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First man on the moon For Neil Armstrong, the first man to step on the moon, the visit to Delhi later this month (see story on page 16) will be his second to India. The first was on October 26, 1969 with the two other members of the Apollo 11 mission, Edwin Aldrin and Michael Collins, when they received a tumultuous welcome in Bombay. "The general challenge of the unknown," was Armstrong's reply when asked why he had joined the United States' space programme. But he had been close to space before. As a civilian research pilot, working for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), he had flown to the edge of space seven times in an X-15 rocket plane. In March 1966 he finally flew through space as the command pilot of Gemini-8 mission.

With this issue, SPAN enters its eleventh volume. During these past ten years the magazine has been fortunate in having the services of Mr. V.S. Nanda, whose byline has appeared frequently on articles of substance, the first one in Volume I, Number 1, November 1960. Mr. Nanda's lucid style and scholarly approach have won him a vast circle of admirers among the magazine's readers. And his meticulous attention to detail has earned him the highest respect of his colleagues. Regretfully, SPAN is losing its able managing editor who retires this month. SPAN wishes him many more happy and- productive years.

Leader of the second lunar landing Charles Conrad, Jr., commanded the Apollo-12 mission, which made man's second landing on the moon. This was his third space flight. His first was in August 1965 when he served as pilot on the record-breaking 8-day, 120-orbit Gemini-5 flight of 190 hours and 56 minutes. A year later he commanded the Gemini-ll mission. His interest in aeronautics began as a small child, encouraged by his father, who was a balloonist in World War I.


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Flight 737: Ready for Boarding If

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A 'Sleeping Giant' Awakes I

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From Balloon - ,. to Spaceship .

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New Hope for Rural Education

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Kick Off: Playing it Straight with the Pros by George Plimpton -

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Yehudi Menuhin Host to the astronauts Mr. G.S. Bolina, president of the Aero Club of India, stands beside his plane. Founded in 1928, the Aero Club is the central organization of all the flying, gliding and aero-modelling clubs in India. It supervises and controls all competitions, national air races and air rallies in India. The main objectives of the organization are to encourage and to develop the study and practice of aeronautics. Besides issuing certificates in gliding, the Aero Club has the authority to issue student pilot licences. The growth of the air transport industry in India-particularly during the postwar periodowes a great deal to the flying club movement, as the nucleus of pilots, engineers and technicians -of the air corporations were trained by flying clubs. The Aero Club is hosting the 63rd General Conference of the Federation Aeronautique Internationale in Delhi this month, at which Astronauts Neil Armstrong and Charles Conrad will receive gold medals.

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Front cover This dancer in Kathakali costume is the Sorcerer in the well-known "Swan Lake" ballet, performed by theIndo-AmericanDance Company in the Indian dance idiom. For a story on the group, see pp. 46-48.

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Back cover A new era for air travel in India begins next year with the introduction of the Boeing 737s on domestic routes. For a story on the preparatory training of pilots and other technical personnel, turn to page 2.

Catherine Scott. Editor; V.S. Nanda, Mg. Editor; Dan Oleksiw, Publisher. Editorial Staff: Carmen Kagal, Avinash Pasricha, Nirmal K. Sharma, Krishan G. Gabrani, P.R. Gupta. Art Staff: B. Roy Choudhury, Nand K. Katyal, Kanti Roy, Kuldip Singh Jus, Gopi Gajwani. Production Staff: Awtar S. Marwaha, Mammen Philip. Photographic Services: USIS Photo Lab. Published by the United States Information Service, Bahawalpur House, Sikandra Road, New Delhi, on behalf of the American Embassy, New Delhi. Printed by Arun K. Mehta at Vakil & Sons Private Limited. .•..' .. Vakils House, Sprott Road, 18 Ballard Estate. Bombay-l. Manuscripts and photographs sent for publication must be accompanied by stamped, self-addressed envelope for return. SPAN is not responsible for any loss in transit. Use of SPAN articles in other publications is eocouraged except when they are copyrighted. For details. write to the Editor. SPAN. Subscription: One year, rupees five; single copy, fifty paise. Inasmuch as we are currently oversubscribed for SPAN. we regret that it will oot be possible to accept any more subscriptions for the time being. For change of address, send old address from a recent SPAN envelope along with new address to A.K. Mitra, Circulation Manager. Allow six weeks for change of address to become effective.


On August 1 a striking advertisement caught the eyes of Indian newspaper readers: "Today, our 17th anniversary, we request you to bear with us for 154 days." Add 154 to August 1: January 1, 1971. Aside from the beginning of a new year, what is so special about the date? Indian Airlines has the answer. "From January 1, 1971, our fleet will begin to grow. With 17 new aircraft. Including 7 Boeing 737s. We'll soon be able to carry Illakh m ore passengers. Increase cargo and mail facilities. Boost tourism and India's trade, commerce and industry. Bring people closer ... 154 days to go ... " Queues at booking offices will shrink, travel agents will lose their frowns, tourists will keep to their schedules, and airline officials will smile.


The first 119-passenger Boeing 737 is to be delivered this month and go into regular service January 1, 1971. Last March Indian Airlines announced that after an intensive analysis of planes from three countries, the Boeing 737-200 had been selected to serve on internal routes. With a 119-seat capacity each, the 7 new planes ordered would increase the passenger capacity of the airline by at least 50 per cent. Relief would be provided to India's increasingly crowded air transport business. The first 737 will be introduced into service on the "Golden Triangle" of Bombay-CalcuttaDelhi on January 1. As more of the twin-jets become available, they will also be used on the tourist routes-Jaipur, Agra, Khajuraho, Varanasi and Kathmandu. Designed as a "workhorse"-the modern equivalent of the sturdy old Dakota-the 737 can withstand the rigours of short-haul operations. Highly manoeuvrable, it can be operated from small airports as the plane's penetration into the India route structure becomes greater. Its usefulness and dependability is indicated by the fact that it now serves 29 airlines in 18 countries. During ground training for the Indian Airlines flight crew in Boeing's plant at Seattle, Washington, Instructor Robert Miller explains a point to Capt. Hiren Bhattacharji. To his right is Capt. Donald B. Braganza, lA's Operations Manager in Delhi. In background are other senior captains of the Indian Airlines.

In Washington last June, the Export-Import Bank of the United States and representatives of Indian Airlines Corporation signed a$12.5 million loan agreement to assist in the financing of the planes. The loan is guaranteed by the Indian Government. The U.S. Ambassador to India, Kenneth B. Keating, attending the signing ceremony, described the agreement as "another link in the friendship and mutual ties that exist between India and the United States." India's Ambassador to the United States, L.K. Jha, said that Boeing aircraft have been flown on international routes by Air-India "for years," and he expressed the hope that the new planes would increase tourism in India. ExImBank Chairman Henry Kearns, who signed for the Bank, predicted that it would. "I had the opportunity recently to travel extensively in India and I don't know of a country where there is such a wide selection of interesting things to see." The contract price of the transaction is $30,930,000. Indian Airlines made a cash down payment of ten per cent of the contract price, the Boeing Company extended nine per cent, and Manufacturers Hanover Trust of New York has provided the financing of 40.5 per cent. Spare parts for the aircraft, worth an estimated $7 million, are expected to be imported by India through a non-project loan extended by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The first plane will be delivered to Indian Airlines this month and will be ferried from Seattle, home of the Boeing, to India in December. As soon as Indian Airlines announced its decision last March to buy the 737, a rigid training schedule for IA personnel was established. Some 200 pilots, engineers, chief cabin attendants, flight dispatchers, and a number of other specialists have been flying half way around the world to undergo up to six weeks of intensive studies at the Boeing Company's massive training facilities in Seattle. This programme will continue until March 1971, when it will be continued in India. (continued)


Going through the 737 checklist in a cockpit procedures trainer, left, are three senior fA commanders during their Seattle training. Although the cockpit is designed for a crew of two pilots, the 737 can be flown by one pilot from either seat. The large-diameter fuselage gives the 737 an "intercontinental" 6-abreast seating capability, below. A generous 218 ems. aisle headroom space accommodates the tallest person.


A profit-maker for short-haul service, the 737 offers economic operation on flights as short as 160 kilometres. Training is roughly divided into two categories -operations instruction for pilots, cabin attendants, flight dispatchers and performance engineers and ground school training for engineers and technicians. Overseeing the training in Seattle is B.S. Parashar, deputy chief engineer of Indian Airlines, who moved to Seattle in June to assume the duties of the airline's resident representative for the duration of the contract. Referring to the time spent in the United States so far, Mr. Parashar said, "Since taking over my assignment here, I have found all Boeing employees to be helpful, co-operative and ready to offer wholehearted assistance where needed. I look forward to a long period of healthy and productive association for the mutual benefit of our wonderful organizations." Moving up from Viscounts, HS-748 and F-27 propeller-driven aircraft, some Indian Airlines pilots are gaining their first experience in flying jets, while others are in a transition stage after having operated Caravelles. Approximately 80 pilots will receive their air transport ratings to fly 737s. They are spending not less than six weeks in Seattle, going through a ground training school first and progressing to simulator and actual flight training. A flight simulator is a highly sophisticated device that allows a pilot to gain "flight" experience without incurring the expense of actually operating an aircraft. It is basically a small room, outfitted like a cockpit and mounted on a system of levers and springs which allow it to lean in various directions to simulate the feeling of flight. The cockpit panel is exactly the same as that of the real airplane and various lighting conditions, such as bright sunlight, night-time and lightning storms, are simulated through the windows. Familiarization with the systems of the 737 is emphasized during the initial flight crew ground training, and particular emphasis is placed on becoming knowledgeable of normal systems operations so that abnormalities are quickly recognized and corrective action can be taken quickly. Various types of trainers are used and periods

are included for viewing the 737 manufacturing area and the flight line. The pilot courses will begin in India next year after a flight simulator estimated to cost $1.5 million is installed. Five classes of pilots, consisting of 55 students, have completed their ground training. The first class returned to Seattle in October for simulator and flight training, returning to India this month to prepare the inaugural service on January 1.Two other classes have been scheduled. The first plane will be ferried to India next month. Each airplane delivered here will have one IA and one Boeing pilot. Flight dispatchers must be familiar with all capabilities and systems of the plane and three

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Using a lighted diagram and instrument panel, lefi, Boeing Instructor Fred Wayne discusses the 737's electrical power system with Indian Airlines engineers. Similar courses were later started in Delhi, below, initially with the help of Boeing instructors.

groups of four students each have undergone 40 hours of training. Included in the course is a comprehensive coverage of the 737's .flight characteristics and available emergency procedures. Twenty-four hours of familiarization with the 737's furnishings, including its communication and lighting systems, were conducted in October for eight flight attendants. Field trips were made to the mock-up facility and to the airplane to observe the location and arrangement of equipment. Specifically, some of the systems studied were air-conditioning, pressurization, oxygen, water, control panels, lights and call system, and errergency equipment. Two performance engineers who will be involved in route planning spent nearly a month in Seattle. The four-week course highlights an explanation of tur.bo-jet airplane performance methods and the application of these methods in the presentation of performance information to flight crews. A performance engineer, as the name implies, analyzes and evaluates the plane's performance and engineers flight.testing. Engineering training includes five different types of classes relating to maintenance of the 737. These consist of airplane familiarization, airframes and systems, electrical systems, avionics systems, and autoflight. Three groups of more than 100 engineers have undergone traincontinued


Within 3 years of its introduction into commercial service, the 737 has been widely accepted. Serving 18 nations, its fleet exceeds 250. One distinctive characteristic of the 737 is its "eyelevel" maintainability, seen below. Nearly all maintenance can be carried out at ground level without ladders.


