Class Patrol Submarine Ministry of Defence (MoD)

384, 407 38, 113, 114, 115, 211, 212, 213, 218, 222, 232 327, 333, 419, 477 327 312, 317, 319, 322 113, 114, 115, 187, 211, 212, 216, 231, 353, 359, 362, 379, 419, 477, 481 327 109, 205 319, 322, 327 312, 477, 481 115, 477, 481 363 270 111 106, 280, 281, 381, 384, 398, 400, 402, 406, 408 321 101 101 166 166 26 166 61 57 351 335, 363 69

118, 124, 133 444, 446, 447 147, 150.151, 153, 154, 165, 168, Ministry of Home Affairs 137, 139, 142, 144 Ministry of Information and Broadcasting 274 Mir Aimal Kansi 42 Mirage 2000 Combat Aircraft 113, 114, 115, 116, 211, 212, 216, 222, 231, 409 Mirage 2000B 382 Mirage 2000C Combat Aircraft 381 Mirage 2000H Combat Aircraft 327, 477, 479 Mirage 5 Combat Aircraft 477, 480 Mirage 5DE Combat Aircraft 381 Mirage 5DR Recce 384 Mirage 5E2 Combat Aircraft 382 Mirage 5PA3 332 Mirage 5SDR Recce 382 Mirage F-1AD Fighter 384 Mirage F-1BD Fighter 384 Mirage F-1C Combat Aircraft 477, 480 Mirage III B 332 Mirage III Combat Aircraft 477, 480 Mirage III OD 332 Mirage III RP Recce 332 Mirage IIIEP/OD Combat Aircraft 332 Mirage Multi-Role Fighter 419 Mirage-2000-5 Fighter 368 Mishra Dhatu Nigam Ltd (MIDHANI) 264, 268, 281 Missile & Gunnery School 187 Missile Firing Capability 72, 73 Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) 285 Mistral SAM 331, 355, 365,

512 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue

366, 465 420 430,431 420 326 331 348 128 119 348 62 123 327 379 464, 475 467, 468 477, 491 271 13, 216, 218 59, 60 233 274 5 58 296 387 322 307 335, 363 335 130 379, 437, 442 308, 315 296 315 380 59, 71, 73, 58 296 422, 437, 438 300 300 300 187 312, 315 322 312, 322, 422, 434 MTU 427, 429, 431, 437, 446, 450, 451, 456, 457, 458, 459, 463, 464, 465, 466, 467, 471, 474, 475 MTU 871 engine 437 MTU MB837 engine 429 MTU MB873 engine 427 Mubarak (Ex-US Oliver Hazard Perry) Frigate 381 Muhammad Naji Al-Utri 299 Muhammad Nasser 300 Muhammad Yusuf KALLA 296 Muheet Project 469 Mujahideen 42, 378 Mullah Omar 43 Multi Function Control Radar 110 Multi Role Transport Aircraft (MRTA) 271 Multi Sensor Data Fusion 73, 75 Multi-Barrel Rocket Launchers (MBRL) 104, 167 Multi-function Phased Array Radars 68 Multi-Role Combat Aircraft 115 Multi-Role Responsive Ordnance Kill Mechanism (MRROKM) 62 Multi-sensor Data Fusion 75 Mumbai terror attacks 137 Muscat 399 Muslim League 23, 42 Muslim National Liberation Front (MNLF) 363 Myanmar 5, 8, 17, 22, 30, 256, 298, 303, 305, 324, Mitsubishi Mitsubishi 10ZF /10ZG/6ZF/4ZF Engine Mitsubishi ATD-X Mk- 42C Hels (ASW/ASV) MK1/MK2 SAM Mk-109 Fighter MK15 Phalanx Close-In-Weapon System MK160 Gun Computer System Mk-209 Fighter MK66 Rocket Motor MK-82 Joint Direct Attack Munitions MKI/MKII Kiran Training ac ML-20 Towed Arty MM 38 Exocet MM 40 Exocet MMA P-8 Poseidon MMR Radar MMRCA Aircraft MOAB Bomb Mobile Observation Posts (MOP) Mobile Satellite Terminals Modernisation of the PLA Modular Guided Weapon System (MGWS) Mohamed Hosni El-Sayed Mubarak Mohammad El-Baradei Mohammed Touhid Huissain Mongolia Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) Moroccan Defence Ministry Morocco Moscow Mostafa Mohammad Najjar Motorized Rifle Division (MRD) Movement of Non-Aligned States (NAM) Moving targets Mowaffek al-Rubaie Mowag Piranha APC Mr. Abhisit Vejjajiva Mr. Korbsak Sabhavasu Mr. Suthep Thaugsuban MRASW Helicopter MRR Div Russia Army MSI Minesweepers MT-LB Multi-Purpose Tracked Vehicle


Naresuan Class Frigates NAS-330 Helicopter NAS-332L Super Puma Helicopter Nasik National Academy of Defence Production (NADP) National Accountability Bureau National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL) National Broadcasters Association National Cadet Corps (NCC) National Defence Academy National Defence College National Defence University (NDU) National Disaster Management Authority National Maritime Commission National Maritime SAR Coordinating Authority (NMSARCA) National Missile Defence system National Oil Company National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan (NOS-DCP) National People’s Congress National Rehabilitation and Resettlement Policy 2007 National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) National Search and Rescue Board (NSARB) National Security Adviser National Security Council (NSC) National Security Guard (NSG) National Security System NATO

NATO Airlift Management Organization NATO ISAF NATO-led peacekeeping mission Natya Ocean Naval Academy Naval Aircraft Yard (NAY) Naval Materials Research Laboratory (NMRL) Naval Physical & Oceanographic Laboratory (NPOL) Naval Research Board (NRB) Naval Science & Technological Laboratory (NSTL) Naval War College Navigation & Direction School

268 24 271 47 284 166 166 147 50, 54, 270 34 239, 241, 242 343 383 236, 241 342 32 32 236 7, 46 330 142, 145, 146, 324 91, 94 4, 16, 17, 24, 25, 35, 39, 42, 45, 308, 320, 321, 331, 385, 386, 411 120 320 320 384 187 187 287, 291 111, 287, 291 289 287, 291 256, 259, 262 187

124 104 300 300, 373 387 383 295 266 355 368 289, 326 353 69 325 318 64 41 409 375, 376, 392 144 144 4, 17, 18, 298, 332, 335, 336, 343, 351, 352, 354, 355, 367, 425, 431, 432, 433, 434, 435, 436, 444, 447, 456, 459, 460, 461, 478, 481, 485, 486, 488, 489 North Waziristan 320 North West Frontier Province (NWFP) 23, 174, 211 Northrop Grumman 59, 62, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 124, 125, 130, 132, 274, 408, 477, 484, 492 Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding 127 Nouri al-Maliki 296 Novator Alfa Klub SS-N-27 missile 446 NS 9003/9005 ESM 457, 458, 459 Nubra Valley 144 Nuclear Biological Chemical (NBC) weapons 4 Nuclear proliferation 4 Nuclear strike mission 57 Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) 17, 18, 325 Nuclear Weapons 334, 352, 355 Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) 168, 171

