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T h e O N LY j o u r n a l i n A s i a d e d i c a t e d t o L a n d F o r c e s

In This Issue

To understand the Kargil conflict one must know the military and terrain peculiarities of this part of the LoC, which falls amongst the highest snow fall regions of the Himalayas (Dosai Mountains).



E di torial

Photographs: Sharad Saxena

Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor

Combat capabilities can be multiplied with information age technologies and systems that could confer greater power on smaller combat formations, eliminating the need for large troop buildup in the conflict zone.



Face t o Fa c e

Explaining his stance at Sharm-el-Sheikh to the Lok Sabha, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh mentioned, among other issues, that several important steps had been taken to modernise and strengthen India’s defence, security and intelligence apparatus. Large acquisitions of major weapon systems and platforms had been approved for modernisation of the armed forces. At face value, the statement was gratifying, but will it fructify in time for the Indian armed forces to feel confident of their military capability in the face of mushrooming challenges? Our military capability against our most formidable future challenge, namely China, is doubtful and the pace at which Beijing is modernising its military is daunting, to say the least. The Chinese People’s Liberation Army’s defence budget since 2000 has more than doubled, from $27.9 billion (Rs 1,36,040 crore) to $70 billion (Rs 3,41,320 crore). India’s Defence Budget for 2009-2010 is Rs 1,41,703 crore ($29 billion). Official figures notwithstanding, US officials believe China’s real budget in 2008 was between $105 billion (Rs 5,11,887.5 crore) and $150 billion (Rs 7,31,373.5 crore)—and in 2009 it is more than $200 billion (Rs 9,75,353). Despite India’s modest defence budgets, the Ministry of Defence nearly every year returns large unspent amounts due to the complex nature of the procurement process. With regard to China, it would be prudent to heed the Chairman Chiefs of Staff Committee and Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Sureesh Mehta’s statement at the National Maritime Foundation function wherein he said: “In military terms, both conventional and non-conventional, we neither have the capability nor the intention to match China force for force.” Delhi cannot afford to lose any more time.

Launch of SP’s Special Supplement at the C4I2 Summit held in Delhi on August 10 and 11 (Report on p9)


“The AAD can bring to bear adequate fire power to meet and defeat such a (perceived) threat.”— Director General of Army Air Defence Lieutenant General Ram Pratap, AVSM, VSM expresses optimism for national plans to counter emerging air threats.

‘Pragmatic approach to MODERNISATION’ Vice Chief of Army Staff LIEUTENANT GENERAL NOBLE THAMBURAJ, PVSM, SM, ADC spoke to SP’s Editor-in-Chief Jayant Baranwal and SP’s Land Forces Editor Lieutenant General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor on the key aspects of acquisition, capability enhancement and manpower development 4/2009 SP’S LAND FORCES


area. Toward this end, our endeavour is to achieve complete removal of night blindness of infantry, mechanised forces and other combat support units and systems. Intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance capabilities are also being enhanced in a phased manner, to increase situational awareness in the area of interest. We are hopeful of achieving requisite capabilities during the 11th Army Plan period.

SP’s Land Forces (SP’s): The dynamically evolving global and regional security environment is giving rise to new forms of security challenges. Is the Indian Army (IA) structured and organised to meet futuristic challenges?

Lieutenant General Noble Thamburaj (VCOAS): The nature of warfare is changing and evolving rapidly. There is a significant overlap today between external threats, proxy war, counter insurgency and counter terrorism operations. Internal and external security have today become inextricably linked. We are fully alive to this transition. The Indian Army, therefore, needs to remain prepared and trained to fight across the spectrum of conflict. We also need to build credible ‘out-of-area contingency’ capabilities to protect our interests and render military assistance to friendly countries, including humanitarian assistance or disaster relief, when mandated. Accordingly, our defence capability planning is based on a ‘threatcum-capability’ based approach with focus on upgradation of our operations capability, through modernisation, force restructuring, technology absorption and commensurate infrastructure development in a phased manner. Concurrently, human resource development is being given a renewed focus to facilitate induction of quality manpower to support a technology oriented army. We are also consciously working towards preparing our leadership to acquire skills to be able to respond dynamically to the changing security paradigm.

SP’s: The vision statement of IA envisages capability to operate effectively in an integrated joint service environment. What measures are being contemplated for achieving tri-services synergy and operational effectiveness?

VCOAS: The history of military warfare has clearly demonstrated that no single component of military power—be it land, maritime or air—can win wars alone. It is an operational imperative, therefore, to synergise and optimise the capabilities of the three services for joint war fighting. The three services have made a start towards achieving jointness in various operational, training and administrative fields. We have made significant strides by setting up HQ Integrated Defence Staff (IDS), establishment of the Defence Intelligence Agency, creation of a TriService Andaman and Nicobar Command and the Strategic Forces Command. At functional level, exercises are being conducted regularly. All this is leading us towards greater understanding of each other’s capabilities and constraints. HQ IDS and the Service HQs have been jointly developing various joint warfighting doctrines and concepts. However, a lot still remains to be done. The appointment of Chief of Defence Staff to provide ‘single point’ advice to the government is a priority. In the future, there is a need to create Joint Functional Commands in specified areas and ultimately Joint Theatre Commands to achieve true triservice synergy.

SP’s: The IA has a pragmatic modernisation programme. What kinds of capabilities are being developed to meet futuristic threats? What are the priorities for induction of technology?

VCOAS: Modernisation is a complex and dynamic process impacted by operational challenges, emerging technologies and budgetary support. Review of modernisation of the Indian Army is a periodic institutional exercise which is conducted regularly, wherein force levels, gestation periods as well as life time support of equipment are assessed against the capabilities desired. The resultant outputs form the basis for formulation of the Long Term Perspective Plans (covering 15 years period), Service Capital Acquisition Plans (five-year plans) and Annual Acquisition Plans. The 11th Defence Plan has earmarked a substantial component of the budget for modernisation. The focus is on precision fire power, air defence, aviation, Future Infantry Soldier as a System, infrastructure development, network centricity and achieving battle field transparency through improved surveillance, night vision and target acquisition.


SP’s: With the defence budget hovering around 2 per cent of the GDP, we feel it is not possible to modernise and prepare the army to cater for the future threats and challenges whose trend are already visible on the horizon. What measures are being taken to ensure that planned modernisation continues without being affected by financial challenges?

VCOAS: Adequate defence outlay has been earmarked by the government to meet the genuine defence requirements. Government has time and again assured that enhanced defence outlay will be made available, as and when required, to achieve modernisation goals. With the formulation of Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) 2008 and reforms in procurement procedures, the pace of capital procurement has increased, resulting in overall enhanced combat effectiveness and utilisation of allocated financial outlay. SP’s: Does the force planning, which primarily hinges on ‘capability and threat’ based approach, cater to the challenges


SP’S LAND FORCE S 4 / 2 0 09

“Given the prevailing security scenario, the future shape of the army needs to cover capabilities across the spectrum of conflict, of which sub-conventional war forms an important determinant.” of sub-conventional war, which the IA is deeply involved with?

VCOAS: The intended shift from ‘threat based’ to a ‘threat-cum-capability based’ force development strategy adequately meets the envisaged future challenges. Given the prevailing security scenario, the future shape of the army needs to cover capabilities across the spectrum of conflict, of which sub-conventional war forms an important determinant. Recognising that the army’s involvement in low-intensity conflicts is likely to continue in the foreseeable future, we are focused in honing capabilities to be able to effectively deal with internal conflict situation, such as externally abetted proxy war, insurgency, militancy and urban terrorism. SP’s: Emerging trends indicate exploitation of space for military purpose. How are various space vectors being developed to optimise operational capabilities? What is your take on a Space Command?

VCOAS: The trend towards usage of space based military applications has increased manifold the world over in the past decade. More and more nations are enhancing their space based capabilities for military purposes. The growing importance of space has necessitated the Indian Army to take numerous initiatives for optimum exploitation of space, which include formulation of Army Space Vision 2020, creation of Army Space Cells at various levels, space related train-

ing and enhanced representation in space related defence committees. Since space is tri-service domain and space capabilities come at a huge cost, have global coverage and require highly trained manpower, there would be a need to set up a tri-service organisation for optimising different functions of space at various levels. While at present an Integrated Space Cell has been established in HQ IDS, in due course we envisage the creation of a Tri-Services Space Command. Army being the largest user of space based applications would contribute appropriately to the Space Command. SP’s: Deployment of unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV) by the US forces has added a new dimension in the application of force. What measures have been taken to acquire this capability for the IA?

VCOAS: Armed UAVs have played an important role in recent times. They are known for their ability to conduct missions in moderate-to-high-risk situations without fear of loss of life. The Indian Army has analysed their usage in detail and their induction is envisaged as part of our modernisation plans. SP’s: In the ongoing 11th Army Plan, what are our plans to enhance the night fighting capabilities and battle field awareness?

VCOAS: Enhancing the night fighting capability of the Indian Army is a priority focus

SP’s: How is the IA balancing the dual demand of futuristic force development with investment in current technology that ensures operational preparedness and balance the mix of old, contemporary and futuristic technologies?

VCOAS: Induction and modernisation of equipment/weapon system in a large army like ours has to be organised in a pragmatic manner. Considering the receding span of technological cycle, right balance has to be maintained between state-of-art, current and obsolescent technologies. To ensure this, our modernisation programme has envisaged having an appropriate mix of weapon/equipment, comprising 30 per cent state-of-art technology, 40 per cent based on current technology and 30 per cent equipment nearing obsolescence, which can be upgraded. SP’s: DPP 2008 reasonably streamlined the procurement procedure. However, procedural complexities are still causing delay, impeding the modernisation process of the IA. What measures are being contemplated to reduce lead time for procurement?

VCOAS: A number of measures have been taken to ensure optimum realisation of modernisation plans with maximum utilisation of Capital Budget allocations. Evolution of Annual Acquisition Plans after detailed deliberations and their periodic reviews have helped in monitoring the progress and lend impetus to the modernisation plan. Streamlining of procurement processes as related to formulation of General Staff Qualitative Requirements, scaling, categorisation, Request for Proposal, trials and Transfer of Technology is reviewed regularly. The army is confident that these measures will ensure force modernisation is accomplished, as envisaged. SP






Hawk XXI

Tec hnolog y

Photographs: Raytheon

Raytheon’s Hawk XXI Air and Missile Defense System: Combat-proven Technology and Modernized for Today’s Threats


aytheon recently responded to Indian government’s request for quick reaction surface-to-air missile system requirement, offering the combat-proven Hawk XXI system. The recently signed end-use monitoring agreement between the U.S. government and Government of India will give Raytheon the opportunity to further discuss a range of air and missile defense alternatives with India, including Patriot. Raytheon is a world leader in integrated air and missile defense solutions and its systems have been proven in combat around the world. Hawk XXI is a completely modernized and significantly upgraded version of the combat-proven Hawk system that is used and trusted by 17 countries throughout the world. It offers an effective and affordable mediumrange air and missile defense solution. When working together in a layered approach, Raytheon’s Hawk XXI, Surface Launched AMRAAM and Patriot can intercept a wide range of incoming aerial targets to protect against almost any combination of threats.