The huge 737 has been designed for small airfields. Agra, Varanasi and Khajuraho will be on the jet schedule. ing-two groups in Seattle and another in New Delhi. After completing the courses in Seattle, the engineers gained additional experience by viewing the operations at various 737 locations. Upon completing the avionics and electrical systems courses, M.N. Arora, avionics superintendent at Indian Airlines Headquarters, commented: "The training imparted at the Boeing Service School is very exhaustive and of very high standard. The school is staffed with teaching personnel with a wide range of knowledge and experience." At the Indian Airlines Training School at Safdarjung Airport in New Delhi aircraft maintenance engineers of the Corporation and the Civil Aviation Department have been attending courses. The first of these was held last August when four Boeing instructors trained 83 engineers. This group included IA instructors who now conduct the courses to meet the demand for a growing number of qualified personnel needed to maintain the aircraft at major airports. Most of the personnel having training in Seattle were making their first visit to the United States, although some of the senior pilots and engineers had been there before. In spite of the limited time for leisure activities, many took advantage of the fishing and skiing facilities of the Pacific Northwest. They also attended various sports and cultural events at the Seattle Center, which was retained after being built for the 1962 Seattle World's Fair. As Mr. Arora remarked, "Seattle has all the facilities of a big city and at the same time has surroundings of scenic beauty and pollution-free atmosphere. One can enjoy the waterfront at Seattle and snow falls at Mt. Ranier within a short drive through the forests of the evergreen State of Washington." The 154 days have shrunk and soon Captain D.A. Samant, Boeing Project Director, will command the 737's first flight to India aboard the Mayura, named for the peacock, India's national bird. The other six will also be named after birds: Garuda, Jatayu, Hansa, Bharadvaja, Chataka and Saranga. January I: Flight 737 ready for boarding!

Facts about the 737-200 Capacity:

119 passengers.

Length: 30.48 metres. Cabin width: Boeing standard, 3.76 metres-the only Short-range jetliner offering six abreast tourist seating. Maximum takeoff weight: 51,482 kgs. with a maximum payload of 15,278 kgs. Cruising speed: 885 kmph at 9,000 metres altitude. Maximum

range: Fully loaded, 3,400 km.

Engines: Twin Pratt and Whitney JT8D turbofan engines, one mounted under each wing. It is the same one that powers the Boeing 727 tri-jet, the most widely sold jetliner in the world. The underwing location results in savings in structural weight; a longer passenger section for a specific fuselagelength; better balance characteristics; and easier maintenance'{f:.rom the ground). Crew: Certified by U.S. Government agencies for two-man crew operations. Controls and flight deck instruments are located so that the aircraft may be flown from either pilot's position with ease and safety. Visibility: Certified for automatic approaches with a 300-metre ceiling and 375-metre forward visibility. Lift system: Can land and take off from runways as short as 1.600 metres. Cabin pressure: An electronically controlled cabin pressurization system-the first of its kind-permits an essentially handsoff operation by the two-pilot crew and provides unparalleled passenger comfort at all altitudes. History: The 737 entered commercial service in February 1968 and now is a fleet of more than 250 planes serving 29 airlines in 18 countries.

END

SPAN NOVEMBER

1970

9


In world tourist circles, India is often referred to as the "sleeping giant" of the industrybecause of its vast untapped potential. But recent measures by the government, the airlines and private industry indicate that the giant is now stirring after the SIUlll ber of years.

IN A FEW MONTHS, when the jumbo jets start roaring into Indian airports, they are expected to bring with them a sharp increase in the number of tourists. At New Delhi's Palam alone, it is estimated that incoming and outgoing passengers will total over three lakhs a year. Coping with the new influx isa major challenge facing the Indian tourist industry today. Tourism, of course, is already on the rise in India. Last year it earned Rs. 33 crores in foreign exchange as against Rs. 26 crores in 1968. And compared to the 1.89-lakh figure of 1968, India had a record 2.45 lakh tourists in 1969. Still, in terms of world tourism. this means that only one out of every 1,000 global travellers visited India. The main difficulty in building India's tourist industry has been the fact that it lies beyond the world's most-travelled air lanes. Indeed, most of the country's visitors come fr0111halfway across the globe-from the U.S., Europe and Japan. The expense of air fare is so great that few can afford to visit India except as a tiny segment of a once-in-a-lifetime journey. But there are many reasons why the tourist outlook for India, and other developing countries, is extremely bright. As an Indian


official once pointed out: "Many people have seen the standard attractions and are looking for something new. This something new is very likely to be in a less-developed country. Because these countries generally have mild climates, they will attract those tourists whose travels follow the sun. In addition, the developing country usually offers the interest of a distinctive way of life, and often the remains of ancient splendours." Few countries in the world can equal India in its choice of ancient splendours--magnificent temples, old forts and tombs, its profusion of palaces. Few have as rich a tradition in philosophy, religion and history, or as varied a heritage of painting, sculpture, and handicrafts. To the nature lover India offers unparalleled diversity-from snow-capped mountains to sun-drenched beaches, from dense forests to the stark, eerie beauty of the desert. Because of its vast untapped potential, India has often been referred to as the "sleeping giant" of the tourist industry. But there are signs at last that the giant is stirring. Evidence of this may be found in the large number of m.:asures initiated in recent months by the Govemment of India, by the airlines and by private industry. One of the most slH:cessful of these is "Operation Europe," which was jointly lauached last year by the Department of Tourism and Air-India. The aim of the

campaign, according to Air-India Manager Mr. Narpat Singh, is "to try and sell the many tourist attractions in India to selected groups of potential European clients in concert with other friendly airlines, charter operators and agents." He added: "The campaign in Europe has been substantially helpeJ by the removal of the limit on the number of tourist charters operated to India by foreign travel agents and by liberalizing the rules for their operation. Customs and immigration rules have also been liberalized. During the past few months the Directorate General of Tourism has invited a number of eminent foreign writers, photographers, and film producers to tour the country and convey their impressions to the people at home. This programme has had a greater impact on foreign travel than paid advertising." The success of "Operation Europe" is impressive: a chatter operator in Switzerland has organized 19 charters; travel agents in Italy have sponsored 10 large groups of tourists; there have been two charters, each carrying 85 toutists ftom Scandinavian countries; and Air-India has itself organized several special charters from Germany. "This wedlock between Air-India and the Department of Tourism," commented Mt. Narpat Singh, "enables the government to take full advantage of the 19 Air-India offices in Europe for the promotion of tour groups to India." During 1969, tourist arrivals from Western Europe l"Ose to more than 53,000 (compared to 37,000 in 1968), largely as a result of "Opel"ation Europe." This figure, however, is equalled by the number of tourists from the United States alone. Of last year's total of 2.45 lakh tourists, the largest numbet of a single nationality came from the U.S.-53,000. This was followed by the continued


~nUhiJnd a young Indian admirer exchange greetings. Also in the picture is Dr. Narayana Menon, Director of the National Centre lor the Performing Arts. Far left, the/Menuhinjt rehearsal. In the foreground are Yehudi, son Jeremy, sisters Yaltah and Hephzibah.

A thOlightfU~/ below, poses with his violin.

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Ceylon'fourth with 70.7 per cent, and Japan fifth with 64 per cent. Once in India, where do these pleasure-seekers go? According to Mr. J.e. Sarkar, Tours Manager of a well-known New Delhi travel agency, at least 90 per cent of American tourists visit Kashmir, Chandigarh, Agra, Delhi, Jaipur and Udaipur; about 70 per cent go to Bombay, Aurangabad, Goa and some parts of South India; and nearly 40 per cent visit the Gir Forest, Corbett National Pal'k, Varanasi, Patna, Calcutta, Bhubaneshwar, Konarak, Puri and Darjeeling. To .strengthen the chances of India becoming a destinational point for tourists, the government is carrying out a many-sided programme to develop facilities in places already on the tourist route as well as to open up new areas of tourist interest. The Fourth Five Year Plan on tourism lists three major projects-the development of Gulmarg in Kashmir as a winter sports resort, and of Goa and Kovalam as beach resorts. Winter 1970 will mark the debut of India's ski season at Gulmarg which, the experts say, has some of the finest ski slopes in the world. Right through the year, visitors can drive into the flowery Gulmarg meadows on a newall-weather road. Other development measures include centrally-heated hotels and cafeterias at Gulmarg and Khilanmarg; installation of an aerial ropeway between the two places; setting up of a ski training school; a practice ski lift; an ice-skating rink; and the services of a U.N. ski expert, Mr. Otto Santner from Austria. At Goa and Kovalam, plans envisage the building of new hotels and recreational facilities which will allow vacationers to enjoy not only swimming but water skiing as well. At Kovalam, which is located near Trivandrum, yoga is to be made a tourist attraction and schemes are under way to set up a dance school and a massage and health centre on the basis of the Kerala oil bath system. More and more the Department of Tourism is trying to create a firm cultural base for tourist promotional activities. An added attraction at Kovalam is accessibility to the Periyar Game Sanctuary. For years, the wealth and abundance of its wild life has lured tourists to India, and operators of shikar tours have prospered greatly in all parts of the country. With the recent ban on tigerkilling in 12 Indian States, the Department of Tourism is making every attempt to shift tourist interest to the viewing of wild lifeto "shooting" with a camera instead of with a gun. To this end plans are being drawn up to promote "photo safaris" and nature tours for visitors. During the Fourth Plan, a sum of Rs. 50 lakhs has been allocated for the development of wild life tourism. The emphasis will be on the provision of adequate transport facilities and living accommodation. The question of hotel accommodation, of course, is basic to the development of the tourist industry. And Indian tourism has suf-

fered from the shortage of hotel rooms in the big cities and the inadequacy of accommodation in smaller towns. But today, as never before, steps are being taken to remedy the situation. Private Indian industry is co-operating with American collaborators in the building of three huge five-star hotels, and a new five-star government hotel is in the works. These will cater to the highestspending categories of tourists. To meet the needs of middleincome tourists the government has built a string of two-star hotels, tourist bungalows and travellers' lodges. And in out-of-theway places, the traditional dak bungalows and rest houses are being renovated and modernized. Once the infrastructure has been completed, India can look forward to shal'ing with other countries the manifold benefits that flow from tourism. According to the U.N. Trade and Development Council, "invisible trade," or the tourist industry, is now the largest single item in world trade. Its blessings are incalculable. Every dollar spent by a tourist in a foreign country augments the national income, brings revenue to the government in the form of taxes, provides employment for people in hotel, restaurant, transportation, sightseeing and shopping services. Just as important is the fact that increased international travel breaks down the barriers between nations, teaches them more about one another, and builds mutual understanding and. cooperation. Hence the newly-coined p1'Overb: "A happy tourist is a roving ambassador of good will." END


Traffic jams have long remained the bane of big cities the world over. The new rapid transit trains being introduced in the United States promise to relieve congestion and ensure smooth and speedy journeys for commuters.