513 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue

288 322 366 422, 430, 438, 458, 459, 467, 468 Officers Training Academy 166 Official Languages Act 139 Offset Banking 85, 87, 88, 89, 90, 93, 264 Offset Policy 87, 88, 89, 90, 101 Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPV) 236, 241, 243 OH-6D/DA Helicopter 350 Oil & Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) 184, 270, 278 Okinawa 349 Oliver Hazard Perry Class Frigates 418 Olympics 334, 344 Oman 266, 280, 298, 303, 305, 376, 399, 401, 424, 426, 434, 436, 437, 438, 439, 440, 441, 469, 482, 483, 485, 486, 487, 488, 491 Omani port of Salalah 35 Omega Sensors team 78 On Board Inert Gas Generating System 270 Operation Bajrang 256 Operation Desert Storm 59, 60 Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) 307, 385 Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) 385 Operation Parakram 46, 253, 254 Operation Pawan 258 Operation Vijay 254, 257 Operations Research and System Analysis (ORSA) 38, 39 Opto Electronics Factory 267 Oqil Oqilov 300 Order of Battle (ORBAT) 169, Ordnance Cable Factory 267 Ordnance Clothing Factory 267, 268 Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Ambajhari (OFILAJ) 268 Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Avadi (OFILAV) 268 Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Dehradun (OFILDD) 268 Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Ishapore (OFILIS) 268 Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Kanpur (OFILKN) 268 Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Khamaria (OFILKH) 268 Ordnance Factories Institute of Learning Medak (OFILMK) 268 Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) 265 Ordnance Parachute Factory 267 Organisation of Indian Air Force Headquarters 214, 215 Organisation of Indian Army Headquarters 162, 163, 164 Organisation of Indian Coast Guard Headquarters 237 Organisation of Indian Navy Headquarters 185, 186 Organisation of Integrated Defence Staff 148 Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) 401 Organisation Structure of OFB 265 Organisational Structure of Defence Research & Development Organisation 287 Organizational Command & Control of Central Police Forces 146

C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

Obstacle Avoidance Sonar OCU with 8L-39ZA Albatross FGA/Ftr Oerlikon Oerlikon-Contraves

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Netherlands Network centric operations Network Centric Warfare (NCW) Network Enabled Operations (NEO) New Afghan Army (ANA) New Zealand Next Generation Command and Control Processor (NGC2P) Nexter Nguyen Minh Triet Nguyen Tan Dung Nicholas Burns Nicholas Sarkozy Nick Warner Nigeria Nike Hercules SAM Ning Hai FAC Nishant remotely piloted vehicle No-dong SSM Non Acoustic Sensor System Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) Non-Nuclear EMP Weapons Non-proliferation Non-Proliferation Treaty North Africa North Assam North Bengal North Korea

O

310 297 310

T E C H N O L O G Y

Nagaland Nahang Class Submarine Nairobi Najim Frigate Najin Class Submarine Nampo LCPL Nanchang A5s Nandimithra Missile Craft Nanjing Nanuchka Class Corvettes

146 145 348 297 106, 280, 285, 286 143, 144, 256 418 251 381 353, 444, 460 353 419 333 367, 368 379, 384, 444, 462 370, 444, 465 348 348 272, 273

Nuclear-arms policy Nursultan A Nazarbayev NWFP

B U S I N E S S

N.P.S. Aulakh N.R. Das N-22B Searchmaster Nader al Dahabi Nag Anti-tank Missile

216 213 132 274 77 23, 42, 46 30 347 347, 348 347, 348 105 245, 248 33 5, 6, 22, 30, 31, 257, 266, 270, 298, 303, 305, 308, 310, 323, 328, 329, 419, 425, 437, 439, 440, 486, 487, 488, 489 274 13 108, 110, 114 114 320 18, 339, 365

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

N

Navigation and weapon-aiming sub system (NavWASS) Navigation Training School Navistar Defense Navratna NAVSTAR-GPS Nawaz Sharif Naxal NB-412 Helicopter NBO-105 Helicopter NC-212 Transport Aircraft NDA government Neelam Nath NEFA Nepal

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

325, 334, 335, 336, 357, 360, 361, 369, 370, 423, 434, 435, 439, 478, 479, 481, 485, 487, 489

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Index


Index

Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) ORSA ORSA and Technology (ORSAT) OSA II Class FAC OSA Missile Craft OSA-AK (SA-8) missile systems Osama Bin Laden Oshkosh Corp OT-62 APC OT-64 MBT Oto Melara

Outer Space Treaty OV-10 Bronco Aircraft OV-10F Recce Aircraft Owl Screech Fire Control Radar Oyashio Class Submarine

P

P 15A - Kolkata Missile Destroyers P. Chidambaram P138 MRLs P-17 Stealth Frigates P-27 Air-to-Air Missile P-3C Orion

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P8I Multi Mission Maritime Aircraft PA-34 Seneca Transport Aircraft PA-38 Tomahawk Training Aircraft PAC-3 Missiles Pacific Ocean Padma Vibhushan Pakistan Air Force (PAF) Pakistan

Pakistan Aeronautical Complex Pakistan Army Pakistan Muslim League Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK) Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) Pakistani Navy Palestine Palestine Authority (PA) Palm Frond Radar Palmaria SP How Panavia Tornado Panchkula Panhard 4HD engine Panhard APC Pan-Islamic terrorist organisations

216, 222 148, 151, 153 39, 153 384 353, 373 106, 116, 167 42, 43 128, 133 326, 379, 381, 384 326, 341, 379 422, 429, 457, 458, 464, 466, 468, 469, 472, 473, 474, 475 13 364 348 462 350, 418 187, 278 46, 138, 139 317, 319 278 345 109, 331, 350, 355, 356, 477, 491 109 348 348 117, 334, 368 334, 367 251 419 4, 5, 8, 16, 17, 18, 23, 97, 101, 102, 103, 105, 106, 108, 113, 137, 142, 153, 157, 170, 174, 175, 192, 241, 298, 303, 305, 307, 308, 310, 320, 321, 324, 325, 330, 331, 335, 343, 352, 365, 392, 411, 412, 413, 414, 416, 417, 418, 419, 424, 425, 427, 429, 431, 432, 434, 435, 436, 437, 438, 441, 442, 453, 455, 456, 466, 471, 478, 479, 480, 483, 486, 487, 488, 489, 491, 492 419 23, 24, 25, 26, 42, 43 23, 42 25, 137, 307, 310 23 417 375, 391, 392 375, 391 449, 462 384, 421, 429 420 275 426, 427 421, 426 30

Panoramic Vision Papua New Guinea Paralysis warfare Paramilitary Forces under Ministry of Home Affairs Paris Club Paris II Donors Conference Pasamlung and Jakarlung valleys Pashtun Passive Sonars Passive Surveillance Sonar Patriot Advanced Capability-3 missile systems (PAC-3)

72 365 20 138 378, 389 397 323 24, 308, 320, 330 69 288

21, 127, 134, 393, 396, 408, 422, 443 Pattani Corvettes 371 Paveway 2/3 bomb 479 Paveway I/II/III LGB 57,58 Paveway technology 57 Pax Iranica 16 PC-7 Aircraft 359, 362 PC-9 Aircraft 340, 362, 371 PCC 7 Jija Bai Msls 326 Peace Mission 2005 21 Pearl Harbour 33 Pechora SA-3/3A Surface-to-Air Missile 116, 382 Pegaso 9157/8 437 Pegasus SLWH 104 Penang 358 Pennant list – Indian Navy 189 Pentagon 21, 41, 44, 46 People’s Liberation Army (PLA) 5, 8, 19, 20, 21, 22, 29, 30, 65, 413 People’s war 19, 20, 21 Perdana PFM 359 Performance Summary of DPSU 269 Perkins CV-12 engine 438 Perkins CV8 440 Perng Fai-nan 367 Persian Gulf 8, 16, 108, 385, 395, 396, 418 Personnel Below Officer Rank (PBOR) 166 Perspective Planning Directorate 38 Peru 270 Pervez Musharraf 330 Peshawar 25, 42 Phalcon radar 392, 393 Pham Gia Khiem 300 Philippines 298, 303, 305, 339, 358, 359, 362, 363, 368, 372, 373, 429, 439, 442, 484, 486, 488, 490 Philips 468 Phuttha Yotfa Chulalok Frigate 370 Pike Jaw sonar 447, 448, 459 Pilotless Target Aircraft (PTA) 286, 289 Pin Klao FF 370 Pinaka MBRL 104, 167, 421, 428 PKT 7.62mm Machine Gun 73 PL-9C-Low Alt SAM System 421, 424 PLA Air Force 21, 22 PLA Navy 5, 8, 21, 22, 478 PM-120 Mors 319 Po Hang Class Corvettes 356, 444, 464 Poland 390, 397 Police and the Meteorological Department 274 Polisario Front 379 Polnochny LSM 379, 381, 406 Poluchat TRV 379 Popeye Missile 59 Porbandar 35 Portugal 428, 442, 471 PR-57/-67 ECM 327