Patriot Radar

Hawk XXI Air and Missile Defense System


SANJAY KAPOOR Vice President, Patriot Programs

Hawk XXI Radar

Hawk XXI defeats fixed wing aircraft, helicopters, UAVs, cruise missiles and short-range ballistic missiles. The system consists of six major components. Its command post performs critical command and control functions, including automatic data processing, friend or foe identification, and digital voice and data communications. The continuous wave acquisition radar and the sentinel threedimensional phased array radar provide low-to-medium-altitude target detection, while the high-power illuminator tracks and illuminates targets. The Hawk missile performs the target kill function, providing a formidable defense against fixed


SP’S LAND FORCE S 4 / 2 0 09

and rotary wing aircraft, cruise missiles and short-range tactical ballistic missiles. The launchers, in addition to their missile-aiming function, support pre-launch commands and transport the missiles in tactical situations. Surface Launched AMRAAM is a complementary capability within the Hawk XXI system. Every Hawk XXI fire unit has one Surface Launched AMRAAM launcher with AMRAAM missiles. Thus, Hawk XXI combines the long-range, expanded target set capability with the high fire power of the Surface Launched AMRAAM system to achieve a highly lethal air and missile defense capability.

Technological Evolution

Since its development in the 1960s, Hawk has undergone extensive upgrades and a series of major spiral development efforts including Improved Hawk, Product Improvement Program (PIP) 1-3 and today’s Hawk XXI. 1984 marked the last new-build production of Hawk; however, technology continued to be infused to stay ahead of evolving threats. Today’s

Patriot Launcher

Hawk XXI provides increased firepower, enhanced reliability, improved maintenance and an integrated air defense capability.

Global Deployment of Hawk

Hawk was first fielded in 1959 by the U.S. Army and U.S. Marine Corps as the world’s first mobile air defense system. It was deployed on the U.S. coast and during the high profile Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. Thereafter, international countries began to add Hawk to their defense inventory, including the Netherlands, France, Italy, Germany, Israel, Japan and others. At its peak, Hawk was in frontline service with 20 allied nations worldwide. It was also used in numerous conflicts. In 1965,

it was the first surface-to-air missile system deployed in Vietnam and its radars were used for air defense surveillance. In 1967, Israeli troops downed several Egyptian jets with Hawk missiles and in 1990 Kuwaiti Hawk batteries downed 22 attacking Iraqi aircraft. Hawk was also deployed by the U.S. Army and Marine Corps during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm in 1991.

A Comprehensive Air and Defense Capability

Countries can continue to improve Hawk or they can transition to Surface Launched AMRAAM. Some countries value having the combined, complementary capabilities of Hawk XXI and Surface Launched AMRAAM. The Hawk XXI elements provide limited tactical ballistic missile capability, as well as support longer range and higher altitude engagements, while the Surface Launched AMRAAM elements provide multiple simultaneous engagements and distributed launcher deployments. Countries that upgrade with Surface

same so the upgrade to Surface Launched AMRAAM begins when upgrading to Hawk XXI. Hawk XXI is immediately and fully interoperable with the combat-proven Patriot air and missile defense system, and its capability against short-range missiles complements Patriot’s capability against long-range threats. Patriot is the world’s only combat-proven, longrange air and missile defense system. Today, Patriot is deployed by 12 countries around the world, including the U.S. Army, which uses it as the foundation of its integrated air and missile defense capability. Together, Hawk XXI, Surface Launched AMRAAM and Patriot can provide protection as part of an integrated air and missile defense strategy.

In–Country Industrial Participation

Upgrades to the state-of-the-art Hawk XXI can be done within the country purchasing the system, providing significant industrial participation opportunities. For Indian industry, Hawk XXI represents

Hawk XXI Missile Firing

Launched AMRAAM realize the benefits of higher fire power. The Surface Launched AMRAAM missile is an active missile. To illuminate its target, the AMRAAM missile has its own onboard radar while Hawk XXI relies on the ground illuminator radar. As a result, Surface Launched AMRAAM enables missiles to be fired at many targets simultaneously. Active seeker missiles, however, are more expensive than the semi-active ones used in Hawk XXI. Upgrading to or purchasing Hawk XXI allows for the infusion of Surfaced Launched AMRAAM into Hawk at a slower, more affordable rate. The command and control, as well as the sentinel radar for Hawk XXI are the

the opportunity to co-produce major components of the system and participate in the integration activities. These projects will benefit Indian industry, both in and outside the defense sector, and the Indian government. Raytheon will work with selected Indian industrial partners that have the core capabilities to co-produce major end items. Some of the major Indian companies with potential for industrial participation include BEL, BDL, M&M, BEML, TATA group and Larsen & Toubro. The selection of Indian industry partners will ensure that capabilities meet technical, schedule, quality and cost requirements and also the expectations of the Indian Army and Government of India. SP

I n ter view

‘Two-pronged strategy for OPTIMAL AD’ Director General of Army Air Defence LIEUTENANT GENERAL RAM PRATAP, AVSM, VSM expressed optimism for India’s plans to counter emerging air threats during an interaction with SP’s Editor-in-Chief Jayant Baranwal and SP’s Senior Technical Group Editor Lieutenant General (Retd) Naresh Chand

SP’s Land Forces (SP’s): Military analysts say the impact of modern air and space power on the battlefield is changing the nature of wars. Your comments.

Lieutenant General Ram Pratap (DGAAD): Space has become the new high ground of military operations and use of satellites has become a major force multiplier. The 1990 Gulf War demonstrated the advantages yielded by space applications to the US Forces. Development of space based force enhancement to extend strategic frontiers and military modernisation has gained impetus in many countries, including those in the South Asian Region. The strategic aim of a military space programme is to seek, secure and maintain information superiority in the context of a conflict. It translates into enhanced situational awareness at all levels, down to the soldier on the battlefield. As far as modern air power is concerned, it will continue to play a dominant and decisive role in future conflicts. This translates into the need of modernisation of Army Air Defence (AAD) to meet the enhanced air threat. SP’s: What is the current and future pattern of air threat globally?

DGAAD: Traditional air threat from fixed and rotary wing aircraft will continue to evolve as an expensive but highly capable multi-role weapon system with improved night capabilities, longer stand off ranges, greater accuracy and lethality. While these threats will continue to remain formidable, it is appreciated that the proliferation trend would be more towards unmanned systems like Tactical Ballistic Missiles (TBMs), cruise missiles, air-to-surface missiles, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and rockets. Factors of cost, training, operational needs and strategies to counter enemy capabilities would further fuel this trend. Significant number of TBMs or UAVs can be acquired for the price of one or two highly sophisticated aircraft, without the attendant costs of training, maintenance, basing and sustaining a manned aircraft fleet. UAVs will increasingly be used for attack, decoy, electronic warfare and suppression of enemy air defence (AD) missions, while retaining the traditional reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition reconnaissance missions. Large caliber rockets and multiple launch rockets with multiple war head options, long range and high rates of fire will pose a deadly threat to the field force. Electronic warfare would also be used concurrently as a decisive element of combat power duly integrated with the fire support plan as a soft kill option. All these require AAD to be modernised to meet diverse threats.

Pakistan in development and acquisition of cruise missiles, UAVs and unmanned combat aerial vehicles. Denial of sensitive technologies through restrictions on export or technology sharing imposed by the western world may to some extent succeed in delaying a full manifestation of this threat for a short duration of time. However, countries in the South Asian Region have often been able to defeat such designs by obtaining these technologies from a third country or through reverse engineering. Hence, it may only be a matter of time that such a threat would become a stark reality in the South Asian Region also. SP’s: What are the plans at national level to counter this air threat?

DGAAD: AD of the country is a national imperative. The perceived threat is planned to be countered at the national level by all the services through modernisation of the decision-making systems, command and control systems, battlefield management systems, effective weapon systems and real time communication systems. The AAD can bring to bear adequate fire power to meet and defeat such a threat.

of Army Air and Missile Defence Commands which is responsible for theatre level strategic planning and execution of AD. In addition, there is a separate US Army Space and Missile Defence Command responsible for the National Missile Defence and US Space Command for space based operations. China has an AD HQ (AD Department) located at Beijing to exercise operational control over all AD resources through various Military Region AD HQs (AD Department) which in turn have a number of AD zones under them. In Pakistan, the AAD is a separate Corps under the General HQ while Pakistan Air Force is a separate Service. The AD operations are jointly conducted between the Pakistan AD Corps and Pakistan Air Force. In a similar manner, AAD in India is a separate Corps under Army HQ’s and AD operations are executed jointly with the IAF. SP’s: Majority of the weapon systems in the inventory are either obsolete or obsolescent. Take the example of the L/70 gun which is the mainstay of AAD and still carrying on after more than four decades. Are there plans to replace it with a more modern system?

SP’s: What role does the AAD play in executing the plan?

DGAAD: The AAD envisages a crucial role in the national active AD plan along with the Indian Air Force (IAF). The AAD is responsible for AD protection to critical assets, both in the Tactical Battle Area as well as the rear areas. In addition, the AAD has traditionally been responsible for ground-based AD to all strategic assets of national importance. The AAD does this by deploying a mix of groundbased AD weapon systems of complementing ranges and altitudes to provide a layered and tiered AD environment. SP’s: Are responsibilities clearly demarcated between the various agencies, like the Indian Army, IAF, Indian Navy and civil organisation?

DGAAD: Yes, the role and responsibilities of various agencies have been articulated in the Union War Book and Ministry of Defence War Book and are in accordance with the provisions contained therein. SP’s: What are the criteria for the segregation?

DGAAD: The division of responsibility is based on the core competency of each service in their respective domain of usage, that is, land, sea and air. There is total synergy in actions while executing the task.

SP’s: Delineate the air threat to the South Asian Region.

SP’s: How does the Indian AD model compare with other countries?

DGAAD: The air threat in the South Asian Region will follow the global trend and unmanned platforms will gradually become the dominant threat. This is evident by the interest evinced by China, India and

DGAAD: Different AD models are followed by modern armies of the world. In some countries like Russia, AD is a distinct service just like the army, navy and air force. In the US, the AD is integrated at the macro level

DGAAD: The gun systems retain their relevance in the current as well as future air threat scenario. Though their effective range and kill probability is much less than that of contemporary missiles, these adequately make up for it with very high rate of fire and low cost. The gun systems are the only means of terminal AD. All missile systems have a dead zone which needs to be covered by a gun system. In case of suddenly appearing targets, like helicopters, aircraft, missiles and rockets, which may have either escaped detection or may not have been destroyed by the missiles, due to the very limited reaction time, the gun systems are the only available means of engaging such targets. Hence, countries such as the US, which had earlier discarded the guns, are once again planning to revert to the AD guns for the terminal AD of their field formations. SP’s: What are the plans for acquiring a successor to the quick reaction and medium range SAM?