/1'.5

11'-3/70

THE submban station glides a train of gleaming stainless steel passenger cars-a high-speed automatic train styled for the 1970's. The citybound crowd on the platform includes a few commuters who live as far as 64 kilometres away. They drove to the big parking lot at the station, bought magnetically coded tickets from machines, and rode to the track platform by escalator. Soon they were speeding towards downtown Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. "From here I save 25 minutes as compared to operating my own car through traffic jams," explains one appreciative passenger. Up front, the one-man "crew" (known as an attendant rather than a motorman or engineer) sits at a console of buttons, lights and telephones. He pushes two buttons. A bell rings, doors close, and the train picks up speed, operating automatically until it stops at the next station. It can accelerate to 121 kilometres an hour within 75 seconds. The passengers in the spacious, clean, air-conditioned cars wonder how they ever used to endme the tensions of driving into downtown

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areas. They relax in contoured upholstered seats, enjoy plenty of leg room, a minimum of noise, good lighting, tinted windows, and a smooth ride as the train rolls on welded steel rails. That is how more than 27,000 persons come into Philadelphia each working day from the neighbouring State of New Jersey sUbmbs, riding on the Delaware River Port Authority's new automated, $92 million rapid transit line. This facility, and other new lines in Chicago, Cleveland, and Boston, for example, are not the only antidotes for traffic congestion, but they are helping to reduce some of the jams. Widespread programmes also are under way to provide better bus service, make better use of established streets, build new urban roads, create more parking facilities, offer incentives for car pools, and otherwise improve transportation which plays such a big part in the life of every American. Many more people will go for mass transit if given speed and comfort. Additional proof is comingwhen San Francisco, California, gets

its big Bay Area System in about two years and when Washington, D.C., gets its new subway network. From Lindenwold, New Jersey, to downtown Philadelphia, the trains of self-propelled cars speed 23 kilometres in 23 minutes, making 10 intermediate stops. This is said to be 22 to 37 minutes faster than the time for motor vehicles. The air-conditioned stations are equipped with automatic ticket machines, automatic gates, a television monitor, and a telephone to be used if it becomes necessary for a person to seek instructions. There is no ticket window, ticket agent, or lines of impatient travellers. A commuter goes to the changemaking machine to obtain coins. He puts the exact fare (60 cents from Lindenwold to downtown Philadelphia) into a ticket-issuing machine. Out comes a plastic ticket magnetically coded. This is put in the automatic gate, where it is "read" by the machine and returned to the passenger. At the end of the ride, the ticket is used again to get out of the terminal. If the gate machine refuses to ac-

7~-~/~ cept a ticket, a screen lights up and advises the passenger to use a nearby telephone and "call for aid." At all times, fare-collection areas are watched by closed-circuit television. Service is frequent and around the clock. The central control tower in Camden, New Jersey, directs as many as 19 trains at one timeautomatically accelerating some of them, keeping them apart from other trains, slowing them to the correct speed for curves, and stopping them precisely at stations. At his console at the front of the first coach, the train attendant can talk to the dispatcher, can stop the train in an emergency, or operate it manually if the need arises.


High-speed train, above left, which covers the 23-kilometre run between Lindenwold, New Jersey, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 23 minutes, provides clean, efficient service to passengers, above. Nerve centre 0/ the transit line is the control room, left, which can direct 19 trains at one time--automatically guiding their speeds and stopping them at stations.

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In Chicago, the track is in the median strip of an expressway. Rapid transit trains operate on the Dan Ryan, Kennedy and Eisenhower superhighways, flanked on both sides by lanes of motor vehicles. Service started late in 1969 on the Dan Ryan and early in 1970 on the Kennedy. The cars in the median strip of the Eisenhower Expressway began operating more than a decade ago. One hundred and fifty new stainless steel cars for the 16 kilometres Dan Ryan route are capable of travelling 113 kilometres an hour on continuous welded rails. Safety in operation is governed by an automatic control system with high-frequency circuits delivering

signals to the train cab. Communication between an attendant and the dispatcher is by train telephone. Lighted segments on the speedometer show the attendant the speed limits. When it is necessary to go more slowly, the appropriate speed range lights up on the speedometer, other signal lights change, and a bell rings. If there is not a slowdown within two and a half seconds, the brakes go on automatically. Cleveland has its famous "Airporters" -air-conditioned, stainless steel cars gliding swiftly on welded rails, carrying people to and from the airport, with intermediate stops at which local commuters get on or off. The trains make the 17.7 kilometres run between the airport and downtown Cleveland in 20 minutes. Opened in late 1968, the Cleveland airport line soon exceeded expectations in patronage. To meet the rising passenger load, authorities have ordered 10 additional cars, which are scheduled to be delivered late this year. The 21-metre long cars seat 80 persons and have floor-toceiling luggage racks that permit easy handling of baggage. Cleveland is ready to transport

the additional hundreds of air travellers who will be carried in the new jumbo jet planes. A number of other U.S. communities would like to have airport rapid transit lines similar to Cleveland's. New York City has plans for a rail link from Manhattan to Kennedy airport. In Boston, the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority is pushing ahead with a master transit plan which will benefit the residents of 79 communities. This includes the construction of about 48 kilometres of new transit lines. Work is in progress on three main extensions. Washington, D.C., expects to have sleek, high-speed electric trains running on 9.6 kilometres of its new subway system by late 1972or early 1973,with the entire 157.7-kilometre network coming into operation by 1980. It will have 86 stations and over 650 air-conditioned cars operating in trains of up to eight units. What once seemed to be an impossible dream is now becoming a reality in the San Francisco Bay area. The first section of the $1,200 million, 120.7-kilometre Bay Area Rapid Transit System (BART) is expected to start operations in late

1971. Hailed as the world's most advanced transit network, it will be computer controlled. Trains from Oakland to San Francisco will speed under the bay through the new 5.8-kilometre tunnel. To build it, construction crews floated 57 tube sections of steel, averaging 100 metres long and weighing over 10,000tons into location and submerged them to a predredged trench. The new system has about 19.3 kilometres of subways, protected from unstable soil by rings of steel. In some areas, BART trains will operate in the medians of freeways. To improve mass transit and create better balanced U.S. transportation, President Nixon in 1969 sent to the U.S. Congress a proposal for spending about $10,000 million during the next 12 years. He stated that public transportation has been neglected and pointed out that about one-quarter of the U.S. population lacks autos. Meanwhile, the U.S. Department of Transportation is getting many suggestions that might help improve urban transportation. Ideas include proposed underground trains operating by gravity and pneumatic pressure, air cushion ~ehicles, a system of self-propelled cars running on guideways, monorail systems, and small electric cars operating on overhead tracks, to mention only a few proposals. Imagination has been stimulated by the success of the high-speed Metroliners and Turbo trains operating in the Washington-New York-Boston corridor. Even a greater number of new ideas relate to the movement of automobiles and buses. The latter are, and will remain, the' major form of mass transportation in many U.S. communities, while privately owned autos, offering convenience, flexibility, privacy and comfort will increase. Forty million more motor vehicles will come into operation in the United States during the next 15 years, to make a total of 144million in 1985.The population will grow by 60 plillion to 265 million, heavily concentrated in U.S. urban areas. As the pressure to solve transportation problems increases, a wide variety of improvements and new systems will be needed. American designers, engineers, technicians and industries have the necessary materials to meet the challenge. END


IF

of Delhi during the last week in November think they are air borne, it will not be surprising, because the city will host an unusual number of aviation experts and enthusiasts. On November 22 the President of India will inaugurate the 63rd General Conference of the Federation Aeronautique Internationale (F.A.I.). Astronauts and cosmonauts will lend further lustre to the meeting. Among these will be Neil A. Armstrong of Apollo 11 fame, the first man to walk on the moon, and Charles Conrad, Jr., Commander of Apollo 12 and another moon-walker. The Aero Club of India, which represents the country's flying, gliding, and aeromodelling in F.A.I.,has sponsored the 1970 Conference and has taken theresponsibility of organizing it. Each country is represented in the international organization by an official flying club. In the United States it is the National Aeronautic Association. In the days when global aviation was not easy to foresee, three men discussed the need for co-ordination and guidance in this growing field and presented their ideas to the Olympic Congress in Brussels on June 10, 1905. ...They were Count de La Vaulx, Vice President of the Aero Club of France, Fernand Jacobs, President of the Aero Club of Belgium, and Major Moedebeck of the German Airship League. The Congress accepted their proposals and passed a resolution calling for the creation in each country of an association for regulating flying and, thereafter, an international organization. This was the beginning of the Federation Aeronautique Internationale. Probably F.A.I.'s best-known activity is the certification of world records for all categories of aviation-balloons, dirigibles, seaplanes, amphibians, land planes of all types, rocket aircraft, gliders, helicopters, model aircraft, parachutes, space vehicles. It is the oldest international organization promoting non-commercial aviation by THE RESIDENTS

'

FROM BALLOOI TO SPACI SHIP

standardizing regulations and scientific methods of measurement to foster continued competition. The Secretariat in Paris under the leadership of the Director General carries out the strictly technical work of the organization in specialized committees on which member nations may be represented. F.A.I. is financed exclusively by dues and charges paid by the aeronautical associations, federations, and clubs which represent their respective nations. Other principal activities of F.A.I. include the continuous modernization of a code which permits fair and scientific comparison of the performances of pilots of different nations in air and space; the organization of world championships for the various kinds of aviation; aviation education through publications and films; and the encouragement of aeronautical progress through the granting of medals and diplomas. The awards are presented at each General Conference for the preceding year's achievements in aviation and space. The 1969 F.A.!. Gold Medal for Space has been awarded to Neil Armstrong "for exceptional performance in space." (Frank Borman, Commander of Apollo 8, received the medal for 1968.) The Yuri Gagarin Gold Space Medal, created by F.A.I. in memory of the cosmonaut who made the first manned space flight on April 12, 1961, has been given this year to Charles Conrad, Jr., for his "remarkable achievements in man's conquest of space for peaceful purposes." The other major awards are as follows: F.A.I. Gold Air Medal, "to those who have contributed greatly to the development of aeronautics by their activities, work, achievements, initiative, or devotion to the cause of aviation": J. L. Aresti (Spain). F.A.!. Bronze Medal, "to people who rendered valuable services to F.A.l.": Mrs. Ann Welch (U.K.).


De La Val/Ix Medal, "to holders of recognized absolute world records gained durin~ the year": Russell L. Schweickart (U.S.A.), Neil A. Armstrong (U.S.A.), Charles Conrad, Jr. (U.S.A.), and A. Yeliseyev and Y. Khrunov (U.S.S.R.). Luis Bleriot Medal, "to holders of the highest records for speed, altitude and distance, beaten in the previous year, by light aircraft": Harold Fishman (U.S.A.) and Barry Schiff (U.S.A.). Lilienthal Medal, "for a particularly remarkable performance in gliding or eminent services over a long period of time on behalf of gliding": Eric Nessler (France). F.A.!. Gold Parachuting Medal, J. Lutovac (Yugoslavia). A comparison of early world records with those of today points up the incredible advances that have been made in aviation technology and flying skill. The first speed record registered with F.A.I. was established on November 12, 1906 by Santos Dumont of Brazil with the speed of 41.292 km.p.h. The latest record is 3,331.507 km.p.h. made on May 1, 1965, by Co!. R.L. Charles A. Lindbergh

Stephens of the U.S.A. In 1906 Dumont also established a distance record of 220 metres. Today's record is that of Major c.P. Evely of the U.S.A.-20,168.75 kilometres-made January 10-11, 1962. The first altitude record of 155 metres was established on August 29, 1907 by Latham of France. Today's record is 95,935.99 metres made by Major R.M. White of the U.S.A. on July 17, 1962. --Various F.A.I. awards have been won through the years by manyfamousflyers, includingChariesA. Lindbergh in 1927, for the first solo flight across the Atlantic, and Miss Jacqueline Cochran in 1953. This famous American aviatrix holds many world records and has also served as president ofF.A.I. The four-day working sessions of the Conference will be followed by a day's trip to Agra on November 26 and sightseeing around Delhi on November 27, climaxed by a banquet that night given by the Aero Club of India. Without doubt, the delegates to the 63rd General Conference will be happy that they did not "overfly" India. END

5/- ao b (;)

,

Right, Miss Jacqueline Cochran

..57/- //'00/

(v.:JJ" -~3?