514 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

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38th Year of Issue

Pradeep Kumar Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) Pranab Mukherjee Prathapa (PRC mod Haizhui) Patrol Coastal Pratibha Devisingh Patil PRC AD Guns PRC T-69II MBT PRC Type 59-1Towed Arty PRC Type-031/Romeo Submarine PRC Type-56 AD Guns PRC Type-85 APC Precision Electronic Limited Precision Guided Munitions (PGM) President Ahmedinijad President Askar Akayev President Barack Obama President Berdimuhamedow President Karimov Prince Bandar Bin Sultan Bin Abdul Al-Aziz Al-Saud Principal Maintenance Officers Committee (PMOC) Principal Personal Officers Committee (PPOC ) Principe De Asturias class Aircraft carrier Principle Staff Officer (PSO) Prithvi Surface-to-Surface Tactical Battlefield Support Missile

248, 252 32 107 333 245, 251 329 361 331 353 329 333 106 65, 103, 419 16 313 41, 44 316 318 299 149 149 444, 465, 475 146, 166, 184 167, 280, 281, 285, 288, 325, 326, 327 243

Priyadarshini Fast Patrol Vessel Processor Based Advanced Exercise Mine (PBAEM) 288 Procurement Procedure-2008 101 Product Enhancement Programme 59 Professor David Shambaugh 19 Professor Samuel Huntington 42 Project-95 20 Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI) 339, 365 Proof and Experimental Establishment (PXE) 287, 291 Provincial Aerospace Ltd 134 Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRT) 308 Proxy war 3, 5 PRP-4 Recconnaissance Vehicle 422, 433 PSOC (Principal Supply Officers Committee) 149 PT-6 Training Aircraft 322, 333 PT-76 Lt Tk 347, 348, 353, 357, 373 PT-76B Lt Tks 422, 432 Puerto Rico 251 Pulsed Chemical Lasers 65 Pulsed Energy Projectile 65 Puma Support 331 Pushpa Kamal Dahal 298, 328 Pyongyang 352, 355 Python missiles 116 PZF 44 RL 355 PZL Mi-2 Helicopter 348, 353 PZL W-3 Sokol Helicopter 362

Q

Q-5C Strike Aircraft Qahir Class Corvettes Qatar

Qatar–Bahrain Friendship Bridge Qiang – 5 Combat Aircraft Qinetiq North America Qiryat Shemona Qiuxin and Huangpu Shipyards Quad missile launcher

345 444, 468 17, 18, 298, 303, 305, 375, 376, 385, 401, 425, 426, 427, 479, 488, 489 385 477, 478 129 392 455, 456 422, 435, 449, 450, 453, 458, 461, 462, 463, 465, 469, 470,


515 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

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38th Year of Issue

S

S.N. Mishra S-125 (SA-3B) SAM S-300PMU1/-300PMU2 SAM S52 Shorland Recce Vehicle S-58T Helicopter S-60 Ad Gun

245 327 345 386 348 314, 317, 321, 322, 341, 347, 348, 353, 357, 379, 381, 382, 384, 406, 410 350 359 359 319 382, 404 470 465, 466 368 344 319 477, 490 469, 477, 487 331 477, 487 477, 488

S-61 Helicopter S-61A-4 Helicopter S-61N Helicopter S7 SP Arty S-70 Helicopter S-70B-2 Seahawk S-70B-7 Seahawk S-70C Defender Helicopter S-70C2 Helicopter S9 Gun/Mor S-92 Helicopter SA 316/319 Alouette III Helicopter SA 319B Naval Aviation Helicopters SA 330 Puma Helicopter SA 341/342 Gazelle Helicopter SA 360/AS 365 Dauphin, SA 365/366 Dauphin II, AS 565 Panther Helicopter 477, 487 Sa’id Bin Hamd Al-Busa’idi 298 SA-10 Grumble SAM system 20, 312, 422, 436 SA-11 21 SA-13 Gopher SAM system 317, 321, 326, 394, 406, 410, 422, 436 SA-14/-16 Surface-to-Air Missile 379, 394, 406, 410 SA-15 Gauntlet 20 SA-16 Gimlet Surface-to-Air Missile 20, 326, 332, 394 SA-16S-13 SAM 327 SA-2 Guideline Surface-to-Air Missile 312, 314, 316, 382, 384 SA-3 Surface-to-Air Missile 312, 314, 316, 379, 382, 384, 410 SA-315B Lama Utility 331 SA-316 Helicopter 329, 332, 344, 356, 359, 362, 384, 398, 408 SA-316B Helicopter 329 SA-319 Alouette III Helicopter 331 SA-321 Helicopter 344, 345 SA-330 Helicopter 331 SA-342 Helicopter 344 SA-342K Helicopter 382, 409 SA-342L Helicopter 382, 402, 407 SA-360 Helicopter 357 SA4 /SA5 SAM 312 SA-4 Ganef SP 314 SA-6 Surface-to-Air Missile 106, 312, 326, 379, 382, 384, 407, 410 SA-7 A/B Grail 379 SA-7 SAM 314, 317, 321, 326 SA-7/Ayn-as-Saqr 381 SA-7-13 SAM 384 SA-8 Gecko SAM system 317, 326, 327, 379, 384, 394,

C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

287, 291 291 251 444, 458 288 100 103 356 351 356 347 104, 475 120 113 268 317 362, 373 370 402, 403, 404, 410, 416, 418 RM-70 MRL 333, 384 Robotic Warfare 76 Rocket Pod 270 Rogun dams 315 Rohini MPR 116,288 ROK Killer Patrol Inshore 333 Rolls Royce 122, 129, 271, 439, 440, 484, 489, 492 Rolls Royce B60/B80/K60/Mk IV engine 438,439,440 Romania 390 Romanian Air Force 120 Romeo Class Patrol Submarine 444, 447, 459 Ronald Reagan 77 Rosoboronexport 104, 167, 271 Round Ball Fire Control Radar 456 Royal Air Force 113 Royal Albert Dock 467 Royal Australian Air Force 134 Royal Bhutan Army 323 Royal Lao Air Force 357 Royal Lao Navy 357 Royal Navy 121, 122, 123, 127, 129 Royal Saudi Air Force 126, 127, 420 Royal Thai Navy 466 RPG-7 Rocket Launcher 312, 314, 317, 321, 331, 384, 388, 398, 400, 406, 410 RQ-4B Global Hawks 121, 124 Rubin 461 Rudolfo Giuliani 46 Ruposhi Bangla PCC 322 Rusian Erkinovich Mirzayev 300 Russia 4, 9, 10, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 43, 98, 104, 109, 111, 115, 116, 167, 174, 184, 187, 188, 193, 195, 198, 207, 220, 221, 223, 231, 232, 271, 273, 288, 289, 307, 308, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 318, 319, 421, 422, 431, 433, 434, 435,