DGAAD: The modernisation plan of the AAD has been formulated and procurement of successor systems is being processed as envisaged in the plan, as per Defence Procurement Procedure 2008. SP’s: Are there any plans to improve the AD for the combat zone?

SP’s publications for Lieutenant General Ram Pratap

DGAAD: While it is true that the majority of AAD equipment today has become obsolete/obsolescent, but at the same time we should not overlook the fact that military capability development and enhancement is an ongoing process which seldom keeps pace with the emerging threat and technologies. This is also true for the AAD. We have embarked on a two-pronged strategy to achieve and maintain optimal desired AD capability. The first involves sustaining effectiveness of existing assets through technological upgrades and extension of service life of such equipment. The other involves time bound induction of platforms and systems through in-house development-cumacquisition in accordance with approved perspective plans. These include guns, missiles, radars and so on. SP’s: With the current and future air threat, are the gun systems still relevant?

DGAAD: Yes, the AD of combat zone is a major responsibility of the AAD today. New weapon employment philosophy based on theatre AD concept is being validated to provide a gap free multi-layered and multi-tiered AD environment to the Tactical Battle Area, which would permit maximum freedom of manoeuvre to the field force commanders, without getting tied down to integral terminal AD weapon systems. Induction of necessary equipment for this may take some time. SP’s: Are there any upgrade projects in the pipeline?

DGAAD: Replacement of all AD weapons approaching obsolescence is not financially viable due to the high cost of such systems. A dual track approach is thus being followed to replace some weapon systems and upgrade selected weapon systems. SP’s: What is the state of AD battle management systems?

DGAAD: An AD battle management system is a force multiplier and an essential component in providing effective AD and preventing fratricide. All out efforts are being made to modernise the AAD and automation of AD battle management system is an integral part of the modernisation process which would be seamlessly integrated with the Integrated Air Command and Control System of the IAF. The ongoing project is at an advanced stage and is likely to be fielded for trials shortly. SP 4/2009 SP’S LAND FORCES


Tec hnolog y



Changing Face of

MQ-9 Reaper

Combat capabilities of army units and formations can be multiplied with information age technologies and systems that could confer greater war fighting capabilities on smaller combat formations LT GENERAL (RETD) V.K. KAPOOR


Unmanned Systems: Robots & UAVs

Considered insignificant earlier, the military is now widely employing these systems whose number is expected to touch 10,000 by 2009. Missions for robots include surveillance, evacuation of casualties and rescue of troops, mine clearance and target identification, and these have become an indispensable part of military life in Afghanistan. Robotics has evidently reached a stage where the Reaper, which is basically the next generation version of the Predator, is not only highly lethal but is so packed with artificial intelligence that it can make its own decisions.

Low-Cost Autonomous Attack System

An autonomous, wide-area search, miniature munition equipped with a LADAR seeker, each LOCAAS carries a multi-mode explosively formed warhead which can be detonated as a long rod penetrator, an aerostable slug, or as fragments, based upon the hardness of the target. The Lockheed


SP’S LAND FORCE S 4 / 2 0 09

Martin-developed LADAR seeker can identify the target and determine the aim point and warhead mode. As per available information it is 36 inch long, 100-pound, turbine-powered, winged weapon that can loiter over the battlefield for up to 30 minutes and use its laser-radar sensor and rapid automatic target recognition capability to identify and track multiple dispersed targets, including tanks, infantry fighting vehicles, missile launchers and other combat vehicles on the move. The search footprint on the ground of each LOCAAS is over 80 sq km. The LOCAAS can be dispensed from the US Air Force SUU-64 tactical munition

capability (ability to operate off the roads).

Improved Communications

The US experience of communicating with the older radio sets requiring line of sight clearance was unsettling in Afghanistan. This led them to employ new technologies which impart over-the-horizon capabilities of communications, apart from satellite communications. The soldiers have better situational awareness with better communication equipment. Voice Over Internet Protocol: Other improvements in communications include advances such as voice over Internet pro-

of systems, although it is being developed by a US Army program office. The Boeing Company and Science Applications International Corporation are operating together as partners and as the lead systems integrator for this program which involves more than 550 contractors and subcontractors in 41 states. It is being designed in response to the demands of modern warfare in Iraq and Afghanistan. FCS is expected to be operational by 2015, although some elements of the technology are being tested by troops already. FCS consists of eight new manned ground vehicles, a family of unmanned air and ground vehicles, the non-line-of-sight launch system and advanced tactical and urban sensors, all connected to a state-of-the-art network of computers, software and radios that will allow full connectivity between soldiers at any level from brigade to squad. It is being designed in line with the experiences in Iraq and Afghanistan. Soldiers need better protection, lighter equipment and more precise weapons systems that are less complicated to use. The US Army feels that they need a system that can morph in different environments because the nature of warfare is changing all the time.

Impact on Indian military

A mine resistant ambush protected vehicle used by the 328th Brigade Support Battalion in Baghdad

dispenser, an internal weapons bay carriage, a munition ejector rack, or external pylons. Each can be dispensed also from a Multiple Launch Rocket System rocket or an Army Tactical Missile System missile.

Loitering Attack Missile

The LAM is an integral part of the US Army’s Future Combat Systems. It is a 60-in, 120-lb missile, which will be an expendable. It is a loitering hunter-killer, equipped with laser radar seeker and autonomous target recognition—among several other very high tech features. It is capable of loitering 30 minutes at ranges of 70 km. In addition to its lethal capabilities, the LAM will provide commanders with additional target location and identification capabilities and has twoway data links for re-tasking in flight and down-linking battlefield images.

Mine Resistance-Ambush Protected-All terrain Vehicles

At the start of the war in Afghanistan, the US Army did not possess any such vehicles which resulted in heavy casualties due to indigenous explosive devices (IEDs) or roadside bombs. As per published figures 33 per cent of deaths in 2008 were due to IEDs and hence, the development of a better protected vehicle was expedited. The M-ATV is lighter than the mine resistant ambush protected vehicle which was in use earlier. It has a good cross country



dvent of stand-off, multi-spectral sensors has ushered in a new, and more volatile, battlefield environment. With real time communications—that afford situational awareness so that targets can be acquired, prioritised and destroyed, by day or by night, in all weathers, throughout the battlefield, with stand-off weapon systems firing precision attack munitions—this threat extends throughout the area of operations. Hence, analysts emphasise that indirect and standoff engagements from aircraft, unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs) and long range artillery can relieve ground elements from the role of destroying enemy combat elements at close quarters. Moreover, due to the high threat posed by the above systems, ground elements may find it difficult to close in with their intended objectives without neutralising the opponents deep attack systems. The last factor, among other factors, will also mandate tri-service integration. The Afghan theatre is an appropriate example of this changed environment. Fact is, compared to that of eight years ago when the war broke out, the current scenario is unrecognisable. Peter W. Singer, author of Wired For War and Director of the 21st Century Defense Initiative at leading research unit of The Brookings Institution, says: “What we’ve seen since the beginning of war in Afghanistan is a revolution equal to that inspired by the introduction of gunpowder, the machine gun or the tank. Unmanned systems, unused and unwanted at the beginning, are now saving the lives of thousands of soldiers.” Singer feels that despite the financial crises, the new weapons of war in Afghanistan and Iraq will continue to be significant for the war effort at both the places. Some of the new technologies which are being researched and implemented to change the future course of wars are explained briefly in the succeeding paragraphs.

Considered insignificant earlier, the military is now widely employing robots and UAVs whose number is expected to touch 10,000 by 2009 tocol (VoIP), which allows conversations to be held securely, and also allows video conferencing to preclude the necessity of physical presence of field commanders in meetings. However these advancements are accompanied by some problems also such as the overwhelming amount of data that is being transferred back and forth, which affects efficiency. It also allows senior officers to communicate directly to the soldiers thus leading to micro-management by senior officials at the cost of their own duties. Joint Tactical Radio System: The JTRS comprises a family of software-programmable tactical radios that will provide soldiers with interoperable voice, data and video communications. These communications are expected to be established by 2010.

Future Combat Systems

FCS is intended to be a joint (across all US military services) networked system

Types of Conflicts: A survey of India’s immediate and strategic neighbourhood highlights the types of conflicts/violence which are likely to affect security and stability around India. Limited conventional conflicts and border wars against traditional adversaries due to territorial disputes and unsettled boundaries; insurgencies, terrorism, ethnic and sectarian violence, narcotics/drug wars, illegal immigration, religious fundamentalism; conflicts which may arise due to big power rivalries, proliferation of nuclear weapons, wars to secure resource areas, WMD falling in the hands of terrorists; and piracy and terrorism at sea, on land and in the air—are but some of the possible threat scenarios. Hence, the major threats and challenges for India also lie in the realm of asymmetric wars, and low intensity conflicts though conventional conflicts cannot be ruled out. Thus, the combat capabilities of the land forces have to cater for hybrid forms of war, including some in which there are no recognised rules of warfare. Hence, the organisations will have to be flexible to adapt themselves to the required situation which will demand greater skills from the officer cadre and the soldiery at all levels. Here the noteworthy aspect is that the combat capabilities of army units and formations can be multiplied with information age technologies and systems described above, that could confer greater war fighting capabilities on smaller combat formations, thus eliminating the need for large troop build-up in the conflict area. Future capability will result from the ability to quickly reduce the ambiguity of a situation, to respond flexibly, and to use force, where necessary, with precision and accuracy. SP

D efence Budget

MORE is Less

The defence budget as a ratio of revenue expenditure to capital expenditure now stands at 61.31 per cent to 38.68 per cent, which is not a positive sign because modern armed forces require a 40:60 ratio or a minimum of a 50:50 LT GENERAL (RETD) V.K. KAPOOR


ndia’s defence expenditure during 2009-10 remains unchanged from the allocation given in the interim budget. In the interim budget, the government had increased the defence expenditure to Rs 1,41,703 crore ($29 billion). Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee had said the terrorist attack in Mumbai had given a new dimension to cross-border terrorism. Over the last three decades, India’s Defence Budget has varied between 2 to 3 per cent of the GDP; this corresponds to 13 to 17 per cent of the central government expenditure. Annual increase has varied from as low as 3 per cent to a high of 26 per cent. This time it has been pegged at 2.35 per cent of the GDP. Historically, the resource allocation strategy of the government has appeared to be incremental driven by the need to replace the obsolescent equipment and hardware of each Service. This time around an additional factor was introduced, namely substantial increase in the revenue expenditure due to the enhanced pay and allowances for all central government employees in accordance with the Sixth Pay Commission’s report. Building military capability is a long term exercise which depends not only on the level of expenditure but on a holistic plan which gives out the stage wise milestones of capability development. Thus, defence expenditure is linked to longer term planned expenditure, based on the emerging challenges and threats, trends in warfare, induction of new technologies and new method of warfighting. Hence, military expenditure for capability building is associated to a wide range of issues. The other factors which impinge on building a military capability include the voids in the inventory of equipment and munitions of each service, the revenue to capital ratios, indigenous research and development and manufacturing capabilities, import content, the technology and performance of acquired weapon systems, their lifetime support, interoperability with other systems in use within the three services, and the efficiency of the equipment in local geographical environment.