Daredevils of the airpilots who flew higher, faster and longer to set aviation recordswill be honoured at an international conference in Delhi thISmonth. The next two pages highlight the exciting sport of air racing.


new hope lor rural education Its effectiveness demonstrated in initial trials in Delhi, Indian television will fan out to some 5,000 villages with the implementation of the Indp-U.S. satellite-television project.

NINETEENSEVENTY-FOUR may seem a long way off, but not for certain Indian and American scientists-the ones who have begun the ground work that will enable India to use an American space satellite to bring educational TV programmes to some five thousand Indian villages. This joint television experiment will provide the world's first large test of instructional television via satellite (SITE-Satellite Indian Television Experiment). It will also test the potential value of satellite technology in the rapid development of mass communications in developing countries. Careful planning must precede the day when the knob on the receiver is turned on. A team of five scientists from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) spent two weeks in India this past July to acquaint themselves with Indian research, development and educational facilities. They held meetings with their Indian counterparts from the Indian Space Research Organization of the Department of Atomic Energy-the first of a series of joint working meetings in India to be held under an agreement signed between the United States and India on September 18, 1969. Under this agreement NASA will make available for a one-year period an Ap-

plications Technology Satellite (ATS-F) for the television experiment. India plans to have its own satellite by 1975. All the ground technology and installations will be the responsibility of the Indian Department of Atomic Energy. The TV programming through the satellite will be under the exclusive control of the Government of India. Present schedules call for the launching of the satellite early in 1973. After initial experiments by NASA, it will be positioned in a synchronous orbit about 22,300 statute miles above the equator and will be available to India early in 1974. It will provide for the first time direct broadcasting of television programmes from a satellite into small village receivers, without the need for relay stations on the ground. This exciting project has been widely discussed in international forums, including the United Nations, and is considered an important pilot test that could accelerate the advent of national communications systems in the developing world. It represents, also, an important expression of American policy to share the benefits of U.S. space technology directly with other nations. Dr. Thomas O. Paine, former NASA Administrator, hailed the India-U.S. SITE experiment as "a beautiful example of how nations can co-operate in the space age to do something that individually would not be possible, but, collectively, can indeed hasten this application of the benefits of space to mankind." The A TS- F will carry 18 to 20 experiments of primary interest to the United States and NASA. One of its principal

objectives will be the exploration of the technical feasibility of erecting a large (9-metre) antenna structure in space and the ability to point it accurately, plus or minus one-tenth degree, to any geographicallocation within its view. After initial NASA experimentation with the ATS-F, the satellite will be moved to a position within view of India, which will use the satellite up to six hours a day to beam instructional programmes directly to rural community receivers. During the hours when India is not using the satellite, NASA will continue its experiments. The receivers will be manufactured in India. India will use the existing experimental ground station at Ahmedabad, and possibly others at different locations, to transmit programmes to the satellite, which will then relay them to village receivers and to larger distribution stations. India will provide and maintain the village receivers. Primary programme objectives will be to contribute to family planning and national integration and to improve agricultural practices. Secondary objectives will be to contribute to general school and adult education and to teacher training and to improve other occupational skills as well as health and hygiene. While it may take only three-tenths of a second to bounce a signal off a satellite, it takes months and years of pre-planning and testing before a satellite or any broadcast system can be used effectively. H. Rex Lee, U.S. Commissioner, Federal Communications Commission, in an address to the Indian Society of Advertisers, said: "Developing the hardware is much easier than planning the software. You simply


D D cannot rush into a project which encompasses the total educational and developmental scheme of a nation without designing instructional programmes directed at the process of learning and teaching in terms of specific objectives; training the television instructors and monitors; preparing personnel for the crucial tasks of administration; and making sure that the plan has been carefully evaluated." The SITE agreement followed several years of careful preparation, including an experiment conducted in the vicinity of New Delhi. During this test, television programmes on agricultural techniques were broadcast conventionally to village receivers. Experience in the villages receiving the TV programmes was compared with experience in villages not receiving these programmes. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of television instruction of a concrete character and encouraged India to proceed further with educational television. Mr. Lee pointed out that one of the major failures of the use of educational television in the United States is that too many schools or cities rush out to purchase a television system and then do not know what to do with it. In one sparsely-populated area of the United States, however, a successful rural television programme of a different type is in operation. It is an educational, yet entertaining, half-hour presentation of the fundamentals of language and numbers for three-, four- and five-year olds, beamed five days a week for eight months a year into hundreds of homes in the mountains and hollows of one of America's poorest TV's magnetic pull draws Delhi/armers. In the past 20 months, teleclubs have been set up in 80 villages to aid rural modernization.

States, West Virginia. The programmes are video-taped in the State capital, ChaTleston, and broadcast from a station in the centre of the target area. It is not the programme alone that makes this project unique, but the fact that follow-up services are provided by eight local adults, and a mobile classroom is used to supplement the television. The adults are not teachers, although they have had some training in education. Each visits 40 homes a week, conferring with parents and children for about 30 minutes. They deliver special materials to go with the television programmes and talk with parents about the lessons that have just been shown or that will be shown in the next two or three days. Dr. Benjamin Carmichael, director of the co-ordinated project, believes that technology can revolutionize rural education, not only in America, but everywhere. Although an experiment, the success of

the Appalachian Educational Laboratory, as the West Virginia project is called, has led educators to consider it as a prototype for schools in rural areas throughout the United States. The results of the Indian experiment will undoubtedly be studied carefully in many parts of the woTld, and to the degree that it is successful, it, too, will become a prototype for similar television programmes in development. But most important is its value to the people of Indiachildren instilled with an enthusiasm for learning, because they will have the very best teachers; farmers taking pride in sharply increased food production, because they will have the benefit of the most qualified experts; mothers concerned about the size and health of their families, because they will understand the need for nutrition and health care; and more people able to participate directly in the economic and political development of the nation.

'SAJ-?O-//-?


duced by the Children's Television Workshop (CTW) in New York, is unique. With grants from the Carnegie Corporation, the The research director of the Ford Foundation, the U.S. Office of EduChildren's Television Workshop cation, the Office of Economic Opportuoutlines techniques being nity, and other U.S. Government agencies, tested through an experimental CTW had the resources to undertake a maTV programme to educate prejor programme in instructional television. Preschoolers are highly selective. They schoolers while entertaining them. do not retain an interest in a television show on a programme-to-programme baWHO MAKE UP the most demanding tele- sis, but rather on a moment-to-moment vision audience in the United States? As basis. And yet, the CTW experiment must far as I am concerned, there is no ques- make every effort to sustain their interest tion about it: preschoolers. This group of virtually from start to finish. Because of this imperative, "Sesame three- to five-year-old children comprises the most mercurial colIection of viewers Street" is the most researched and tested anywhere. And there are an estimated 12 programme in American television history. The producers must make the show million of them in the United States. In the autumn of 1969 these preschool- entertaining without compromising. the instructional objectives. Unless "Sesame ers became the object of an unprecedented and potentialIy significant experiment in Street" were as entertaining as other proeducational television. At that time, Na- grammes children watch every day, the . tional Educational Television began beam- CTW experiment would fail. To avoid this possibility, show materials ing to 163 public television stations across the United States, the first of a series of and new ideas have been subjected to judg130 hour-long colour telecasts specificalIy ments of the "ultimate consumers"-ad designed to prepare young children for hoc panels of preschool children themformal schooling. The primary objective of selves. For example, the cartoon designed the experiment is to determine whether the to teach the letter "J" was created along techniques and approaches that are popu- the lines of a short television commercial. lar and effective in commercial television can be adapted successfulIy to teaching. In short, can television realIy teach the preschoolers? "AN UNDISPUTED fiT" This is still a question for several rea-The New York Times sons. First of all, the American experience in instructional television has been inconIn June 1970 "Sesame Street" won teleclusive. When television has been used for visio!1's coveted "Emmy" award made instruction, the usual practice has been to by the Academy of Television Arts and transmit existing classroom methods. Sciences as the "outstanding children's On the other hand, we know that when programme" of the past season. An television is used imaginatively, it has an "Emmy" also went to the show's writers observable-if, perhaps, unintended-infor the best single presentation in the structional impact. Young children, for children's field. These confirmed a judgment made in April 1970 when example, have learned words, numbers, "Sesame Street" won TV's Peabody shapes, and colours from television comAward for meritorious service to broadmercials-messages primarily intended to casting, administered by the University. selI products to older persons. But there of Georgia's School of Journalism. had been no large-scale effort during the Autumn 1970 saw about 100 stations 20-year history of television to explore its added to the previous 200 outlets. In the potential as a medium of instruction. new series a greater load of learning Thus, the 26-week experimental series, is being tarried, with youngsters learncalIed "Sesame Street," created and pro-

Two small boys are shown talking when the letter "1" appears from the top of the screen. One of the boys says it looks like a fish hook. But a voice off screen immediately tells them it is the letter "J" and then asks them if they would like to hear a story about it. An animated jingle follows. This piece of animation, calIed the "1" Spot, was the first commissioned by CTW in the autumn of 1968. It arrived in January and since then has been subjected to constant study and dissection and has been tested on children from various backgrounds. The things learned from research with this spot have helped improve productions that have been made since. In one of a number of research methods programme material is shown to youngsters at a day-care centre in New York, often to one child at a time. The material is run on a television set tied to a portable videotape play-back unit. Then a "distractor" -a television-size rear screen projector which shows a different slide every eight seconds-is placed nearby. The proportion of each eight-second interval when a child is watching the television presentation as opposed to looking at anything else, including the distractor, is measured. The data, accumulated on graphs, is carefully analyzed in company with the pro-

ing to count from one to 20; problem solving is more complex, elementary Spanish is introduced. Simple addition and subtraction and arithmetic sets are introduced. U.S. Government and private foundation pledges for this season total $6 million. Several corporations are rivalling each other in offers to help underwrite "Sesame Street" merely in exchange for credit for civic responsibility. "Sesame Street" will be around for a long time. The original series is now going international, with more than 20 countries televising it this year. Next year 38 stations of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation will use the show. Australia and New Zealand have also purchased broadcast rights.


gramme's producers to determine why attention rose or fell during the test piece. Preliminary findings confirmed that cartoons are a sure way to capture and sustain the attention of children. However, young children seem to prefer an even simpler visual display than is seen in a typical theatrical cartoon. Spacing is important, too. But how much? For the "J" Spot, our research indicated that five times a day is more effective than one showing a day for five days. The spacing, of course, may differ from piece to piece. CTW field work has revealed some interesting, if perhaps inconclusive, general findings. The voice and mannerism of a performer were found to be important to a young child. Many children were dis-

tracted and puzzled when an attractive film star with a naturally husky voice read a story. When she first appeared on the television set, the children appeared delighted and expectant. But as she began reading, they asked what was wrong-"Was she sick?" Her voice simply did not match her face. Curriculum objectives were worked out by leading educators, child development experts, school-teachers, film-makers, and television professionals during a series of five three-day seminars in the summer of 1968. Their recommendations, in essence, Dr. Edward Palmer. author. conducts TV test on American preschool children. Their attention remains concentrated even when he projects a distracting photograph.