Federation Field Gun GLONASS Howitzer Navy President Vladimir Putin

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

298 449 106, 457, 458, 470 Rafael Advanced Defense Systems 274 Rafale Combat Aircraft 115, 383, 477 Rafiq Hariri 397 Rahmat Frigate 359 Rail/Coil Guns 65 Railway Protection Force 324 Rajah Humabon Frigate 363 Rajendra Phased Array Radar 286, 289 Ram Bahadur Thapa ‘Badal’ 298 Ram Baran Yadav 298, 328 Ramsay Yusuf 42 Ramses II 381 Ranajaya (PRC Haizhui) Patrol Coastal 333 Ranarisi (PRC Shanghai II) Patrol Coastal 333 RAND Strategic Assessment System (RSAS) 39 RAND Study 101 Range finders and designators 72 Ranvir Guided Missile Destroyer 256, 259 Rao Birendra Singh 194 Rao Inderjit Singh 245, 248, 252 Rapid Action Force (RAF) 115, 144, 145, 211, 213 Rapid Reaction Forces 12 Rapier Sam 339, 347 Rashtriya Rifles (RR) 105, 254, 324 RASIT Radar Carrier 331, 428 Ratcharit Class Fast Attack Missile Craft 371, 444, 475 Ratel 90 APC 422, 436 Ratnasiri Wickremanayake 299 Rattanakosin class Corvettes 370 Rawalpindi 23, 24 Raytheon 104, 106, 118, 119, 120, 122, 124, 125, 127, 129, 130, 134, 408, 459, 463, 464, 465, 466, 469, 470, 474 Raytheon Missile Systems 127, 128 RBS-70 SAM 339, 347, 365 R-Darter Super 530 332 Real Time Information System (RTIS) 74 Rear Adm Boutros Abi Nasr 297 Rear Admiral A.G. Thapliyal 247 Rear Admiral Ferdinand Golez 298 Rear Admiral P.K. Chatterji 247 Rear Admiral S. Pillai 247 Rear Admiral S.P.S. Cheema 247 Rear Admiral V.K. Namballa 245, 249 Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Target Acquisition (RSTA) 103 Red Corridor 30 Red Flag 219, 220 Red Sea 108 Redeye SAM 355, 370 Regional Anti-Terrorism Structure 308 Regional Cooperation Agreement on

287, 291

Russian Russian Russian Russian Russian Russian

444, 461, 462, 477, 479, 480, 485, 488, 491 132 104 77 104 446, 461 318

T E C H N O L O G Y

Radio Frequency (RF) Radio-steered bombs RADM Ahmed al-Sahab al-Tenaiji RADM David Beb Ba’ashat RADM Habibollah Sattari RADM Ratmir Komratov RADM Salim Bin Abdullah Bin Ashid Al-Alawi Raduga SS-N-22 Sunburn Missile Rafael

381, 382 326 448, 451, 453, 454, 466, 467, 468, 472, 473, 474 65 57 300 296 296 297

241 5, 30, 31 77 426 365 81, 89, 216

B U S I N E S S

R4E-50 Skyeye UAV R-550 Magic1/2 ASM Msls Racal Decca Navigation Radar

Combating Piracy (ReCAAP) Religious extremism Remote Sensing (RS) Renault MIDR Engine Republic of Singapore Air Force (RSAF) Request For Proposals (RFP) Research & Development Establishment (DMSRDE) Research & Development Establishment (R&DE (ENGRS) Research Center Imarat (RCI) Reserve Bank of India Reshef Class Fast Attack Craft Revathi Radar Revenue & Capital Ratios Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) RF-4C Recce Aircraft RF-4E/EJ Recce Aircraft RF-5A Recce Aircraft Rh 202 AD guns Rheinmetall Rheinmetall Waffe Munition RIAF (Royal Indian Air Force) Rifle Factory River Amu Darya River Patrol boats River Salween Riyadh

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

R

473, 474 363, 371 295

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

Queen Air Aircraft Queen Elizabeth II

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Index


Index

SA-8B SAM SA-9 Gaskin SAM system

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Saab Saab 2000 Airborne Early Warning & Control SAAB 91 Safrai Saab-Ericsson ERIEYE Airborne Early Warning system Sabquat Missile Craft SACM V8X1500 engine Sagamihara Saganthit Island Sagar MSO Sagarika project Sagem Défense Sécurité Sahrawi Arab Sakhalin Islands Saladin Recce Vehicle Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC) Salam PCC Salisbury Class Frigate Salonibari SAM-7 Kvadrat-Strela Medium Range Missile Samar Advanced Offshore Patrol Vessel Samdech Hun Sen premiar Samsung SAMTEL HAL Display System Ltd Samvahak Samyukta Integrated Electronic Warfare Programme San Juan Patrol Craft SA-N-12 Grizzly SAM SA-N-7 Gadfly SAM Sanaa Sandia National Laboratories Sangamo SQS-23 sonar Sang-O Class Submarine Sangram division-level war game Sangtuda I/II hydropower dam Saparmurat Nyyazow Sapri Saqr-10/-18/-36 MRL Saqr-80 Surface-to-Surface Missile SAR Naval Aviation Helicopters Saracen APC SARAS Light Transport Aircraft Sarath BMP-2 ICV Sariwon Corvettes Sarojini Naidu Fast Patrol Vessel Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB) SATCOM combat data systems

406, 422, 435 326, 327 379, 381, 406, 410, 422, 436 115 477, 492 331

SDB T54 Seaward Defence Boat Sea Archer Sea Dolphin (Kilurki-11) patrol force Sea Dragon Sea Eagle AAM Sea Harrier Shipborne Aircraft Sea King

419 331 425 416 361 322 281 117, 118 379 350 333, 347, 379, 386, 408 378 322 444, 466 144 106 243 296 104, 463, 464 272 289

289 364 449 449 409 78 469 353, 444, 459 38 315 316 144 381 381 331 333, 347 271 105, 167 353 243 142, 144, 324 448, 450, 451, 453, 464, 468, 470, 473 Sattahip Patrol Craft 371 Satyajeet Rajan 245 Saudi Arabia 8, 299, 303, 305, 375, 376, 385, 395, 396, 401, 402, 403, 408, 409, 410, 411, 412, 413, 416, 418, 420 Sayaru PSO-2 333 Sayyid Badr Bin Saud Bin Harib Al-Busa’idi 298 Schilka Tracked Air Defence Gun System 106, 435 School of Artillery 166 Schweizer Hughes 300C 331 Science & Technology Roadmap 2025 111 Scientific Analysis Group (SAG) 292 Scorpene Class Submarine 196, 417, 444 Scorpion Lt Tk 347, 359, 363, 370 Scud B/C surface-to-surface missile 106, 321, 353, 373, 381, 384, 406, 408, 410

Sea King Mk 42A/B Hels (ASW/ASV) Sea King Mk-45/Mk Sea King MK47 Helicopter Sea King MK50/A Helicopter Sea Lanes Of Communication (SLOC) Sea Sparrow missile Sea Tiger Sea Wolf Class FAC Seagull radar Seahawk Helicopter Search And Rescue (SAR) Searcher – II UAV Searcher MKII UAV Searcher-I UAV Seaward Defence Boat (SDB) Rajkiran Seawolf Air Defence System Second World War Seeker Integrated Target Endgame Sensor (SITES) Selenia Elsag Albatros Self Defence Forces (SDF) Semi-active laser seeker Senior Gen Than Shwe Sensor Fuzed Weapon Sentel Corporation Sepecat Jaguar Serge Brammertz Services Capital Acquisition Plan (SCAP) Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Committee (SCAPCC) Services Capital Acquisition Plan Categorisation Higher Committee (SCAPCHC) Service-Wise Share of the Defence Budget—A Comparison Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Sevmash Shipyard Seward Defence Boats (SDB) SF- 260WL Trainer SF-260 M/W Training Aircraft SF-260TP Training Aircraft SH-2G Super Sea Sprite Helicopter SH-60J/K Helicopter Shadow Tactical Unmanned Aircraft Systems Shahab-3 Missile Shaheed Daulat PFC Shaheen 1 Shaikh Mohammed Bin Mubarak al Khalifa Shakti Project Shaldag Patrol Inshore Shang Class Strategic Missile Submarine Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) Shanghai II Coast Guard Shanghai Patrol Craft Shangri La Shark Teeth sonar Shaurya Chakras Shavkat Mirziyayev Shear Thickening Fluid (STF) Shebaa Farms Sheikh Dr Mohammad Sabah Al-Salem Al-Sabah Sheikh Hamad Bin Jassim Bin