Budget Details

The defence budget for 2009-10, which stands at 2.35 per cent of the GDP, has increased by 34.19 per cent over the previous year’s budget estimate (BE) of Rs 1,05,600 crore and 23.6 per cent over the revised estimate (RE) of Rs 1,14,600 crore. The total revenue budget has been pegged at Rs 86,879 crore ($17.7 billion) while the capital budget which caters for modernisation and military capability building has been pegged at Rs 54,824 crore ($11.2 billion). Thus, the defence budget as a ratio of revenue expenditure to capital expenditure now stands at 61.31 per cent to 38.68 per cent, which is not a positive sign because modern armed forces require a 40:60 ratio or a minimum of a 50:50. Some details of the RE 2008-09 and BE 200910 are as under:

RE 2008-09 Defence Budget 1,14,600 (in Rs crore) Revenue 73,600 Expenditure (in Rs crore) Capital 41,000 Expenditure (in Rs crore) 48,195.34 Revenue Expenditure Army 8034.19 Revenue Expenditure Navy Revenue 12,199.95 Expenditure Air Force

BE 2009-10 1,41,703

India’s Defence Budget 2009-2010, which stands at 2.35 per cent of the GDP, has increased by 34.19 per cent over the previous year’s budget estimate of Rs 1,05,600 crore and 23.6 per cent over the revised estimate of Rs 1,14,600 crore

86,879 54,824 58,648.10 8,322.11 14,318.18

The relatively large hike in revenue expenditure is primarily due to the increase in pay and allowances flowing from the implementation of Sixth Central Pay Commission. To put the figure in perspective, total budgeted pay and allowances debited from the services’ budgets has more than doubled from Rs 21,891.67 crore in 200809 to Rs 44,500.69 crore in 2009-10. Service-wise, the army accounts for the largest share of the 2009-10 Revenue budget with an allocation of Rs 58,648.10 crore, followed by the air force with Rs 14,318.182 crore and the navy, Rs 8,322.11 crore. Significantly, the army’s revenue budget figures also include miscellaneous entries such as the ExServicemen’s Contributory Health Scheme, Rashtriya Rifles, National Cadet Corps, improvement of infrastructure in army schools and military farms.

Modernisation Plans

Modernisation of the armed forces is not keeping pace with the changing security environment of India’s immediate and strategic neighbourhood. New challenges have already emerged while the old threats from traditional adversaries remain. Hence, India needs to prepare itself for the full spectrum of warfare ranging from low intensity conflict involving counter insurgency and counter terrorist operations to conventional conflicts under the nuclear shadow and power projection for an out of area capability. The dilemma is of how much emphasis should be laid to acquiring each type of capability. The Indian Army needs to acquire field guns of 155mm caliber for its fighting formations in the plains, deserts and in the mountains. India has

floated a global tender for the purchase of 400 155mm towed artillery guns for the army, to be followed by indigenous manufacture of another 1,100 howitzers, in a project worth a whopping Rs 8,000 crore. In January 2008, the MoD floated a RFP for 140 pieces of ultra-light 39 calibre 155mm towed howitzers for use by the Indian Army’s mountain formations which will cost approximately Rs 3,000 crore. India has also decided to acquire another 347 T-90S tanks from Russia and assemble them in the country. Another area of inadequacy is the air defence (AD) of field formations. Nearly all equipment in the army’s AD inventory needs replacement, most of the equipment is between 30 and 40 years old. Simultaneously, there is a need for equipping the infantry and special forces with modern surveillance and soft ware driven communication equipment. Tactical communications need to be upgraded for field formations because that will form the backbone structure for the Tac C3I system when it is established.

Hence, there is no dearth of projects in the army that need funding.

Capital Budget & Procurement System

Assuming that nearly 80 per cent of the capital budget is meant for capital acquisitions, with 60 per cent of committed liabilities and 40 per cent for new schemes, then the main sub-divisions of the capital budget could be as under: • Total Capital Budget: Rs 54,824 crore ($11.2 billion) • Capital Acquisition: Rs 43,859 crore ($ 9 billion) • Committed Liabilities: Rs 26,316 crore ($5.4 billion) • New Schemes: Rs 17,544 crore ($3.6 billion) In the above context, nearly Rs 17,500 crore (30 per cent of the capital budget) is likely to be available for new weapons systems planned for induction. Notwithstanding the amount involved, the Defence Procurement Procedure 2008 in vogue is so complicated and time consuming that normal procurement is possible only in a three to four-year time frame. The system is riddled with suspicion and distrust which precludes transparency and prevents officials from taking timely decisions. Considering that costs keep increasing every year and technologies are constantly being upgraded, timely decisions which are a vital necessity are generally sacrificed and the nation shoulders the cost. The procurement process needs to be more pragmatic. We could also put into place a Defence Procurement Agency as done in France and certain other European countries. SP

Defence Budget 2008-09 (in Rs crore)

Defence Budget 2009-10 (in Rs crore)

Overall Allocation

Overall Allocation







Defence Budget Revised Estimate 2008-09



Defence Budget Budget Estimate 2009-10

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Patriot is a high-to-medium-altitude air defence system designed to intercept tactical ballistic air-breathing threats


Patriot missile and its variants—Standard, PAC-1 ASOJ/SOJC, PAC-2, PAC-2 GEM, GEM/C, GEM/T (or GEM+)—are manufactured by Raytheon. PAC-3 is made by Lockheed Martin. LT GENERAL (RETD) NARESH CHAND


surface-to-air missile (SAM) system, the MIM-104 Patriot is in service in the US Army and many other countries. It has replaced the Nike Hercules system for high to medium air defence role and has succeeded MIM-23 Hawk system in the medium tactical air defence role. Its variants are Patriot, Patriot Advanced Capability (PAC1), PAC-2 and PAC-3. On October 15, 1964, the Secretary of Defence directed that the Army Air Defence System -70 programme’s name be changed to Surface-to-Air Missile, Development (SAM-D). In 1975, the SAMD missile successfully engaged a drone and in 1976, it was renamed the PATRIOT Air Defence Missile System. The MIM-104 Patriot would combine several new technologies, including the phased array radar and track-via-missile guidance. Full-scale development of the system began in 1976 and it was deployed in 1984. During 1988, PAC-1 was developed to provide limited capability against tactical ballistic missiles (TBMs). The latest system called PAC-3 is almost redesigned to destroy TBMs. The Patriot system has four major operational sub-systems that provide communications, command and control, radar surveillance, and missile guidance.


Patriot Missiles

Patriot missile and its variants—Standard, PAC-1 ASOJ/SOJC, PAC-2, PAC-2 GEM, GEM/C, GEM/T (or GEM+)—are manufactured by Raytheon. PAC-3 is made by Lockheed Martin. The first missile fielded was the MIM-104A, “Standard”, which was designed for engaging aircraft. It had a range of 70 km and a speed in excess of Mach 3. The MIM-104B “anti-standoff jammer” version was designed to seek out and destroy ECM emitters. PAC-1’s warhead is High Explosive blast/fragmentation with two layers of pre-formed fragments and Octol 75/25 HE blast/fragmentation, weighing 91 kg and having a proximity fuse. Its guidance system is Radio command with Track Via Missile (TVM) semiactive homing, speed of Mach 5, with an operational range of 160 km and altitude


SP’S LAND FORCE S 4 / 2 0 09

of 24,240 m. The MIM-104C PAC-2 was the first missile designed for ballistic missile engagements. The guidance enhanced missiles (GEM) series of missiles are further refinements of the PAC-2 missile. All the PAC-2 family of missiles have a fairly standard design, the only differences between the variants being certain internal components. The missile consists of the radome, guidance section, warhead section, propulsion section and control actuator section. PAC-3: The ‘hit-to-kill’ PAC-3 is a most advanced, capable and powerful theatre air defence missile made by Lockheed Martin. It is designed to defeat low end atmospheric TBMs, stand-off jammers, bombers, selfscreening jammers, fighter aircraft, airto-surface missiles, UAVs, helicopters and cruise missiles. It was first deployed during Operation Iraqi Freedom in March/April 2003. The missile fitted with a Ka band active radar seeker, intercepts the target at very high velocity, employing “hit-tokill” concept (in contrast to other missiles which carry high explosive in the war head, which on exploding destroy the targets in the vicinity) that defeats incoming targets by direct, body-to-body impact. It uses a solid propellant rocket motor, aerodynamic controls, attitude control motors and inertial guidance to navigate. The missile flies to an intercept point specified prior to launch by its groundbased Fire Solution Computer, which is embedded in the Engagement Control Station. Target trajectory data can be updated during missile fly-out by means of a radio frequency uplink /downlink. The PAC-3 Missile has been selected as the primary interceptor for the multi-national Medium Extended Air Defence System (MEADS). MEADS will incorporate state-ofthe-art technologies in its sensors, weapons and battle management command, control, communications, computers and intelligence systems. PAC-3 Missiles, when deployed in a Patriot battery, will significantly increase the Patriot system’s firepower, since 16 PAC-3s can be loaded on a Patriot launcher, compared with four of the older Patriot PAC-2 missiles. Radar AN/MPQ-53: Raytheon’s AN/

MPQ-53 phased array radar carries out search, target detection, tracking, identification friend and foe (IFF), missile tracking and guidance and electronic countercountermeasures functions. The radar is mounted on a trailer and is automatically controlled by the digital weapons control

illumination beam, and which transmits target data from the missile guidance package to the ECS computer. The ECS uses this information to calculate guidance instructions which are passed to the missile by the radar’s G/H-band command and uplink beam. The US Army Patriot radars are being upgraded by Raytheon. The upgrade kits provide greater power for the radar and wideband capability for improved target discrimination.