suggested preschoolers should know letters, numbers, geometric forms, and how to reason and solve problems. They also should be familiar with their physical and social environments. Three or four hosts provide the show "Sesame Street" with continuity and also reinforce the educational elements of the programme. More important, the hosts give the show the human warmth so essential to young viewers. In addition to the prebroadcast research at CTW, an entirely separate phase of research and evaluation was undertaken by an independent agency-Educational Testing Service (ETS) of Princeton, New Jersey. The ETS tested a nationwide sample of preschoolers before the series began and will test the same group after it has concluded to determine how m~ch the children learned from the show. The entire Children's Television Workshop experiment rests on several educationally and sociaHy significant premises. Clearly, a substantial and significant portion of a person's intellectual development occurs before he enters kindergarten. A start in school for all American children at age four, though endorsed by educators and government leaders, would cost an estimated $2,750 million, not including the cost of classrooms to house the more than five million additional children. On the other hand, television in the United States is almost everywhere. The challenge is to get people to turn their television sets to channels showing "Sesame Street." In all its facets,' "Sesame Street" is a pioneering experiment in the constructive use of television. It will be worth the money and effort if it only answers the basic question: Can television really teach? It will truly be a success if the young viewers learn as much from "Sesame Street" as CTW and instructional television generally are learning in the process of its preparation. Editor's Note: Research findings have been gratifying. Tests showed that tiny viewers improved two and one-half times as much as non-viewers of similar background and experience, in counting, reasoning, and most other skills taught by the programme. Dr. Palmer's article was written before the first ÂŤSesame Street" series was completed. END


The current generation of Americans is the first to be raised by three parents: a mother, a father, and-a TV set. For preschoolers, the highly successful "Sesame Street" TV series proved to be an entertaining avenu;e of learning. Mother of this invention is Mrs. Joan Cooney, who developed the concept of using children's attraction for TV advertising commercials to teach them letters, numbers, and simple addition and subtraction. Below, the principal characters are shown on the set. A lamb, guest star, below left, arouses the curiosity of the young and helps them to understand the world around them. 70 -Yc?

continued


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[I SESAME STREET I)

Executive director Joan Cooney, above, snaps up a good idea. One device effective in teaching the young audience the numbers / to /0 is the cartoon, below. It features racing cars, with their noise and speed that all children love.

CAUGHT in the enchantment of "Sesame Street," the experimental, prize-winning. television show, the children, bottom, have no idea they are attending a nationwide nursery school. Only a world of adventure and excitement engrosses them. Psychologists have discovered that between birth and age four, half of all growth in human intelligence takes place; another 30 per cent occurs between four and eight. The undeveloped minds of preschoolers constitute a precious national resource. This charming, light-hearted, whimsical, witty, fun-and-games, five-days-a-week experiment was an immediate success, and within six months 190 stations were carrying it to 6,000,000 children. Why TV? Because kids are magnetized byit. Because in America even a home that lacks a bathtub often has television, and

such homes it is most desired to reach. Daycare and community centres tune in, too. On the imaginary block that gives the programme its name live its hosts, Gordon and Susan, friendly grownups. Most of the action takes place on the steps and sidewalk and in a nearby candy store. It is exactly the right commonplace setting for an uncommon show, "Sesame Street," a new avenue of learning.

Creative crew sparks ideas For all its homey atmosphere, "Sesame Street" is actually a very slick product. Mother of this invention is 40-year-old Mrs. Joan Cooney, picked by the Carnegie Corporation in 1966 to develop the concept of using children's attraction to TV for their own good. Mrs. Cooney, a prizewinning producer of non-commercial doc-

o-Y3:5


In the mythical "Sesame Street," puppets, left, tend the candy store. They teach numbers through prices. An operator is seen behind the counter.

Two 'buffoons, above, Buddy and Jim, use a box so ineptly in trying to reach a light bulb that the audience reasons out the correct procedure before these two can do it themselves. Various jobs are acted out by putting on appropriate caps: bus drivers', rail-engine drivers', as well as the bubble helmets of motor-cycle messengers.


ps -

IZ I1 .~

I SESAME STREET) umentaries, proceeded to hire some of the best professionals from existing children's programmes. As well qualified as the craftsmen is the staff of educators who set the production's educational content. Leading writers, artists and child development experts also advise on the show.

Big-time techniques for small fry Basic ingredients of "Sesame Street's" success are the proven. big-network devices of television advertising-fast action, short segments, repetition, music and humourthat normally hold children rapt before the tube for hours and keep them chanting its jingles. Now these methods "sell" letters and numbers, ideas and concepts. Vaudeville (with two wonderfully "stupid" men), animated cartoons and live-action film, each has its place in this experiment that surpassed expectation. Its sponsors feel repaid that their show is influencing ~thers to reach the littlest ones by teaching without tedium. END

Sesame team films the letter D executed by skywriting, an example of advertising techniques. The commonplace setting, below, projects an uncommon show. Most of the action takes place on the steps, pavements and in a nearby candy store.


It is brute force and fancy footwork, strategy, tactics and trickery when 22 men, lIon each team, take the field for a game of American football. The object of the game is to carry the ball across the opponents' goal line or to throw it to a teammate who is either across the goal line or who himself can carry it across. The defending team stops the movement by tackling, or throwing to the ground, the man with the ball. The team with the ball has four plays or moves in whIch to advance the ball nine metres. If it succeeds, it gets Ar- K.- /3 four more; if it fails, the other team gets its chance to try for a goal.

<-

The "foot" comes ltto American/ootball rarely after the "kickoff" (Ie/t) which puts the ,ball into play. The ball is kicked to the opponents who catch it and begin their advance. When a goal is ·"···scored•.the referee (above) raises both arms'to indicate a "touchdown" has been made.


The football field is 90 metres long and 50 mctres wide with the goal lines marked by uprights forming an "H" at each end. III a running play (below) No. 23, with the ball, crashes through opponents for a few metres, gain towards a goal. In the passing play (far right) the player has just thrown tire ball to his teammate as two opponeflls adrance to tackle him. The player (bottom right) has just caught a pass /rom his teammate, but further advance is precluded as an opponent begins the tackle.

12~-

'61


Playing it straight with the pros by GEORGE PLlMPTON

George Plimpton is a dedicated sports amateur who lil'es his daydreams and writes about them. Plimpton happens to be an American citizen, so he lives daydreams American style and then successfully reports his adventures. â&#x20AC;˘ One adl'cnture was high on the best seller lists. Paper Lion (Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc.), an excerpt from which follows, recounts his experiences playing with a professional football team. The thill, 6-joot 2-inch Harl'ard graduate spent four weeks with the fiercesomc Detroit Tigers, plunging into the life of a professional football player. Football is a rugged, bone-crunching game. But as Plimpton soon discovered it is a complex, precise and co-ordinated affair, demanding strength, stamina and a high degree of sk ill. The Detroit players were told that Plimpton )ms a writer and took him to their hearts by taunting him on the field and joking )l'irh !Jim ajier hours. For George Plimpton, it was an unforgettable slimmer. Its high point occurred Il'hen the team's coaches agreed to allow him to lead the Detroit offensire tcamforfive plays against the Detroit defensive team in a practice game held before several thousand Detroit football fans in Pontiac, Michigan. As the team quarterback, Plimpton was responsible for planning the team's attack against the defence and to try to score. But as his story relates, professional football is no place for amateurs, el'en amateurs who are talented writers. AT PONTIAClfeft myself a footba II q uarterback, not an interloper. My game plan was organized, and Iknew what Iwas supposed to do. My nerves seemed steady, much steadier than they had been as I waited on the bench. Itrotted-along-easily.l was keenly aware of what was going on around me. r could hear the commentator's voice over the loudspeaker system, a dim murmur, telling the crowd what was going on. --Š /965, /966

by George Plimpton.

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continued


Professional football is a perfect blend of craft, brains and brawn.

He was telling them that number zero, coming out across the sidelines, was not actually a rookie, but an amateur, a writer, who had been training with the team .... The crowd was interested, and I was conscious, just vaguely, of a steady roar of encouragement. The team was waiting for me, grouped in the huddle watching me come. I went in among them. Their heads came down for the signal. I called out, "Twenty-six!" forcefully, to inspire them, and a voice from one of the helmets said, "Down, down, the whole stadium can hear you." "Twenty~six," I hissed at them this time. "Twenty-six near oh pinch; on three. Break!" Their hands cracked as one, and I wheeled and started for the line behind them" My confidence wasextteme; I ambled¡¡ slowly behind Whitlow, poised down over the ball, and I had sufficient presence to pause, resting a hand at the base of his spine, as if on a windowsill-a nonchalant gesture I had admired in certain quarterbacks-and I looked out over the length of his back to fix in my mind what I saw.

E

v"ythingfine about beiuga quact,,"

back-the embodiment of his power-was encompassed in those dozen seconds or so: giving the instructions to ten attentive men, breaking out of the huddle, walking for the line, and then pausing behind the centre, dawdling amidst men poised and waiting under the trigger of his voice, cataleptic, until the deliverance of himself and them to the future. The pleasure of sport was so often the chance to indulge the cessation of time itself-the skier poised at the top of a mountain trail, the basketball player with the rough skin of the ball against his palm preparing for a'foul shot, the tennis player at set point over his opponent-all of them savouring a moment before committing themselves to action. I had the sense of a portcullis down. On the other side of the imaginary bars the linemen were poised, the lights glistening off their helmets, and close in behind them were the linebackers, with Joe Schmidt just opposite me, jump-jacking back and forth with quick choppy steps, his hands poised

in front of him, and he was calling out defensive code words in a stream. I could sense the rage in his voice, and the tension in those rows of bodies waiting, as if coils had been wound overtight, which my voice, calling a signal, like a lever would trip to spring them all loose. I bent over the centre. Quickly, I went over what was supposed to happen-I would receive the ball and take two steps straight back, and hand it to the number two back coming laterally across from right to left, who would then run through the opposing line to try to score a goal, more than 63 metres down field. The important thing for me was to hang on to the ball, turn, and get the ball into the grasp of the back coming across laterally. I cleared my throat. "Set!" I called out -my voice loud and astonishing to hear, as if it belonged to someone shouting into the ear holes of my helmet. I called the offensive signals: "Sixteen, sixty-five, fortyfour, hut one, hut two, hut three," and at three the ball slapped back into my palm, and Whitlow's rump bucked up hard as he went for the defencemen opposite. The lines cracked together with a yawp and smack of pads and gear. I had the sense of quick, heavy movement, and as I turned for the backfield, not a second having passed, I was hit hard from the side, and as I gasped the ball was jarred loose. It sailed away, and bounced once, and I stumbled after it, hauling it under me 4! metres back, hearing the rush of feet, and the heavy jarring and wheezing of the blockers fending off the defence, a great roar up from the crowd, and above it, a relief to hear, the shrilling of the referee's whistle. My first thought was that at the snap of the ball the right side of the line had collapsed just at the second of the handoff, and one of the tacklers had cracked through to make me fumble. In fact, as I discovered later, my Olvn man bowled me over-John Gordy, whose assignment as offensive guard was to pull from his position and join the interference against the defensive team trying to tackle me and/or get the ball. But the extra second it took me to control the ball, and the creaking execution of my turn, put me in his path, a rare sight for Gordy to see, his own quarterback blocking the way, like coming

around a corner in a high-speed car to find a moose ambling across the centre line, and he caromed off me, jarring the ball loose. My confidence had not gone. I stood up. The referee took the ball from me. He had to tug to get it away, a faint look of surprise on his face. My inner voice was assuring me that the fault in the tumble had not been mine. "They let you down," it was saying. "The blocking failed." But the main reason for my confidence was the next play on my list-a play which I had worked successfully in the training scrimmages. I walked into the huddle and I said with considerable enthusiasm, "All right! Here we go!" "Keep the voice down," said a voice. "You'll be tipping them the play."