187 466, 468 356 109 111, 326, 327 105, 205, 259, 477, 482 110, 187, 197, 198, 199, 200, 203, 206, 208 326 331 382 340 8 355 8 365 450, 451, 452, 453 371 187, 208, 230, 236, 239, 241, 242 106 327 106 244 123 57 62, 333 474 349 57 298 58 121 113 405 81 150 82, 96, 151 155 364 417 236 384 348 333 382 350 129 387 322 331 295 105, 270 333 444, 445 4, 307, 308, 318 322, 381 345, 353 192 446 144 300 76 392, 397, 398 297

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38th Year of Issue

Jabr Al-Thani Sheikh Hasina Sheikh Jaber Mubarak al-Ahmad al-Sabah Sheikh Khalifa bin Salman al-Khalifa Sheikh Mohammed bin Isa al-Khalifa Sheikh Nasir Muhammad al-Ahmad al-Sabah Sheikh Salim al-Sabah Sheikh Tamim Bin Hamad Al Thani Shekhar Agarwal Sherry Rehman Shershen Coastal Patrol Shia

299 295, 310, 322 297 295 295

297 297 299 245 42 381 16, 25, 375, 385 Shigeru Ishiba 297 Shimon Peres 296 Shinzo Abe 334, 349 Shirane Class DDH 350, 418 Shishumar Class Submarine 195, 326, 444, 471, 472 Shiv Shankar Menon 322 Shivalik Class Frigates 417 Shmel UAV 353 Short Reaction Time 72 Shri Amarnathji Shrine 30 Shuja Nawaz 26 Siachen Glacier 166, 253, 256 Sibarau Minewarfare Vessel 347 Sidearm 490 SIGINT 13, 109 SIGMA 95N Navigation System 117 Signaal SEWACO 465, 474 Sikorsky 110, 127, 132, 466, 470, 477, 490 Sikorsky S-70B-2 Helicopter 110, 340 Silent Guardian 65 Siliguri Corridor 323 Silk Road 307 316 Simba APC 363 Sin Hung fast torpedo craft 353 Sinai border 380 Sinai-23 AD Gun 382 Sindhughosh Class Subamrine 195 Singa Missile Craft 347 Singapore 123, 171, 192, 220, 243, 254, 256, 299, 304, 306, 336, 339, 360, 364, 365, 422, 426, 429, 436, 438, 442, 483, 484, 486, 487, 490, 492 Singapore Army 365 Singapore Technologies 104 Singapore Technologies Marine Ltd 131 Single-stage two-bid 86 Sinmalaik Corvettes 362 Sino-Indian border 137, 170, 325 Sino-Japanese 334, 349 Sinpo Patrol Craft 353 Sintra DUUX-5 sonar 445, 471 Sishumar Class Submarine 444 Six Day War 392, 398 Six Party Talks 18 Six Sigma 274 Sixth Central Pay Commission (SCPC) 194 Sixth Pay Commission 175 Skardu 104 Skin Head Surface Search Radar 456 Sky Hawk 393 Skyguard SAM 382, 400 Skylark 105 Skylite 105 Skyvan Transport 348 Skyvan Transport Aircraft 329 SLAM-ER (Expanded Response) 59 Smadikun FF 347 Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) 308


South Korean Navy South Ossetia South Waziristan Soviet Army Soviet Koni Class Frigate Soviet Union Sovremenny Class Destroyer SP 83 SP Arty SP Abbot How SP ZSU-23-2 AD Guns SP/ SA-7 Grail MANPAD SAM Space Age Space Technology 5 (ST5) mission Spain Spartan APC Special Action Groups (SAG) Special Forces Special Frontier Force Special Protection Group Special Ranger Groups (SRG) Sperry Sea Archer SPG-9 RCL Spin Trough Surface Search Radar Splav MR System Spratly Islands Sputnik Spy Satellites Spyder squadron with 3 An-32 Cline

310 144 307 417 98, 104, 299, 335, 336, 352, 354, 355, 365, 367, 422, 432, 433, 437, 438, 441, 442, 443, 444, 460, 462, 483, 484, 485, 486, 487, 489, 490, 491 418 4, 17, 411 308 42 384 16, 17, 21, 42, 113, 307, 313 417, 444, 449, 461 319 422, 440 326 321 13 78 422, 437, 440, 442, 444, 471, 474, 477, 485 394, 400 146 12 324 324 146 468 314, 321 462 422, 435 336, 358, 359, 368, 372, 373 13 76 116

Sriprakash Jaiswal SS 21(Tochka) SSM SS11B1 Anti-Tank Guided Missile SS-21 SSM SSC San Diego SSM Missile SSPH-1 Primus SP Arty system Stabilization Staff Brig (Navy) Said al-Suwaydi Staff Brig Ali Saeed al-Hawal al-Marri Staff Brig Fahid Bin Saif Al-Khiaren Staff Evaluation Report Standard Missile II (SM-2) Standing Conference of Public Enterprises (SCOPE) Stanley Star Safire III Stabilized Multi Sensor Systems Starstreak START III treaty State Condoleezza Rice State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA) Steer Hide Sonar Stenka Patrol Craft Stentor Long-Range BFSR Stephen Philip Cohen Steve Hildreth Steyr Daimler Puch Pandur II Wheeled Armored Vehicles Stinger SAM

272 122 119 490 22 325 51 462 341 106, 326 23 20 134 316, 331, 350, 351, 353, 355, 368, 381, 386, 389, 392, 396, 402, 403, 490

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute Storm Shadow Air-to-Ground Missile Stormer APC Straits of Hormuz Strategic and Technical Environment Assessment (STEA) Strategic Defence Review (SDR) Strategic Forces Command (SFC) Strategic Guidance for Transformation Strategic Missile Submarines (SSBN) Strategic Studies Institute String of Pearls Stryker Vehicles Su-100 SP Atk Guns Su-17 Bbr/FGA Su-20 Combat Aircraft Su-22 Combat Aircraft Su-24 Combat Aircraft Su-24 Recce Su-24E Combat Aircraft Su-24M Combat Aircraft Su-24Mk Combat Aircraft

412 479, 484 347, 359, 422, 439 16, 418 149 149 147, 149 107 444 380 8 125 379, 410 317, 319 384, 410 384, 407, 410 312, 319, 477, 478, 481 312 379 379 379, 384, 388

517 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue

Su-27SK Su-27UB Ftr Su-27UBK SU-30 Multi-Role Fighter Su-30K Combat Aircraft Su-30MK2 Su-30MKI Combat Aircraft

Su-30MKK Fighter Su-30MKM Fighter Su-7 Su-7B Training Sub Harpoon SSM Submarine Training School Submarines, 2008 Sudan Suez Canal Sugashima mine warfare Sukanya Class Large Patrol Crafts Sukhoi Sukhoi-30MKI Multi-Role Fighters Sukhoi-7 Sultan Mizan Sultan Qaboos bin Sa‘id al Busaid Summary of the output of the defence industry SUMMIT V technology Sun Tzu Sunni

Super Dvora Class Fast Attack Craft Super Galeb G4 Aircraft Super King Air Super King Air B-200T Super Lynx Helicopter Super Puma Helicopter Super Sea Sprite Helicopter Super-7 (FC-1) Supersonic Missile Supreme Commander General Boonsrang Niumpradit Surface-to-Air Missiles (SAM) Surya ICBM Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono SWAT Sweden Swift Patrol Craft Switzerland SY-1 SSM Sydney Syed Yousaf Raza Gilani Sylhet Hill Sylvania SPS-10 radar Synthetic Aperture Radar Syria