Engagement & Enhancement

The United Arab Emirates, in a $3.3 billion foreign military sales contract to Raytheon, is buying the advanced Patriot Configuration 3 air and missile defence system

computer in the engagement control station, via a cable link. The radar system has a range of up to 100 km, ability to track up to 100 targets and can provide missile guidance data for up to nine missiles. The antenna unit has separate arrays for target detection and tracking, missile guidance and IFF functions. Other supplementary arrays are for side lobe cancellation and missile guidance signal reception. The TVM missile guidance system is unique to Patriot which involves the missile’s passive mono pulse seeker array being directed by the Engagement Control Station (ECS) to look in the direction of the target which then begins to intercept increasingly precise returns from the reflected electromagnetic energy signals. This in turn triggers the G/H-band onboard downward data link which is offset in frequency from the target tracks and

The AN/MSQ-104 engagement control station is the only manned station in a Patriot fire unit. The control station communicates with the M901 launching stations, with other Patriot batteries and the higher command headquarters. The control station is manned by three operators, who have two consoles and a communications station with three radio relay terminals. The digital weapon control computer is located next to the VHF data link terminals. Target engagement: A target engagement can be carried out in manual, semiautomatic or automatic mode. When the decision has been made to engage the target, the engagement control station selects the launch station or stations and pre-launch data is transmitted to the selected missile. After launch, the Patriot missile is acquired by the radar. The command uplink and the TVM downlink allow the missile’s flight to be monitored and provide missile guidance commands from the weapon control computer. As the missile approaches the target, the TVM guidance system is activated and the missile is steered towards the target. A proximity fuse detonates the high-explosive warhead. PAC-3 Missile Segment Enhancement: The PAC-3 missile segment enhancement (MSE) is part of an ongoing development being undertaken by Lockheed Martin. MSE gives the missile a more powerful rocket motor for added thrust and larger fins for increased maneuverability against faster and more sophisticated ballistic and cruise missiles. The MSE began flight testing in May 2008 and it is likely to be the main missile for MEADS. SP


Missile Syst em

S UMM IT Repo r t

Photographs: Sharad Saxena

C4I2 Vision for INDIAN DEFENCE SP Guide Publications is synonymous with zero-compromise quality and steadfast commitment towards the services. In tune with this philosophy, SP’s took yet another step in its 45th year by supporting the recently held C4I2 event as the presenting sponsor. A two-day summit was organised by TV18 network. Catch the telecast on CNBC TV18! SANGEETA SAXENA


efence Minister A.K. Antony has urged the private sector to enter the defence industry. Stressing on the need for indigenisation, particularly in the defence sector, Antony said it was imperative for a country of India’s size and economy to have a vibrant defence industry. “Given the fact that India is emerging as a major economic player, this is certainly not a desirable state of affairs,” Antony said, addressing a seminar on Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence and Information (C4I2) structures in Delhi on August 10. SP Guide Publications was the presenting sponsor of the two-day C4I2 Summit that witnessed lively deliberations and debate between prominent figures from India and abroad.

Warm welcome to the Defence Minister

SP’s Editor-in-Chief Jayant Baranwal addresses the gathering





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IN THIS EDITION • Indiaʼs Homeland Security & Ministry of Home Affairs Elements • IDS Headquartersʼ role in Procurement Process elaborated • Eventsʼ Reference - Special Insert Mi Procur nistry emen of

Ho • Ind IN TH t Pro me Aff iaʼs Ho IS ED ITIO cess airs elabo Elememeland N rated nts Securi • Eve • IDS ty & ntsʼ Head Refer quart ence ersʼ - Spe role in cial Insert

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“Though our country has a massive industrial infrastructure, we are still a long way from establishing ourselves as a major defence equipment manufacturing nation. Much of the content of our defence requirement continues to be imported,” Antony said. The Defence Minister further pointed out that the government has undertaken several policy decisions to correct this imbalance and seeks to promote private-public partnerships. The government has allowed 26 per cent FDI in the defence sector and the offset policy is aimed at encouraging technology inflows

and enhance the capability of our defence industrial base, he added. The Defence Minister emphasised that the private sector’s IT prowess could be harnessed for the requirements of the armed forces. “Our country’s demonstrated abilities in the field of information technologies should be leveraged towards this objective,” he said. “The ability to process information and respond rapidly to changes in conflict situations can make all the difference between success or failure.” Organised by TV18, the seminar provided a platform for brainstorming between armed forces personnel, Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), Ministry of Defence officials, defence equipment manufacturers and related industry professionals from both private and public sectors. The inaugural session was also addressed by Chief of the Naval Staff Admiral Sureesh Mehta, Chief of the Army Staff General Deepak Kapoor, Air Marshal S.C. Mukul, CISC, IDS and Dr Sreehari Rao, CC R&D (ECS), DRDO. The gathering was welcomed by Senthil Chengalvarayan, President of TV18. A vote of thanks was delivered by the Chairman of SP Guide Publications, Jayant Baranwal. E-18 CEO Farhad Wadia delivered the closing remarks. All matters related to C4I2 were discussed threadbare in five sessions spanning the two days. Some of the prominent speakers were Dr Johan Leander of SAAB Technologies, Col. Patric Koh Lai Hawk of SAP Asia, Dr Vivek Lall, Country Head of Boeing IDS, Ashwani Kumar Dutt, CMD of BEL, S.N. Tandon, VP of C4I Rolta India, Dr V.S. Mahalingam, Director of the Centre for Artificial Intelligence & Robotics, DRDO and Lt General J.P. Singh DCIDS, HQ IDS. Some of the topics discussed were India’s network enabled capabilities, C4I2—integration and development, understanding operational requirements of the three services, development of public private partnership, data fusion for C4I and composite intelligence services. SP



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India’s thought provocateurs in defence and security matters need to evolve as more active and influential players in the state’s decisionmaking process, reports Sangeeta Saxena



enter for Strategic and International Studies, a leading Washington, D.C. think tank, has called on India to “tailor its Afghan policy to the new situation in Pakistan” in order to alleviate the decades-long competing strategic agendas between Delhi and Islamabad vis-à-vis Afghanistan. It further pointed out that if Delhi “can find even modest ways of working in harmony with the Pakistani government, it could reap substantial benefits in its relations with both countries”. An article titled ‘A Warning to the Indian Government: Don’t Be Evil!’ on the website of the China Institute of International Strategic Studies says India is on a path of confrontation with China and was sprucing its forces along the border areas. The situation is similar to 1962, it says, referring to the India-China war. It also accuses Delhi of working against Beijing and procuring arms against it. The article states that with an accelerated military position over the past few decades, India was looking beyond Pakistan “to realise its ambition of becoming a regional and global power”. Further, it claims, India considered China its biggest obstacle.

‘Tremendous synergy with government’ LT GENERAL (RETD) P.K. SINGH Director, United Service Institution of India

SP’s Land Forces (SP’s): What is unique about the United Services Institution of India (USI)? Lt General (Retd) P.K. Singh (Singh): USI has the most unique history. USI journal is the continuously working, oldest surviving journal in the world. From the day it was formed, the Viceroy became the Patron and the Commander-in-Chief became the Vice Patron. In 1871, they were looking at the strategic importance of Kashmir. By the 1890s, Persia, Afghanistan, North West Frontier Province, Burma, Japan, China and Central Asia were the focus of attention. In the 1930s, economic and financial aspects of defence were being discussed by the USI. Its ability to identify topical interest keeping the world in mind has always been USI’s uniqueness.


SP’s: What are the current topics being discussed by the USI? Singh: Nuclear doctrine, budgeting, peacekeeping, missile defence, space command, terrorism, and many more topics are being discussed by the USI; a platform is being created for discussion at a pan-India level. SP’s: Does USI influence policies of the government, on defence and national security? Singh: We have tremendous synergy with the government. We help in creating a tentative road map keeping national and regional interests in mind. SP’s: Apart from publishing journals, what are the other activities of the USI? Singh: We have centres for research, strategic studies, simulation, UN peacekeeping, armed forces historical research and many


Triggering debates in the Indian media, these two statements by strategic think tanks of the two biggest powers—the US and China—have not just made India sit up, but also prompted sharp reactions from Washington and Beijing. Which brings us to the question: are the observations and analyses of Indian defence think tanks as astute and, thereby, effective? In the past decade or so, India has become home to an increasing number of think tanks. Inexplicably, however, India Inc. seems to have kept itself at an arm’s length from Indian think tanks. What do Sunil Bharti Mittal, Mukesh Ambani, Ratan Tata, Rahul Bajaj and Tarun Das have in common? They are all on the board of trustees of prominent foreign think tanks like Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Rand Corporation, The Brookings Institution and the Aspen Institute, respectively. Back home in India, reluctance and bashfulness could perhaps give way to refreshing dynamism were corporate bigwigs induced to come on board the domestic think tanks. Interactions with the directors of some of these think tanks offer an insight into minds that ostensibly do the thinking for India. SP

SP’S LAND FORCE S 4 / 2 0 09

more. Our main aim is preparation of army officers for internal exams conducted by the army. We give a platform to people who do research and write on matters of security. We also publish these studies. We organise seminars, workshops, round table conferences and debates on a lot of important issues. SP’s: Does the USI have international collaborations? Singh: We have foreign institutional dialogues. We are in regular interaction with China, UK, Germany, US, Japan, Russia, Taiwan, Vietnam, Cambodia, Bangladesh, Cairo, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and NATO. We also get important delegations from various countries. SP’s: What is the membership profile of the USI? Singh: We have more than 12,500 members. Foreign services, defence services, bureaucrats, academicians, journalists and judges give a vast variety to our membership profile. SP’s: What is the need of having 30-odd think tanks in Delhi? Singh: Think tanks are like sounding boards to get people from all over the world to ideate. It is good to have so many think tanks as it gives cross section of ideas and research. SP’s: Why should the USI not be converted into an university? Singh: It should be a research centre and can give part time guidance to research scholars. We do not need to be converted into an university.

‘State funding means end of independent voice’ LT GENERAL (RETD) V.R. RAGHAVAN Director, Delhi Policy Group, and President, Centre for Security Analysis

SP’s Land Forces (SP’s): Does Delhi Policy Group (DPG) forward all its research to the Ministry of Defence (MoD) and Ministry of External Affairs (MEA)? Lt General (Retd) V.R. Raghavan (Raghavan): Sure we send every document to the ministries. They get hundreds and hundreds of documents that lie waste. There is no system of reading and analysing them. If it goes by name to the secretary and other bureaucrats it gets acknowledged. When highlighted centre pointers go by name to ministers or the PMO, we get a call. SP’s: Do you feel it is utilised at the policy making level? Raghavan: Sure, we feel it is utilised at policy level. Publications are reference material and are used in research. Our objective is to influence the policy makers to think. They continuously ask us for information. There are highly competent and professional people in the ministries. SP’s: What are the tasks undertaken by DPG? Raghavan: We provide as a think tank a collective grouping of ideas and a varied range of opinions. If the think tank does only seminars and workshops it does not make sense. We fulfill the task of collecting reference data. SP’s: The US has think tank officials in key government positions. When will India see such a scenario? Raghavan: The US follows a very unique system. When an administration goes, they take all documents and each new President gets (information) on his own strength. In the Indian system, with the civil servants, there is no scope for think tank heads to be a part of the governance. US government uses well-known think tanks to generate ideas, propagate and generate public discourse and build public opinion. Here,


White Noise


T hink Tanks

it is different as ministries discuss in the Parliament. In the US, think tanks are run by private funding; government might commission a study. In India, government funding means end of independent voice. SP’s: Does DPG get some government funding? Raghavan: No, we are privately funded and we never take money from the government. SP’s: What is the contribution of the corporate to DPG? Raghavan: The Indian corporate sector is still not alive to the concept of funding think tanks. They will spend Rs 50 crore for (a political) party funding but will not give Rs 2 crore to an independent think tank. SP’s: In your opinion, can think tanks like CLAWS, CAPS and NMF be fearless in research? Raghavan: They are not think tanks in the true sense of the word. They are (military) services-focused, directly funded by the services and they generate a debate for the services. I am sure it would be difficult to come to negative conclusions about the services. So this means very less or no recommendations for positive changes. SP’s: What are the types of security issues DPG works on? Raghavan: Social, environment and sociological security are non-traditional security issues we work upon. Besides this, all the traditional issues under national and global security are always researched upon. SP’s: Should a think tank like DPG convert itself into an university? Raghavan: No, I don’t think that is logical. We run outreach programmes in universities through which we generate discussion and create awareness in the masses. We are also translating our books in Hindi.