I

loaned in un [hem and ;aid: "G"en

right" ("Green" designated a pass play, i.e., I was going to throw the ball to a member of my team who would hopefully catch it and run downfieJd to score. "Right" put the pass-catcher to the right side). Again, I knew exactly how the play was going to develop-back those six metres into the defensive pocket for the three to four seconds it was supposed to hold, and the pass-catcher would run downfield nine metres straight, then cut over the middle, and I would throw the ball to him. "Set! ... sixteen! ... eighty-eight ... Football players are protected from injury in the rough and tumble game by a rariety of gear including helmets, face masks (right), shoulder pads and rib guards. But these do not protect the player from the hurt inside when a mistake is made which may lose th game (below).


fifty-five ... hut one ... hut two ... hut three ... " The ball slapped into my palm at "three." I turned and started back. I could feel my balance going, and about two metres behind the line r fell down-absolutely flat, as if my feet had been pinned under a trip wire stretched across the field, not a hand laid on me. I heard a great roar go up from the crowd. SUffus-ed as I had been with confidence, I could scarcely believewhat had happened. Mud cleats catching in the grass? Slipped in the dew? I felt my jaw go ajar in my helmet. "Wha'? Wha'?" -the mortification beginning to come fast. I rose hurriedly to my knees at the referee's whistle, and I could see my teammates' big silver helmets with the blue Lion on them turn towards me, some of

the players rising from blocks they had thrown to protect me, their faces masked, automaton, prognathous with the helmet bars protruding towards me, characterless, yet the dismay was in the set of their bodies as they loped back from the huddle. Ijoined the huddle. "Sorry, sorry," I said. "Call the play, man," came a voice from one of the helmets. "I don't know what happened," I said. "Call it, man." The third play was equally catastrophic. I had lost 18 metres in three attempts, and I had yet, in fact, to run off a complete play. I was perfectly willing to trot in to the bench at that point and be done with it. Then, by chance, I happened to see Brettschneider, the Badger, standing at his position, watching me, and beyond the bars of his cage I could see a grin working. That set my energies tick.ing over again-the notion that some small measure of recompense would be mine if I could complete a pass in the Badger's territory and embarrass him. r had such a play in my series -a slant pass to the end, Jim Gibbons. r walked back to the huddle. It was slow in forming. I said, "The Badger's asleep. He's fat and he's asleep."

No

00'

'aid

ao)"hing. Emyon,

stared down. In the silence I became suddenly aware of the feet. There are twentytwo of them in the huddle, after all, most of them very large, in a small area, and while the quarterback ruminates and the others await his instruction, there's nothing else to catch the attention. "Green right nine slant break!" The pass ,vas incomplete. I took two steps back (the play was a quick pass, thrown without a protective pocket) and r saw Gibbons break from his position, then stop; his hand, which I used as a target, came up, but I threw the ball over him. A yell came up from the crowd seeing the ball in the air (it was the first play of the evening which hadn't been "blown"-to use the player's expression for a missed play), but then a groan went up when the ball was overshot and bounced across the sidelines. "Last play," head coach George Wilson

was calling. He had walked over with a clipboard in his hand and was standing by the referee. "The ball's on the nine. Let's see you take it all the way downfield and score," he called out cheerfully. The last play of the series was a pitchout -flipping the ball to a running back-who scampers past would-be tacklers. The lateral, though long, waseasy.for.,metQ,do. What I had to remember was to keep on running out after the flight of the ball. I was able to get the lateral off and avoid the tackler behind me, but unfortunately the defence was keyed for the play. They knew my repertoire, which was only five plays or so, and they doubted I'd call the same play twice. One of my linemen told me later that the defensive man opposite him in the line had said, "Well, here comes the pitchout," and it had come, and they were able to throw the number four back, who had received the lateral, back on the one metre line-just a yard away from the mortification of having moved a team backward from the 27metre line into one's own goal. As soon as I saw him go down, I left for the bench on the sidelines at midfield, along run from where I'd brought my team, and I felt utterly weary, shuffling along through the grass. Applause began to sound from the stands, and I looked up, startled, and saw people standing, and the hands going. It made no sense at the time. It was not derisive; it seemed solid and respectful. "Wha'? Wha'?" I thought, and I wondered if the applause wasn't meant for someone else-if the mayor had come into the stadium behind me and was waving from an open-topped car. But as I came up to the bench I could see the people in the stands looking at me, and the hands going. r thought about the applause afterward. Some of it was, perhaps, in appreciation of the lunacy of my participation, and for the fortitude it took to do it; but most of it, even if subconsc~ous, I decided was in relief that I had done as badly as I had: it verified the assumption that the average fan would have about an amateur blundering into the brutal' world professional football. ... The outsider did not belong, and there was comfort in that being proved. END

or


Yehudi Menuhin In New Delhi this month, the world-famous violinist and humanitarian receives the Nehru Award for International Understanding.

The warm friendship

between Nehru andl!:!:nuhin

YEHUDIMENUHINis one of those rare men who have become legends in their own lifetime. A musical prodigy at the age of seven, his career did not fade into oblivion with adolescence as so many have, but conti. nued to grow. And as his musicianship developed, so did the man until he has beMenuhin has achieved almost as much fame as a conductor, left, as he has won as a violinist.

j

reflected in this picture of their 1962 meeting.

come as well-known for his humanitarianism as for his glorious playing of the violin. India has recognized this in presenting him this month with the 1968 JawaharJal Nehru Award for International Understanding. In announcing the Award last April, the jury described Menullin as "not only a genius in the realm of music but one believing in the common heritage of man," adding that he has "devoted his great talents continued


Understanding through music has been Menuhin's constant goal.

towards furthering human relations and international understanding through the medium of music. He has reached out to all peoples of the world, transcending various narrow and man-made barriers." Mr. Menuhin is the second American and the fourth person to be given the prestigious Award. The earlier recipients are the U.N. Secretary-General, U Thant, the late American civil rights leader, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan. Born in New York in 1916 of Russian immigrant parents, Yehudi Menuhin at the age of five began the violin lessons for which he had been c1amouring for over two years. At seven he played with the San Francisco Orchestra and four years later, following great successes in Berlin and other capitals of Europe, he was heard for .the'nrst tirrfe'in New York. Wh,en this eleven-year-old played the Beethoven Violin Concerto 'with the NewYork Symphony Orchestra in a manner so accomplished that it defied any reasonable explanation, members of the orchestra wept and critics were baffled. Nobody in New York or anywhere else imagined that a child of Menuhin's years could tackle the artistic problems of such a composition with anything like the technical mastery and the inspired musical authority that he displayed. To circumvent the hazards of "exploitation" of the young genius, Yehudi's parents evolved a measured pattern of appearances designed to assist his development, not impede it; his general education proceeded through tutors hand in hand with the musical. Menuhin himself, as an adult, feels that many aspects of youth and adolescence which are part of the average child's birthright passed him by. His own children have been given as normal an upbringing as possible, and he has founded a school in England for musically-talented children where they can develop into well-rounded musicians who will find a satisfying place in the profession-whether or not they succeed in the highly competitive field of solo performance. Hence the emphasis on general education, sports, and other bodybuilding activities to make them well-adjusted members of the community in which they eventually find a place. Menuhin's travels have taken him to the ends of the earth. During World War II

he added hundreds of concerts a year to his usual routine, playing often two and three times a day for men and women in the armed services of all nations under all conditions-in camps, hospitals and ships. He travelled alone and unescortecl in wartorn Europe to play for relief and charities for displaced persons. It was he who reopened the Opera House in Paris within a few weeks of the Liberation after appearing in Brussels and Antwerp, where he played during the dreadful winter of 1944. In 1945 he was the first Western musician to be invited to Russia. In recognition of these war services, he was the youngest ever to receive the French Legion of Honour and from General de Gaulle himself, the Croix de Lorraine. Belgium awarded him the Ordre de la Couronne and the Ordre Leopold. From the West German Republic he received the Order of Merit and from Greece, the Order of the Phoenix. In 1966 he was made Honorary Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth. And now, in November 1970 in New Delhi, Menuhin is receiving one of the highest honours that India can bestow. Menuhin is a genuine citizen of the world, as much at home in India as he is in London, Paris, Berlin or his own country. He first came to India at the invitation of the late Prime Minister Nehru in 1952, raising $74,000 for the Famine Fund then and in 1954. He was again here in 1964. At a concert in New Delhi, not long after the Prime Minister's death, he played a moving "Homage to Nehru." His interest in Indian music is of long standing and he and Sitarist Ravi Shankar particularly have worked together to bring a greater understanding of Indian music to the West. "The violin," Menuhin says, "is the one instrument absorbed into Indian music ... and they play it in their own fashion." His other cultural tie with India is yoga. From the time he was nineteen, Menuhin had been searching for general attitudes to life which would enable him to have complete control over the violin-a violin mystique. But as time went on, these attitudes became less and less applicable to the instrument. Finally his search culmi-

nated in the reception room of an osteopath's office in New Zealand during one of his tours. While waiting to have a wrenched knee looked at, he picked up a book on yoga. There he felt he had found the answers he had been looking for in, to him, comprehensible form. Passing through India,he.stopped over.in Bomllay to practise yoga with the celebrated yogi, B.K.S. Ayengar. In New Delhi Menuhin met Prime Minister Nehru and demonstrated his knowledge of the subject by standing on his head. Not to be outdone, Nehru stood on his head. Back in the United States, Menuhin continued his study of yoga and credits yoga and natural foods with his serenity and good health. Yehudi Menuhin possesses an original, inquiring mind and a deep sympathy for human beings. His willingness to devote the proceeds of his concerts to good causes has earned him the gratitude of people in many parts of the world, as well as numerous honours. The lis~ of organizations-musical, educational, philanthropic-to which he belongs covers pages. There is probably no musician before the public today with such a wide range of interests at so comparatively young an age. Despite the many honours he has received and the extent of his achievements, he remains as full of ideas and ideals as at the beginning of his career. He is still as keen as ever to bring to mankind by every possible means-playing, conducting,. teaching, lecturing, travelling -some of that hope and warmth that is ever present in his music. It is safe to say that the Nehru Award for International Understanding will have particular significance to him, for it recognizes the philosophy of his life: "Love and not hate will heal the world." END


~nuhillSmd a young Indian admirer exchange greetings. Also in the picture is Dr. Narayana Menon, Director of the National Centre for the Performing Arts.

Far left, the/Menuhil~!..1lt rehearsal. In the foreground are Yehudi, SOli Jeremy, sisters Yaltah alld Hephzibah.

A thOlightfll~1 below, poses with his violin.