263 78 8, 20 16, 375, 378, 380, 383, 386, 389, 393, 395, 397, 398, 399, 405, 409 326, 333, 444, 459 362 339, 340, 382 379 359, 371 469, 477, 487 340 479 59 300 61, 69, 106, 114 22 296 310 104, 422, 437, 477, 482, 492 364, 365 422, 437, 487 454, 455 470 24, 298 322 469 59, 68, 109 16, 17, 299, 304, 306, 376, 392, 397, 398, 405, 406, 431, 432, 433, 434, 435, 436, 480481, 482, 485, 486, 488, 489

C O N T E N T S W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

Squid Head ESM Sri Inderapura LSt Sri Lanka

Su-27 Combat Aircraft

312, 315, 319, 353, 477, 481 21, 312, 319, 419, 420, 477, 479, 481 348 319 345, 374 21 114, 256, 477, 482 345 114, 212, 216, 218, 223, 224, 327, 419, 477, 482 345, 373, 419, 477, 482 420 353 317 463 187 417 17, 380, 424, 433 35, 380 350 281 477, 478, 481, 482 281 261 297 399

CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

Square Tie Surface Search Radar

Su-25 Combat Aircraft

T E C H N O L O G Y

South Asia South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation (SAARC) South Bengal South Caucasus South China Sea South Korea

292 444, 460 425, 426 274 353 353 353, 444, 460 274 292 339 104, 421, 429 35, 36 253 417, 444, 446 9, 18, 90, 103, 104, 105, 220, 422, 429, 436, 438, 459 307 to 333

322 454, 456, 460, 462 448, 454, 455, 456, 460, 461 446 359 7, 8, 12, 52, 145, 166, 174, 184, 212, 236, 253, 258, 260, 299, 304, 306, 308, 310, 324, 325, 331, 332, 333, 423, 424, 431, 433, 437, 439, 459, 478, 480, 481, 485, 486, 482 138, 140 312 106, 280 406, 410 78 321, 326, 325, 331, 327, 312 422, 436 71, 72 299 299 299 85 128

B U S I N E S S

Snow & Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE) SO-1 Class Large Patrol Craft Sofam Model 8 Gxb engine Software Defined Radios Soho Frigate Sohung Patrol Craft Soju Class Fast Attack Craft Solar Photo Voltaic Systems Solid State Physics Laboratory (SSPL) Solomon Islands Soltam Somali Somalia Song Class Patrol Submarine South Africa

Transport Aircraft Square Head IIF radar

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

Smita Nagraj Smiths Aerospace Snecma Snecma HAL Aerospace Pvt Ltd Snoop Plate radar Snoop Tray radar

267 58 104, 379, 396, 408, 422, 435 245, 248 271 271 271 447, 448, 459 445, 446, 447, 448

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

Small Arms Factory Small Diameter Bomb Smerch MRL

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Index


Index

T

T R Fehrenbach T. Ramachandru T-12/MT-12 Attack Guns T-34 MBT T-37B Training T-400 T-43 Mine Countermeasure T-45A Trainer Aircraft T-45C Trainer Aircraft T-54 ECM T-54/-55 MBT

T-59 MBT T-60 Trg T-62 MBT

T-64/B MBT T-72 MBT

T-80-series Tanks T-90 Bhishma T-90 Main Battle Tank T-90S MBT

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Ta’if Accord Tactics and Combat Development Establishment (TACDE) Tadiran Taechong Patrol Craft Taipei Taiwan

Taiwanese Air Force Taiwanese Navy Tajik civil war Tajikistan

T-AKE Dry Cargo-Ammunition Ship Taliban

Talwar Class Frigate Tambaram Tamil Tiger Suicide Bomber Tamir Sonar Tamu-Kalewa-Kalemo road Tanguska SPAAG SAM Tarabai Inshore Patrol Vessel Taran Tul Class Corvettes Target Designation through Satellite Target tracking and co-incidence window firing

5 245, 250 314, 317, 319, 312,379 353, 357, 373 322, 332 351 379, 381, 406 131 131 327 176, 321, 322, 326, 331, 333, 341, 353, 357, 373, 379, 381, 384, 388, 390, 392, 394, 410, 422, 431 373 326 312, 319, 321, 353, 373, 379, 381, 384, 388, 406, 410, 422, 431, 432 319, 422, 432 103, 104, 167, 176, 312, 314, 315, 317, 319, 326, 361, 379, 384, 388, 390, 406, 410, 414, 422, 432 73, 104, 331, 355, 422, 432 283 283, 414 73, 104, 167, 326, 176, 422, 432 397 213, 256, 260 167 353 367, 368, 416 15, 21, 39, 128, 300, 304, 306, 334, 335, 336, 342, 343, 358, 367, 368, 372, 373, 413, 416, 418, 420 420 418 315 300, 304, 306, 307, 308, 310, 314, 315, 319, 325, 432, 433, 435, 485, 488, 489 117, 132 106, 137, 174, 307, 308, 310, 315, 320, 321, 330, 331 109, 111, 444 213 333 447, 448 325 326 243 444 74 71

Taro Aso Tashkent Tata Tatarstan Tatra 928 engine TATRA mobile launcher TC-90 Aircraft Technical Evaluation Committee (TEC) Technical Offset Offer (TOO) Technical Oversight Committee (TOC) Technical Type Training (TETTRA) Technology Research and Development Institute (TRDI) Tehran

297 318, 319 104 307 425 105 350 83, 85, 92 89, 90 85, 92 213 416 16, 386, 396, 403, 406 218, 270, 288, 419 256 441 382 347 347 347 347

Tejas Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) Tel-Aviv Teledyne Continental AVDS-1790-2C Teledyne-Ryan Teluk Amboina LST Teluk Gilmanuk LST Teluk Langsa LST Teluk Semangka LST Terminal Ballistics Research Laboratory (TBRL) Territorial Army (TA) Test Pilots School Textron Textron Lycoming AGT Textron Marine & Land Systems TH-67 Creek Helicopter Thailand

Thales Thales-Raytheon Systems The Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) The Defence Procurement Board (DPB) The Defence Production Board The Dynamic Analysis and Re-planning Tool (DART) The Iranian Army The Republic of Korea (ROK) Army The Royal Saudi Army Thermal Imagers Thermal Imaging Stand Alone Sights (TIASA) Thermal Imaging Terminal Seeker Thimpu Thiruvananthapuram Thomas Batilo PCC Thomson

Thomson Sintra DUUA Sonar Thomson Sintra Spherion Sonar Thomson-CSF Arabel Radar Thomson-CSF Calypso Radar Thomson-CSF Crotale SAM Thomson-CSF DRUA Radar

292 105, 169, 170, 171, 172 213 287, 292, 440, 490 440, 490 121, 128 368 15, 39, 184, 266, 300, 304, 306, 335, 336, 339, 341, 357, 360, 361, 369, 370, 372, 423, 424, 428, 437, 439, 441, 442, 443, 444, 451, 465, 476, 483, 484, 485, 486, 487, 489, 490, 491 110, 111, 127, 470, 472, 473, 475 130 82, 85, 86, 88, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 96, 101 81, 85, 86, 91, 92, 95, 96, 101 101 76 416 416 416 72, 73, 78 167 58 323 212 363 447, 451, 458, 459, 468, 469, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475 471 468 472 471 468, 473 471

518 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue

Thomson-CSF Tavitac Combat Data Systems Thomson-CSF THD 1040 Neptune radar Thyssen Nordseewerke Tibet Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) Tien Kung-1/-2 SAM TIME magazine Timsah coastal patrol Tiruchirapalli Todak Missile Craft Tokara coastal patrol boat Tongue sonar Tor-M1 SAM Torpedo Defence System, Maareech (ATDS) TOW-2 ATGW TOW-2A ATGW Trade and Investment Framework Agreement Tral Corvettes Transfer of Technology (ToT)

451, 473 458, 459 457 5, 21, 50 343 368 42, 43 381 267 347 351 449 20 288 381, 392, 404 355