‘Think tanks are not taken seriously in India’ BRIGADIER (RETD) GURMEET KANWAL Director, Centre for Land Warfare Studies

SP’s Land Forces (SP’s): The last five years have witnessed a mushrooming of think tanks in India. Comment. Brigadier (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal (Kanwal): Larger the number of think tanks, the better we will be as a nation. SP’s: With the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA) and the United Service Institution of India (USI) already there, what was the need to set up the Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS)? Kanwal: USI was never a think tank. It promoted strategic culture through events but not through research. CLAWS stresses on research. Any research should be policy oriented and, of course, a strategic studies think tank should definitely be research oriented. It should also contribute to national security effort. SP’s: Does the bureaucracy listen to your suggestions and conclusions? Kanwal: The bureaucracy realises that there is no harm in listening to the think tanks. We give them the reports regularly. Real distinction I would like to make is that when you are in policy making and execution, you have no time to study. So think tanks become important. Things are looking up in the think tank community in India. SP’s: Does CLAWS have an international

collaboration? Kanwal: Not at the moment. BrahMos has commissioned CLAWS to do a study on sales of arms as a foreign policy tools. SP’s: What is your strength of research scholars? Kanwal: We have colonels on study leave and nearly 20 civilian scholars. SP’s: In the US, think tank officials get incorporated into government positions of importance. When do you see such a scenario being replicated in India? Kanwal: Cross pollination of bureaucracy and think tanks is not happening in India. That is why think tanks are not taken seriously. Politicians are blissfully unaware of their existence most of the times. But we are keeping our fingers crossed for things to move in the right direction. SP’s: What are the subjects you research on? Kanwal: Anything which is of concern to the army and the para military forces— anti-terrorism, counter insurgency, border issues, guerrilla warfare, regional security, defence technology and research, NBC issues and defence cooperation, to name a few subjects. SP’s: How does CLAWS spread awareness among the masses? Kanwal: We organise seminars, workshops and round table conferences to awaken people to the existing situations in the field.


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Kargil Revis ited

DARE Overcomes


Illustration: Ratan Sonal

It goes to the eternal credit of the Indian soldier and officers that they defied crippling drawbacks and disadvantages to display raw courage and indomitable spirit LT GENERAL (RETD) HARWANT SINGH


n July 26, the nation celebrated Vijay Diwas to raise a toast to the Indian Army’s (IA) successes during the Kargil conflict. As candles were lit and TV channels flashed visuals of the celebrations at Dras, it became essential to understand the underlying rationale to this misadventure by Pakistan and the limitations and inadequacy of the Indian response. Many theories have been propounded on

the rationale for Pakistan, more so when it had the portents of escalating into a larger conflagration of which Islamabad had sound reasons to be scared. One misconception was that the Indians were too cowardly and illorganised to offer any effective resistance. Some other assessments made by Pakistan—such as lack of modernisation of the IA, the fatigue caused to it by decades of involvement in counter insurgency

operations, shifting of troops from the Kargil sector for tasks in the Valley, shortage of officers, low budget allocations—may have contributed to the decision to stage the Kargil confrontation.

Pakistan’s Operational Analysis

Though apprehensions of nuclear retaliation by Pakistan to any escalation of the conflict by India did not have any merit, but unfor-

tunately, the Indian security establishment ‘over time’ conditioned itself to the validity of Islamabad’s nuclear deterrence and the selfinduced assessment that Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal is controlled by its army which may be rash enough to press the button. During the 1990 standoff, Pakistan realised that its nuclear deterrence works well on India. Failure to make any headway at Siachen had greatly frustrated the Pakistan Army, Continued on page 13

‘Kargil reflected major gaps in intelligence’ GENERAL (RETD) V.P. MALIK Chief of the Army Staff during the Kargil Operation

SP’s Land Forces (SP’s): Could the Kargil conflict have been avoided? General (Retd) V.P. Malik (Malik): The ‘intention’ to wage a war comes before any war planning. The intention originates in the mind of the rulers. In his book Four Wars One Assumption, Altaf Gauhar, a former Pakistani minister for information and broadcasting, stated that at the instance of General Zia-ul-Haq, the Pakistan Army had hatched a plan to launch an attack in Kargil in 1987. The plan was dropped on account of military and political inappropriateness. The Pakistan Army under General Pervez Musharraf initiated the war apparently believing that the nuclear balance between India and Pakistan permitted offensive actions to take place with impunity in J&K. The best way for India to minimise chances of such conflicts would be to develop effective politico-military ‘dissuasion’ and ‘deterrence’ capabilities. Unfortunately, we have never been able to build that. That is why Pakistan, whose eco-

nomic and military capabilities are far lower than India’s, remains pro-active and despite several military defeats, has every time taken the initiative to start a war or proxy war. SP’s: What were the actual reasons for Pakistan having occupied the Kargil heights? Malik: The Pakistan Army launched this operation—attack by infiltration—and occupied some Kargil heights with a view to: • Alter the alignment of the LoC east of the Zoji La and denying the use of the Srinagar-Kargil-Leh highway to India, and • Reviving jehadi terrorism in J&K • Capturing Turtuk, a strategically important village located on the southern bank of Shyok River in Ladakh • Highlighting the Indo-Pak dispute over J&K to the international community. SP’s: Was Kargil war an intelligence failure? Malik: The fact that India was completely surprised about the intrusion at political, strategic

‘Key lesson would be eternal vigilance’


K. SUBRAHMANYAM Headed the Kargil Review Committee when it was instituted by the NDA government in 1999

SP’s Land Forces (SP’s): What were the major lessons learnt from the Kargil conflict? K. Subrahmanyam (Subrahmanyam): The Kargil Review Committee (KRC) report was not an investigation into what happened at Kargil, but a review of the developments and recommendations as to the measures to be undertaken so as to prevent such an occurrence in the future. The report highlighted that it was a major intelligence failure and several recommendations were made to rectify the lacunae. SP’s: What did you see as the more substantive recommendations? Subrahmanyam: Undoubtedly, the most important recommendation was about intelligence. There has been some headway in a


SP’S LAND FORCE S 4 / 2 0 09

sense with the creation of National Technical Reconnaissance Organisation and Defence Intelligence Agency. However, there are doubts whether that kind of intelligence culture has permeated into the services. SP’s: What about recommendations that are yet to be implemented? Subrahmanyam: I would say that some, if not all, significant steps have been taken. There is another recommendation which was not a focused recommendation though, but was made on manpower policy. To my understanding, the issue has been taken up by the Sixth Pay Commission. SP’s: Home Minister P. Chidambaram has been regularly taking stock of the available intelligence. What more needs to be done?

and tactical levels cannot be denied. It reflected a major deficiency in our system of collecting, reporting, collating and assessing intelligence, as well as poor surveillance on the ground. SP’s: Has anyone been held responsible? Malik: I can speak about the army and not other agencies. Yes, appropriate action was taken against army personnel considered responsible for surveillance and command lapses by various review committees. SP’s: Why was there a delay in the decision to use the IAF during the war? Malik: The initial assessment was that the use of air power would escalate and enlarge the conflict. Consequently, the Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) did not allow its use. Later, when the intelligence and ground situations were reviewed and the Chiefs of Staff Committee recommended it on May 23, 1999, the CCS allowed its use so long as we did not cross the LoC. It was a matter of assessment; there was no delay in decision making. SP’s: What lessons did India learn from the Kargil war? Malik: Some important strategic lessons are as follows: • Acquisition of nuclear weapons by India and Pakistan has not reduced or eliminated the probability of a war between them • We need to enhance border surveillance and close defense capability to prevent loss of territory in a surprise attack

Subrahmanyam: That certainly is an improvement, but it is not adequate. The Cabinet Committee on Security should meet at least every fortnight and should have one session of intelligence briefing at that point. SP’s: Do you feel the role of the National Security Advisor (NSA) has crystallised particularly regarding intelligence? Subrahmanyam: The Kargil Committee Report mentions that previously two jobs were held by one person, but now that is no longer the case. The Principal Secretary to the Prime Minister is different from the NSA, but since the time of the setting up of the National Security Council (NSC), I was critical of the scheme that was implemented. The National Security Advisor in the US is a monitor, an agenda-setter and an advisor to the President. He is not an executive. Unfortunately, in India, the NSA has become an executive. The other issue is that the NSA should equip himself to carry out the other role, namely, monitor the decisions of the NSC as a reviewer of the resulting developments, something that has not been done according to me.

• The new strategic environment calls for speedier, more versatile and more flexible combat organizations • It is essential to keep military leadership within the security and strategic decisionmaking loop, and • Information operations are important in the growing transparency of the battlefield. SP’s: Looking back, do you feel it could have been different? Malik: I do wish that: • We did not have intelligence and border surveillance lapses and we had declared Pakistan to be fully responsible for waging a war with India in Kargil sector • The armed forces were much better armed and equipped. Remember, during the war I said that “We shall fight with whatever we have.” • We had crossed the Line of Control at some points in J&K. These reflections and wishes notwithstanding, I must add that the Kargil victory will go down in the history of India in general and the Indian armed forces in particular as a historic event. This saga will also be recounted as a symbol of great pride and inspiration, in all accounts of grit and determination displayed on the battlefield by the Indian Army. The main credit for achieving success in Kargil undoubtedly goes to the units who fought on the front. —By Sangeeta Saxena

SP’s: In your view, are conflicts like the one in Kargil likely to continue or do you see a change in Pakistan’s basic strategic outlook? Subrahmanyam: The most authoritative person whom I can quote on this question would have to be General Pervez Musharraf who says they will continue. I certainly cannot question his authority on this subject. SP’s: What would you say to convince us that there has been a change of heart? Subrahmanyam: I would not question that. A General can initiate something, get defeated and then claim to be a man for peace. Therefore, the real issue is whether he is a man of peace out of instinct or out of compulsion. SP’s: What are the significant political and military lessons of the Kargil conflict? Subrahmanyam: The most significant lesson would be that of eternal vigilance, given that we have an enemy who is looking for gaps in our preparedness at every given point in order to exploit it. —By Sangeeta Saxena

O EM Speak

‘Our ambition is long-term business in India’ Photographs: BAE Systems

JULIAN SCOPES President, BAE Systems India speaks to Sangeeta Saxena on the company’s strategies to extend its foothold in India

SP’s Land Forces (SP’s): BAE Systems has advocated a lot for a 49 per cent share holding in a joint venture (JV). When do you hope to get it?