67- 32.30


IMPROVING VILLAGE HEALTH

SURROUNDED by a group of young medical trainees, the lady doctor at the Rural Health Training Centre in Najafgarh presented a picture of self-confidence and quiet efficiency. The doctor, Mrs. C. Verghese, has been treating rural patients at the Najafgarh hospital and at their homes in the nearby villages for more than five years. This fairly long tenure has made her knowledgeable about the area and its health problems. Asked about the impact of the Centre's work on public health in the villages and about the success of the family planning programme-which is an important part of its current activity-she responded with enthusiasm. "There is little doubt," said Mrs. Verghese, "that the villagers' habits are chang-


At the Najafgarh Health Centre's clinic, left, Dr. C. Verghese records a patient's history while a medical trainee examines the blood pressure of another patient. Other trainees observe the routine. At right, above, a tractor brings a sick person to the hospital and, below, a trainee group is shown low-priced sanitary fittings suitable for rural areas.

ing and greater attention is now paid to personal hygiene and food. For instance, mothers now know when to introduce solid food into an infant's diet. Although people in this area are mostly vegetarians, many of them have lately begun eating eggs." The doctor thought that about ninety-five per cent of the villagers were by now aware of the need for family planning but social customs and traditions hampered full acceptance. Talks with Dr. K.K. Bannerji, officer in charge of the Centre, and Mr. Amrit Lal, Health Educator, confirmed the general picture of steady improvement in health and living standards. This is encouraging since in a developing country like India the roots of progress lie deep down in the soil

of its villages. More than mighty river dams or huge steel plants, it is the villagers' changing standards of living, education, sanitation and public health which are the true index of a nation's progress. Najafgarh block, which lies on the western fringe of Delhi, comprises a small town of that name and seventy-two villages with a total population of more than 120,000. The location of the Health Training Centre in the town makes the area particularly suitable for a study of village health and allied problems and the impact of current efforts at rural improvement. As its name implies, training is one of the Najafgarh Centre's primary functions. The history of the Centre goes as far back as 1937 when it was set up as an experimental and demonstration health unit with the assistance of the Rockefeller Foundation. Five years later the unit was taken over by the Delhi State, and its activities expanded with the opening of primary health centres and an Orientation Training Centre. The Ford Foundation also contributed to this expansion by sponsoring and aiding a research-cum-demonstration programme of environmental sanitation during the years 1956-61. Further reorganization took place at the end of 1957 when the Government of India took over the Centre and it was given its present name. The Centre has now a staff of about 160, including nine doctors, besides a number of other public health officials and technicians. The two hospitals in Najafgarh and Pal am, which are a part of the Centre's service department, have wards for indoor patients. At Najafgarh there is also a hostel for visiting trainees and a library for which a number of books were donated by the Population Council of New York. Field work has been facilitated by the use of three Jeeps provided by UNICEF. Trainees fall into two categories. First, there are the doctors, health visitors, nurses, midwives, sanitary inspectors and social

workers who come not only from Delhi, but also from other States in Northern and Central India. Secondly, there are the fresh medical graduates, both boys and girls, from Delhi's medical colleges and hospitals. Orientation courses last from four to twelve weeks and cover various aspects of rural health and community development. In addition to classroom discussions, visits to village homes and field surveys are part of the training programme. These courses are of value not only as part of public health education but for the practical insight they give young medicos from the cities into the realities of village life and the problems of rural reconstruction. Side by side with training of doctors and other health staff, the Centre provides continued


In Najafgarh area the birth rate has declined to under thirtyone per thousand against the national average of thirty-nine.

medical services to the entire Najafgarh area. Statistical charts displayed in its offices show some interesting results. Infant mortality in the area declined from 115 per 1,000 in 1952 to fifty-three in 1969. Skin diseases accounted for more than twentyfive per cent of the total number of cases treated at the Centre's hospitals six years ago, but their incidence fell to fourteen per cent in 1968. There were only twelve cases of tetanus last year against thirty-nine in 1963. No case of malaria has been reported during the last three years, and there was no case of smallpox in 1969. Xerophthalmia (night blindness) is on the decrease but trachoma, especially among school-children, is still a serious health problem. The decline in infant mortality is ascribed to better pre-natal care of expectant mothers, training of midwives and improved care and feeding of infants. Tetanus in infants, which was often caused by careless or unhygienic cutting of the umbilical cord at birth by untrained "dais" (midwives) has been largely eliminated. Ollicials at the Centre are inclined to link the steep decline in infant mortality with the decline in the birth rate which for 1969 was 30.8 per 1,000 for the Najafgarh block against the national figure of about thirty-nine. They explain that motivation Extension teams from the Centre regularly visit villages to advise on public health and family planning. Below, a team tape-records a conversation with some villagers of Paprawat.

for family planning is strengthened with the increase in the incidence of infant survival. In other words, when parents are hopeful that a baby has good chances of growing into adulthood, they are more inclined to adopt methods of birth contr~. But, apart from this factor, the Centre's activities in popularizing family planning have doubtless also helped lower the birth rate in the area. While primarily concerned with public health, in recent years it has given much attention to implementing the Government's programme of population control. The "cafeteria" approach, involving use of various techniques of birth control, has been adopted and family planning services are being regularly provided through the three primary centres at Najafgarh, Palam and Ujwa. At the end of 1969, 17,021 eligible married couples were registered with the primary centres, and of these 9,332 were practising birth control. The message of family planning is conveyed to rural audiences through a variety of media-mass meetings, films, puppet shows, magic shows, exhibitions. A recent exhibition at the Centre, which lasted a week, attracted about 6,000 people. Imaginative improvisations of available media heighten audience interest. For instance, to make a film commentary readily intelligible to villagers, the film may be silent with the commentary given orally in the local dialect. Special songs have been composed on family planning and form part of the repertoire of Kirtan Aland/is (devotional music groups). Birth control slogans are publicized by beat of drum and through mobile public address systems. Awareness of the need for family planliing is also, of course, part of the growing desire for better living. According to the

70-Z3~-

V.3

Centre's officials, food habits are improving. More milk and leafy vegetables are consumed and cereals are mixed for "chapattis" or for cooking. All this makes for a more balanced and nutritious diet. Most of the villages in the area are now electrified but water is still obtained mainly from open wells which are chlorinated twice a week. The villagers are encouraged to visit the Centre for free clinical tests of urine, blood or stools. This helps in the treatment of such diseases as hook-worms, the incidence of which in some villages is as high as eighty per cent. An innovation is the distribution of empty match boxes to the residents so that they can have a convenient container for specimens of stools brought to the Centre for microscopic examination. A special project is the provision of school health services. A medical team regularly visits all schools in the area. Children's ailments are attended to and immunizations given periodically. Sessions on personal hygiene, health and nutrition are also held. An aspect of sanitation which has not improved so far is the use of latrines by the villagers. Only about five per cent of them use latrines in their homes. In general, environmental sanitation in the villages is unsatisfactory. Many houses have no drains or soak-pits and streets are often littered with garbage. Although the Centre's annual report ruefully admits lack of success in improving village sanitation, the effort at improvement continues. A part of its grounds labelled "Environmental Sanitation Demonstration Corner" has many specimens of low-cost latrines, sanitary fittings and a smokeless c1lOo/ha or stove, for the guidance of villagers as well as rural health trainees. While acknowledging the handicaps imposed by tradition, ignorance and indifference, officials at Najafgarh are enthusiastic about their work and optimistic about greater achievements in the future. From time to time the Centre is visited by ministers and officials from Delhi and other parts of India as well as by distinguished visitors from abroad. U.N. representatives and foreign journalists have been especially interested in the working of its family planning programme and its impact on villages. At this stage of India's development, when much work has yet to be done at the grass roots level, organizations such as the Rural Health Training Centre have a useful role in nation-building. Properly directed and channelized, their efforts can accelerate the pace of progress. END


TAMIIGTBI SAIDDailS The enterprising Punjabi farmer who helped spearhead India's "green revolution" is now poised for another breakthrough-the transformation of the yellow sandy wastes into fields of green. Using tractors, scrapers and sprinklers, he is levelling sand-dune mounds and irrigating the land for crops. In Patiala District's Nasupur village, a locally-made scraper, above, based on a USAID design~flattens a once formidable dune.


SAND DUNEShave plagued the fields of Shisha Singh, Mann Singh, and Dhian Singh, threePunjabi farmers, ever since they came to live in the villages of Saidipur, Nasupur, and Fathepur near Patiala. The sandy waste refused to yield to the farmers' sweat and toil. Over the years, when they strove to force it into submission, winds continued to move the sand and destroy any crops that were planted and their labours always came to nothing. But that was until yesterday. Today, things have changed. There has been a transformation of the seemingly impossible into the possible. The sand dunes have been tamed. The same farmers now say: "We never imagined that a drop of irrigation water would ever wet these surfaces until we saw the sprinklers in action. "We never dreamed that a good crop of wheat could ever be grown till we saw it covering the sand dune for the first time. "We never thought that we would ever humble these sandy monsters till the scraper behind the tractor levelled a six-acre mound without much trouble." All this-and much more-has come to pass in the very first year of the working of the Punjab Regional Pilot Project for Soil and Water Manage;~t Pa iala, Wh~ssisted by the

United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The Project covers some 15,000 acres ofland in 26 villages of Patiala district out of which about one-fifth is under big and small sand dunes. The soils range from sand to silty clay loam in texture, and from excessively drained to poorly drained. These adverse conditions forced the cultivators of the area to a life of poverty as compared to the other parts of the state where the "green revolution" is taking place. Shisha Singh's farm consisting of 22 acres in Saidipur village is one of the Pilot Project demonstration farms. For the past fifteen years he has been farming with two pairs of bullocks and using a Persian wheel to supplement his short supply of canal water. His returns were meagre and hardly compensated him for his investment of time and money. He says that the first year of the project has made a great difference to him. "First we changed the Persian wheel to a tube-well powered by a diesel motor. Then tractors smoothed the sand dunes which had defied me and my bullocks all these years. The Project loaned me a sprinkler system to irrigate the six-acre sand dune area on my farm. It has worked wonders. This year I've got wheat on


all of this area. I hope to get at least one hundred quintals of wheat and about fifty bundles of 'bhoosa' from where nothing grew before. With this money, I hope to buy my own sprinkler." Shisha Singh's enthusiasm is shared by the others even though their lands have not come in the project area. They have seen with their own eyes the results of modernization of agriculture. Howard Ivory, the USAID agronomist, is of the view that these farmers will continue to develop their lands because it is a paying proposition. He explains that "we found this back in the United States that once a farmer starts practising soil conservation and water management, he sees the benefit and realizes that added income results. He then continues these practices because they don't cost him anything; it's really a money making proposition." Since the Punjabi farmer is as good an economist as any of his

76- oÂĽ~-~.3

..â&#x20AC;˘..-

" F

Soil and Water Management Project." Though it is too early to attempt a final evaluation, the Project Officer, J.M. Sharma, feels the results of the first year have been very satisfactory. He says that "we have already started three demonstration farms of 22 acres, nine acres, and eight acres. On the nine-acre farm a sand dune comprising 15,000 cubic yards will be completely levelled so that gravity irrigation can be practised. "We are planning to have about 15 demonstration farms in the project area within the four-year period. In addition, we expect to have at least one major soil and water management demonstration in each village regardless of whether there is a demonstration farm in that village or not. For the demonstration farms, we develop soil and water management plans and furnish technical assistance to see that the land and crop treatments are properly applied. Farmers are anxious to have their farm selected for demonstrations. "

"I

For the first time, a lush wheat crop. left. stands ready for han'esting on the six-acre sand-dune area of Shisha Singh's farm, one 0/ the three demonstration plots in Patiala District, located at Saidipur village. The farmer, sitting, with USAID agricultural engineers Hubbard Cott alld Gurbachan Singh, views the yield. At Fathepur, another village with a pilot plot, interested tillers, above, question USAID Engineer Singh.

counterparts in the world, there is no reason why the farmers in Pilot Project villages will not realize the value of modern methods and use them on their farms. The Pilot Project is designed to demonstrate different kinds of soil and water management practices which can be adopted by the farmers in Punjab, Haryana, and perhaps in some of the other states with similar soil and water conditions. Kermit Larsen, the USAID soil scientist, emphasizes that "we don't want to demonstrate something that's way out of the reach of somebody in this area. In other words, if we demonstrate a certain type of machinery or procedure, we want the farmers to do the same thing; and these things can be anything from land levelling to sprinkler irrigation to different types of drainage and different types of crops to be grown and evaluated economically on the

hope to get at least one hundred quintals of wheat and about fifty bundles of 'bhoosa' from where nothing grew before.~~