407 353 9, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 96, 104, 266, 419 Transitional Federal Government 35 Treaty of Brotherhood 406 Trends In India’s Defence Expenditure 98 Trident I (C4) missile subsystem 132 Trident II (D5) missile subsystem 132 Trinity Marine Patrol Inshore 333 Trishul Surface-to-Air Short Range Missile 106, 167, 280, 285 Trojan War 33 Trout Cheek sonar 445 TRV71 Torpedo Recovery Vessel 187 Tsunami 7, 9, 10, 12, 49, 52, 346, 369 TT-18 ECM 327 Tu-134 Transport Aircraft 316, 319, 353, 477, 485 Tu-134A Transport Aircraft 316 Tu-142 Transport Aircraft 109, 326, 477, 491 Tu-154 Transport Aircraft 312, 353, 477, 485 TU-154M Recce Aircraft 345 Tu-16 Badger 478 Tu-22 Aircraft 384 Tunguska System 106, 422, 435 Tupolev 477, 485, 491 Turbo Commander 690A Recce Aircraft 364 Turbomeca 116, 270 Turkey 17, 129, 134, 307, 308, 320 Turkic Group 308 Turkish Navies 130 Turkmen 320 Turkmenistan 300, 304, 306, 307, 308, 310, 316, 317, 319, 432, 433, 434, 435, 436, 481, 486, 488, 489 Type 54 (M-30) Towed Arty 322 Type 59-1 331, 333 Type 88-A/-B 344 Type- 92 APC 344, 345 Type SU 60 APC 422 Type123 PHT 322 Type-53 (M-1937) Mors 322 Type-53 (M-1943) Mors 322 Type-531 APC 353 Type-54 (ZIS-3) 322 Type-55 AD Gun 322, 331, 344 Type-56 (D-44) Guns 333 Type-59 (M-46) Towed Arty 322 Type-59 (S-60) AD Guns Towed 322, 331 Type-59 MBT 322, 331, 341,


Type-89-I APC Type-90 AD Gun Type-90 Combat Vehicles Type-90-II Main Battle Tanks Type-91 Kei- SAM Type-91 Kin- SAM Type-91 SAM Type-92 APC Type-93 SAM Type-96 MBT Type-98 Main Battle Tanks Type-98A MBT Type-99 How

U

U.S. Congress U212A Submarines UAE Air Warfare Center UCAC ACV UH-12E Helicopter UH-1H/J Helicopters

325 131 408 345 382 312, 331, 350, 356 127

UH-1Y Aircraft UH-60/UH-60A/UH-60J/UH-60L/UH-60P SH-60/S-70 Helicopter 127, 350, 351, 355, 382, 386, 393, 403, 477, 490 Uighur-led Islamic Party 308, 343 Ukraine 17, 104, 433, 434, 435, 449,

519 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

2008-2009

38th Year of Issue

325 251 29, 30 14, 52, 105, 106, 108, 110, 112, 116, 274, 289, 326, 327, 331, 333 Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV) 59 Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) 288 Unmanned Platforms 76, 69 Unrestricted warfare 4 UPA Government 324, 325 UR-416 APC 331 US Air Force (USAF) 13, 14, 57, 77, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 124, 125, 130, 132, 133, 407, 408 US Army 21, 105, 117, 18, 119, 120, 121, 122, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 385, 401 US Army Aviation 117, 119, 126, 132, 134 US Army Science Conference 76 US Army’s Armament Research and Development Centre (ARDEC) 65 US Army’s Land Warrior programme 105 US Defence Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA) 408 US Marine Corp 62, 118 US Marines 49 US Maritime Strategy 2008 8 US Missile Defense Agency 133 US MOAB 59 US Naval Air Systems 119, 128, 129 US Naval Sea Systems Command 128 US Navy 7, 8, 16, 35, 109, 117, 118, 119, 121, 124, 125, 126, 127, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 385, 401, 408 US Pacific Command 39 US Senate 325 US-1A Aircraft 350 US-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement 385 USS Enterprise 119 USS Gerald R. Ford Future Aircraft Carrier 127 USS Theodore Roosevelt 130 USSR 252, 307, 311, 315, 316, 448, 455, 456, 460 UTD-20 Engine 433 UTD-29 M Engine 433 Uzbek President Islom Karimov 313 Uzbekistan 300, 304, 306, 307, 308, 310, 311, 313, 315, 317, 318, 319, 432, 433, 434,

C O N T E N T S CONCEPTS & PERSPECTIVES

387

T E C H N O L O G Y

United States National Intelligence Estimate-NIE United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval University of Cambridge UNLF Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

B U S I N E S S

Type-64 ATGW Type-64 Lt Tk Type-65 RCL Type-66 Gun How Type-69 MBT Type-72 AD guns Type-73 Anti Tank Guns Type-73 APC Type-74 AD gun Type-74 MBT Type-75 MRL Type-75 RCL Type-75 SP Guns Type-77 II (BTR 50PK) APC Type-79 ATGW Type-79 MBT Type-80 Twin SP AA gun system Type-80SP AD gun Type-81 MRL Type-81 SAM Type-82 APC Type-82 MRL Type-83 Arty Type-83 MRL Type-85 AD gun Type-85 APC Type-85 MBT Type-86A AIFV Type-87 ATGW Type-87 Recce Vehs Type-87 SP AD gun Type-88 Coastal SSM Type-88 MBT Type-88 SP AD gun Type-89 Combat Vehicles

318, 320, 325, 331, 401, 403, 405, 406, 407, 408, 410, 411, 412, 416, 418, 419, 420, 421, 422, 440, 444, 466, 469, 470, 475, 483, 486, 489, 491, 492

I N D I A N D E F E N C E

Type-63 MRL

450, 451, 452, 477, 485 Ukraine gas turbines 450, 451 ULFA 29, 30 Ulsan Class Frigates 356, 444, 463, 465 Ultra-lightweight field howitzer (UFH) 104 UN High Commission 323 UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNFIL) 166 UN Mission in Ethiopia-Eritrea (UNMEE) 166 UN Peacekeeping Missions 349 UN Security Council 35 Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS) 168 Under-Barrel Grenade Launchers (UBGL) 105 Underwater Communication System 288 Underwater Weapons 70 Unicorn APC 333 Uniflex Cables 111 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 315 Uni-polar 4, 18 Unit Maintenance Vehicle (UMV) 288 Unit Repair Vehicle (URV) 288 United Arab Emirates (UAE) 220, 300, 304, 306, 375, 401, 407, 408, 411, 424, 425, 426, 427, 428, 433, 435, 438, 439, 479, 485, 486, 487, 488, 490, 491 United Arab Emirates Armed Forces 134 United Kingdom (UK) 39, 98, 104, 117, 121, 123, 127, 129, 146, 157, 169, 173, 187, 200, 205, 213, 220, 223, 224, 244, 272, 274, 390, 401, 408, 418, 419, 421, 422, 438, 440, 444, 466, 467, 469, 477, 482, 486, 489, 490 United Nation (UN) 16, 35, 376, 378, 383, 387, 392, 398, 405, 409 United Nations Convention on Laws of the Sea (UNCLOS) 235 United Nations Security Council 334, 376, 383, 387, 405, 409 United Nations Security Council (UNSCR 1386) 320 United Progressive Alliance (UPA) 324 United States (US) 4, 6, 7, 8, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 22, 24, 35, 37, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 90, 97, 98, 101, 102, 104, 105, 106, 109, 111, 115, 169, 173, 179, 181, 187, 220, 227, 233, 252, 258, 259, 266, 285, 288, 335, 375, 376, 383, 384, 385, 387, 389, 390, 391, 392, 394, 395, 396, 399, 307, 308, 310, 311, 313, 314, 315,