Julian Scopes (Scopes): That is for the Government of India to decide. The argument for lifting the cap to 49 per cent is very compelling. For a company keen to invest its capital in India, 26 per cent is not so attractive. We tried for 49 per cent with the Mahindra JV, but it was not accepted. On that occasion, the timing was probably wrong, we were a bit ahead of the curve. The sooner it happens, the better. We create businesses and jobs in the countries we choose to invest in and this is always in agreement with the country and the customer, such as we have done in Australia and the US. India is one of the biggest markets in the world, but when (we are) investing and transferring technology, skills, and so on, the level of return has to be right. SP’s: Have you been trying to convince the Government of India to a type of “special security agreement” such as you have with the US?

Scopes: I have been trying to promote the concept to the Government of India; it is proven to work well. Our ambition is to grow a long term business here, not just bid for individual programmes. SP’s: What per cent of the share of revenue generation does BAE System India give to the main company? Dare Overcomes Drawbacks

Organisation and academia?

Scopes: Yes, we hope to. SP’s: How do you plan to lessen the time lag in the procurement procedure?

Scopes: That is for the Government of India to decide, but their commitment to engage with the industry via the industry bodies is a positive move. There are a lot of difficult challenges to be met. But defence procurement is a complex matter across the world, not just in India. My observation would be that often the requirements are too detailed and mandatory. There should be a hierarchy of requirements—mandatory and desirable. At the moment, they are sometimes too prescriptive. A broader more capability driven view is required. Also the no-cost no-commitment trial needs to be re-evaluated. Joint funding should be looked at. SP’s: How do you plan to manage the supply chain for spares?

Scopes: Developing a world class supply chain of Indian companies is very much on our agenda. And it will be with global standards of excellence. It’s a challenge and we are hopeful. There is nothing to suggest it cannot be done. There are many high quality engineering companies in India. We are developing our relationships with a whole raft of them. Through-life support is also a fascinating concept and we need to develop it here in India. The concept of managing equipment, through maintenance and upgrades, through the lifetime of that equipment can save the customer a great deal of money, and at the same time increase both availability and capability. SP’s: What type of export base do you plan to set up in India?

BAE Systems offers a host of state-of-the-art solutions for the army (Seen here is the FH77B05 )

Scopes: I cannot give you a figure. Depends on occasional big programmes, like Hawks.

Scopes: Yes, under the aegis of the JV between Mahindra and BAE Systems, which is approved by the FIPB (Foreign Investment Promotion Board), we hope the JV company will develop a successful export business. SP’s: As a former government employee, are there major differences in the functioning of the British and Indian government?

SP’s: Do you plan to collaborate with the Defence Research and Development

Scopes: Governments are similar everywhere and there are many similarities in the way the British and Indian governments operate. There are some differences, of course, but the similarities outnumber them considerably. For example, the management and execution of the recent general election was a triumph for India; a procedure many smaller nations in the West would do well to study.

liarities of this part of the LoC, which falls amongst the highest snow fall regions of the Himalayas (Dosai Mountains). Patrolling of the area during this period in the past had resulted in heavy casualties where even platoon size patrols disappeared under snow avalanches and that had imposed restrictions on patrolling of the vacated areas. To add to this were the large gaps between defended posts, ranging from 10 to 25 km. At the same time, snow conditions made tactical intelligence collection impossible. No large scale ingress by Pakistan could be expected across a well established LoC. It was India’s stated policy that any aggression in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) would be considered an attack on India and that this country would respond accordingly. Large scale movement of troops and preparations would be picked up by the Indian intelligence and Indian troops would have the necessary advance warning. Terrain, too, did not favour large scale operations by Pakistan. Such were the reasonable assumptions. The fact that Pakistan did achieve complete surprise was the result of colossal failure of Indian intelligence.

Once the ingress surfaced, the security establishment retaliated with remarkable alacrity. The Indian Air Force (IAF), displaying reluctance to come on board, warned the government of escalation in the event of deployment of air power. But it was Pakistan which was scared of India escalating the conflict and, to that end, throughout kept denying the presence of its troops in the intrusion. The then Chief of the Air Staff, General V.P. Malik, could not cut short his foreign tour, as reportedly no one had asked him to. Troops were thrust into battle without essential acclimatisation and reconnaissance in frontal attacks along knife edge ridges and steep slopes. When the IAF at last did go into action, the presence of stinger missile pushed its aircraft to greater heights, making acquisition and engagement of snow covered enemy positions difficult. Yet, its employment had a tremendous psychological impact. However, for Air Commodore Jasjit Singh to claim, “exceptionally well executed aerial strikes by IAF provided an impetus—to the support of international community

SP’s: Do you plan collaborations with Indian public sector units (PSUs)?

Scopes: We have had a long association with HAL (Hindustan Aeronautics Limited). We are in discussions with BEL (Bharat Electronics Limited). We are also exploring the feasibility with other defence PSUs.

SP’s: BAE Systems has a major thrust on corporate social responsibility. What do you do in India?

Scopes: We are only at the start of developing our corporate responsibility agenda in India. So far, we have adopted a cluster of schools in Bangalore and have a tie-up with some technical universities in Bangalore also. As part of this, we have student and teacher exchange programmes. We try to instill into kids the importance of science and technology and also encourage cultural exchange. We are also looking at how we might expand collaboration in innovation with higher education across the country, but this is at a very early stage. Health and safety is also a key part of our agenda, as are ethical business concepts and behaviour, something the company takes extremely seriously—these are all elements of our corporate responsibility programme. SP’s: How did you manage recession?

Scopes: The impact of recession in defence and security areas is slightly indirect. General business climate does have an effect, but we have an order book of £45 billion (Rs 3,60,057 crore), so we have a strong outlook. Our supply base is perhaps more affected, and we work closely to manage the impact the general business environment has on our supply base. SP’s: Do you have a JV in the offing with Tata Power?

Scopes: No. There is nothing in the pipeline and we have no MoU. As a matter of interest, we don’t tend to announce MoUs unless we have something concrete to say regarding activities that will happen—many MoUs are usually little more than agreements to talk further. We blow our trumpet a little less than others perhaps. So, you know that when we do, we actually have something meaningful to say. SP’s: Do you have a BAE System in Pakistan in the offing?

Scopes: No. SP’s: What do plan to name the JV with Mahindra Defence?

Scopes: We will let you know. We are very close to deciding the name. SP’s: Why didn’t you want to upgrade the Bofors gun?

Scopes: The upgrade programme is designated ‘India make’, so we, as BAE Systems, are not able to bid. Our artillery partner, Mahindra, was also not inclined to bid. SP

Continued from page 12

more so it’s higher command. Towards the latter part of the 1980s, it started examining ways and means to drive the IA into a position where it would find itself in a Siachen like situation, as faced by Pakistan. Examination of the line of control (LoC) revealed an area where Pakistan could ‘Siachen’ India. Pervez Musharraf in his book In Line of Fire states that, “India captured a location where they felt that our presence was thin and vise versa. This is how they managed to occupy Siachen.” The IA could suffer the failures and frustrations similar to what the Pakistan Army had been undergoing at the Saltaro range. In addition, movement on SrinagarLeh road could be interrupted. This plan was no secret from the political executive, as Benazir Bhutto had stated that the plan was presented to her and she had vetoed it. Nawaz Sharif, too, had been fully briefed and the Indian establishment was being merely gullible in believing his assertions to the contrary.

India’s Operational Assumptions

To understand the Kargil conflict one must know the military and terrain pecu-

Indian Reaction

in favour of India rather than Pakistan” in Kargil 1999–Pakistan’s Fourth War is to strain the reader’s intelligence. Supporting artillery fire, too, was less helpful due to the nature of terrain, ever changing meteorological conditions and large time lag from lifting of fire and arrival of attacking troops.

Raw Courage, Indomitable Spirit

It goes to the eternal credit of the Indian soldier and officers that despite these crippling drawbacks and disadvantages, they displayed raw courage and indomitable spirit. While the capture of Tiger Hill, Tololing and other exploits have received much coverage, what is less known is that almost every inch that the Indian troops recaptured from the enemy involved the same level and degree of courage and effort. Had the political executive in Pakistan not developed cold feet, diminishing the support to the intruding troops, not to mention American pressure on Pakistan to pull out, Indian casualties would have been far greater, tasks that much more difficult and perhaps full success much delayed. SP 4/2009 SP’S LAND FORCES


OEM Speak

Photographs: Mahindra Defence System

‘Trials are on for light SPECIALIST VEHICLES’ BRIGADIER (RETD) KHUTUB A. HAI, Chief Executive of Mahindra Defence Systems, outlines the organisation’s projects and products during an interaction with Sangeeta Saxena

SP’s Land Forces (SP’s): Mahindra is synonymous with the jeep. Which other vehicles do you plan to launch for the defence services?

Brigadier (Retd) Khutub A. Hai (Brigadier Hai): The jeep is still very actively used by the armed forces and many para military forces. We do plan to continuously incorporate latest technologies to upgrade existing products and develop new prototypes. SP’s: The Mahindra Rakshak has not been a great success. How do you plan to change it to provide mobility to the services?

Brigadier Hai: Well, this is actually a misconception. We supplied as per the requirement put forth by the army. We were selected after two years of trials. The army specified that it must be an in-service vehicle modified for bullet proofing. Only Tata and Mahindra had bid. The Rakshak has saved 30 lives so far and survived an IED blast. However, as the army wanted the engine changed, we have replaced it with one which has 30 per cent more power.

“We have a tie up with Lockheed Martin for offsets for C130J. This involves operation, maintenance and support for the C130J flight simulator.” Mahindra and Lockheed Martin?

Brigadier Hai: We have a tie up with Lockheed Martin for offsets for C130J. This involves operation, maintenance and support for the C130J flight simulator.

Brigadier Hai: We would like to do that. We have taken some Non-Commissioned Officers. We have not recruited any Junior Commissioned Officers till now but will do so, provided they have the right competencies. SP’s: Does India’s long procurement procedure demotivate the entrepreneur?

Brigadier Hai: Procurement procedures have become an end in themselves. As a member of the Confederation of Indian Industry’s National Committee on Defence, we have sent numerous white papers to the Ministry of Defence. I was a part of the Kelkar committee also. A reorganisation of the defence industry and procurement processes in India is required. Raksha Udyog

Brigadier Hai: We are supplying to all police forces, like Jharkhand, Jammu and Kashmir, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and Manipur, to name a few. Para military forces, like the Border Security Force and Central Reserve Police Force, also have our Rakshaks. Armoured Scorpio is with most of the country’s police forces, while the Marksman is also under order from the Mumbai police. We are market leaders in India, with over 80 per cent of the market.