Neighbouring farmers are watching these. demonstrations and already many are interested in determining what can be done on their lands to increase crop production and profits. It is expected that even during the four-year life of the Pilot Project many will adopt similar practices, and in the years to come these practices will b~come the rule in Punjab. Encouraged by the initial success, the project is now poised for tackling the drainage problems of the area. Hubbard Cott, the USATD agricultural engineer on the team, thinks that the initial drainage scheme is "completely different than anything installed in Punjab so far." The Project plans "to dig a drain about two miles long that will drain some 800 acres of the project. The drain will terminate very near the Bhakra Main Canal in a low area where three large electric drainage pumps will pump the excess water into the Bhakra canal." This work is now underway. For every rupee spent in construction, operation and maintenance of the drainage system, it has been estimated that five rupees will be returned in increased crop production. For the farmers in the 26 villages of Patiala district, the Pilot Project with its tractors and sprinklers and scrapers is something very new, for nothing like this has ever been tried before. It is a three-way participation in which the State of Punjab, the GO\'ernment of India, and the United States Agency for International Development are collaborating. Four American advisers from USAID-a water management expert, an agricultural engineer, a soil scientist, and an agronomist-are working with an equal number of Indian counterparts on the four-year project. One thing has been demonstrated very clearly so far: that most soil and water management problems can best be solved by a multidisciplinary approach in which a team of technicians use their expertise to find a solution. END


WHEN PROMOTERS of tourism discuss ideas for attracting visitors from abroad, they agree that there should be more opportunity for the tourist to experience the culture of the country. The foreigner who ventures as far south as Ernakulam will have no problem. A unique theatre for Kathakali dance is already prepared for him. Directions for reaching the theatre are available at the hotels. After negotiating several bylanes, the tourist will reach a typical Kerala house, where he will be welcomed and shown to a thatched hut shadowed by coconut and plantain trees. As evening falls, the sound of drums and cymbals and the jingling of dancers' bells bring the place alive. The early arrival will find a comfortable cane chair from where he can enjoy for an hour and a half the 2,000-year-old temple dance of Kerala. The mini-theatre is the brainchild of a Kerala dancer, Ananda Shivaram, the first to present Kathakali abroad. Shivaram started the Ernakulam centre as part of his work of winning friends for India and its culture during his extensive performing tours in the United States, Canada, and Australia. He felt strongly the need for centres in India which would be attractive to tourists. Upon returning to Kerala over a year ago, Shivaram and his brother, P.K. Devan, started the Kathakali theatre under the auspices of the See India Foundation, which has a number of branches abroad.

The Foundation publishes a periodical in Ernakulam entitled Visit India. The evening's programme at the theatre includes a traditional welcome to the audience, an introduction to Kathakali, a synopsis of the story to be performed, and the meaning of the intricate gestures and elaborate makeup of the artists. Shivaram explained the need for such narration, saying, "Unless we explain what is behind all these actions, the eye, figure and muscle movements, our foreign visitors won't know what it all means. "Once we explain things, they will understand and appreciate the mudras, the special costumes, makeup and other accompaniments of the Kathakali dance." Shivaram has experimen ed successfully O-"Z

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with this lecture-performance method during his many visits to American cities and campuses, and has generated a great deal of interest in Kathakali among his audiences. He has spent most of his time since 1954 in the United States and he and his wife-also a dancer-have a dance school in San Francisco. His students there, Shivaram says, come from various backgrounds. Some are dancers, others actors, musicians, and even scientists. He himself started taking dancing lessons at the age of nine from his father, a great Kathakali exponent, Guru Gopala Panikker. Now 94, the Guru keeps an eye on the new Kathakali centre when he is in town and likes to talk with the visitors. Shivaram believes that the tourist theatre idea should be extended to other major cultural areas, where visitors can sample India's music and dance in the local setting. That his theatre has been a success is indicated by the fact that over 4,000 tourists have patronized it, a majority of whom came from the United States. END

Left, Ananda Shivaram and his wzfe pose against the skyscrapers of San Francisco, where they rUIla dance school. Troupe niembers put on the heavy facial makeup. right, and the elaborate headdress, far right, necessary for every Kathakali peljormance.

Kathakali7.P. In a thatched hut in Ernakulam, tourists are discovering the meaning of the 2,OOO-year-old Kathakali dance form.


Bharata Natyam Transplanted No longer confined to Indian soil, Bharata Natyam has taken root in the United States, where an exciting young company of Americans is presenting-with impressive authenticity-this ancient dance of India. continued


Surprise, wonderment-one of the Nava Rasa or nine moodsis demonstrated here by a member of the Indo-American Company. Tchaikovsky's familiar "Swan Lake" ballet is performed in the dance idiom of India. Below, the Sorcerer (in Kathakali costume) interrupts the merriment of the swans, and the Prince and Princess (at extreme left).


As THE GURU enters the classroom, he is greeted with the traditional namaskar. Then the students recite a sloka to Lord Shiva. Seated cross-legged on the floor, the girls are dressed in saris, the boys in dhotis. And the class begins with the dancers chanting in Sanskrit while they perform the 28 single and J 9 double hasta mudras. A Bharata Natyam school in Madras? No. The scene is New York's School of Performing Arts and the dancers are all American. They are members of the IndoAmerican Dance Company, the only U.S. troupe devoted entirely to Indian dance. The company's founder-director is Matteo, who is assisted by his dance partner Carola Goya. They were formerly well known as performers of the ethnic dances of many lands. But for the last ten years Matteo has been teaching-and learning-the basic techniques of India's great dance schools. While the stress is mainly on Bharata Natyam, students are also trained in Kathakali, Kathak and Manipuri. In the three years since it was formed, the Indo-American Dance Company has made many appearances in U.S. concert halls and at American universities. A few months ago, when the group appeared on a coast-to-coast television programme, response was so enthusiastic that the telecast was repeated six times. An evening with the Indo-American Company is an exciting experience. Take the programme atQne of its recent concerts. The curtain rises on the Ranga Puja, blessing of the stage, and the customary Arti, the offering of lights. This is followed by a group of short items, among them a devadasi temple dance. Next comes a performance of the fa-

mous "Swan. Lake" ballet. But instead of on pointe, in ballet shoes, the Princess comes on barefoot; the Prince is barechested and dhoti-clad; and the Sorcerer is resplendent in full Kathakali garb, headdress and all. Though the familiar story line and Tchaikovsky's romantic score are the same, the entire ballet is performed in the Indian dance idiom. Another item, "Buddhodaya," was choreographed by Mr. and Mrs. Krishna Rao of Bangalore, who were specially invited to the United States for this purpose. The concert concludes with a suite of seven dances, "Bharata Natyam Vrinda." Here the dancers in black leotards and tights execute movements of Bharata Natyam in its pure, pristine form to the music of composers like Vivaldi, Sammartini and Telemann. An Indian student of Bharata Natyam who saw the performance had this to say: "Taking two forms which seemed to go as little together as fire and water, Matteo worked out a harmonious blend of the two .... There was no Westernization of nritya nor was there any Indianization of Western music." The Indo-American group has also earned praise from the eminent dance critic Walter Terry, who described the concert as "superb ... an experience that was as entertaining as it was intellectually and aesthetically rewarding." He said: "Here were Americans of multi-racial background guiding fellow Americans on a dance adventure spanning more than two thousand years of ritual, rhythm, virtuosity and expressivity." And he commented on Matteo's appearance in a solo dance of Shiva "to remind us that Indian dance is of divine origin."

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Undoubtedly part of the reason for Matteo's success is the fact that he has grasped the underlying significance of Indian dance and the spirit that pervades it. And the tone of formality and reverence at rehearsals contributes to the impressive authenticity of the final performance. Matteo constantly stresses the concept of trinity as an important aspect of all dance movements. The limbs of the body, he says, have three distinct features-the intellectual, the emotional and the vital. "The body always tells the truth when you dance," he observes. "That is why dance is regarded as a means of communicating with God." In Indian dance an essential factor is rasa-the passion, the involvement, the emotion that finally establishes rapport with the audience. That this is present not only in Matteo, but also in the members of his troupe is evident from the reaction of a critic who watched the company rehearse. "The students have been filled with a whole new spirit," he wrote. "Their movements in class look different. Their hands look different. Their eyes look different." As well they might. Explaining why this is so, Matteo said: "1 ust think, the eyeballs alone have 17 different positions. There are nine moods. There are eight ways of moving the eyebrows, eight for the eyelids, and there is a difference between looks and glances." He went on to describe various other body positions and the numerous ways of walking, turning and leaping. How did Matteo train students unaccustomed even to the basic Bharata Natyam stance-turned-out feet, bent knees and arms outstretched at shoulder


level? After all, this ancient dance form requires years of the most rigorous training. Matteo devised a way of having his students use the Western ballet barre, thus avoiding balance problems for the beginner. This way a student works one side of the body at a time, then puts the symmetrical halves together. Of course, this is no substitute for the long, hard years of preparation that an Indian dancer undergoes. But it has served to shorten the training period for young American dance students. Matteo's interest in Indian dance goes back almost 20 years to the time when he was a student at La Meri's well-known Ethnologic Dance Center in New York. And it was heightened by his visits to India in 1957, 1960 and 1964. The last time he and Miss Goya came here, he recalls, "We opened in Madras. I decided to present a classical folkloric programme called 'A World of Dancipg' in which I deliberately left out my Indian numbers. I thought it would be presumptuous for an American dancer to present them in India. But the sponsors asked me to do a token number as a salute to the Indian people." His performance of "Natanam Adinar," according to a Madras newspaper review, was "a pure and faultless rendering." Matteo was given a standing ovation, his performances were attended by such dancers as Balasaraswati and Rukmini Devi, and his success was repeated in other Indian cities. Matteo remembers giving his first lesson in Indian dance at the School of Performing Arts. He says: "When I appeared in my kurta, the kids said, 'What're we going Above right, founderdirector Matteo conducts a class. The students chant in Sanskrit while they perform the various hasta mudras. Matteo dances the wel/kllownPrince'ssolo, right, before the corps de ballet of enchanted swans. Left, a moment from " Bharata Natyam Vrinda," in which the dancers execute movements of pure, pristine Bharata Natyam to the music of Western composers.

to have, karate?' 'Something like that,' I answered, 'Indian dancing.' Some of them nodded, 'Yes, we had that in Boy Scouts.' They thought I meant American Indian dancing." The boys and girls soon found that it was not karate, not American Indian dancing, and very different from what they had had in Scouts. But they found it so compelling that as many as 30 would stay after school for additional classes. "The students were learning to know an ancient and beautiful art," Matteo explains. "They were also learning new techniques of using other parts of the body, such as the face and eyes, and in the process developing disciplinc and conccntration.

The Indian is an actor-dancer. The body must be trained to act as well as to dance." One of Matteo's students said the dance movements "were strange at first, and the co-ordination involved very difficult. But after practice we all became more proficient at it, and then we began to enjoy it more and more. It is more than dancing, it is a way of thinking. It transports you into a totally different philosophy ... ." And this, according to Matteo, is the distinctive contribution of J ndian dance to the West-the fact that it uncovers "new ways of seeing things, new ways of making one grow."

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SPAN: November 1970  

"Swan Lake" in Kathakali

SPAN: November 1970  

"Swan Lake" in Kathakali

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