A S I A N W H O ’ S W H O

Type-63 APC Type-63 Light Tanks

344, 353, 370 421, 424 344, 373 322, 341, 344, 353, 373, 421, 423 322 341, 344, 345, 361, 421, 423 341, 345, 353, 361, 373, 384, 388, 406 350 368 344, 373 333, 421, 424 322, 331 331 344 350, 422, 430 344, 361, 370 350, 422, 429 350, 422, 431 344 350, 422, 430 344 350 344 421, 424 344 344 350, 351 350 344 331, 344, 345 344 344 361, 370 331, 333 344 350 350, 422, 430 350 350 355 344 421, 422, 423, 430 344 344 350, 361, 421, 423 421, 423, 430 351 351 350 344, 345 350 344, 350 421, 422 344 350, 422, 431

R E G I O N A L B A L A N C E

Type-59-1 Fd Gun Type-60 Towed Arty Type-62 Light Tanks

W E A P O N S E Q U I P M E N T V E H I C L E S

Index


Index

Uzbekistan President Karimov

V

V Radhika Selvi V-150 Commando APC

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V-54 Engine V-59 Engine V-6 Engine VAB APC VADM Danilo Abinoja VADM Talal Ibn Salem Al-Mufadhi VADM Tamer Abd El Aleem Mohamed Ismail VADM Wadil Nasser VADM Wasantha Karannagoda, VAdm Zhang Dingfa Value of Production & Sales Values of stores assured by DGQA Vandana Srivastava VBL Recce Vehicle Vector UAV Vehicle Research & Development Establishment (VRDE) Venezuela Vertex Aerospace Vertical Line Array Directional Frequency Analysis Vessel and Traffic Management System (VTMS) VH-60 Helicopter Vice Adm Russ Shalders Vice Adm SJ Nijam Vice Adm Soe Thein Vice Admiral Anil Chopra Vice Admiral Anup Singh Vice Admiral D. Deshpande Vice Admiral D.K. Dewan Vice Admiral Devendra Kumar Joshi Vice Admiral Dilip Deshpande Vice Admiral J.S. Bedi Vice Admiral Nirmal Verma Vice Admiral Raman P. Suthan

435, 481, 482, 485, 486, 488, 489 318

467 466, 469 353

W

Walid APC Wallerstein Wal-mart Wapiti Aircraft War Establishment (WE) War of Independence War on terror

138, 140 347, 368, 370, 371 435 434 432, 433 421, 426 298 299 296 299 299 296 269 283 245, 249 347 331 292 15, 17 131 69

Vietnam War Vijay Singh Vijayant Tanks Vikram Offshore Patrol Vessel Vikram Srivastava VIP Communications Squadron Vir Chakras Viraat Aircraft Carrier

34 356 295 295 298 246, 250, 262 246 185 185, 247 185, 247, 256 247 247, 259 247, 259 108, 185, 247, 254 247, 259 246, 262 317 296 298 121 365 300, 304, 306, 336, 341, 357, 358, 359, 368, 372, 373, 423, 431, 432, 433, 434, 435, 436, 442, 462, 480, 482, 485, 486, 488, 489 41, 44, 57 245, 248, 252 103 243 143 115 144 256, 259, 262

Virginia-Class Submarine Vishvajit Sahay Vision Statement of the Indian Navy Visual Stimuli and Psychotropic Weapons

118 245, 249 107 65

Vice Admiral S.K. Damle Vice Admiral Vijay Shankar Vice President Hamid Ansari Vice Senior General Maung Aye Vice-Admiral Asaf Humayun Victoria Class Submarines Victory Class Corvettes Vietnam

VLS Seawolf SAM Vosper Thornycroft VTT-323 APC

381 18 25 113 105 378 12, 15, 16, 24, 25, 43 Wargaming Development Centre (WARDEC) 38 Washington 20, 25, 42, 46, 343, 352 Wasp HAS-1 Helicopter 348 Watchdog ESM 454 Waterloo 25 Waziris 23, 25 Waziristan 23, 25 Weapon Locating Radars (WLR) 104 Weapon System Officer (WSO) 58 Weapons Control Systems 72, 73 Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) 13, 15, 335, 365 Weeraya (PRC Shanghai) Patrol Coastal 333 Wellington 166, 213, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 262 Wen Jiabao 296 Wen Wei Pao 417 West Asia 307, 375, 410 West Bank 375, 391, 392 Western Asia 307 Western Asia and North Africa (WANA) countries 392 Western Pacific Naval Symposium (WPNS) 192 Western Sahara 379 Westland 463, 468, 489 Westland Sea King Helicopter 477, 489 Westland Super Lynx Helicopter 463, 466, 468, 469 Whale Sonar 449 White House 387 Wilga Helicopter 347 Williams F107–WR-105 turbofan 59 World Bank 341, 380 World Economic Outlook (WEO) 324 World Military Expenditure, 1988-2007 98 World Rank 305 World Trade Organization (WTO) 313, 340, 372, 383, 399, 402 World Trade Towers 42, 46 World War II 47, 113, 350 Wright brothers 13 Wuhan 20 WZ-523 APC 344 WZ-9 Helicopter 344 WZT-3 ARVs 326

X

XIA Class Strategic Missile Submarine Xian H-6 Badger bomber Xinjian Xinjiang XM 1111 Mid-Range Munition

Y

Y-11 Transport Aircraft Y-12 Transport Aircraft Y-12 Transport Aircraft Y-5 Transport Aircraft Y-7 Transport Aircraft

2008-2009

Yi Sun Shin Destroyer YJ-1 SSM YJ-61 Missile YJ-62 SSM YJ-83 Missile YJ-8K Missile Yogyakarta YPR-765 AIFV YS-11/E/M/T Yuan Class Submarine Yubari FFG Yudeng LSM Yugo Class 70-ton Submarines Yuhai Amph Yuhai LSM Yuhin Amph Yukan LST Yukto I/II Minesweeper Yuliang LSM Yung Chuan Minesweeper Yung Feng Minesweeper Yura LCU Yushio Class Submarines Yusotei LCU Yuting LST Yuushio Submarine

Z

345

ZSU-57-2 AA Gun System ZU-23 Towed ZU-23-2 AA Gun

331, 332, 333, 341, 345, 357 345, 353 345, 357

Zumwalt-class Destroyer Zvezda SS-N-25 SSM

118, 129 461

444, 445 419 307, 313 343 120

38th Year of Issue

Z-10 Helicopter Z-142 Training Aircraft Z-5 Helicopter Z-9 Helicopter Z-9C ASW Helicopter Zainal Abidin Zia bharti ZIL 375 V8 Engine ZIL-123 Engine Zimbabwe Zionists ZIS-2 Atk Gun ZIS-3 Towed Arty ZPU-2 AD Gun ZPU-4 AD Gun ZSU-23-4 AD Gun

312, 357 477, 485 60 434 433 434 356 256 454 334, 349 17 300, 304, 306, 376, 409, 410, 431, 432, 433, 434, 435, 436, 441, 442, 443, 456, 462, 480, 481, 484, 485, 486, 488, 489 356 448, 452, 453, 455 345 450 345 345 346 381, 386 350, 351 417 350 345 418 333 345 322 345 353 345 368 368 350 418 350 345 350 344 379 353 345 345 298 26 435 434 17 42 379 321 379, 388 381, 388 314, 317, 321, 379, 381, 382, 384, 393, 394, 406, 410 167, 179, 422, 435 422, 435 321 326, 422, 436

520 SP’S MILITARY YEARBOOK

Yak-18 Transport Aircraft Yakovlev Yak-40 Transport Aircraft YAL -1A YaMZ 238V Engine YaMZ-238M2 Engine YaMZ-238N Engine Yang Yang Minesweepers Yangon Yard Rake IFF radar Yasukuni Shrine Yeltsin Yemen

ZSU-23-4 Schilka


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SP's Military Yearbook 2008-2009  

SP's Military Yearbook as an authoritative source of information not only in the Indian subcontinent and Asia, but the world over. Four deca...

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