Brigadier Hai: Our joint venture with BAE Systems—headquartered in Delhi, with manufacturing in Faridabad—will be fully functional by October. It is in accordance with current foreign direct investment regulations, wherein the equity split will be 74 per cent with Mahindra & Mahindra and 26 per cent BAE Systems. Initial work is likely to include the uparmouring of Rakshak vehicles, axe vehicle production and development of a mine-resistant ambush-protected vehicle suitable for India. We also have plans for manufacturing components and final integration of artillery gun systems. We hope for a turnover of at approximately Rs 2,000 crore in the next six to seven years. SP’s: What is the tie up between


SP’S LAND FORCE S 4 / 2 0 09

SP’s: Which are the deals for which you have submitted RFPs?

Brigadier Hai: Trials are on for light specialist vehicles which will replace the jeep. Besides, light strike vehicles for the special forces and light bullet proof vehicles are

“We are developing parts of sea mines, decoys and decoy launchers for the navy. We are looking at development of the new generation sea mine, as also torpedo launchers.”

SP’s: Apart from the armed forces who else do you supply to?

SP’s: Can you throw light on the joint venture Mahindra has with BAE Systems?

modernising processes within ordnance factories and defence PSUs in terms of logistics chain, supply chain management and vendor development are urgently needed. Also restructuring of certain public sector defence establishments can help initiate positive change. In procurement procedures, Request for Information before Request for Proposal (RFP), sticking to time frame, maximum make procedures and minimum waste procedures would be positive.

also under trial. We are expecting other RFPs shortly. SP’s: What is your plan for entering the naval and air force industry sectors?

Brigadier (Retd) Khutub A. Hai with the Marksman

SP’s: With large defence deals in the offing, do you plan to get into the business of offsets for all defence products? If so, how do you plan to handle them?

Brigadier Hai: Yes, we do. Handling offsets is the onus of the party which is discharging the technology. These companies will come to us for products only if we develop capabilities.. We have a special section dedicated to offsets. In fact, like we have an alliance with Lockheed Martin, we are also talking to Boeing for a similar tie-up for the P8 simulator. SP’s: A large number of service officers are being employed by Mahindra Defence. Are you also giving employment to other ranks with expertise on A&B vehicles?

Ratna (RUR) must be declared very soon. To be fair, the government is taking some initiatives as well to facilitate this. For example, it has revived the RUR scheme that was put in cold storage earlier.. Once awarded RUR status, these companies will be treated on par with defence public sector enterprises. RUR-conferred companies will also be allowed to access foreign technologies and build main systems for the defence forces, besides getting substantial government financial investment (up to 80 per cent) for design, development and manufacture of defence products under the Make category. SP’s: What other changes can help improve the defence industry output?

Brigadier Hai: In addition to RUR,

Brigadier Hai: We are already into it. We are developing parts of sea mines, decoys and decoy launchers for the navy. We are looking at development of the new generation sea mine, as also torpedo launchers. For the air force, as mentioned earlier, we will be providing training and support facilities for the C 130 J simulator. SP’s: How much are you into overhauling and upgradation?

Brigadier Hai: We are doing overhauls of engines and supply of parts. Upgrades of tanks and artillery systems are also on the cards. SP’s: What is the mantra for success in this business?

Brigadier Hai: Days of networking are over. What is required today is a good product with superior technology manufactured by using better processes and at a lower cost. If we can successfully do this, the customer will want to come to us. SP

Publisher and Editor-in-Chief Jayant Baranwal

News i n B r i e f

Editor Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor Assistant Editor Arundhati Das

“Informatics for Defence Force Transformation & Technology Development In The Information Age” was the theme discussed at Defcom 2009 organised jointly by the CII and the Directorate General of Signals of the Indian Army. Starting May 27, the seminar was held over two days at the India Habitat Centre with a total of six technical sessions. Delivering the keynote address, Lieutenant General P. Mohapatra, Signals officer- in-Chief and Senior Colonel Commandant of the Corps of Signals, pointed out that the transformation in the technological domain required the ability to acquire battle field transparency, process information, make decisions and distribute information over wide areas at high data rates, on the move and across all echelons. These capabilities would be the enablers of network-centric warfare. To achieve this, the Indian Army has embarked on development of a robust, sealable and secure army information infrastructure which would consist of three distinct layers: • A well developed, robust and resilient physical transport layer. • An agile switching layer. • A well defined enterprise wide services layer. Chief of the Army Staff General Deepak Kapoor stressed that transforming the Indian Army, which was always active operationally, would lead to new war fighting concepts to execute a broad range of operations dictated by strategic compulsions. It would usher in changes in institutional and training facilities and would also make support structures and logistics more focused. The transformed force, he said, needed to be “flexible, versatile and adaptable in order to handle the entire spectrum of conflict situations that were likely to arise in our context”.

Senior Technical Group Editor Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand

India’s artillery acquisition plan is in shambles. Ever since the controversial Rs 1,437 crore Bofors contract for 410 field howitzers became a political misfortune for the Congress party in 1986, not a single new artillery gun, has been inducted in the Indian Army. Now, the acquisition plan of tube artillery alone is likely to cost about Rs 20,000 crore. A mega global tender for acquiring the under mentioned guns has been issued. The major acquisitions will be: • 400 towed howitzers of 155mm calibre, with a barrel length of 52 calibres, which will be followed by the manufacture of about 1,100 pieces in the country under transfer of technology. • 140 ultra-light weight 155mm towed howitzers, with a barrel length of 45 calibres, for employment in the mountains. • 120 Self Propelled (Tracked) and 180 Self Propelled (Wheeled) 155mm howitzers.

■ Indian Army to launch first indigenous T-90 tank

■ Long-range tactical military exercise begins in China

The Chinese Army has deployed around 50,000 heavily-armoured troops over thousands of miles to test the army’s longdistance mobility, under its largest-ever tactical military exercise, titled ‘Stride 2009’. During the exercise, one army division from each of the military commands of Shenyang, Lanzhou, Jinan and Guangzhou will participate in a series of live-fire drills that will last for two months, reports Xinhua. The army will introduce a newly developed laser-beam combat simulation system as part of the live-fire drills to be conducted in four tactical training bases.

■ India completes tests on Nag anti-tank missile

India has successfully completed the second phase of final user trials of the third-generation anti-tank Nag missile for the Indian Army. Three missiles, equipped with tandem warheads, were fired successfully on 2 August against fixed and moving targets, while extensive transportation trials were carried out on 31 July and 1 August. The hit-to-kill antitank missile was made more rugged based on the feedback provided by previous user trials to suit the army requirements. The test-fired missile destroyed a stationary derelict tank in each of the two trials conclusively establishing its K-Kill efficacy (capability to kill), according to the Indian Defence Research and Development Organisation.

■ Canada to receive 15 Chinook helicopters from Boeing

UK’s Watchkeeper UAV proceeds to flight trials

The Watchkeeper unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) being developed by Thales UK for the British Army will proceed towards ground system and flight trials, after successfully completing its inaugural flight. Watchkeeper is an advanced aerial system that will be used to gather intelligence and provide target acquisition and reconnaissance capabilities, and will form a key component of the UK’s network-enabled capability.

Chief Special Correspondent Sangeeta Saxena

The Canadian Government has awarded a $1.15 billion (Rs 5,582.5 crore) contract to Boeing for 15 new CH-47F Chinook heavy-lift helicopters. Under the contract, Boeing will provide Chinooks to meet Canada’s medium-to-heavy lift helicopter programme requirements.

■ Ap p o i n t m e n t General Deepak Kapoor, PVSM, AVSM, SM, VSM, ADC and Chief of the Army Staff, took over as the Chairman Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC) at an official ceremony in the South Block from Admiral Sureesh Mehta, PVSM, AVSM, ADC and Chief of the Naval Staff. Admiral Mehta handed over the baton of Chairman COSC to General Kapoor at an official farewell accorded to him. Admiral Mehta was laying down his office after 42 years of service.

‘India closely watching China’—M.M. Pallam Raju, Minister of State for Defence

India is set to roll out its first indigenously developed Russian T-90 tank on 24 August, ready for induction into the Indian Army. The indigenous production of the tanks started in 2008, under licence from Russia. The tank weighs 46.5t, reaches a speed of up to 60 km/hour and features a 125mm enhanced-accuracy smooth-bore gun mount with a built-in alignment system and an easily detachable barrel. The gun’s autoloading facility allows seven or eight rounds a minute. The tank’s main ammunition includes the armour-piercing discarding sabot, shaped-charge and highexplosive separate-loading projectiles as well as anti-tank guided missiles.

Sub-Editor Bipasha Roy Contributors India General (Retd) V.P. Malik, Lt General (Retd) Vijay Oberoi, Lt General (Retd) R.S. Nagra, Lt General (Retd) S.R.R. Aiyengar, Air Marshal (Retd) Vinod Patney, Major General (Retd) Ashok Mehta, Major General (Retd) G.K. Nischol, Brigadier (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal, Brigadier (Retd) S. Mishra, Rohit Sharma Europe Andrew Brookes (UK) USA & Canada Lon Nordeen (USA) Anil R. Pustam (West Indies) South Africa Helmoed R. Heitman Chairman & Managing Director Jayant Baranwal Admin & Coordination Bharti Sharma Design Associate Art Director: Ratan Sonal Layout Designs: Rajkumar Sharma, Vimlesh Kumar Yadav Sales & Marketing Director Sales & Marketing: Neetu Dhulia Head Vertical Sales: Rajeev Chugh Sales Manager: Rajiv Ranjan

India’s plan for artillery acquisition

Contributing Editor Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia

SP Guide Pubns

DEFCOM 2009: Spotlight on Informatics

India should be prepared for the “eventuality” that nuclear, chemical and biological weapons may fall into the hands of terrorists, Minister of State for Defence M.M. Pallam Raju said, stressing that adequate steps were being taken to counter any threats. Addressing the media on the sidelines of a seminar on ‘Emerging Technologies in Sub Conventional Warfare and Homeland Security’ jointly organised by the Confederation of Indian Industry and Centre for Land Warfare Studies at DRDO Bhawan in Delhi, the minister said India was closely watching China’s “moves” to increase its military prowess in the Indian Ocean and would take “adequate measures” if its internal security is threatened. He further emphasised that the internal security situation in the country has a bearing upon the investments, industry and employment and indicators of human development. Lately, the government has taken initiatives to strengthen the internal security apparatus. New Centres for rapid response are being set up in key cities all over the country. In order to raise the economic growth of the country, “India must provide peace and mental security to investors so that they are confident about bringing in much needed capital”. The government, he said, has stated its intention to source defence equipment indigenously up to the extent of 70 per cent. He pointed out that there are significant opportunities for the private industry to partner in the homeland security and sub-conventional warfare space. —By Sangeeta Saxena

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SP's Land Forces Aug-Sep 2009 - SP's Land Forces was launched realizing the need of a dedicated journal to address the issues pertaining to A...

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